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Duoc UC

audio visual
English
1

Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3


Pre - Production

Production

Post - Production

Preparations are made for


the shoot, in which cast
and film crew are hired,
locations are selected, and
sets are built.

Is when the raw elements


for the finished film are
recorded for the video
production or film.

Is a term for all stages of


production occurring after
the actual end of shooting
and/or recording the
completed work.

Understanding the Production


Process

- planning an agenda for a new


broadcast.
- pre production meetings.

Scene Analysis

- watch a clip from a film and learn


how to evaluate it.

Short film Evaluations

Filming Schedule

- working with and planning a film


schedule.

Character Development

- denotations and connotations.


- creating a character and choosing
music or sound element

Writing a Screenplay

- learn about the three acts structure.


- read an example of a screenplay.

Storyboard Development

- matching images with storylines.


- vocabulary related to pre
production.

Pitching Your Ideas

- read a pitch for a screenplay.


- learn vocabulary for pitching.
- develop a pitch for your
screenplay.

Commercial Project

- discuss goals of the project.


- prepare a shot list and storyboard.

Film staff Positions and


Responsibilities

- learn jobs and responsibilities

Filming on Location

- filming vocabulary
- plan filming from a film schedule
- discuss the difficulties of on location
shoots

Organizing a Shoot

- starting with the pre pro meeting.


- talking about shot organization in
English.

The Grammar of TV and Film


- learn shot methods and angles.

- talk about why different shots are


used.

Commercial Shoot

- setting up the shoot and filming.

Units and Contents

- watch 7 films.
- evaluate 3 of the films.
- talk about your choices.
- develop a message for a short film.
- convey the message using
storyboards and storylines.

Writing a Film Review

- stages of a film.
- reading a film review.
- learn review vocabulary.
- writing a film review.
- reading and evaluating other reviews.

Movie Review

- learn parts of a movie review and how


to talk about it in a presentation.

Movie Trailers

- learn about the history behind


movie trailers.

Unit 1
Pre - Production

Pre-production

is the process of preparing all the elements


involved in a film, play, or other performance. During pre-production,
the script is broken down into individual scenes and all the locations,
props, cast members, costumes, special effects and visual effects
are identified. An extremely detailed schedule is produced and
arrangements are made for the necessary elements to be
available to the film-makers at the appropriate times. Sets are
constructed, the crew is hired, financial arrangements are put in
place and a start date for the beginning of principal photography
is set. At some point in pre-production there will be a readthrough of the script which is usually attended by all cast
members with speaking parts, the director, all heads
of departments, financiers, producers, and publicists.
Even though the writer may still be working on it, the
screenplay is generally page-locked and scene-numbered
at the beginning of pre-production to avoid confusion.
This means that even though additions and deletions
may still be made, any particular
scene will always fall on
the same page and
have the same
scene number.

Pre - Production

Understanding the Pre Production process.

Section 1
A.)

B.)

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

Do you work, or do you know anyone who works, in the TV or film industry? What do you or they do?

2.

Would you like to work for a TV broadcasting company? Explain why / why not.

3.

Look at some of the jobs used in the TV industry: Director of news and current affairs, Editor, Social affairs
correspondent, Reporter, Researcher. Do you know what they do?

4.

What do you think are the differences between a journalist for a news paper and for the TV?

Can you match the words in the box to their definitions (a g).
1. Correspondent

a.) Journalism jargon for news agency (a newswire or wire


service).

2. Running order

b.) A team responsible for filming.

3. Coverage

c.) Recorded images shot on a digital video camera, often taken by


eyewitnesses to news events.

4. Wires
5. (an) exclusive
6. DV footage
7. Camera crew

C.)

d.) The list of stories that make up a news program.


e.) Reporting done on a particular story.
f.) A journalist employed by a TV station or a newspaper to report on
a particular subject or send reports from a foreign country: similar to
a reporter.
g.) News which no other news organization has.

Circle the word that does not belong in each group.


1. Live a.) footage b.) show c.) crew
2. TV a.) program b.) live c.) channel
3. Exclusive

a.) director

b.) story

c.) footage

4. Camera

a.) work

b.) crew

c.) broadcast

5. Editing a.) team b.) show c.) room


6. News a.) story b.) program c.) top

7. Running

a.) order

b.) commentary

c.) crew

8. Live

a.) camera

b.) coverage

c.) broadcast

A.)

B.)

C.)

D.)

Pre - Production

Section 2
In pairs, discuss the following questions.

1.

Can you name some of the people involved in a production team?

2.

What does the production team do?

3.

Have you ever worked as part of a production team? If so, describe what you did.

What do the words in the box below have to do with the production process?
Research

Filming

Interviews

Money

Travel Arrangements

Advertising

Use the words from the box to complete the sentences below.
1.

The _______________________ for the earthquake documentary has been approved.

2.

A lot of ____________________ must be done to show the different perspectives in relation to the earthquake.

3.

We will be _______________________ lots of outdoor scenes and interviews.

4.

The ___________________________ of the documentary must be fully developed, with the feelings of the people
who lost loved ones during this tragic event in mind.

5.

We have to avoid too many ___________________________ to keep the documentary more visually interesting.

6.

They are making _____________________________ to visit some of the places worst hit by the earthquake.

In pairs, Complete the table below using modals studied in class.

Possibility

Ability

Giving advice / Recommendation

Necessary

Not Necessary

Could

E.)

In the following sentences, both of the verbs in the brackets are correct. However, one of the
alternatives in each sentence has a mistake. Correct the mistakes so that both are correct.
1.

The director thinks you (ought to / should to) interview people from different cities.

2.

We (must to / have to) get permission to film on location.

3.

The cameraman (has better / should) film the setting of the event before we arrive for the interview.

4.

Some reporters (need to / must) be told what news to write about.

5.

They (could / might to) cover the story from a perspective of a victim.

Pre - Production

F.)

In groups, brain storm for a pre-production meeting. Think about the agenda for the news
broadcast. Select a current event that you would like to cover in a new broadcast. Then
describe the topic and discuss the necessary pre-production process.

Filming Schedule.
Section 3
A.)

B.)

The team is preparing to make their documentary about the earthquake. In pairs, discuss the
following questions.
1.

What do you think the preparation will involve?

2.

What roles do the editor and production manager play in preparing the documentary or TV series?

3.

How many people do you think are involved in shooting on location?

4.

Why is it important to have a filming schedule? What would you expect this schedule to include?

Read the filming schedule for the When the Shaking Stops shoot on the next page and answer the
1.

How long will the shoot last?

2.

Where will the shoot take place?

3.

Who are the people that are going to be interviewed?

Pre - Production

NBC News & Current Affairs

When the Shaking Stops

PSC FILMING SCHEDULE

WEEK:
DATES:
LOCATION:
TX DATE:

34
Monday 22 Sunday 28 October
Various locations in Chile
TBC

CREW ON LOCATION:
EDITOR:
Franks Straten
PEPORTER:
Sam Cox
CAMERA:
Jim Bry
FIXER:
Steven Mills
TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS:
CAMERA

086542 109 458


086542 216 984
07444 8731 4968
00 373 998 45629

SOUND

STANDARD DIGIBETA PSC STANDARD SCU KIT

LIGHTS
BASIC KIT

DIRECTOR TO PROVIDE TAPE STOCK


CHECKLIST PRE-TRAVEL
Flight Tickets, Foreign Currency & Daily Rates, Release Forms, Carnets,
Passports, Visas, Excess Baggage Vouchers, Production Mobile, Digital MP3 recorder.
TRAVEL DAY:
Monday 22 October
24:00
Arrive airport. Taxi to hotel.
FILMING SCHEDULE:
Tuesday 23 October
9:00 R/V at Ministry to complete accreditation. Travel to Concepcion.

IV a woman who lost everything.
12:00 Film GVs at the refuge. IV with psychologist and IVs with other victims of

the quake.
15:00 PTC.
18:00 R / V with representative from the Aftermath organization.
Wednesday 24 October
14:00 IV National Coordinator for the Rebuild Chile organization.
16:00 Travel to other affected areas 120km. Film sequences and GVs on location.
Thursday 25 October
9:00 R / V with IOD (International Organization for Disasters) Representative.
11:00 Travel to location for IV with IOD Representative and PTC.
14:00 Van back to capital.

Pre - Production

C.)

Read the filming schedule again and answer the following questions.
1.

Who do you think it was written by?

2.

Who is it written for?

3.

What kind of document is it? There may be more than one possible answer.

factual friendly informal informative


4.

What verb form is mainly used?

gerund (verb with ing)

D.)

E.)

infinitive with to (to + verb)

infinitive without to (verb)

Complete the following definitions using the abbreviations in bold in the filming schedule.
1.

Portable Single Camera: this means there is just one cameraman / woman responsible for recording both video and
sound. ___________________

2.

Piece to camera: this is when a reporter speaks directly to the viewers through the camera. __________________

3.

Transmission date: that is, the day the finished program will be broadcast. ____________________

4.

Rendezvous: That is, to meet up with someone. ___________________

5.

Interview: _____________________

6.

General views: a series of shots of a location that are used to set the scene for the story. _____________________

7.

Single camera unit: this means that the sound equipment needed is just for one cameraman and reporter with
interviewees. _____________________

Complete the following definitions using the terms in bold in the filming schedule.
1.

A freelance journalist who sets up interviews and gets permission to film on location before the crew arrives: also acts
as a translator and provides up-to-date information. _______________________

2.

Legal documents that interviewees and other contributors to the program sign to confirm their contributions can be
used, usually without receiving any payment. _______________________

3.

An audio recording device. _______________________

4.
This tells the crew how much money they have to spend on food and minor expenses per day.
______________________
5.

This is a tape format, often used by long-format


documentaries. _____________________

6.

Digibeta tapes which the camera operator records footage


onto. _____________________

7.

A series of filmed shots that can be edited together to form a


single section of the documentary. ____________________

8.
Customs documents often needed when taking expensive

equipment outside the European Union.
______________________
8

Pre - Production

F.)

In pairs, discuss what the different words in the box below are and what they are uesd for.
carnets daily rates tape stock release forms

G.)

H.)

In groups, think of a topic you would like to make a documentary about, for example a topic in
the news at the moment, or a topic you know about. Discuss the following points.

Length of time needed for shooting.

Number of crew members involved and their tasks.

Need for fixers.

Need for GVs.

Write a filming schedule on a seperate sheet of paper, for the documentary discussed in the last exercise,
using the schedule as a model. Include as many details as possible.

Pre - Production

Character Development
Section 4
A.)

In pairs, discuss the questions below.


1.

How can a character be described?

2.

What makes each character different?

Recognizing Connotation and Denotation:


When we look at a picture we are really reading the image in the same way that we read a piece of writing; the key
difference is that we are reading what we can see visually rather than based on the image in our imagination. There
are two words that you need to learn to describe what you read in a text:
Denotation: Which is what you can actually see in the picture.
Connotation: Which is what you can infer based on what you have seen in the picture.
For example...

Denotations
The picture denotes a man screwing his face up and pointing
his finger.

