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OmniScan SX \ MX2 Training Program TOFD Flaw Sizing and Characterization Chris Magruder
OmniScan SX \ MX2 Training Program
TOFD Flaw Sizing and Characterization
Chris Magruder
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview TOFD flaw sizing is performed with
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview
TOFD flaw sizing is performed with the TOFD readings group selected that allows
the length, depth, and height of a flaw to be displayed and recorded after the
operator has identified the flaw extremities on the UT axis (Depth and height) and the
scan axis. (Length)
Prior to flaw analysis and recording, the TOFD data will have been corrected for
lateral wave straightening if necessary and calibrated with one of the wizard options:
– Wedge delay.
– WD and PCS.
– Velocity and WD.
Again, the most common and
useful option is the WD and
PCS option.
It is highly recommended that
either the data base velocity is
used or a 1X velocity
measurement using pulse echo
technique is made and recorded
for future inspections of the
same series of welds.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview cont. A flaw’s extremities are defined
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview cont.
A flaw’s extremities are defined for depth, height and length by the box created with
the cursors on the scan and UT axis of the TOFD B-scan.
After TOFD calibration the UT axis ruler and cursors are displayed with the A-scan
time value in usec and linearized depth value in mm.
Additionally, the scan axis parabolic cursors are available and used to assist in length
sizing accuracy.
The overwhelming trend among entry level TOFD operators is to oversize flaws.
Be conservative and practice.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview cont. During the group set up
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview cont.
During the group set up wizard the TOFD readings for flaw sizing and recording were
automatically selected and displayed in the OmniScan header.
Readings lists are organized by application and contain 8 readings each that will be
displayed in the header and recorded in the indication table and OmniScan report.
The list of 8 readings is displayed in two groups of 4 readings each that can be
toggled by touching the readings area of the OmniScan header.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview cont. The TOFD group readings will
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Sizing Overview cont.
The TOFD group readings will display the position of each cursor on the B-scan and
the delta between them to identify the flaw depth, height, and length for recording.
Any of the 8 individual readings can be changed or put in another order by a touch
and hold or right mouse click on the reading, select reading, and replace from the
available options.
Select reading list = a group of
8 readings relative to the
application.
Select reading = replacing 1 of
the current 8 readings
displayed.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing TOFD flaw length sizing is accomplished
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing
TOFD flaw length sizing is accomplished with the vertical cursors on the horizontal
scan axis of the B-scan. (Scan axis ruler is blue and represents the probe
movement)
– S(r) = Scan axis position of the red reference cursor. ( Flaw start position = 265mm)
– S(m) = Scan axis position of the green measure cursor. (Flaw end position = 283mm)
– S(m-r) = Delta between the scan axis reference and measure cursor. (Flaw length = 18mm)
Reference
Measure
S(r)
S(m)
cursor
cursor
Slag
Data cursor
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing cont. Again, precision placement of the
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing cont.
Again, precision placement of the cursors on the scan axis of the B-scan for flaw
length sizing is dependent on the operator doing it accurately and greatly improved
by use of the parabolic cursors.
The overwhelming trend of flaw length sizing by junior TOFD inspectors is to over
size flaws. Be conservative and validate the TOFD sizing technique on EDM notches
and flaws of known size in weld samples.
There is no mathematic or
software solution that will
predict results or validate
TOFD system hardware,
probes, and setup better than
experimentation on EDM
notches of known length and
depth in the same weld bevel
and process as the welds to be
inspected.
Reference
Measure
cursor
cursor
Data cursor
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing cont. Question: What is the flaw
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing cont.
Question: What is the flaw length sizing accuracy in a typical TOFD inspection?
Answer: Normally the best case scenario is approximately +/- 2mm. (.080 inches)
In >Scan>Area>Scan Resolution the default value is 1mm. This parameter
determines the interval that the TOFD A-scan is recorded in the data file as the
scanner is moved. The position is represented by the data cursor on the blue
horizontal ruler on B-scan.
With a 1mm inspection
resolution, a 1mm error is
possible on both sides of the
flaw resulting in a +/- 2mm
length sizing tolerance by
expert user.
Reference
Measure
cursor
cursor
Data cursor
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing cont. Question: What is the minimum
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Length Sizing cont.
