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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijrefrig

G.C.J. Bart*, K. Hanjalic

Section Thermal and Fluids Sciences, Applied Physics Department, Delft University of Technology,

PO Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands

Received 26 July 2001; received in revised form 8 July 2002; accepted 21 August 2002

Abstract

A procedure is presented for obtaining a shape factor for transient heat conduction in arbitrary objects for which no

analytical solution exists. Such a shape factor is the dominant parameter in the prediction of heat transfer processes.

The procedure has been applied and compares favourably with other existing methods. Some data is given for transformation between the dierent parameters that are in use to describe shape or geometry, including those for an

equivalent one-dimensional object.

# 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Heat transfer; Convection; Geometric factor

transitoires de conduction

Mots cles : Transfert de chaleur ; Convection ; Geometrie

1. Introduction

For prediction of cooling, heating, freezing or thawing processes shape factors are often used. Many dierent definitions of shape factors do exist in literature. An

extensive overview can be found in the reference work

of Cleland [1] and a practical example in the ASHRAE

handbook [2].

The shape factor for a particular object can be defined

as the ratio of process time for a slab and that object. In

such a case, the shape factor not only depends on the

geometry of the object, but also on other thermal properties and the boundary conditions. The shape factor

can then be dierent for cases with and without change

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +31-15-278-6061; fax: +3115-278-1204.

E-mail address: g.c.j.bart@tn.tudelft.nl (G.C.J. Bart).

of the object.

Another possible definition, used by Martin [3], Fikiin

and Fildin [4] and Fikiin [5], is based on X S/V, with S

the surface area, V the volume and X the shortest distance from the centre of the object to the surface.

In this paper, we follow the well-known procedure

where the shape factor is proportional to the characteristic time constant of the slowest eigenfunction of the

cooling or heating problem with temperature independent thermal properties and boundary condition of the

first kind. Size was universally defined by the volume to

surface area ratio V/S. In such a way the shape factor

becomes a purely geometric parameter. The shape factor

is used for classification or ranking of the shapes of different objects. No attempt will now be made here, as has

been done before [6], to predict the course of the heat

transfer process itself.

0140-7007/03/$30.00 # 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

PII: S0140-7007(02)00079-8

Nomenclature

A

Bi

E

F

fshape

Fo

L

Nu

q

rc

R

S

t

T

(hT i)

T0

V

x

x0

X

Z

Biot number, dimensionless

equivalent heat transfer dimensionality,

dimensionless

spatial variable in temperature, dimensionless

shape factor, dimensionless

Fourier number, dimensionless

length (m)

Nusselt number, dimensionless

heat flux (W m!2)

radius of curvature (m)

radius (m)

surface (m2)

time (s)

temperature (K)

mean temperature (K)

surrounding temperature (K)

volume (m3)

coordinate (m)

coordinate, dimensionless

length (m)

Bessel function, dimensionless

Greek symbols

#

heat transfer coecient (W m!2 K!1)

$

zero of Bessel function, dimensionless

G

geometric factor, dimensionless

l

thermal conductivity (Wm!1 K!1)

%

parameter for geometry, dimensionless

&

coordinate, dimensionless

!

temperature, dimensionless

'

time, dimensionless

Subscripts

i

internal

pen

penetration

r

relative

z

z-direction

When the analytical solution for transient heat transfer with boundary condition of the first kind is known,

the shape factors can easily be rated. In this way, values

for rectangular parallelepipeds and finite cylinders are

readily available. It has been shown for such common

objects [6,7], that the thermal response, i.e. mean

enthalpy as a function of dimensionless time, is quite

similar for objects having the same shape factor and the

same characteristic size.

361

Once the shape factor of an object is known its thermal response can be obtained by using the thermal

response of another object with the same shape factor

and known thermal response. For instance, the thermal

response of an ellipsoid can be replaced by the thermal

response of an equivalent rectangular parallelepiped. In

addition, procedures exist [8,9] for a direct and simple

estimation of the thermal response of an arbitrary object

by using the shape factor or the closely related internal

Nusselt number as a parameter. However, the accuracy

of these methods has not yet been fully assessed.

In this paper we present a geometrical interpretation

of the shape factor and derive a method to assess shape

factors of convex objects for which an analytical solution does not exist. The results are compared with other

methods for arbitrary shapes, available in the literature

[1012].

Finally, a procedure is outlined to formulate a onedimensional finite dierences object with arbitrary

shape factor. As indicated by Fikiin [5], such an object

can save considerable computing time in comparison

with the corresponding multidimensional solution.