Connotations
The picture connotes a man who is angry because of his
facial expressions and the aggressive way he is pointing.
Our own interpretation of what we see and what we
persieve helps us to evaluate each situation. Picture for
example a person that is tired from working all day.
You probably see a person with their eyelids
half closed with their arms hanging at their
side. They may even have a blank
look on their face that not only
shows exhaustion, but also tells us
that they dont want to engage in
conversation.

B.)

Look at each of the pitures that follow. Each of them are of film character that you may or may not
know. Complete the Denotations and Connotations for each one.
Connotations:

Denotations:

10

Pre - Production

Connotations:

Denotations:

Connotations:

Denotations:

11

Pre - Production

C.)

In the spaces below, you need to write about how the images that you have looked at are
particularly effective in helping to create the characters.
Darth Vader:

His costume is really shocking to us, because he has a cool helmet and cape. Because
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
we can't see his eyes, he becomes scary. The color of his costume represents the
.............................................................................................................................................................................
darkness in his soul.
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
Maximus:

He looks like the hero of classic history. He has a muscular appearance and looks
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
strong.
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
James Bond:

He looks fancy, like a stud. Like a cool man, to respect and fear.
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................................
D.)
When thinking about the following characters, complete the Denotations and Connotations for each
one.
Description

Darth Vaders Entrance

Maximus in Battle

James Bonds Entrance

How is costume, body


language and speech used
to create the character?
How do the camera
shots help to create the
character?
How does scoring help to
create the character?
Any additional ideas you
have that might help create
the character.

E.)

12

Now you need to use the ideas that you have learned to create your own film character. The aim of
this task is to make you think about how film makers construct characters.
1.

Brainstorm ideas with a partner.

2.

Try to picture and describe your character to your partner.

3.

Then try to explain how this character fits in to the overall story of the film.

very

In the space below, draw an image of the character that you were describing in the last
activitiy. Then describe the denotations and connotations of your image.

Pre - Production

F.)

Denotations:

Connotations:

G.)

H.)

In the spaces below storyboard your characters entrance to the film.


1

Camera Shot:

Camera Shot:

Camera Shot:

Camera Shot:

Camera Shot:

Camera Shot:

Explain your choice of music and sound effects for the scene.

13

Pre - Production

Writing a screenplay
Section 5
A.)

14

Look at the film images at the bottom of the page. In pairs, discuss the following questions.
1.

What films have you seen?

2.

Do you have a favorite film?

3.

What makes these films good or bad?

Complete the following definitions using the words in the box.

Pre - Production

B.)

the cast director editing plot screenplay


screenwriter

special effects

soundtrack

the stars

1.

The putting together of sequences and scenes in a film: ________________________________

2.

A story written for a film: ________________________________

3.

Someone who writes stories for a film: ________________________________

4.

All the actors in a film: ________________________________

5.

Series of events in a film that make up the main story: ________________________________

6.
Images or sounds in a film that are created by trick photography or computers:
______________________________
7.

The music in a film: ________________________________

8.

The main actors in a film: ________________________________

9.

The person responsible for overall artistic content of film, including telling the cast what to do:

________________________________

C.)

In pairs, discuss the aspects of a film that are the most important for you when deciding which films to
see. Use the words in the last exercise to help you.

Section 6
A.)

Most screenplays are divided into three Acts. Match the Acts (1 3) to the descriptions (a c).
1. Act 1 __________

a.

The main conflict

2. Act 2 __________

b.

The resolution

3. Act 3 __________

c.

The background

B.)
In pairs, think about a film you each know well and take turns asking and answering the following
questions.

C.)

1.

How is the story set up and how are the characters introduced? (Act 1)

2.

What conflict(s) do the characters deal with during the story that is, what is the problem/desire/goal at the
center of the story? (Act 2)

3.

How is/are the conflict(s) resolved at the end of the film? (Act 3)

Think about a story you would like to tell, or a book you would like to adapt into a film. Make notes under
the following headings.
Act 1 The background

Act 2 The conflict

Act 3 The resolution

15

Pre - Production

Section 7
A.)

Read a scene from the Enemy of the State screenplay (1998), which is about a government cover
up. Answer the following questions.
1.

Who is involved in the scene?

4. What is happening?

2.

Where does it take place?

5. Why is this scene taking place?

3.

When does it take place?

6. How do the protagonists feel?

FADE IN:
EXT. SHENANDOAH NATIONAL PARK, SCENIC VIEW
LOT - MORNING
Shenandoah mountains. A cold dawn. TWO BLACK
TOWN CARS sit side by side, facing a view of a farming
valley below.
Two MEN in dark suits and long coats stand near the
cars, casually on the lookout. If we caught a glimpse
underneath the coat of the taller of the two, wed see
that he was carrying a 9mm. Glock.
INT. BLACK TOWN CAR - CONTINUOUS

REYNOLDS

Its a bi-partisan issue. Everyone

needs to swallow hard. No one,

including you, wants to be fingered

as the one obstructing efforts to

crack down on terrorism, and--

HAMERSLEY

Youre gonna finger me as soft on

terrorism? Terrorism, you

inconsiderate two face?

REYNOLDS

There are planes falling out of the

sky, buildings blowing up. American

REYNOLDS

buildings. Americans getting bombs

I know thy works and thy labour

in the mail. What are we gonna do!?

and how thou canst not bear them

HAMERSLEY

that are evil. And thou hast tried

Were not gonna hand you and your

them who say they are apostles and

band of lunatics the keys to the

hast found them to be liars.

kingdom. Im not gonna sit in

Revelations II.

Congress and write a law that

HAMERSLEY

allows the NSA to point a camera

and a microphone at anything they

In the backseat of the car sit HAMERSLEY and


REYNOLDS, each well-kept and in his early 50s.

What the hell does it mean?

feel like. And the next time you have

REYNOLDS

something to say to me, we do it

HAMERSLEY

above-board, in my office, like

You didnt ask me to meet you 30

everyone else. Now get outa my car,

miles from my office for a Bible

Ive got a committee meeting on the hill.

study class.

REYNOLDS regards HAMERSLEY a moment, then opens

B.)

16

It means whos side are you on?

the car

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

Do you think Hamersley and Reynolds have the same vision about things?

2.

What do you think Hamersley means by Were not gonna hand you the keys to the kingdom.?

3.

What do you think will happen next?

Complete the following statements with the words found in the box.

Pre - Production

C.)

action present center V.O.


capital dialogue INT. brackets

D.)

1.

The names of the characters and scene headings are written in ______________________ letters.

2.

Dialogue is written in the _______________________ of the page.

3.

Descriptions of the settings and _________________________ are written in blocks which are wider than
the dialogue.

4.

Descriptions of how a character delivers his lines are in ____________________________ .

5.

Characters generally have little _________________________ at one time.

6.

Descriptions of settings and actions are written in the ________________________ tenses.

7.

Voice-overs are abbreviated as ___________________________ , external shots as EXT. and internal


shots as ____________________________ .

Read what happens next in the screenplay and answer the following question.

Who do you think Hamersley is?

EXT. PARKWAY - MORNING


HAMERSLEYs car snakes down the twisting mountain
road.
INT. HAMERSLEYS CAR - CONTINUOUS
HAMERSLEY MAKES VERBAL NOTES concerning the
Reynolds
meeting into his memo-recorder as he drives. He picks
up his cellular phone and punches in a number.
VOICE (O.S.)

Senator Alberts office--

The line goes dead.

Whoever the guy is, hes flying. Then a man with a


rifle leans out the sedans window. Aims. HAMERSLEY
flies into a blind curve. Tires SCREECH as he rounds the
bend to see A PROPANE TRUCK. Blocking both lanes of
the road.
HAMERSLEYs eyes widen. He stomps the brakes, SKIDS
and SLAMS into the truck. The EXPLOSION engulfs
everything.
HAMERSLEY and the car are consumed. The pursuing
sedan slows to a stop. The men watch. The cars an
inferno.
The MEN make a U turn and drive away.
INT. CRYSTAL CITY, VIRGINIA, TALL OFFICE BLDG. DAY
A well-appointed big-city law office filled with
citations of merit and pictures of a wife and child.

HAMERSLEY tries again but cant get a dial tone. Then,

ROBERT DEAN, a likable young lawyer, sits behind his

in the rear-view mirror, a BROWN SEDAN gains fast.

desk with his back to an OLDER MAN. He stares at a


commanding view of Washington, D.C. as he listens to a
tired, smoke and whiskey voice.

E.)

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

Why do you think something happened to Hamersley?

2.

Think of a film ending that you like/dislike. What do you like/dislike about it?

3.

What do you think is the best screenplay ever written?

17

Pre - Production
G.)

F.)

Look at the following list of features that are typical of spoken dialogues.

Feature

Examples

Incomplete sentences

Thats I appreciate that.

Missing subjects

Sort of hot in here.

Repetition

Thanks. Thank you. Thanks

Short sentences

We agree.

Simple linking words

So, why dont you tell me your thoughts

Use of shared knowledge to leave things unsaid

We (i.e. the people of the USA) think youre just great.

In pairs, make a list of any other typicaly spoken conversations used in screenplay dialogues.
Interruptions, rephrasing

H.)

Write a scene for the film you made notes for in the previous exercise. Use a screenplay format
and make the dialogue seem as natural as possible.

Storyboard Development
Section 8

18

A.

B.

In pairs, try to match the storyboard images with their explainations.

Content: Leaf on screen settled


for a beat, Protagonists (here
after know as Pro) foot crushes
leaf and disturbs peaceful
scene.
Camera: Steady on leaf, as foot
hits slight chaos.
Content: Pro running at camera,
slow reveal of a tiny gap in a
fallen tree which the Pro must
get through.
Camera: Long-shot. DOF
change to bring tree gap into
focus.

C.

D.

E.

Content: Pro running through woods.


Camera: Mid-shot tracking sideways
with Pro.

F.

Content: Long shot of scene, titles


overlaid.
Camera: Fade in from black, begin to
track down as titles fade.
Content: Leaf falls as titles fade,
floating down to the floor. Camera:
Long-shot to close-up of the leaf,
tracking follows leaf down to the floor

G.

Content: Pro dives through the gap


without breaking stride gracefully. Guards
try to follow stutter then run around (off
camera). Camera: Mid-shot, locked.

Pre - Production

A.)

Content: Pro runs through gap in


two trees, arrow strikes a tree as Pro
passes, two Soldiers follow through
gap.
Camera: Continue mid-shot, pan
whip 25-45 degrees as character
passes between trees and leaves
the scene.

Content: Archer pulling back the


string on a bow ready to fire again.
Camera: Mid-shot, locked/ minor
track back.

Content: Pro running through the woods.


Camera: Behind pro showing full body.

19

Pre - Production

H.

I.

J.

20

Content: Pro leaping through


the air, showing the extent of
the gap and the drop below.
Slow motion.
Camera: Long-shot.
Content: Pro swings through to
the other side using rope and
begins to run again. Guards
in the background run around
(off camera).
Camera: Long-shot, not static
for feel of the piece.
Content: Pro plants left foot on
boulder.
Camera: Close-up.