Question: What is the minimum inspection resolution that can be entered in
>Scan>Area>Scan Resolution? (OmniScan default 1mm)
Answer: Theoretically the minimum resolution is the distance equivalent to 1 step of
the encoder.
If using a standard Olympus quadrature encoder with a 12 step resolution, that
distance would be .08mm. (1mm \ 12 steps = .08mm)
However 1mm scan resolution
is sufficient for most codes and
standards including ASME, EN
and API.
Use of .5mm resolution will
provide slightly better results
and double the size of the data
file.
Reference
Measure
cursor
cursor
Data cursor
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont. TOFD flaw depth sizing is
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont.
TOFD flaw depth sizing is accomplished with the horizontal cursors on the UT axis of
the A-scan and B-scan. (UT axis is magenta and represents the UT range)
– TOFD(r) = UT axis position of the red reference cursor. (Flaw start = 19.89mm)
– TOFD(m) = UT axis position of the green measure cursor. (Flaw end position = 21.38mm)
– TOFD(m-r) = Delta between UT axis reference and measure cursor. (Flaw height = 1.5mm)
Reference cursor
TOFD (r)
Slag
Measure cursor
TOFD (m)
Data cursor
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont. From any data view such
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont.
From any data view such as the A-scan or B-can, a touch and hold on the touch
screen or right mouse click in any area free of gates or cursors allows cursor to be
repositioned.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont. Cursors can be displayed or
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont.
Cursors can be displayed or hidden in the options menu on the interactive title bar.
Tap or click the cursor to activate it and the current position is displayed in the upper
left corner of the OmniScan. Use the Rotary knob or mouse wheel to reposition.
In the example below, the green UT axis measure cursor is active, flashing, and its
position of 11.65 usec is displayed in the upper left corner of the display.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont. When the TOFD group is
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont.
When the TOFD group is calibrated the UT axis cursor values are displayed in both
usec and TOFD corrected true depth. The process is called TOFD A-scan
linearization.
The cursor values can be displayed or hidden by selecting the overlay option in
>Display>Overlay>Cursor>Values.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont. Question: What is the smallest
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont.
Question: What is the smallest defect that can be detected using a 10MHz TOFD probe?
The minimum detectable defect in any ultrasound application including TOFD is generally
defined as a defect in size equal to ½ the wave length of the probe.
A flaw in size equal to ½ the wave length will be exposed to the peak sound pressure of either
the negative or positive pulse cycle at least 1X resulting in detection.
Distance = Velocity X Time (5890 meters\second X 50 nanoseconds = .3mm)
Answer: .3mm is theoretically the smallest defect a 10MHz probe can detect under favorable
conditions.
The smallest detectable defect is
also limited by factors that affect
signal to noise ratio such as steel
quality, weld process, weld
procedure, flaw location in
relation to beam focus, up-front
engineering to include UT
optimization and TOFD validation
using EDM notches and
embedded flaws of known size.
.3mm in carbon steel
(10MHz probe)
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont. Question: What is the smallest
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont.
Question: What is the smallest defect that can be detected using a 5MHz TOFD
probe?
½ the wave length of a 5MHz probe is 100 nanoseconds.
Distance = Velocity X Time (5890 meters\second X 100 nanoseconds = .6mm)
Answer: .6mm is the theoretical smallest defect that can be detected by a 5MHz
probe under favorable conditions.
Actual results depend on many other factors specific to the weld bevel and process.
.6mm in carbon steel
(5MHz probe)
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont. Question: What is the smallest
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Depth Sizing cont.
Question: What is the smallest defect that can be detected by a 2.25MHz TOFD
probe?
½ the wave length of a 2.25MHz probe is 222 nanoseconds.
Distance = Velocity X Time (5890 meters\second X 222 nanoseconds = 1.3mm)
Answer: 1.3mm is the theoretical smallest defect that can be detected by a 2.25MHz
probe under favorable conditions, and the more cycles that are exposed to the flaw,
the better the probability of detection and sizing accuracy.
1.3mm in carbon steel
(2.25MHz probe)
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization Flaw characterization is defined as the ability
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization
Flaw characterization is defined as the ability to identify the flaw type based on failure
mechanism or weld flaw type.
