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Module 1:Introduction
Lecture 2:Introduction to Mechanical Modifications
The Lecture Contains:

Mechanical Modification

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Module 1:Introduction
Lecture 2:Introduction to Mechanical Modifications
Mechanical Modification
Major aim of compacting soil

Increase shear strength.

Reduce compressibility.
Reduce permeability.

Reduce liquefaction potential.


Control of swelling and shrinking.

Prolong durability.

Steps for optimizing densification process

For Human construction fills , specify placement conditions (water content ,density ,depth of layers
etc)
Select appropriate equipment roller, vibro compaction ,tamping. Method of compactor
patterns of tamping
Set up adequate control procedures.

shallow surface compaction


Types of compaction
Deep surface compaction

Shallow surface compaction


Achieved by static pressure and or dynamic pressure caused by impact or vibration.
Rollers used

Static Rollers

Impact or vibratory Equipments

Smooth steel rollers and


pneumatic tired rollers

Tamper, rammers and plate compacters

Sheepfoot rollers

vibrating rollers

Grid rollers

Impact rollers

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Module 1:Introduction
Lecture 2:Introduction to Mechanical Modifications
Mechanical Modifications
Applicability of compaction Equipment
Equipment

Most suitable soils

Typical application

Smooth Wheel rollers static

Wellgradedsand,gravel

Running Surface, based coarse Uniform sand

or vibrating

mixtures, asphalt

Rubber tired rollers

Coarse grained soils with

Road and Airfield subgrade

fines
Grid rollers

Weatheredrock well graded


coarse soils

Least suitable soils

Coarse, uniform, cohesion less


soils

Subgrade, Sub base

Clays silty clays

Sheep foot rollers:


Static

Fine grained soils with more than 20%


fines

Dams embankment

Vibrating

Sand gravel mixtures

Subgrade Layers

Vibrating plate

Course grained soils 4 to 8% fines

Small Patches

Tamper and rammers

All type

Difficult access area

Impact roller

Wide range of moist and saturated soil

Subgrade earthwork

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Clean coarse grained soils

Cohesive soils

Dry,cohesionless soils

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Module 1:Introduction
Lecture 2:Introduction to Mechanical Modifications
Mechanical Modifications
Production Rate:
Assists in the selection of the most economical compaction equipments.

Where

P = production rate,
B = drum width,
E = efficiency
S = rolling speed. Km/h
T = Layer thickness, m
N = number of passes

Deep compaction Techniques:


Densification of deep soil is achieved by the following techniques.

Precompression: Pre loaded by means of a surcharge on the surface in an array of


boreholes, causing a ground to consolidate.
Explosion: Explosives are detonated on the surface in an array of boreholes causing a loose
soil structure to collapse.

Heavy tamping: A large mass is dropped in to the ground surface, causing compaction and
possibly long term consolidation.

Vibration:

compaction grouting

Densification is achieved by a vibratory probe or piles.

Mechanical Modification
Explosion:
Explosion of charges on the ground surface or in deep boreholes causes shear stresses in the soil which
break
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down the soil structure resulting in a reorientation of soil particles and subsequent volumetric compression.
Excess pore pressure and settlement due to explosion are related to the ratio

If
little or no liquefaction occur.It is used to estimate a safe distance from the
explosion.
According to Barendson and Kok (1983) the ratio of excess pore pressure, U over the effective
overburden pressure

as well as the ratio of surface settlement h to the height h of soil larger affected

by explosion,are related to h of the soil layer affected by explosion ,are related to

Statistical Analysis of field results :

and

According to Barendson and Kok(1983), for optimum densification

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is required.

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Module 1:Introduction
Lecture 2:Introduction to Mechanical Modifications
Applications
Netherlands:
A charge equivalent to 10 kg of TNT was used is each of the 15m deep hole, speed 16m apart.
Use of about 100g of TNT

of soil.

Heavy Tamping:
The depth D in meters to which heavy tamping is effective can be determined by

W = Mass of the falling wt in metric tons


H = ht of fall in meters
Degree of soil improvement peaks at a critical depth

Maximum depth of influence D.

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