K.

L.

M.

Camera movement reveals a large


canyon in front of Pro.
Notable point, rope and tree should
be readily available for audience to
see.
Camera: Pan whip up for larger
scale shot.
Content: Hand reaching out for and
grabbing rope. Slow motion.
Camera: Extreme close-up.
Content: Over the shoulder shot of
Pro running at the guards.
Camera: Long-shot, track slightly up
revealing Pro running.

N.

O.

P.

Content: Pro running from behind,


guards silhouetted in the distance.
Camera: Mid-shot, ensuring
background of visible guards.
Content: Pro leaps off right foot,
showing foot as it leaves the edge.
Slow motion.
Camera: Close-up.
Content: Guards readying
themselves as Pro approaches.
Camera: Steady, low-shot
showing the guards.

R.

S.

Content: Guard smashed by


boulder. (this should be very
quick and look brutal), dust
begins to be kicked up.
Camera: Long-shot.
Content: Over the shoulders of
guards who scan themselves for
injuries (from the knives), Turn
around to see boulders heading
toward them.
Camera: Long-shot.
Content: Pros alternate hand
grabbing rope.
Camera: Close-up. Quick shot.

T.

U.

V.

Content: Pro, whilst running, reaches


for throwing knives and seemingly
launches them at the guards.
Camera: Mid/Long. Camera follows
knives via tracking and panning, to
directors discretion.

W.

X.

Content: Knives Sever ropes behind


guards.
Camera: Close-up.
Content: Pro, is flying out of the
dust and debris via the cut rope.
Background showing debris clearing
with the guards downed.
Camera: Elevated Long-shot.

Y.

Pre - Production

Q.

Content: In a dusty place, Pros hand


is seen cutting a rope.
Camera: Close-up. Quick shot.
Content: Gate of a trap falls, allowing
an avalanche of rounded boulders to
fall.
Camera: Mid/Long. Static, 45 degree
angle to action.
Content: Pro flashes up through
background and lands in the
foreground, with only his legs
visible in the foreground.
Camera: Low Close-up of legs.

21

Pre - Production

A.

B.

C.

22

Content: Character turns Locket


panel revealing a picture of a
child. After a moment the hand
clasps tightly on the locket and
squeezes.
Camera: POV
Pro pulls his hood back over
his face and sets out with
rejuvenated determination,
running toward the camera.
Camera: Looking up at Pro
to emphasize power and
determination.
Content: Pro stood at a grave, head
down.
Camera: Over the shoulder shot.

D.

E.

F.

Content: Scans grave (in focus),


hand holding a locket moves into
shot (out of focus).
Suddenly focus shifts to locket in
Pros hand, reveling a picture of a
woman.
Camera: POV
Content: As pro reaches camera cut
to black.
Camera: Static.
Content: Pro holds locket firmly to
his heart with a longing expression.
Camera: Mid-shot. Front left.

G.

H.

Content: Pro pulls hood down,


revealing his face for the first time.
Face showing pain and sadness.
(showing Pros humanity).
Camera: Close-up.
Content: Pro begins to walk slowly
and powerfully (first time character is
seen moving slowly).
Camera: Close-up static.

A.)

B.)

Pre - Production

Section 9
In pairs, answer the questions below.
1.

What does someone have to receive before they can start work on a project and what
does it consist of?

2.

What is the amount of money that there is to spend on a project and why is it important?

Match the words with their definitions.

1. Proposal ________

A.) A coming together of two or more people, by chance or arrangement.

2. Budget ________

B.) Is the specific group of customers that a company aims to capture.

3. Expenses ________

C.) A plan for carrying out a process or procedure, giving lists of intended
events and times.

4. Target market ________

D.) The amount of money needed or available for a purpose.

5. Requirements ________

E.) A thing that is needed or wanted.

6. Time frame ________

F.) Document confirming understanding between a client and an advertising


agency on objectives of an advertising campaign.

7. Schedule ________

G.) A plan or suggestion, esp. a formal or written one, put forward for
consideration or discussion by others.

8. Meeting ________
9. Advertising brief ________
10. Deadline ________
11. Storyline ________
12. Storyboard ________
13. Casting ________
14. Rundown ________
15. Script ________

H.) The latest time or date by which something should be completed.


I.) A thing on which one is required to spend money.
J.) A period of time, esp. a specified period in which something occurs or is
planned to take place.
K.) The choosing of actors for a production.
L.) Lists the items to be shown on camera and their main features. Indicates
which camera will be used, who will be on screen and how long each
segment of the program will last.
M.) The written text of a play, movie, or broadcast.
N.) The plot of a novel, play, movie, or other narrative form.
O.) A sequence of drawings, typically with some directions and dialogue,
representing the shots planned for a movie or television production.

C.)

Fill in the blanks using only the first 10 words from above.
To finish before the 1.) ______________________ we need to speed-up the filming process.
Maybe we can adjust our filming 2.) ______________________ and move our 3.) ______________________ to next week.
During that time we can talk about the 4.) ______________________ and 5.) ______________________ for the project.
That will give us a chance to see how close to the initial 6.) ______________________ we are.
I think we will be fine as long as we dont go over our 7.) ______________________.
In the end we only have to worry about the agreenment in the 8.) ______________________ and our 9.) ________________
that we hope to capture.
What was the 10.) ______________________ that we were given for filming? It was 8 weeks.

23

Pre - Production

Pitching your ideas


Section 10
A.)

B.)

24

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

Once you have written a screenplay, what do you think is the next step?

2.

Which is more important: talent or being in the right place at the right time?

You are going to read a query letter written by a screenwriter. In pairs, discuss what you think a query
letter might be.

Pre - Production

C.)

Read the query letter and check your answer to exercise b.


Mr. Smith

My New Screenplay!
Frank
Dear Mr. Smith,
I have recently finished my second screenplay, named without you. Last summer I finished a two-year graduate course in
screenwriting at Michigan University, and I was one of the top finalists for the screenwriter of the year. I would like to ask if
you would be kind enough to read my latest project.
Without you is a touching comedy drama set in the south of Chile about a group of childhood friends who, after turning
40, realize that they have lost touch over the years and want to reunite with their teenage friends only to find that alot has
changed since their teenage years and ideas arent always the same across generations. There are a number of heart
warming scenes which are accompanied by a few comical settings and situations. Without you is a feel-good film which
combines tears and laughter. Think spanglish meets old school. I am confident it will generate lots of hype at the box office
and become an instant success.
If you are interested in reading my work, please contact me at the address at the top of the page.
Yours truly
Frank Right

D.)

E.)

Read the query letter in the last exercise again and decide if the following statements are True (T)
or False (F).
1.

The first paragraph outlines the writers credentials and the reason for writing.

2.

The second paragraph outlines the plot and the most important points about the screenplay.

3.

All the tenses in the second paragraph are either present tenses or use the modal verb might.

4.

The third paragraph says what the reader should do.

5.

The letter is really informal.

Write a query letter for a film you have seen recently, use the query letter to help you.

25

Pre - Production

Section 11
A.)

Read the advert for a seminar and answer the following questions.
1.

What is a pitch?

2.

Do you think the seminar would be interesting and / or useful? Explain why / why not.

FILMMAKING IN THE DIGITAL AGE with Simon Fisher


About the Pitch Session
SEMINAR EMPHASIS: MAKE MONEY GET PAID!
Overview
The Pitch Session is the most popular and challenging part of the seminar. Besides filmmakers, we are inviting
investors to the seminar who may be willing to invest millions of dollars if they see a project they like. To increase
your chances of obtaining the financing and resources you need, we recommend you prepare your pitch before the
seminar.
The Pitch Session
Your pitch will be one or two minutes long.
Key Elements of your Pitch
Your opening sentences will include:

The (1) ___________: is it a comedy, thriller, drama, teen movie, documentary, etc.?

The (2) __________: something that would make us want to see the film.

The (3) __________: a one-sentence synopsis of the screenplay.

Any other (4) __________: additional information that will get peoples attention (target audience, location,
music, etc.).

Practicing your Pitch


Write down the most significant selling points, and then pitch it until it comes naturally and you no longer need notes.
The pitch itself may change as you work on it to find what works.
Pitch to family and friends; Describe your project using the four points above; use your hands to express yourself;
make eye contact with the audience; be aware of your physical appearance and dress appropriately; remember to be
successful at presenting you must feel comfortable, so use humor where appropriate and engage the audience.

B.)

26

Read the advert again and answer the following questions.


1.

Who do you think Simon Fisher is?

2.

Who is the seminar for?

3.

Who else might be at the event?

4.

How much time will presenters have to pitch their film?

5.

When will the pitches be prepared?

6.

Why do they talk about family and friends?

7.

In what other situations are skills involved in pitching useful?

Complete the advert (1 - 4) using the words in the box.


genre

D.)

hooks

2. The Underground Connection ________

3. Where two worlds meet ________

F.)

title

Match the film titles (1 3) to the loglines (a c).

1. Live life on the Edge ________

E.)

logline

Pre - Production

C.)

a. This is a story about a group of undercover


officers, following a drug trafficing ring, who
decide to go into the lions den and bust the
dealers on their turf.
b. The story of two countries is brought
together by the meeting of two totally different
people, who are destined to come together and
learn from each other along the way.
c. Set in the 2013, pushing the limites of what
is known about the extreme sports and those
who, test the limits between life and death
tricks on a day to day basis.

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

What is the purpose of a logline?

2.

Why do you think loglines are so important for screenwriters and film executives?

Write a logline for the film you recently used or for a film you have seen recently. Then, in groups,
compare your loglines. Decide which you think are the most effective. Explain your answer.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

27

Pre - Production

Section 12
A.)

Read the advert for a seminar and answer the following questions.

Small talk

The pitch

I hope you found us


without any problem?

My films called

How did you hear about


this event?
So, is this your first
screenplay?

Clarifying information
about the pitch

Ending the pitch


meeting

This film is aimed at

could you explain


how the audience is
expected to believe
that?

If you leave a copy with


us, well get back to you
within

There are a number of


great

Could you tell me more


about?

(Without you ) is a
touching film

I dont fully
understand

Its a (heart warming)


film set in

Thats everything for


now. Well be in touch
one way or the other.

Think (Spanglish) meets


(Old School).

C.)
In pairs, role play a pitch. Student A will be pitching

the film that they prepared with their logline. Student
B, is the film executive. Student B, must evaluate
Student As pitch and provide feedback. Use the notes in the
box to help you. Then, change roles and practice again.

Name of film: _________________________________


Mentions: ____________________________________
Uses: _______________________________________
genre: eye contact:
title: hand gestures:
logline: relaxed style:
hooks: ______________________________________
How effective is the pitch? _____ / 10

Commercial Project
Section 13
A.)

Discuss the goals of this project:



Work with two to three classmates to create a 1- 2-minute commercial on a product or service of your
choice.

28

Create a project plan and schedule Turn it in to your instructor.

Work with composite video.

Create motion and text animation and video special effects.