If the volume to surface area ratio, V/S, is used as

length parameter in dimensionless numbers the short

time thermal response for an arbitrary object with initial

temperature T1 and boundary temperature T0 is given

by:

r

hTi ! T1

Fo

1

h! i 2

"

T0 ! T1

Thermal response here is mean temperature hTi or

mean dimensionless temperature h!i as function of

dimensionless time Fo. This answer is found from the

solution in the semi-infinite one-dimensional space that

is presented in many standard text books on heat conduction. It is also called penetration theory solution and

is shape independent here because V/S is used as length

parameter.

For long times the temperature decay is exponential

and can be written as:

"

#

1 ! h!i / exp !fshape "2 Fo=4

2

A few characteristic thermal responses, obtained by

the complete analytical solutions given in the textbooks,

are given in Fig. 1. In accordance with Eq. (1) the four

cases coincide for Fo!0. Between the short time and

long time solution the thermal response behaves

smoothly. It turns out that the thermal response is well

fixed, when the size, V/S, and the shape factor, fshape,

are known for an arbitrary object. This holds both for a

362

q #i hTi ! T0

plate thickness, as length parameter obscures the fact

that the internal Nusselt number can be interpreted as a

simple physical quantity for shape. For this reason, it

seems to be advantageous to use V/S as length parameter in Nui;1 .

This has been done in the long-time Nusselt number

for Bi!1, as defined and used by Yilmaz [10]:

Nu1;1

6#i V 3"2

fshape

lS

2

dimensionality for Bi!1 used by Lin et al. [12]

$ %2

3

SX

E1 fshape

6

4

V

condition of slab (a), infinite cylinder (b), sphere (c) and

cube (d) with the volume to surface-area ratio V/S as a length

parameter in the dimensionless time Fo.

external heat transfer coecient boundary condition.

It is clear that a shape factor, based solely on X S/V,

will not be adequate in all cases. For both sphere and

cube X S/V=3, but, as can be seen in Fig. 1, the two

objects have dierent thermal responses.

With the choice for shape factor and size made here,

there is no need for an extra shape factor for small Biot

numbers. For Bi!0, transient heat transfer is described

by the so-called lumped analysis that can be found in

many textbooks on engineering heat transfer. The only

geometrical parameter in this lumped analysis is the

volume to surface area ratio, V/S.

2.1. Relation of fshape to other parameters

The shape factor, fshape, as defined by Eq. (2), is simply related to the internal long-time Nusselt number

Nu1,1 based on length parameter X as defined in Section Ec of the VDI-Warmeatlas [3]:

Nui;1

#i X " 2

SX

fshape

l

V

4

object that relates, for constant boundary temperature

T0, the heat flux at the boundary q and mean driving

temperature interval:

can be considered as a mixed physical quantity depending on two dierent definitions for shape.

A better standardization in definitions and nomenclature will be beneficial for international cooperation

between researchers in this field.

In an earlier publication [6] the shape factor fshape has

been formulated and determined, see Table 1, for different objects with readily available analytical solution,

e.g. slab, rectangular parallelepiped, finite full cylinder,

sphere and hemisphere. Additional information for

more elaborate cases as, for example, finite hollow

cylinders is also available [7].

2.2. Interpretation of shape factor

Once the shape factor has been found for many differently shaped objects, e.g. the data given in Table 1, an

attempt can be made to understand which parameters of

the geometry determine the shape factor. First, it can be

noticed that sphere and cube, with heat fluxes directed

to a single point, have a lower shape factor than infinite

cylinder or infinite square rod, where heat fluxes are

directed to a line. The highest shape factor is found for

the infinite slab, with heat fluxes directed to a flat plane.

It can be concluded that the dimensionality of the heat

transfer process is an important parameter.

Further, cube (fshape=0.3333) and infinite square rod

(f

=0.5) have

lower shape factor than sphere

shape

"

#

fshape 0:4444

respectively

infinite

cylinder

(fshape=0.5859). So, apparently also the smoothness of

the outer surface plays a role. Both eects, dimensionality and smoothness, can be taken together in a single

statement or interpretation. The more, after initial

penetration, heat fluxes entering from the outer surface

have to concentrate or to converge the lower the shape

factor becomes.

