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Contribuii la determinarea, prin metode nedistructive, a caracteristicelor mecanice

la materialele ortotrope
Conductor tiinific
Prof. univ. dr. ing. SZVA Ioan

Doctorand
JAKAB Katalin

Rezumat
n contextul dezvoltrii accelerate a cercetrii n domeniul ingineria materialelor, o direcie
reprezentativ se refer la determinarea ct mai exact a caracteristicelor mecanice aferente materialelor
ortortope. Lucrarea de doctorat se nscrie n aceast direcie, avnd ca obiectiv principal stabilirea ecuaiilor
matematice n care intervin caracteristicele de material, msurarea acestor caracteristici prin metode
nedistructive, iar prin metoda diferenelor finite, compararea datelor msurate cu cele calculate analitic. n urma
analizei critice a stadiului actual s-a ajuns la concluzia c nu exist referiri la modul schimbrii direciilor
principale ale tensiunilor i deformaiilor specifice, cnd n timpul solicitrii planul de ortotropie nchide diferite
unghiuri cu direcia fundamental. n determinarea ct mai exact pe cale experimental a caracteristicilor
mecanice ale materialelor ortotrope pe baz de lemn au fost utilizate dou metode de investigare: metoda
tensometriei electrice rezistive (TER) i metoda corelrii digitale a imaginii (DIC). Pentru metodologia de
investigare DIC a fost elaborat un program de concepie proprie, cu care au devenit posibile efectuarea unor teste
pentru verificarea i validarea msurtorilor prin TER. A fost conceput i realizat un stand de ncercare destinat
monitorizrii deformaiilor epruvetelor solicitate la compresiune. n cercetrile experimenatle s-au folosit
epruvete din diferite specii lemnoase avnd forma unui disc cu diametrul de 80 mm i grosimea de 10 mm.
Metoda numeric propus n modelarea materialelor ortotrope a fost metoda diferenelor finite. Astfel a fost
prezentat o metod de calcul cu diferene finite pentru integrarea ecuaiilor difereniale cu derivate pariale care
descriu starea plan de deplasare sau de tensiune a materialelor ortotrope, respectiv o rezolvare numeric
bazndu-se pe criterii energetice.

Contributions to evaluate the mechanical characteristics of orthotropic materials


by NDT methods
Summary
In the context of accelerated research growth in the field of material engineering, a representative
direction refers to the more exact determination of mechanical characteristics regarding orthotropic materials.
The thesis aims in this direction, with the following main objectives: to determine the mathematical equations in
which the characteristics of the material intervene; to measure these characteristics by non-destructive methods;
and to compare the measured data with those analytically calculated using the finite difference method. After a
critical analysis of the state of the art, it was concluded that there are no references to the changes of the main
directions of the principal stresses and strains, the orthotropic plane closes different angles with the fundamental
direction when a load is applied. In order to determine experimentally the accurate orthotropic mechanical
characteristics of wood-based materials there have been used two methods to investigate: the method based on
Rosette Gage Theory (TER) and the Digital Image Correlation method (DIC). A new conception program was
developed for the DIC investigation methodology, by which it became possible to conduct tests to verify and
validate the measurements made with the TER method. A testing device was developed and realized exclusively
for specimens which require compressive deformation monitoring. Identical specimens of different species of
wood were prepared and used as samples. The samples were cut parallel to the wood fibers and cut into
specimens having the shape of a disc with a diameter of 80 mm and a thickness of 10 mm. The numerical method
proposed in modelling orthotropic materials was the finite-difference method. Thus a finite-difference
computational method for the integration of differential equations was presented with partial derivatives which
describe the plane state of displacement or stress of the orthotropic materials, respectively numerical solution
based on energy criteria.