Pre - Production
B.)
Home work: Find examples of TV and online commercials and discuss, as a class, the

audience, purpose, and effectiveness of each video advertisement. Make sure to include

commercials with the following techniques and discuss how each technique enhances the
commercial:

Compositing

Musical score integrated with the script throughout the commercial

Motion graphics and visual effects

Groups should collect design ideas as they review commercials. Create a project proposal and turn into your
teacher for approval.

C.)



Prepare your shot list & Storyboard. As you prepare to plan your shot selections for the
commercial, discuss techniques such as chrome keys and compositing that can help you
create commercials and other types of video projects without needing to be on location (for
instance, placing an actor in an action scene that would be too expensive or dangerous to
film). You might want to look up the following terms to help understand these concepts:

Compositing: Process of combining two or more video images into one.

Chrome key (also referred to as blue screen or green screen): Shooting a person or object in front of a
colored screen and replacing the colored screen with a substitute background.

Keying: Postproduction process in which the color of the blue or green screen in a shot is identified
and then removed. When you key out a color, it becomes transparent. As you begin to shoot footage
for your commercials, determine the importance of and how to shoot for composite (layered) videos
and chrome key shots. Some things to include are:

Even backlighting helps ensure a solid-color background without shadows and facilitates keying out
one color rather than multiple colors.

Light your actors and position them at least 4 feet from the screen. Make sure actors arent wearing
clothing with colors that match the background.

To create a specific effect where you need to remove a particular body part, have the actor use
background colored clothing for that particular body part.

Use content that matches the background to be keyed in. For instance, if the person is to be outside,
have clothing that matches the environment.

Consider the framing and camera angle of your shot and how it will match your intended background.

High-contrast scenes lend themselves to making either the dark or light portions transparent. The same
holds true for shooting light objects against a dark background or vice versa.

For most keying shots, you need to use a tripod and lock down your camera. Viewers are distracted
when keyed objects bounce. The exception to this is when youre keying in wild, animated
backgrounds; then camera movement is not a problem.
29

Pre - Production

D.)

E.)


After creating your storylines and storyboards. It is now time to write your script, which
should include:

The order in which the lines will be organized.

The names of the actors saying the lines.

The lines to be said.

Groups should now shoot the necessary footage from your shot list, using the equipment and
locations identified in their Project Proposal. Record any necessary voiceover narration
according to your scripts. As you prepare to create your commercials in Adobe Premiere Pro
or After Effects, advanced editing techniques may be helpful.

Speeding up/reversing clips

Compositing

Layering clips

Masking

F.)

Continue to edit and modify. Create or obtain a musical score that fits the tone of your
commercial and that you can integrate with any script dialog (voiceover narration,
actor dialog, etc.) where appropriate.

G.)

Each team should take time to create graphics and visual effects for their commercial and to
finalize your commercial.

H.)

You need to publish your commercials ready to play in Quicktime, Windows Media, or any
other commonly used media player for class viewing. Commercials

Description

30

Points Possible

Ad looks like a commercial, not a simple presentation.

Products name is used at least three times in the ad.

Ad shows creativity and originality.

10

Quality of images.

Product is described.

Ad is persuasive.

Sound is used to enhance the ad.

Transitions and/or animations are used for special effects.

Shot list includes at least 5 different shot angles.

Compositing Utilized.

Chrome Key Utilized.

Utilized Advanced Editing Techniques.

Commercial Fades in and Fades out.

Project Plan, Project Storyboard, Project Shot List.

10

Spelling/grammar on ad and in sounds.

10

Spoken English Grammar.

20

Unit 2
Production

In production, the video production/film


is created and shot. More crew will be
recruited at this stage, such as the property
master, script supervisor, assistant
directors, stills photographer, picture
editor, and sound editors. These are
just the most common roles in
filmmaking; the production office
will be free to create any unique
blend of roles to suit the various
responsibilities possible during
the production of a film.
A typical days shooting
begins with the crew arriving
on the set / location by their
call time. Actors usually
have their own separate call
times. Since set construction,
dressing and lighting can take
many hours or even days, they
are often set up in advance.
The grip, electric and production
design crews are typically a step
ahead of the camera and sound
departments: for efficiencys sake,
while a scene is being filmed, they
are already preparing the next one.
31

Production

Film Staff Positions and Responsibilities


Section 1
A.)

Read about the different positions and responsibilities when working on a flim staff.

Executive Producer:
An executive producer of a motion picture is often the person who found and bought the literary property that a film is based
on, such as a novel or play. He might hire another producer to develop the project further. If the project gets the green-light
to go into principal photography, he might hire a line producer to watch over the production day to day. Since the 1980s,
however, it has become increasingly common for the line producer to be given the title of Executive Producer, while the
executive producer takes the Produced by credit. On other projects, the reverse happens, with the line producer taking the
Produced by credit. So the two credits have become effectively interchangeable, with no precise definition.
The executive producer can also be a person representing a financial investor in a film project, such as a film studio or a
distributor, but who is not directly involved in the day to day production. It can also be someone with other special interests in
the project, such as the author of the book that the film is based on, or one of the films key actors who has been instrumental
in persuading the studio to do the film. In such cases, the executive producer credit is mainly honorary.
Line Producer:
A line producer is the key manager during the daily operations of a motion picture production.
The line producer supports the vision given by the director but does not have direct influence on the creative expression or
narrative of the film.
From the beginning of principal photography, the line producer oversees the budgetary and physical production needs of the
shoot. By the first day of production, several versions of the budget have usually been drafted. A finalized or locked budget
is the one used for the production to move forward.
While in production, the line producer will oversee many decisions that must be made to deliver each days shoot. The
administrative aspects, especially those that have any financial impact, are all crucial areas of the line producers work.
Production Manager:
A production manager is involved with the planning, coordination and control of manufacturing processes.
A production manager ensures that goods and services are produced efficiently. They ensure the correct amount is produced
at the right cost and at the right level of quality.

32

Production

Production Coordinator:
The production coordinator serves under the production manager, producer to coordinate the various groups and
personnel that come together in filmmaking to a movie and video production to make a television show. The position
requires organizational skills and the ability to handle a multiple tasks simultaneously under often high-pressure
situations.
The duties of a POC are often undefined and extremely varied ranging from office manager, to human resources,
to controller, to accountant. Most all POCs are hired an on-call weekly status and are basically paid a flat rate per
week, no matter how many or few hours they work. Working conditions can vary on the medium (half-hour, hour-long
television, reality, live, soap and feature) and daily hours can range from 8 to 16 hour days. The POC is often the
first person in the office and the last to leave since they hold the responsibility of tending to the needs of the crew.
1st A.D. :
The primary role of a 1st Assistant Director is to help the Director in the making of the film in the time allowed,
dictated by the Producer/budget - but assisting the director in such a way as to allow them as much time as possible
to concentrate on the creative process rather than on all the practical/organizational elements involved.
1st ADs have two main responsibilities:
Pre-production (the period before filming starts) where they prepare the schedule, (a filming timetable that shows
which scene is to be shot on which day and what needs to pre-booked/hired to achieve that) and
Production (during the shoot) where their main task is to ensure that the production sticks to the schedule.
2nd A.D. :
The Second Assistant Director (Second or 2AD) creates the daily call sheets from the production schedule with
the production coordinator. The second also serves as the backstage manager, with actors, putting cast through
make-up and wardrobe, which relieves the first of these duties. Supervision of the setting of background (extras)
are parts of the seconds duties.
The Second Second Assistant Director (Second Second or 22AD) deals with the increased workload of a large
or complicated production. For example, a production with a large number of casts may require the division of the
backstage manager and the call sheet production work to two separate people.
P.A. :
A production assistant, also known as a PA, is a job title used in filmmaking and television for a person responsible
for various aspects of a production. The job of a PA can vary greatly depending on the budget and specific
requirements of a production.
production assistants are usually divided into different categories: Set PA, Locations PA, Office PA, or Set
Runner and Extra PA or Daily - Variations exist depending on a shows structure or region of the United States or
Canada.
Office PAs usually spend most hours in the respective shows production office handling such tasks as phones,
deliveries, script copies, lunch pick-ups, and related tasks in coordination with the production manager and
production coordinator.
Set PAs work on the physical set of the production, whether on location or on a sound stage. They report to the
assistant director (AD). Duties include (calling out) rolls and cuts, locking up (making sure nothing interferes
with a take), working with talents and background, facilitating communication between departments, distributing
paperwork and radios. Set PAs usually work 12- to 16-hour days with the possibility at the end of a shoot to work
more than 20 hours a single day and are regularly the first to arrive and the last to leave.
Location Manager:
The Location Manager is responsible for the finding and securing locations to be used and coordinating the logistics
involved for the production to successfully complete its necessary work. They are also the face of the production
to the community and responsible for addressing the issues that may arise due to the productions impact on the
community.

33

Production

Art Director:
On big budget films, Art Directors start work up to 4 to 5 months before shooting begins (on low budget films 8 weeks may
be sufficient). When the final schedule is delivered (detailing the precise order of scenes in which the film will be shot), Art
Directors begin the work of overseeing the preparation of the first sets required. Art Directors analyze the script to identify all
props or special items that may be required.
Set Dresser:
Set dressers arrange objects on a film set before shooting. They work under the direction of a leadman, a set decorator and a
production designer. Set dressers place furniture, hang pictures, and put out decorative items. They are also responsible for
some light construction and assembly of small items, such as air-conditioning. They also move items as necessary to make
room for the filming equipment. During the shoot, the prop department works with an on-set dresser to ensure that the props
and furnishing are in the proper location for the script.
DOP:
The Director of Photography, DOP or DP, is the chief of the camera and lighting crew of the film. The DOP makes decisions
on lighting and framing of scenes in conjunction with the films director. Typically, the Director tells the DOP how he or she
wants a shot to look, and the DOP chooses the correct aperture, filter, and lighting to achieve the desired effect as per the
Directors requirements.
Props Master:
The property master is an artistic and organizational employee in a film, television or theatrical production who is responsible
for purchasing, acquiring and/or manufacturing any props needed for a production. The property master also works with other
members of the production managing the physical appearance of the stage or set. The property master is on staff during
preproduction, develops the stylistic concept of the physical production, then continues on as a member of the physical
shooting/production crew.
During preproduction, the props master develops a props breakdown. This is essentially mapping out the logical progression
of each prop throughout the story. During shooting, the props master maintains the logical progression by ensuring the props
are positioned in their correct logical place for each scene according to the props breakdown.
Wardrobe:
Is the clothing used on or in a film.
Make Up: Is used for changing or enhancing a persons looks.
1st A.C:
A focus puller, or 1st assistant cameraman, is a member of a film crews camera department whose primary responsibility is
to maintain image sharpness on whatever subject or action is being filmed.
Pulling focus refers to the act of changing the lens focus distance setting in correspondence to a moving subjects physical
distance from the focal plane.
2nd A.C/ Loader:
A clapper loader, or second assistant camera (2nd AC) is part of a film crew, whose main functions are that of loading the
raw film stock into camera magazines, operating the clapperboard (slate) at the beginning of each take, marking the actors
as necessary, and maintaining all records and paperwork for the camera department. The name clapper loader tends to be
used in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth, while second assistant camera tends to be favored in the United States.
Gaffer:
A gaffer in the motion picture industry and on a television crew is an electrician, sometimes head of the electrical department,
responsible for the execution (and sometimes the design) of the lighting plan for a production. Gaffer is related to the moving
of overhead equipment to control lighting levels using a gaff. It has been used for the chief electrician in films since 1936. His
assistant is the best boy.

