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About NavCad

NavCad is for the prediction and analysis of vessel speed and power

performance. It also provides for the selection of suitable propulsion system

components engines, gears and propellers. NavCad can be used for the design

and analysis of virtually any type of monohull or catamaran from large

displacement vessels to fast planing craft.

In this Evaluation Demo Guide, you can find:

How to get started with the HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Step by step resistance and propulsion example

Explanations of data entry screens and fields

Description of features in teh full commercial version of NavCad

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

All rights reserved. No parts of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or

mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems - without the

written permission of the publisher.

Products that are referred to in this document may be either trademarks and/or registered trademarks of the

respective owners. The publisher and the author make no claim to these trademarks.

While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document, the publisher and the author assume no

responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of information contained in this document

or from the use of programs and source code that may accompany it. In no event shall the publisher and the author be

liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or

indirectly by this document.

Contents

Table of Contents

Part I What Can I Do With The NavCad Demo?

1 Demo Limitations

................................................................................................................................... 8

10

1 Getting Around

...................................................................................................................................

NavCad

10

2 Toolbar Guide

................................................................................................................................... 11

3 Configuring

...................................................................................................................................

NavCad Options For First Use

12

16

1 Step 1 - Beginning

...................................................................................................................................

a New Project

16

2 Step 2 - Make

...................................................................................................................................

a Task List

16

3 Step 3 - Setting

...................................................................................................................................

Units for the New Project

17

4 Step 4 - Enter

...................................................................................................................................

Condition Data

17

5 Step 5 - Enter

...................................................................................................................................

Hull Data

18

6 Step 6 - Enter

...................................................................................................................................

Appendage Data

19

7 Step 7 - Build

...................................................................................................................................

a Resistance Prediction

21

8 Step 8 - Select

...................................................................................................................................

the Bare-Hull Prediction Method

21

9 Step 9 - Enter

...................................................................................................................................

Remaining Prediction Parameters

22

10 Step 10 - ...................................................................................................................................

Run the Resistance Prediction

22

11 Step 11 - ...................................................................................................................................

View and Save Graphs

23

12 Step 12 - ...................................................................................................................................

Create Custom Graphs

24

13 Step 13 - ...................................................................................................................................

View and Print Reports

25

14 Step 14 - ...................................................................................................................................

Define the Propulsor

25

15 Step 15 - ...................................................................................................................................

Configure a Propulsion Analysis

26

16 Step 16 - ...................................................................................................................................

Run the Propulsion Analysis

27

17 Step 17 - ...................................................................................................................................

Create Engine Data

27

18 Step 18 - ...................................................................................................................................

Propeller Sizing

28

19 Step 19 - ...................................................................................................................................

Review the Propulsion Analysis

29

20 Step 20 - ...................................................................................................................................

Closing NavCad

31

34

1 Export Propeller

...................................................................................................................................

CAD Shape

34

2 Resistance

...................................................................................................................................

Parameter Influence

34

38

1 HydroComp

...................................................................................................................................

Common Format Files

38

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

40

1 Vessel

................................................................................................................................... 40

Holtrop

.......................................................................................................................................................... 40

44

1 Symbols ...................................................................................................................................

and Values

44

48

1 Blade Scan

...................................................................................................................................

Analysis

48

2 Catamaran

...................................................................................................................................

Interference

48

3 Custom Bow

...................................................................................................................................

and Stern Shape Coefficients

48

4 Confidence

...................................................................................................................................

Plots and Benchmark Vessels

49

5 Drag Reduction

................................................................................................................................... 50

6 Dynamic ...................................................................................................................................

Stability

50

7 Dynamic ...................................................................................................................................

Trim

51

8 Effect of Initial

...................................................................................................................................

Trim

51

9 Hydroacoustic

...................................................................................................................................

Analysis

51

10 Oblique Flow

...................................................................................................................................

Correction

52

11 Planing Station

...................................................................................................................................

Estimate

53

12 Propeller ...................................................................................................................................

Cup

53

13 Propeller ...................................................................................................................................

KTKQ Corrections

53

14 Propeller ...................................................................................................................................

Sizing By Thrust

54

15 Propulsor...................................................................................................................................

Options

55

16 Propulsor...................................................................................................................................

Type for Planing

56

17 Shallow Water

...................................................................................................................................

Sinkage and Trim

56

18 Sizing Gear

...................................................................................................................................

Ratio and BAR

56

19 Spray Drag

................................................................................................................................... 57

20 Submarine/SWATH

................................................................................................................................... 57

21 Synchronous

...................................................................................................................................

Pitching

57

22 Tunnel Thruster

...................................................................................................................................

Sizing

58

23 Vessel Prediction

...................................................................................................................................

Methods

58

Index

62

0

Part

I

What Can I Do With The

NavCad Demo?

This demo of NavCad is functional, but limited to a small set of prediction methods and features.

However, most screens are accessible for your review, so you should investigate those capabilities

which you require.

1.1

Demo Limitations

The following table lists the subset of the full NavCad capabilities which are available in the demo:

Available in the demo

Monohulls

Catamarans

prediction

towed nets or barges; supplemental

calculations

and appendage resistance, and hullpropulsor interaction coefficients (e.g.,

wake fraction)

others from tankers to small fast craft,

including semi-displacement and full

planing)

Prediction technique

Defined techniques (incorporating your

own individual model tests)

Defined analyses

(CRP) propellers

B Series propellers

Kaplan variants) and other propulsors

(surface-piercing propellers, waterjets,

cycloidal propellers, user-defined

propulsors)

ratio with no series corrections

BARs, series corrections (including shaft

angle effects)

Sub-cavitating performance

drag

Part

II

Getting Started

10

Getting Started

This chapter provides an overview on the operation of NavCad, including a tutorial example. It is

intended to allow you to investigate the entire interface, calculation procedures, and output.