Table 1

Characteristic size V/S and shape factor fshape for dierent

objects

Object

V/S

fshape

1

1

Ly

1

Lx2

L12 L12

y

z

'2

1

1

1

Lx

Ly

Lz

Rectangular parallelepiped:

dimensions: 2 Lx, 2 Ly, 2 Lz

1

Lx

Lz

R/2

2:40482

"2

Sphere: dimension: R

R/3

4/9=0.4444

L1z

&

1/2

Cube: dimension: 2 Lz

Lz/3

1/3

2 Lz

1

Lz

2 R/9

2

R

1

Lz2

0:5859

4'2:4048

"2 R 2

&

'2

1

2

Lz R

0.404

363

problem is to find a suitable combination of values for (

and rc that gives an optimal correlation between Spen =S

and the shape factor. Therefore dierent: combinations

of values for ( and rc have been tested with help of the

shape factor known from analytical solutions given in

Table 1.

Finally we found that (=0.15 V/S and rc=0.14 V/S

are a suitable combination correlating well the surface

area ratio Spen/S with the shape factor. This correlation

is presented in Fig. 3 for a wide variety of rectangular

parallelepipeds, finite cylinders, sphere, hemisphere,

infinite cylinder and slab.

The following second order polynomial least squares

fit makes it possible to calculate the shape factor from a

surface area ratio:

s

$

% !

Spen

fshape 6:9948

1 1:773333

! 0:827480 ! 1

S

7

The accuracy of such a calculation can be estimated

from Fig. 3 as follows:

!fshape < 0:01 for fshape & 0:9

The interpretation of shape factor can be used to

develop a procedure for evaluating the shape factor for

those cases where an analytical solution is not available.

This means that a measure for the degree of convergence of the heat fluxes has to be found.

This has been done, see Fig. 2, by constructing an

artificial surface area within the object. This artificial

surface area can be seen as a representation of an isothermal surface during the heat transfer process. The

internal surface is at distance ( from the boundaries of

the original object, but sharp corners are rounded o

with a radius of curvature rc. In this way the area Spen of

the internal surface is aected both by the dimensionality and the smoothness of the original object. The

ratio Spen/S now can be seen as a measure for the con-

Fig. 2. Rectangular parallelepiped with inner isothermal surface with pentration depth ( and radius of curvature rc.

!fshape & 0:05 for fshape & 0:4

a dierent procedure for assessing Spen may come up

and produce better correlation between fshape and Spen/

S, especially when shape factors smaller than 1/3 are considered. The distinct outlier in Fig. 3 that originates from

the case of the hemisphere, is an indication for this. The

reason for choosing a rather small value for ( comes from

shape factor, fshape.

364

grows together with (. However, at the end of the

process, (!X, and consequently both rc!0 and Spen/

S!0. Then Spen/S no longer bears information on

shape. With small ( we stay at the save side.

The method is not very sensitive towards errors,

because Spen is found only from S by a purely mathematical procedure. Modern laser scanning techniques

[13] can produce the coordinates of the surface S for

arbitrarily shaped objects. Spen can then be found by

mimicry of the heat diusion process, e.g. a perpendicular penetration of the object followed by a smoothing

procedure of the surface thus obtained.

"Lz 2Lz2

1

V

2R 3R 2

Lz

S

"Lz 2Lz2

1

2

R

R

11

S

2Lz Lz "R=2 R 2

12

classical shapes, infinite plate, infinite cylinder and

sphere, can be approximated with proper choice of

length parameters.

4.3. Comparison with two other methods

The estimation method for shape factor fshape as

described in this paper is not the only one available.

Comparisons are here presented with results obtained

by Lin et al. [12] and Yilmaz [10]. For that purpose we

have chosen an object for which no data is available in

literature. It has the shape, see Fig. 4, of dierent kind

of food products, e.g. sausages, Frankfurter, Hamburger, Gouda cheese.

4.1. Description of rounded o cylinder

For the limit Lz =R ! 0 the rounded o cylinder has

spherical shape with radius R and for Lz =R ! 1 the

rounded o cylinder should get infinite cylinder properties.

$

%

S 2

1

1

9

V R

2 3Lz =R

$

%$

%

Spen

(

(

1!

1!

10

R

R Lz

S

cylinder and rounded o disk can be combined into a

single graph if these results are presented as a function

of the aspect ratio A, being defined as the ratio of the

overall height over the overall width. Then for the

rounded o cylinder with A51 the shape factor will

gradually vary from fshape=0.4444 for the spherical

shape with A=1 till fshape=0.5859 when the shape

approaches infinite cylindrical shape for A!1. For the

rounded o disk with A41, values for shape factor are

expected between fshape=0.4444 for the spherical shape

and fshape=1 when shape approaches the infinite slab

for A!0. This behaviour is confirmed in the curves

presented in Fig. 5. The solid line represents results

obtained by the method described in this paper. Results

of Lins [12] equivalent ellipsoid model with the conservation of area-volume approach ^ and with the

dimensional measurement approach + together with

results of Yilmazs [10] model & are also shown in

Fig. 5. All proposed models behave well for the classic

shapes of infinite plate A!0, infinite cylinder A!1

For the limit Lz =R ! 1 the rounded o disk

approaches the properties of the infinite plate and for

Lz =R ! 1 the rounded o disk gets spherical shape.