TOFD flaw characterization can be divided into two general groups:
– Planer flaws. (Lack of fusion, inadequate penetration, cracks, etc.)
– Volumetric flaws. (Slag, porosity, tungsten inclusion, excessive penetration, etc.)
TOFD detects sharp reflectors or emitters best. Higher probability of detection and more precise
sizing accuracy is possible on planer flaws.
Planer flaws such as lack of fusion are most likely to be missed by RT, and best detected by
TOFD or pulse echo UT.
Volumetric flaws such as porosity are most likely to be missed by TOFD or pulse echo UT, and
best detected by RT.
Planer flaw - Lack of fusion detected in the lateral wave
Volumetric flaw - Slag detected in the weld volume
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization cont. Flaws that are connected to the
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization cont.
Flaws that are connected to the inner or outer surface are considered more critical
and in some codes such as ASME have a different acceptance criteria.
A flaw connected to the inner surface will disrupt the back wall signal.
Planer flaw – crack connected to the inside pipe diameter
Lateral wave
Back wall
Shear wave
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization cont. A flaw connected to the outer
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization cont.
A flaw connected to the outer surface will disrupt the lateral wave signal.
Flaws connected to the outside of the pipe or vessel are more difficult to detect than
flaws connected to the inside surface and when multi zone TOFD inspections are
configured, the cap group will use 70 degree 10-15MHz probes as close to the weld
as possible for a shallow focus to optimize near surface detection.
Planer flaw – EDM notch on outside vessel diameter weld toe disrupts the lateral wave
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization cont. A flaw connected to the outer
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization cont.
A flaw connected to the outer surface will disrupt the lateral wave signal.
Flaws connected to the outside of the pipe or vessel are more difficult to detect than
flaws connected to the inside surface and when multi zone TOFD inspections are
configured, the cap group will use 70 degree 10-15MHz probes as close to the weld
as possible for a shallow focus to optimize near surface detection.
Planer flaws – EDM notch and embedded flaws to validate TOFD weld cap coverage
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File TF_25mm_TOFD.Opd The TOFD Data files used
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File TF_25mm_TOFD.Opd
The TOFD Data files used to in this presentation can be loaded on the OmniScan or
OmniPC.
TF_25mm_TOFD.Opd has a straightened lateral wave and no calibration. Upon
successful calibration using the PCS and WD wizard, the PCS should be 58mm +/-
1mm and the WD 5.9usecs +\- .25usec.
TF_25mm_TOFD_Calibrated.Opd has a straightened lateral wave and is calibrated
for PCS and WD.
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #1 No factor more than
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #1
No factor more than location should weigh heavier for characterizing flaws. Flaw 1
pictured below occurs at 12mm of a 25mm double V weld indicating inadequate root
penetration with clear upper and lower flaw extremity detection and phase inversion
in the B-scan.
Note that although the flaw is in the middle of the weld at 12mm deep it appears in
the upper 1/4 th of the TOFD B-scan.
TF_25mm_TOFD_Calibrated.Opd Flaw #1 – Inadequate penetration
Flaw start position (Sr): 112mm
Flaw stop position (Sm): 132mm
Flaw length (Sm-r): 20mm
Flaw upper tip (TOFDr): 11.43mm
Flaw lower tip: (TOFDm): 13.96mm
Flaw height (TOFDm-r): 2.53mm
ID\OD\Embedded?: Embedded
Detected in shear wave?: Yes
Flaw type: Inadequate penetration
Accept\reject?: Reject
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #2 No factor more than
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #2
No factor more than location should weigh heavier in characterizing the flaw. Flaw 2
pictured below occurs in the lower 1/3 of the weld where probability of detection and
sizing accuracy is highest.
Without the use of supplemental pulse echo UT is not possible to know in the TOFD
data on which side of the weld the lack of fusion occurs.
Flaw start position (Sr): 197mm
Flaw stop position (Sm): 227mm
Flaw length (Sm-r): 30mm
Flaw upper tip (TOFDr): 18.76mm
Flaw lower tip: (TOFDm): 23.04mm
Flaw height (TOFDm-r): 4.28mm
ID\OD\Embedded?: Embedded
Detected in shear wave?: Yes
Flaw type: Side wall lack of fusion
Accept\reject?: Reject
TF_25mm_TOFD_Calibrated.Opd Flaw #2 – Side wall lack of fusion
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #3 The flaw is contained
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #3
The flaw is contained within one weld pass of a SMAW weld rod.