34

Production

Best Boy:
Best boys are responsible for the day-to-day operation of the lighting or grip department. Their many responsibilities
include the hiring, scheduling, and management of crew; the ordering, inventory, and returning of equipment; overseeing
workplace safety and maintaining discipline within their department; completing timecards and other paperwork; stocking of
expendables; loading and unloading production trucks; planning and implementing the lighting or rigging of locations and/or
sound stages.
Key Grip:
the key grip is the head of the grip department and chief rigging technician on the set. Using light, the key grip is in charge
of the shadows of light, the movement of the camera, the placing of cameras on any stationary, moving, flying, or floating
surfaceanywhere a camera is to work.
Video Assist:
Video assist is a system used in filmmaking , which allows filmmakers to view a video version of a take immediately after it is
filmed.
Originally a small device, called the video tap, was installed inside a movie camera that allows (with the addition of a monitor)
the director to see approximately the same view as the camera operator, and thus ensure that the film is being shot and
framed as desired.

B.)

Complete the following definitions using the words in bold from the reading.
1.

Who works with the Best Boy? ____________________________

2.

Who is in charge of Shadows of light and movement of cameras? ____________________________

3.

What gives the Director the ability to see the shot as it is being filmed? ____________________________

4.

Who oversees workplace safety? ____________________________

5.

Who works with the changing of the lens on the cameras? ____________________________

6.

The clothing used in a film or production is called: ____________________________

7.

Something used to change appearance: ____________________________

8.

Who is the person that works with the physical items in a production? ____________________________

9.
Who is the person that works with lighting and framing of scenes to make them look the way the director wants?
____________________________
10.

Who arranges items on a film set? ____________________________

11.

Who starts to work on a film around 4 to 5 months before shooting begins? ____________________________

12.

Who is responsible for the impact that filming has on the local community? ____________________________

13.

Who is responsible for various aspects of a production? ____________________________

14.

Who creates the daily call sheets? ____________________________

15.

Who prepares the schedule for filming? ____________________________

16.
Who must work under pressure with great organizational skills and have the ability to multi task?
____________________________
17.

Who controls the manufacturing process? ____________________________

18.
Who is the main person that oversee the budget, and influences the creative expression of the film?
____________________________
19.
Who is the person that finds and buys the literary property that a film is based on?
____________________________
35

Production

C.)

In groups discuss which film staff positions seem the most or least appealing and why?

D.)
Writing: What position would you like to have in the future and why? What would be your
responsibilities?
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Filming on location.
Section 2
A.)

B.)

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

Have you ever filmed on location? If so what were you filming and why? If not, what kind of shoot would you like to
be a part of?

2.

If you could have any positions in a TV film crew, which would you choose and why?

Complete the following definitions using the terms in the box.


pan personal mic POV pull focus
tilt tracking shot walkie-talkie windshield
1.

A covering used to protect a microphone from the noise created by the wind: _______________________

2.

A shot where the camera is moved horizontally left-to-right or right-to-left: _______________________

3.

Filming with the camera placed on a wheeled carriage going along a railed track (in the listening, James is taking
shots from the car while it is moving along the road): ________________________

4.

Where the reporter or presenter walks and talks to the camera at the same time: ________________________

5.

Shot where the camera is moved vertically up or down: ___________________________

6.
Shot where the camera is used to represent the viewpoint of a subject (in the listening, James filmed from under a

blanket to suggest the point of view of a woman being secretly smuggled across a border):
_________________________

36

7.

Shot where the cameras focus is moved from one point to another: _________________________

8.

A small microphone often used for interviews and PTCs: ____________________________

Production

Section 3
A.)

Review the common language used during a shoot below.


Saying what needs to be done

Asking for and making suggestions

Asking someone to do something

Well need to get the guards to hold


the traffic

I think we should get down to the


PTC now.

could you tell the guards what we


want to do, please?

We might need to put the big


windshield on it.

What can we do about this strong


wind?

Would you mind asking the guards it


thats OK?

Well give it a go and see what the


sounds like.

I think itd be good to have you doing


a walkie-talkie

We still need to get some good shots


from the other side of the border.

This lights too bright. Youd better


use lenses.
What do you think?
If you have a better idea, please tell
us.

Organizing a Shoot
Section 4
A.)

In goups, discuss the following questions.


1.

Have you ever worked in film production? If so, what did you do? If not, what would you like to do?

2.

What do the following people do during the production of a film?

film producer

3.

Of the people above, who is the most important to a films success?

film director

director of photography

sound director

37

Production

B.)

In pairs, Match the terms below (1 9) to their meanings (a i).


1. lighting rig ________
2. reconnoiter (recce) ________

a. the activity of organizing practical


and financial matters connected with the
preparation of a film.

3. sound crew ________

b. colored glass which controls the light


entering a camera.

4. production ________

c. the team taking care of shooting and


photography.

5. to shoot ________

d. an organization providing location


management for film production purposes.

6. camera crew ________

e. the team taking care of the sound system.


f. a machine producing electricity.

7. generator ________

g. to film.

8. filters ________

h. a check that everything is ok with logistics


and technical equipment on location.

9. location agency ________

i. a system for lighting a location.

Explaining potential problems

Presenting solutions

1. there are practically no problems


with...

2. Our next recess will be aimed at...

3. my main concern at this stage is


that...
5. we also need to avoid any problems
that...

4. the problem can be solved with...


6. Ill try to get...
8. Ive decided to...

7. Im a little concerned about...

C.)

The expressions above are used for explaining potential problems and solving them. In pairs, practice
using the expressions. Student A, reads the expressions in bold; Student B, tries to complete the phrase.
Change roles and practice again.

D.)

In groups of four, role-play a meeting to discuss shooting on location. Student A, is the film
producer; Student B, is the film director; Student C, is the director of photography; and
Student D, is the sound director. Choose a film that you all know something about.

38

Getting permission to shoot at certain locations.

No electricity or other facilities are available.

Testing the equipment before using it in the field.

Finding local actors to use in crowd scenes.

Confirming easy access to everywhere you need to shoot.

Other?

Production

The 'Grammar' of Television and Film


Section 5
A.)

Read the introduction to the grammar of television and film.


Television and film use certain common conventions often referred to as the grammar of these audiovisual
media. This list includes some of the most important conventions for conveying meaning through particular
camera and editing techniques (as well as some of the specialized vocabulary of film production).
Conventions arent rules: expert practitioners break them for deliberate effect, which is one of the rare
occasions that we become aware of what the convention is.

B.)

Read about the different shot sizes used in television and film. In pairs, match the abribiations with
the approperate image below.
Long shot (LS). Shot which shows all or most of a fairly large subject (for example, a person) and usually
much of the surroundings. Extreme Long Shot (XLS) - see establishing shot: In this type of shot the camera is
at its furthest distance from the subject, emphasizing the background. Medium Long Shot (MLS): In the case
of a standing actor, the lower frame line cuts off his feet and ankles. Some documentaries with social themes
favor keeping people in the longer shots, keeping social circumstances rather than the individual as the focus of
attention.
Establishing shot. Opening shot or sequence, frequently an exterior General View as an Extreme Long Shot
(XLS). Used to set the scene.
Medium shots. Medium Shot or Mid-Shot (MS). In such a shot the subject or actor and its setting occupy
roughly equal areas in the frame. In the case of the standing actor, the lower frame passes through the waist.
There is space for hand gestures to be seen. Medium Close Shot (MCS): The setting can still be seen.
The lower frame line passes through the chest of the actor. Medium shots are frequently used for the tight
presentation of two actors (the two shot), or with dexterity three (the three shot).
Close-up (CU). A picture which shows a fairly small part of the scene, such as a characters face, in great detail
so that it fills the screen. It abstracts the subject from a context. MCU (Medium Close-Up): head and shoulders.
BCU (Big Close-Up): forehead to chin. Close-ups focus attention on a persons feelings or reactions, and are
sometimes used in interviews to show people in a state of emotional excitement, grief or joy. In interviews, the
use of BCUs may emphasize the interviewees tension and suggest lying or guilt. BCUs are rarely used for
important public figures; MCUs are preferred, the camera providing a sense of distance. Note that in western
cultures the space within about 24 inches (60 cm) is generally felt to be private space, and BCUs may be
invasive while (XCU) Extreme Close-up shots can be a little much, but great for impact in a drama.
CU

XLS

MS

XCU

LS

MLS

MCU

BCU

39

Production

C.)

Match the shot type to the photo examples.


Angle of shot. The direction and height from which the camera takes the scene. The convention is that in factual
programs subjects should be shot from eye-level only. In a high angle the camera looks down at a character, making
the viewer feel more powerful than him or her, or suggesting an air of detachment.
A low angle shot, places camera below the character, exaggerating his or her importance. An overhead shot is one
made from a position directly above the action.
Viewpoint. The apparent distance and angle from which the camera views and records the subject. Not to be
confused with point-of-view shots or subjective camera shots.
Point-of-view shot (POV). A shot made from a camera position close to the line of sight of a performer who is to be
watching the action shown in the point-of-view shot.
Two-shot. A shot of two people together.
Selective focus. Rendering only part of the action field in sharp focus through the use of a shallow depth of field. A
shift of focus from foreground to background or vice versa is called rack focus.
Soft focus. An effect in which the sharpness of an image, or part of it, is reduced by the use of an optical device.
Wide-angle shot. A shot of a broad field of action taken with a wide-angle lens.
Tilted shot. also known as a canted shot. When the camera is tilted on its axis so that normally vertical lines appear
slanted to the left or right, ordinary expectations are frustrated. Such shots are often used in mystery and suspense
films to create a sense of unease in the viewer.

D.)

In pairs, match the shot vocabulary words with the approperate image below. Then explain what each
shot is normally used for.
Birds eye Eye-level High Canted Low Worms eye

40

Read about different camera and lens movements.

Production

E.)