o disk (Gouda-cheese shape) in a cylindrical coordinate

system.

cylinder as a function of the aspect ratio, A, (overall height to

overall width). The solid line represents results obtained by the

method proposed. It is compared with shape factors obtained

by the models of Lin (+, ^) and Yilmaz (&).

aspect ratio, A, (overall height over overall width). The solid

line represents exact results from the analytical expression. It is

compared with shape factors obtained by the model of Lin (+,

^) and Yilmaz (&) and the proposed method (').

and sphere A=1. Both models of Lin show some nonsmooth behaviour for aspect ratios between 0.1 and 1

and produce somewhat conflicting results for aspect

ratios about 1. The model of Yilmaz behaves strange

about aspect ratio 1 and shows severe deviations from

the other models for aspect ratios about 0.1. An additional independent reference is therefore needed, for a

reliable judgement of the accuracy of dierent methods.

Hence, we carried out the same procedure for the case

of a finite cylinder, for which an exact analytical

expression for the shape factor is available, see Table 1.

The results were collected in Fig. 6. The estimation

method developed in this paper always produces values

of the shape factor that are within 0.01 from the values

found with the exact analytical expression. All other

models show larger deviations. Especially the minimum

and the behaviour about the minimum are better predicted by the estimation method described in this paper.

The dierences between the exact analytical solution

and the models of Lin and Yilmaz can be seen in Fig. 6,

while the dierences between our model and the models

of Lin and Yiimaz could be estimated from Fig. 5.

These data suggest that in general the model we developed gives quite reliable results. The model seems to

behave smoothly and no big dierences with exact

solutions have been found until now.

5.1. Geometry

The surface area ratio is constant for an infinite slab,

a linear function of radial position for an infinite cylinder and a quadratic function of radial position for a

sphere. This can be generalized, see also Fig. 7, by the

following equation for the surface area ratio.

365

2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0. Each line ends at the horizontal axis as

xS/V=v.

$

%

Sx

xS v!1

1!

S

vV

13

v $

0

1!

xS

vV

%v!1 $ %

xS

1

d

V

14

area distribution for plate, cylinder and sphere respectively are found from this equation. For arbitrary values

of % we formulated an object for which the unsteady

heat transfer process can be described with a onedimensional diusion equation.

5.2. Dierential equation

With x0 =x S/V and '=at S2/V2 the transient heat

conduction in a one-dimensional object with area distribution according to Eq. (13) can be described by the

dierential equation

$

%

@T @2 T

x0 !1 v ! 1 @T

02 ! 1 !

@' @x

v @x0

v

15

and by

#

separation of variables T F&exp !$2i ' the following ordinary dierential equation of the SturmLiouville type is found for the spatial variable part

&2 F 00 v ! 1&F 0 $2i &2 F 0

16

given by

F &1!v=2 Z v=2!1 $i &

17

366

described by Eqn. 13 as a function of parameter v, calculated

from analytical (solid line) and numerical solutions (& means

5, + means 20 and ^ means 80 control volumes).

of parameter v found via $1 "+1=X S/V as proposed by

Fikiin and Fikiin [4].

As expected, the well-known equations and solutions

for plate, cylinder and sphere are obtained for v=1, 2

and 3 respectively. For the given boundary condition

@T

@& =0 for &=0 only Bessel functions of the first kind

are allowed. From the second boundary condition, F=0

for & v, the relation between ) and $i can be found.

Easily available computer algebra software e.g. MAPLE

can do this. Having the smallest eigenvalue $i the shape

factor becomes:

obtained for dierent combinations of the two aspect

ratios. Comparing these results with Fig. 8 shows that

" 6 v ! 1. It is however expected that objects having the

same value for " will show a similar thermal response,

but apparently this is not the case. In this example "

solely depends on the parameter X S/V and that seems

to be inappropriate. However, as mentioned by Fikiin

[14], better expressions for " could be derived.

The important progress made here, is that the shape

factor fshape now is linked to the parameter ) and to the

one-dimensional representation S(x, v)/S. For a given

geometry, first the shape factor has to be determined.