There is no distinguishable upper and lower tip as in the previous planer flaws.
Multiple diffracted signals without clear phase inversion emitted from the sharp
reflectors of the slag line.
The flaw was confirmed with phased array to be not connected to the ID.
Flaw start position (Sr): 265mm
Flaw stop position (Sm): 283mm
Flaw length (Sm-r): 18mm
Flaw upper tip (TOFDr): 20mm
Flaw lower tip: (TOFDm): 22.03mm
Flaw height (TOFDm-r): 2.03mm
ID\OD\Embedded?: Embedded
Detected in shear wave?: Yes
Flaw type: Slag
Accept\reject?: Reject
TF_25mm_TOFD_Calibrated.Opd Flaw #3 – Slag
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #4 The flaw upper extremity
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #4
The flaw upper extremity is detected well and sized with precision.
There is little supporting data in the TOFD group that the flaw is connected to the
inside diameter of the pipe.
Supplemental phased array inspection was performed to confirm crack is connected
to the ID and on the skew 90 side of the weld line just off the weld toe.
Flaw start position (Sr): 323mm
Flaw stop position (Sm): 340mm
Flaw length (Sm-r): 17mm
Flaw upper tip (TOFDr): 21.63mm
Flaw lower tip: (TOFDm): ID connected
Flaw height (TOFDm-r): 3.37mm
ID\OD\Embedded?: ID connected
Detected in shear wave?: Yes
Flaw type: ID crack
Accept\reject?: Reject
TF_25mm_TOFD_Calibrated.Opd Flaw #4 – ID crack
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #4 cont. Phased array inspection
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Companion Data File Flaw #4 cont.
Phased array inspection confirmed the crack is connected to the ID and on the skew
90 side of the weld line just off the weld toe.
TOFD is normally a complementary technique that will improve depth, height, and
length sizing but does not have any easily comparable standard based on amplitude
for flaw acceptance.
TOFD is a pure TOF (Time of flight) application and unlike pulse echo UT or phased
array, the amplitude of the flaw cannot be trusted in determining its severity or size.
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization – OD Toe Crack The crack disrupts
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization – OD Toe Crack
The crack disrupts the lateral wave and the lower tip is detected.
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization – Lack of Root Fusion The crack
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization – Lack of Root Fusion
The crack disrupts the lateral wave and the lower tip appears in the A-scan.
Note the upper and lower diffracted signals from the flaw extremities
Because it is one continuous flaw, the two signals are out of phase.(+-+, -+-)
In phase signals (+-+, +-+) would typically indicate separate non-connected
flaws.
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization – Inadequate Penetration Inadequate penetration is detected
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD – Flaw Characterization – Inadequate Penetration
Inadequate penetration is detected above the back wall signal.
Note the phase inversion between the lateral wave (-+-) and the inadequate
penetration signal above the back wall. (-+-)
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Side Wall Lack of Fusion Shallow side
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Side Wall Lack of Fusion
Shallow side wall lack of fusion is detected.
Note the upper extremity of the lack of fusion signal is in the lateral wave.
Note two separate out of phase signals typical of side wall lack of fusion.
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Cluster Porosity Cluster porosity is detected in
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Cluster Porosity
Cluster porosity is detected in the weld volume resulting in multiple diffracted signals.
Porosity is typically the weld flaw most likely to be missed by UT pulse echo or TOFD
and use of higher frequency probes will improve the probability of detection and
sizing accuracy.
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Concave Root Note separation in back wall
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Concave Root
Note separation in back wall signal without phase inversion.
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Inter pass Non Fusion Interpass non fusion
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Inter pass Non Fusion
Interpass non fusion typically does not have sufficient height for a clear upper and
lower tip extremity in the TOFD data.
Interpass non fusion is not typically detected by pulse echo UT or RT and can
generate many small low amplitude indications in the TOFD data that are difficult to
characterize with certainty.
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OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Movie
OmniScan SX \ MX2 TOFD Flaw Characterization – Movie
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