Zoom. In zooming in the camera does not move; the lens is focused down from a long-shot to a close-up whilst
the picture is still being shown. The subject is magnified, and attention is concentrated on details previously
invisible as the shot tightens (contrast tracking). It may be used to surprise the viewer. Zooming out reveals
more of the scene (perhaps where a character is, or to whom he or she is speaking) as the shot widens.
Zooming in rapidly brings not only the subject but also the background hurtling towards the viewer, which can
be disconcerting. Zooming in and then out creates an ugly yo-yo effect.
Following pan. The camera swivels (in the same base position) to follow a moving subject. A space is left in
front of the subject: the pan leads rather than trails. A pan usually begins and ends with a few seconds of
still picture to give greater impact. The speed of a pan across a subject creates a particular mood as well as
establishing the viewers relationship with the subject. Hosepiping is continually panning across from one
person to another; it looks clumsy.
Surveying pan. The camera slowly searches the scene: may build to a climax or anticlimax.
Tilt. A vertical movement of the camera - up or down- while the camera mounting stays fixed.
Crab. The camera moves (crabs) right or left.
Tracking (dollying). Tracking involves the camera itself being moved smoothly towards or away from the
subject (contrast with zooming). Tracking in (like zooming) draws the viewer into a closer, more intense
relationship with the subject; moving away tends to create emotional distance. Tracking back tends to divert
attention to the edges of the screen. The speed of tracking may affect the viewers mood. Rapid tracking
(especially tracking in) is exciting; tracking back relaxes interest. In a dramatic narrative we may sometimes be
drawn forward towards a subject against our will. Camera movement parallel to a moving subject permits speed
without drawing attention to the camera itself.
Hand-held camera. A hand-held camera can produce a jerky, bouncy, unsteady image which may create a
sense of immediacy or chaos. Its use is a form of subjective treatment.
Process shot. A shot made of action in front of a rear projection screen having on it still or moving images as a
background.

F.)

In pairs, match the shot vocabulary words with the approperate image below.
Tilt up / down

Zoom in / out

Crab left / right

Track in / out

Pan left / right

Ped up / down

41

Production
G.)

Write about your preferred method of filming and what it is used for? also explain why you like to use
it for filming. Use the chart below as a guide for writing.
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Shot Style

What Shot Shows

Effect on audience
It draws attention to objects / people
and adds emotion.

Close-up

Shows enlarged view of part of an object / person.

Medium Shot

Shows a normal sized view of an object / person like someone


would expect to see using their own eyes.

Long Shot

Shows people / objects from a distance.

It is intended to give us an
impression of size and scale.

Wide Shot

Shows a whole person or object allowing us to see everything


around them.

It helps us see everything that is going


on around somebody / something.

Establishing Shot

Sets the scene of the action. Often involves shots of scenery


and setting.

It helps the audience see where


events take place.

High Angle Shot

Helps us see a shot from a birds eye view of events.

It is designed to make an object /


person seem smaller than they are.

Low Angle Shot

Helps us see a shot from a worms eye view of events.

It is designed to add scale and size


to an object / person.

42

It focuses out attention to details.

Unit 3
Post - Production

Post-production is part of filmmaking

and the video production process. It occurs


in the making of motion pictures, television
programs, radio programs, advertising,
audio recordings, photography, and digital
art. It is a term for all stages of production
occurring after the actual end of shooting
and/or recording the completed work.
Post-production is, in fact, many
different processes grouped under
one name. These typically include:
Video editing the picture of a television
program using an edit decision list (EDL)
Writing,
(re)recording,
and
editing
the
soundtrack.
Adding
visual
special
effects
mainly
computer-generated
imagery (CGI) and digital copy from
which release prints will be made
(although this may be made obsolete
by
digital-cinema
technologies).
Sound design, Sound effects,
ADR, Foley and Music, culminating
in a process known as sound
re-recording
or
mixing
with
professional
audio
equipment.
Transfer of Color motion picture film to
Video or DPX with a telecine and color
grading (correction) in a color suite.
43

Post - Production

Scene Analysis
Section 1
A.)

You are going to watch a scene from Black Hawk Down. You need to look at the ways all of
the different techniques that you have studied are used in this scene and the effects that
they have on the audience.

Description

Characterisation

Cinematography

Scoring

Additional Features

How is this aspect of


filmmaking used in this
scene?
Give an example of where
this technique is used most
effectively in this scene.
How does the filmmakers
use of this technique help
to create effects on the
audience?

B.)

Discuss the ways that Ridley Scott uses a range of techniques to create effects on the audience in
the sequence from Black Hawk Down.

Ideas about how Scott uses cinematic techniques in the sequence & examples:

Appropriate use of technical terminology to describe the techniques:

Exploration of the effects on the audience:

44

Post - Production

Short Film Evaluations


Section 2
A.)

B.)

In pairs, discuss the questions below.


1.

What is your criteria for evaluating what you watch as far as films are concerned?

2.

What makes a good movie good and a bad movie bad?

3.

Have you ever had to evaluate short films? if so, How did you do so?

Now you are going to watch seven short films and answer the following questions about 3 of the
films and their content. It can be the 3 that you liked or the worst, best, and average. You decide.
Film 1.
What was the films name? ....
How does the name relate to the content? ..
.....
................................................................................................................................................................
What was the message of the film? ..
............
..................................................................................................................................................................................
How would you rate this short film and why?
Camera use of shots and angles: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
..................................................................................................................................................................................
Screenplay of the film:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

..................................................................................................................................................................................
Overall film:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

..................................................................................................................................................................................
Film 2.
What was the films name? ....
How does the name relate to the content? ..
.....
................................................................................................................................................................
What was the message of the film? ..
............
..................................................................................................................................................................................
How would you rate this short film and why?
Camera use of shots and angles: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
..................................................................................................................................................................................
Screenplay of the film:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

..................................................................................................................................................................................
Overall film:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

..................................................................................................................................................................................
45

Post - Production

Film 3.
What was the films name? ....
How does the name relate to the content? ..
.....
................................................................................................................................................................
What was the message of the film? ..
............
..................................................................................................................................................................................
How would you rate this short film and why?
Camera use of shots and angles: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
..................................................................................................................................................................................
Screenplay of the film:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

..................................................................................................................................................................................
Overall film:

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)

..................................................................................................................................................................................

C.)

Discuss as a class the overall feeling about the short films. Has anyone ever had to make a short
film? if so why? What was it about?

D.)

For homework go online and find one good example of a short film to share with the class. During
class you will have to mention why you chose it.

E.)
In groups of 3, think about the message of the film and any other short film you have seen. Then

decide as a group a message that you would like to convey. Make sure it is something that you all

agree on. Then brainstorm ways of conveying that message through cinematography and powerful
scenes.
What is the message:
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................
How can you convery the message that you chose above?
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................................

F.)

Create 3 storyboard slides with small story lines to show your ideas.

............................................................
............................................................
46

............................................................
............................................................

............................................................
............................................................

Post - Production

Writing a film review


Section 3
A.)

B.)

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

Do you know how many different stages are involved in making a movie?

2.

Who is the most important for a movies success: the creative people, the investors, the promoters, or the
distributors?

Put the following film process stages in the correct order.


_________ Cinemas receive copies of the film a few days before they start showing the movie at the box office.

_________ The number of prints to be made of the film are decided on by the studio or producer.

_________ An agreement is made with the distribution company about which films they wish to

lease and fix the terms of the lease agreement with the buyers.

_________ The rights to the film are bought by a studio or producer.

_________ The film is shot, and when completed is sent to the studio.

_________ The film is returned to the distribution company, when the film run ends, which pays the amount due.

5
_________
A licensing agreement is signed by the studio, with a distribution company.

_________ At screenings, the film is shown to potential buyers representing the cinema chains.

_________ A producer, director, cast and camera / sound crew are hired to make the film.

1
_________
A screenwriter has an idea for a film, which is pitched to potential investors.

47

Post - Production

C.)

Complete the following definitions using the words in Bold in the last exercise.
1.

Legal authority over who may use a film: _________________________

2.

Place where films are edited and produced: _________________________

3.

Contract giving someone the legal right to use a film: _________________________

4.

Copies of the film: _________________________

5.

Rent: _________________________

6.

Ticket sales; literally, the place where people buy tickets at a cinema: _________________________

7.

Period in which a film is shown: _________________________

8.

Showings of the film: _________________________

Section 4
A.)

B.)

In groups, discuss the following questions.


1.

Have you ever read a film review? Explain why / why not.

2.

How much does a film review influence your movie choices?

3.

Who do you think should write film reviews and why?

Read the film review. Would you like to see the film? Explain why / why not.

The Bourne Legacy Universal Pictures


When agent Aaron Cross plunges into icy waters in the opening moments of the brisk
and satisfying spy thriller The Bourne Legacy, the scene serves two purposes: to
1 commemorate the superb and well-loved trilogy that came before, in which Matt Damon,
as the man called Jason Bourne, made his first appearance in The Bourne Identity, fished
out of the Mediterranean Sea with bullets in his back; and to baptize Jeremy Renner as
the action-hero heir worthy of leading the franchise forward.
The symbolism works elegantly. Renners Cross is a conflicted hero built character to
take advantage of the Hurt Locker stars best qualities as an actor his default intensity,
the way he conveys that complicated mental calculations are taking place under cover
of watchful stillness, even underwater. Since director and co-writer Tony Gilroy (Michael
2 Clayton) has custom-tailored The Bourne Legacy for the present by opening up the
narrative. Unnerving scenes of backroom operations among shadowy governmental
and private-enterprise types reveal the machinations of a much bigger tangle of players
than previously imagined. There are mystery men running the country and, by remote
control, the world. This movie recommends worrying.
Meanwhile, Cross is currently the agent in the crosshairs. Yet to his handlers hes only
No. 5, one of six experimental warriors chemically enhanced for use by the Department
of Defense in an operation called Outcome sort of the 2.0 of the original trilogys Tread stone. But now his masters (led by
3
an effectively steely Edward Norton) want to eradicate all evidence that Outcome ever existed. First of all destroying these six
super agents. In desperation, he turns for help to the pharmaceutical scientist who created his enhanced capabilities (Rachel
Weisz, a good choice, and from the looks of her, a good runner). Secondly, the two find themselves sprinting for their lives.
Like any story with Bourne in the title, this one scampers around the globe, with a big chunk of well-crafted showdown action
4 set in teeming Manila. Gilroy, who as a screenwriter has shaped the movie saga from the beginning, trades the wired rhythms
established in the past two episodes by Paul Green grass for something more realistic and closer to the ground. So the change
is refreshing. Jason Bournes legacy is in good hands.
48

D.)

Read the review again and answer the following questions.


1.

Is the review positive or negative?

2.

What is said about the film?

3.

What was this review meant to do?

Use the connectors in the box to complete the definitions below.

Since

E.)

Post - Production

C.)

And

But

First of all

Yet

Secondly

Although

1.

To give contrasting information. ____________ , ______________ , ________________

2.

To give additional information. ____________

3.

To order points. ____________ , ______________

4.

To show cause and effect. ____________ , ______________

So

Complete a different review of the Bourn Legacy, using the connectors.

The Bourne Legacy Universal Pictures


Here is the film that many people, especially Bourn fans, have been waiting for all these years. A homage to the great trilogy,
different in tone from similar films. (1) ________________________ . It was beleived that there was only one, our interest in
Jason Bourne continues to this day. (2) ________________________ . Universal Pictures new film, the Bourne Legacy, taps
into our collective fascination in two novel ways: (3) ________________________ by presenting a new side to Bournes life,
Jeremy Renner; (4) ________________________ , by drawing on parallels between the new, old, and unknown.
(5) ________________________the story of Bourne is so well-known, it is thanks to Jeremy Renner that the film is both
gripping (6) ________________________ action paked. Highly recommend.

F.)

G.)