Then with the one-to-one relation between shape factor

fshape and parameter v, presented in Fig. 8, the parameter % of the equivalent one-dimensional object can be

obtained. As this equivalent object has the same surface

area S as the original two- or three-dimensional object,

it will show a similar short time behaviour. The smallest

eigenvalue being the same for the two objects takes care

of a similar long time behaviour. Once having a onedimensional finite-dierence representation of an arbitrary object, simulations for time-varying boundary conditions, non-constant thermal properties and change of

phase can also be carried out. Transient thermal conduction can then be described by a simple tridiagonal matrix.

If thermal properties are constant, the thermal response

estimation requires only one iteration for each time step

in an implicit scheme. Further research has to be done to

assess the accuracy of such simulations.

fshape

2

$1

"

%2

18

fshape and parameter v is shown in Fig. 8.

If we make a finite-dierence model of the onedimensional shape, the lowest elgenvalue of the matrix

equations and also the shape factor not only depend on

%, but also on the number of control volumes. This

eect can also be seen from Fig. 8. A number of 20

control volumes seems to be sucient to represent the

lowest eigenvalue well.

A one-dimensional unsteady dierential equation of

the type of Eq. (15) with parameter " instead of % ! 1

has also been described by Fikiin [5], where " is called

geometrical factor. In his paper Fikiin pays attention to

the savings in computing time for a finite-dierence

solution of unsteady heat transfer in a one-dimensional

object as compared with two or three-dimensional objects.

In an earlier paper Fikiin and Fikiin [4] present procedures

to calculate the geometrical factor " for various shapes,

giving the possibility to assess the relationship between

shape factor fshape and geometrical factor ".

Results of this exercise for the case of arbitrary parallelepipeds are presented in Fig. 9. The shape of an

parallelepiped can be described by two aspect ratios.

6. Conclusions

( A relatively accurate method was developed for

assessing the shape factor of irregular objects.

( Better intuitive understanding and interpretation of shape factor were acquired.

( In Section 2.1 equations were presented to connect dierent existing parameters from literature, which define the geometry of an object.

( An equivalent one-dimensional artificial object

was defined that is described with a parameter %.

A graph was presented that gives the relation

between parameter % and shape factor fshape.

References

[1] Cleland AC. Food refrigeration processes, analysis, design

and simulation. London: Elsevier Applied Science; 1990.

[2] Parsons RA, editor, 1998 ASHRAE handbookrefrigeration: SI-edition. Altanta: American Society of Heating,

Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc, 1998.

[3] Schlunder E-U, editor, VDI-Wameatlas, Berechnungsblatter fur den Warmeubergang. Dusseldorf: VDI, Verlag,

1988.

[4] Fikiin KA, Fikiin AG. Mode`le numerique du refroidissement de matie`res alimentaires et dautres corps solides de

forme geometrique variee. Int J Refrig 1989;12(4):22431.

[5] Fildin KA. Solution numerique generalisee du proble`me

de la conduction thermique dans les solides de diverse

configuration lors dun refroidissement convectif. Int

J Refrig 1992;15(4):2216.

[6] Bart GCJ. Estimation of freezing or chilling behavior. Int

J Refrig 1998;21(1):5563.

367

process of finite hollow cylinders. In: Hahne EWP, Heidemann W, Spindler K, editors. 3rd European Thermal Sciences Conference 2000, vol. 1, 1013 September 2000.

Eurotherm, Edizioni ETS, Pisa: Heidelberg; 2000. p. 1038.

[8] Martin H, Saberian M. Improved asymptotic approximations

for transient conduction and diusion processes. Chem

Eng Processing 1994;33(4):20510.

[9] Cuesta FJ, Lamua M. Asymptotic modelling of the transient regime in heat conduction in solids with general

geometry. J Food Eng 1995;24:295320.

[10] Yilmaz T. Equations for heating and cooling of bodies of

various shapes. Int J Refrig 1995;18(6):395402.

[11] Lin Z, Cleland AC, Cleland DJ, Serrallach GF. A simple

method for prediction of chilling times for objects of two

dimensional irregular shape. Int J Refrig 1996;19(2):95106.

[12] Lin Z, Cleland AC, Cleland DJ, Serrallach GF. A simple

method for prediction of chilling times: extension to three

dimensional irregular shapes. Int J Refrig 1996;19(2):10714.

[13] Crocombe JP, Lovatt SJ, Clarke RD. Evaluation of chilling time shape factors through the use of three-dimensional surface modelling. In: Proceedings of the 20th

International Congress of Refrigeration, vol. IV, Sydney,

2023 September 1999. Paper 353.

[14] Fikiin KA. Generalized numerical modelling of unsteady

heat transfer during cooling and freezing using an

improved enthalpy method and quasi-one-dimensional

formulation. Int J Refrig 1996;19(2):13240.

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