Match the paragraph numbers in the 1st film review on the previous page to their functions (a d).
a.

_________ Tells us about the lead actors role in the film and how they convey the character.

b.

_________ Introduces the film: genre, basic plot.

c.

_________ Concludes the review in an interesting way.

d.

_________ Provides us with a sence of what to expect.

Think of a film you have recently seen. In pairs, take turns to say what you thought about
the film, using the phrases in the previous exercise.

49

Post - Production

Section 5
A.)

Does the film review follow the requirements of a good film review (1 5)? Explain why / why
1.

A good film review is written in mostly the present simple tense. Is that true of the review that you just
read?

....................................................................................................................................................................................
2.

A good film review gives a brief outline of the plot and characters without telling you everything. Is that
true of the review that you just read?

....................................................................................................................................................................................
3.

A good film review avoids the use of over-emphatic language like the best film ever and the greatest
acting. Is that true of the review that you just read?

....................................................................................................................................................................................
4.

A good film review provides information about the successful and unsuccessful characteristics of the
film. Is that true of the review that you just read?

....................................................................................................................................................................................
5.

A good film review highlights the strong points of the film making it worth seeing. Is that true of the
review that you just read?

....................................................................................................................................................................................

B.)

You are going to write a review of a film. Before you write your review, answer the following questions.
1.

Is the film a novel / play adaptation? How close is it to the original? Is its cinematography version better or worse than
the novel itself?

2.

Alternatively, is the film based on an original screenplay? Is it new and fresh?

3.

Are the characters convincing?

4.

Is the casting up to your expectations?

5.

Is the theme of the film successfully conveyed to the audience?

6.

Is the setting appropriate and effective?

7.

Are camera effects (texture, lighting, color, etc.) and the soundtrack effective and functional? Do they enhance the
mood, theme and setting of the film?

C.)

Make notes for your review.

D.)

On a seperate sheet of paper, write your review. Use connectors to make it clearer to read. When you
have finished, read your review to a classmate and make any corrections needed.

E.)

As a class, Read as many classmates reviews as possible. Decide which is the best review and why?
Which film would you most like to see based on the review of your classmates?

50

A.)

B.)

Post - Production

Section 6
In pairs, answer the questions below.
1.

What is the difference between a screenplay, a scene, and a sequence?

2.

How many Acts are in a typical movie?

Match the definitions with the words in the box.


Scene Sequence Screenplay Acts Beats
_________________ A sequence of continuous action in a play, movie, opera, or book.
_________________ Beats are specific, measured, and spaced to create a pace that moves the

progress of the story forward.
_________________ The script of a movie, including acting instructions and scene directions.
_________________ Perform a fictional role in a play, movie, or television production.
_________________ A set of related events, movements, or things that follow each other in a

particular order, or a part of a film dealing with one particular event or topic.

C.)

Step 1.) In groups of 2 or 3 create: 3 main Characters for a screenplay.


Include: (personal information, physical description, attitude, style, and background).

D.)

Step 2.) In your groups create 3 Acts or situations for the screenplay.
Include: (location description, event description, and situation).
Act 1) Beginning set up Act 2) Middle conflict Act 3) End resolution

Beginning

Middle

ACT 1

End
ACT 2

Setup

Conflict

Resolution

Character Setting

Move towards goal

Final Push

Plot Point

Low Point

Final Fight or Drama

Motivation Goal

Motivation Goal

Low Point

Screenplay Story Structure


E.)

ACT 3

Hero Prevails Wrap-up

Step 3.) In your groups breakdown the 3 Acts or situations into 6 Sequences.
Include: (description of action during sequence).

F.)

Step 4.) In your groups breakdown the 6 Sequences into 9 Scenes.


Include: (titles of the scenes and summery of what happens).

G.)

Step 5.) In your groups breakdown the 9 Scenes into Beats.


Include: (organization of beats and short story line).
51

Post - Production

Section 7
A.)

B.)

In pairs, discuss the questions below.


1.

What should be included in a film review?

2.

What are the most important parts of a film review for the reader?

Think of a movie that you have seen recently. Then, fill in the information about the film.
Title of the film: _________________________________________
Genre: ______________________________________
Main Character: _________________________________________

Movie Style:

Character Description:

Scenes:

Plot:

General Description:

Opinion and Recomendations:

52

Post - Production

Movie Trailers
Section 8
A.)

In pairs, discuss the questions below.


1.

What is a movie trailer and why are they made?

2.

Why are they called movie trailers?

3.

What was the best movie trailer you ever saw?

B.)
Now you are going to read about the history of movie trailers and then answer the questions that
follow.
Why short movie advertisement clips are called trailers, even though they are typically shown before the
movie.
It turns out, the first movie trailers occurred not at the beginning of the films, as they do today, but rather at the
end of the films. They were called trailers because the advertisements would be spliced directly on the end of
the reels, so that the movie advertisements film trailed the actual film.
The first known movie trailer to appear in a theater was in November of 1913. Nils Granlund, advertising
manager of Marcus Loew theaters in the United States, made it. The trailer was for the musical The Pleasure
Seekers, which was shortly to open on Broadway. In this trailer, he included short clips of rehearsals of the
musical. This idea caught on and trailers began appearing routinely after films. This was particularly the case
with cartoon shorts and serials that would often end in climactic situations where you needed to watch the next
episode in the serial or cartoon to see what would happen. Thus, these trailers, in particular that advertised the
next episode, made a lot more sense at the end of the serial or cartoon than at the beginning.
However, it didnt take long for movie studios to realize that full film advertisements would be a lot more effective
if they showed up before the movie, instead of after, and by the end of the 1930s the switch had been made.
Despite the industrys sincerest attempts over the last 60 or 70 years to get the name changed from trailers to
some form of previews, among industry professionals and English speaking audiences the world over, trailer
is still the generally used term. Although, this has begun to change very recently among the general public
when referring to trailers shown in theaters, which are now synonymously known as previews.
Trailers tell the story of a film in a highly condensed fashion that must have maximum appeal. In the decades
since film marketing has become a large industry, trailers have become highly polished pieces of advertising,
able to present even poor movies in an attractive light. Some of the elements common to many trailers are
listed below. Trailers are typically made up of scenes from the film they are promoting, but sometimes contain
deleted scenes from the film.
Most trailers have a three-act structure similar to a full feature-length film. They start with a beginning (Act 1)
that gives the set up of the story. The middle (Act 2) drives the story further and usually ends with a dramatic
climax. (Act 3) usually features a strong piece of signature music (either a recognizable song or a powerful,
sweeping orchestral piece). This last act often consists of a visual montage of powerful and emotional moments
of the film and may also contain a cast run if there are noteworthy stars that could help sell the movie.
Voice-over narration is used to briefly set up the premise of the film and provide explanation when necessary.
Since the trailer is a highly condensed format, voice-over is a useful tool to enhance the audiences
understanding of the plot. Music helps set the tone and mood of the trailer. Usually the music used in the trailer
is not from the film itself.
A cast run is a list of the stars that appear in the movie. If the director or producer is well known or has made
other popular movies, they often warrant a mention as well. Most trailers conclude with a billing block, which
is a list of the principal cast and crew. It is the same list that appears on posters and print publicity materials,
and also usually appears on-screen at the beginning (or end) of the movie. Studio production logos are usually
featured near the beginning of the trailer.

53

Post - Production

The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) mandates that theatrical trailers not exceed 2 minutes and 30
seconds in length, and each major studio is given one exception to this rule per year. There are no time restrictions
concerning Internet or home-video trailers. Rating cards appear at the head of trailers in the United States, which
indicate how closely the trailer adheres to the MPAAs standards.
A green band is an all-green graphic at the beginning of the trailer. Until April 2009, these cards indicated that they had
been approved for all audiences and often included the movies MPAA rating. This signified that the trailer adheres
to the standards for motion picture advertising outlined by the MPAA, which include limitations on foul language and
violent, sexual, or otherwise objectionable imagery. In April 2009, the MPAA began to permit the green band language
to say that a trailer had been approved for appropriate audiences, meaning that the material would be appropriate for
audiences in theaters, based on the content of the film they had come to see.
Trailers that do not adhere to these guidelines may be issued a red band, which indicates approval for only restricted
or mature audiences. These trailers may only be shown before R-rated, NC-17-rated, or unrated movies. These
trailers may include nudity, profanity or other material deemed inappropriate for children.
Types of trailers
there are different types of what we call trailers (also known as coming attractions or previews.) They include:

Theatrical - those that play in a theater

TV Spots - these play on TV (during commercial breaks)

Consumer - these are usually at the beginning of DVDs


In-store - these are created for the impulse buyer and usually

play near the DVDs that you had no idea you were about to
buy.

C.)

Answer the questions below about the text that you just read about movie trailers.

1.) What are Trailers? .........................................................................


2.) Why are they called Trailers? ......................................
....................................
3.) What are other names for Trailers?

..

4.) When was the first Trailer seen? ........


5.) What was the Trailer for? .....................................
6.) When did trailers first show up before the featured film?....................................
7.) What do trailers consist of? ........................................
....................................
8.) Why are Trailers important?.....................................
....................................
9.) Why is narration used in a Trailer?......................................
....................................
10.) What is a cast run? .....................................
11.) What is a billing block? ...................................
12.) What is the (MPAA)? .....................................
13.) What are the all-green or all-red graphics at the beginning of the trailer used for? ....
54

Post - Production

Production

Pre - Production

What did you learn?


Pre Production
A.)

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

What did you learn about the pre production process?

2.

Did you learn anything that you didnt already know in Spanish?

3.

What are the steps included in the pre production process?

4.

What job would you most like to do in the pre production process and why?

Production
A.)

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

What did you learn about the production process?

2.

Did you learn anything that you didnt already know in Spanish?

3.

What are the steps included in the production process?

4.

What job would you most like to do in the production process and why?

Post Production
A.)

In pairs, discuss the following questions.


1.

What did you learn about the post production process?

2.

Did you learn anything that you didnt already know in Spanish?

3.

What are the steps included in the post production process?

4.

What job would you most like to do in the post production process and why?

55

Pre - Production Vocabulary


Correspondent: a person employed to report for a newspaper
or broadcasting organization, typically on a particular subject or
from a particular country.

Running order: the items in a broadcast, concert, or show is


the order in which the items will come.

Live: relating to a musical performance given in concert or show


filmed, not a recording.

Wires: journalism jargon for news agency (a newswire or


wire service).
Exclusive: restricted to the person, group, or area
concerned.
DV footage: is a type of digital recorded film that works by
using a digital rather than an analog video signal.
Camera crew: a group of people hired by a production
company for the purpose of producing a film or motion
picture.
Broadcast: transmit (a program or some information) by
radio or television
Commentary: an expression of opinions or offering of
explanations explanations about an event or situation.
Coverage: the area reached by a particular broadcasting
station or advertising medium.
Newsreader: a British newscaster.
Reporter: a person who reports, esp. one employed
to report news or conduct interviews for newspapers or
broadcasts.
Researcher: is somebody who performs research,
the search for knowledge or in general any systematic
investigation to establish facts.
Director General: a chief executive or administrator of a
film or production.
Advertising: the activity or profession of producing
advertisements for commercial products or services.
PSC: Portable Single Camera: this means there is just one
cameraman / woman responsible for recording both video
and sound.
TX date: Transmission date: that is, the day the finished
program will be broadcast.
Fixer: A freelance journalist who sets up interviews and
gets permission to film on location before the crew arrives
and also acts as a translator and provides up-to-date
information.
Digibeta: This is a tape format like VHS or Beta, often
used by long-format documentaries.
SCU: Single camera unit: this means that the sound
equipment needed is just for one cameraman and reporter
with interviewees.
Daily Rates: This tells the crew how much money they
have to spend on food and minor expenses per day.
Release Forms: Legal documents that interviewees and other
56

contributors to the program sign to confirm their contributions can


be used, usually without receiving any payment.

R/V: Rendezvous: That is, to meet up with someone.


IV: is an interview.
GV: General views: a series of shots of a location that are
used to set the scene for the story.
PTC: Piece to camera: this is when a reporter speaks
directly to the viewers through the camera.
Sequence: a part of a film dealing with one particular
event or topic.
Factual: concerned with what is actually the case rather
than interpretations of or reactions to it.
Friendly: kind and pleasant.
Informal: having a relaxed, friendly, or unofficial style,
manner, or nature.
Informative: providing useful or interesting information.
Tape stock: Digibeta tapes which the camera operator
records footage onto.
Denotations: the literal or primary meaning of a word, in
contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests.
Connotations: an idea or feeling that a word invokes in
addition to its literal or primary meaning.
Screenplay: the script of a movie, including acting
instructions and scene directions.
The cast: the actors taking part in a play, movie, or other
production.
Screenwriter: a person who writes a screenplay.Director:
special effects:
Soundtrack: a recording of the musical accompaniment to
a movie.
Plot: the main events of a play, novel, movie, or similar
work, devised and presented by the writer as an
interrelated sequence.
Act: a main division of a play, ballet, film or opera.
Capital: wealth in the form of money or other assets
owned by a person or organization or available or
contributed for a particular purpose such as starting a
company or investing.
Dialogue: conversation between two or more people as a
feature of a book, play, or movie.
INT: internal shots.
VO: voice-overs
Storyboard: a sequence of drawings, typically with some
directions and dialogue, representing the shots planned for
a movie or television production.
Proposal: a plan or suggestion, esp. a formal or written
one, put forward for consideration or discussion by others.
Budget: an estimate of income and expenditure for a set

Pre - Production Vocabulary


period of time.
Expenses: the cost required for something; the money
spent on something.
Target Market: is a group of customers that the business
has decided to aim its marketing efforts and ultimately its
merchandise towards.
Requirements: a thing that is needed or wanted.
Time Frame: a period of time, esp. a specified period in
which something occurs or is planned to take place.
Schedule: a plan for carrying out a process or procedure,
giving lists of intended events and times
Meeting: an assembly of people, esp. the members of a
society or committee, for discussion or entertainment.
Advertising Brief: Document confirming understanding
between a client and an advertising agency on (1)
objectives of an advertising campaign, (2) identification
of the targeted audience, (3) strategies to be adopted in
reaching the audience, (4) the timeframe of the campaign,
and (5) its total estimated cost.
Deadline: the latest time or date by which something
should be completed.
Storyline: the plot of a novel, play, movie, or other
narrative form.
Casting: assign a part in a play, movie, or other production
to (an actor).
Rundown: an analysis or summary of something by a
knowledgeable person.
Script: the written text of a play, movie, or broadcast.
Pitch: a form of words used when trying to persuade
someone to buy or accept something.
Genre: a category of artistic composition, as in music or
literature, characterized by similarities in form, style, or
subject matter.
Hooks: a thing designed to catch peoples attention.
Logline: is a one-sentence summary of your script.
Small talk: polite conversation about unimportant or
uncontroversial matters in social occasions.
Compositing: is the combining of visual elements from
separate sources into single images, often to create the
illusion that all those elements are parts of the same
scene.
Layering: the action of arranging something in layers.
Masking: the covering up of elements that are not
required.
Keying: a technique for compositing two full frame images
together.

Production Vocabulary
Executive Producer: is often the person who found and
bought the literary property that a film is based on, such as
a novel or play. He might hire another producer to develop
the project further.
Line Producer: is the key manager during the daily
operations of a motion picture production. The title is
associated with the idea that they are the person who is
on the line on a day-to-day basis.
Production Manager: run productions on behalf of the
Producer and Line Producer. They help to determine the
most efficient and economic way to schedule shoots,
negotiate business deals for crews, locations and technical
equipment, and make day-to-day production decisions to
ensure that productions proceed smoothly.
Production Coordinator: controls and manages the flow
of information between the various components of a film
project to provide all the required components within the
time frame needed.
1st Assistant Director: is to help the Director in the
making of the film in the time allowed, dictated by the
Producer/budget - but assisting the director in such a way
as to allow them as much time as possible to concentrate
on the creative process rather than on all the practical/
organizational elements involved.
2nd Assistant Director: serves directly under the First
Assistant Director and is their right hand man. Their main
function is to ensure that all the First ADs orders and
directions are carried out.
Production Assistant: is the entry level position on a film
or television set. The production assistant does just about
anything and everything, from getting coffee, to making
script copies to shuttling crew or equipment around town
as needed.
Location Manager: is responsible for the finding and
securing locations to be used and coordinating the logistics
involved for the production to successfully complete its
necessary work. They are also the face of the production
to the community and responsible for addressing the
issues that may arise due to the productions impact on the
community.
Art Driector: is in charge of the overall visual appearance
and how it communicates visually, stimulates moods,
contrasts features, and psychologically appeals to a target
audience.
Set Dresser: is in charge of the set dressing on a film set,
which includes the furnishings, wallpaper, lighting fixtures,
and many of the other objects that will be seen in the film.
Props and set dressing often overlap, but are provided by
different departments.
DOP Director of Photography: designate a chief over the
camera and lighting crews working on a film, responsible
for achieving artistic and technical decisions related to the
image.
57

Production Vocabulary
Props Master: is an artistic and organizational employee
in a film, television or theatrical production who is
responsible for purchasing, acquiring and/or manufacturing
any props needed for a production.

LS: long shot.

Wardrobe: the department in charge of the set of clothes


appropriate for a particular occasion or scene.

BCU: big close up.

Gaffer: is the head electrician. This means that they are in


charge of all the lighting personnel.
Best Boy: is the gaffers assistant.
Key Grip: is the person in charge of all the people who
move anything.
Video Assist: is a system used in filmmaking , which
allows filmmakers to view a video version of a take
immediately after it is filmed.
Pan: swing (a video or movie camera) in a horizontal or
vertical plane, typically to give a panoramic effect or follow
a subject.
Personal mic: is a microphone worn on an individule.
Tracking shot: a camera shot in which the cameraman
follows a specific person or event in the action.
Tilt: is a cinematographic technique in which the camera is
stationary and rotates in a vertical plane (or tilting plane).
POV: point of view.
Walkie-talkie: a portable two-way radio.
Pull focus: a filming technique whereby the focal point is
drawn towards the viewer.
Windshield: protection from the wind for filming.
Technical issues: a problem with technological
broadcasting equipment preventing normal broadcast
(cameras, wires, TVs.
Lighting rig: a structure that holds the lights for a stage in
a theatre, at an outdoor concert or for filming.
Reconnoiter: make a military observation of (a region).
Sound crew: a group of people hired by a production
company for the purpose of recording and producing
sound for a film or motion picture.
To shoot: film or record a scene for a film.
Generator: a thing that generates something, in particular
like electricity.
Filters: a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter
that can be inserted in the optical path, or something
applied to an image to change the coloring or tone.
Location agency: is an agency that offers photoshoot,
filming locations.
CU: close up.
XLS: extreme long shot.
MS: medium shot or mid shot.
XCU: extreme close up.
58

MLS: medium long shot.


MCU: medium close up.
Angle of shot: The direction and height from which the
camera takes the scene.
Low angle shot: places camera below the character,
exaggerating his or her importance. An overhead shot is
one made from a position directly above the action.
Viewpoint: The apparent distance and angle from which
the camera views and records the subject.
Two shot: A shot of two people together.
Selective focus: Rendering only part of the action field in
sharp focus through the use of a shallow depth of field.
Soft focus: An effect in which the sharpness of an image,
or part of it, is reduced by the use of an optical device.
Wide-angle shot: A shot of a broad field of action taken
with a wide-angle lens.
Titled shot: also known as a canted shot. When the
camera is tilted on its axis so that normally vertical lines
appear slanted to the left or right, ordinary expectations are
frustrated.
Birds eye: looking down on the subject from above.
Eye-level: filming at eye level of the subject.
High: filming from above the subjects eye level that causes
the subject to look less important.
Canted: camera is tilted on its axis so that normally
vertical lines appear slanted to the left or right, ordinary
expectations are frustrated.
Low: filming from below the subjects eye level that causes
the subject to look more important.
Worms eye: a perspective seen from below or from a low
or inferior position.
Tilt up / down: camera angle that looks up or down at the
object being photographed.
Zoom in / out: focus in from a long-shot to a close-up.
Crab left / right: The camera moves (crabs) right or left.
Track in / out: the camera itself being moved smoothly
towards or away from the subject.
Pan left / right: to move from left to right on one pivit point.
Ped up / down: to move the camera up and down but
maintaining the same perspective.
Wide shot: to observe the most action in the performance.
Establishing Shot: showing the relationship between its
important figures and objects.
High and low angle shots: when the camera angle is
located above or below the eyeline.

Post - Production Vocabulary


Characterization: describe the distinctive nature or features
of someone or something.
Cinematography: the art of making motion pictures.
Scoring: the music composed for a movie or play.
Cinematic: having qualities characteristic of motion
pictures.
Terminology: the body of terms used with a particular
technical application in a subject of study, theory,
profession, etc.
Effects: the lighting, sound, or scenery used in a play,
movie, or broadcast.
Prints: produce (a photographic print) from a negative.
Box office: a place at a theatre, cinema, etc. where tickets
are bought or reserved.
Lease: a contract by which one party conveys land,
property, services, etc., to another for a specified time,
usually in return for a periodic payment.

Studio: a room from which television or radio programs


are broadcast, or in which they are recorded. also a place
where movies are made or produced.
Run: continue or be valid or operative for a particular
period of time.
Screenings: a showing of a movie, video, or television
program.
Trailer: an excerpt or series of excerpts from a movie or
program used to advertise it in advance; a preview.
Theatrical: of, for, or relating to acting, actors, or the
theater.
Editing: is the process of selecting and preparing written,
visual, audible, and film media used to convey information
through the processes of correction, condensation,
organization, and other modifications performed with an
intention of producing a correct, consistent, accurate, and
complete work.

Rights: entitlement, privilege, advantage, due, birthright,


liberty, authority, power, license, permission, sanction,
freedom.

59

Duoc UC

audio visual esp

English
60