2.1

NavCad is based on two principal view modes Resistance and Propulsion. Each of these two

mode pages contains data entry tables, a summary results table, project management aids, graphs

and reports.

At the top of the window is the Main menu (File, Edit, etc.) containing the many menu commands

which bring up data entry forms and launch calculations. Immediately underneath is the Toolbar

with buttons for frequently-used commands. To the left of the screen are the Resistance mode

analysis parameters and Propulsion mode analysis parameters, as well as a Task list. In the

center of the screen are the various Vessel parameters tables. To the right is the Graphs and

reports window. At the bottom is the Performance summary spreadsheet.

Note: A Toolbar Guide is found in the next section of this chapter. This guide describes the function

of each button.

The Analysis parameters entry table (left side) is specific to the mode Resistance or Propulsion.

These analysis parameters are always shown to allow for quick entry and revision, and rapid recalculation.

The Vessel parameters entry table (center) changes depending upon the selected data set

Condition, Hull, Appendage, Environment, Margin, or Propulsor.

Getting Started

11

A graph of the current job results is always displayed. A different graph is shown depending upon

the analysis mode (e.g., for Resistance calculations, the graph might show RBARE bare-hull

resistance, for Propulsion it might be PBTOTAL total brake power). The currently displayed graph

will be updated after a calculation.

Task list

A user-definable Task List is available to help with project management. A variety of standard task

lists are available as initial templates.

Performance summary

A Performance summary spreadsheet shown at the bottom of the NavCad screen holds the active

performance analysis results. The values shown in the summary are different for Resistance and

Propulsion modes, and all of the results are updated on every calculation. This insures that all data

and results are properly related to their equilibrium resistance-propulsion relationships.

NavCad contains a context-sensitive help system that is attached to the various windows and fields.

It contains program guides and technical information useful for the successful operation of the

program. Pressing F1, the Help toolbar button, or any Help button on a form will display the help

screen.

Within the Help menu are particular topics that may be of general interest. These items describe the

interface commands and menu selections.

2.2

Toolbar Guide

The toolbar enables quick access to frequently-used tasks. The first section holds File handling

buttons. The second group selects the Calculation mode Resistance or Propulsion. The Edit and

Calculate groups follow. Graph file handling buttons are followed by Graphing and Reporting

buttons. The last group holds the Help button.

File handling

New project creates a new NavCad job file.

Open project opens a previously saved NavCad job file.

Save project saves the current NavCad job file.

Calculation mode

Mode: Resistance enables the resistance analysis mode.

Mode: Propulsion enables the propulsion analysis mode.

Data editing

Units opens the unit and formatting entry window.

Show as coefficients toggles between units and coefficients for the current entry

table.

Edit condition data opens the condition edit entry table.

12

Edit hull data opens the hull edit entry table.

Edit appendage data opens the appendage edit entry table.

Edit environment data opens the environment edit entry table.

Edit margin/towed barge/towed net data opens the misc edit entry table.

Edit propulsion data opens the propulsion edit entry table.

Calculate resistance analysis / Calculate propulsion analysis performs a resistance

or propulsion analysis (depending on the selected Calculation mode). Note: When

the button background is red it signifies that the results shown are not current with

the data. A calculation is needed to display the correct results.

Edit results mode enabled/disables the editing of Performance summary

(described in the Edit Results Toolbar section that follows).

Show sensitivity analysis Performs and displays the results of a sensitivity

analysis.

Graph Choose between the an active Graph: single or Graph: multiple which

displays a custom-defined graph, or one of a selection of pre-defined graphs.

Graph options choose variables for the x and y axis on the graph. Choose other

data to display on the graph including a legend and data from other NavCad project

files.

Save graph save the currently displayed graph as an image file.

Report Choose what type of results are displayed. Choose between Report:

Results report, Report: Data and results report or the Report: Active graph in report

format.

Save report save the currently displayed report as a pdf file.

Print toolbar

Page setup set print page size, margins and orientation.

Print report prints the currently displayed report.

Help

Help opens the NavCad help file.

2.3

Before the first use of NavCad, it is recommended to set up a few standard options. These options

pertain to customization, computer specifications, and localization. Click Tools | Options... from the

menu to set up your program options.

Getting Started

13

Interface

This group sets standard interface options.

Theme

Choose the color theme that you prefer Silver, Sky, or Forest.

Reports

Configure how your reports will be prepared in this group.

Prepared by

Enter your name or company name.

Symbols page

You can choose to Show or Omit the standard results symbols page in each report.

Default layout

Set up your selection of report page size Letter/Portrait, A4/Portrait or User defined. You can

use the User defined option to set up other orientations.

Email

Reports can be packaged directly to an email, so you can set up email messaging details here.

(Error and warning messages can also be forwarded to an email.)

Messaging

This is the description of the messaging protocol supporting your email program. There are

three principal email setting options, all based on MAPI email messaging MAPI/Control, MAPI/

Direct, and MAPI/CDO that support most popular Windows email programs (e.g., Outlook,

Outlook Express, Thunderbird, Windows Live Mail). You can choose your preferred email

setting in the Page setup. (Note: They may also be set by the application program). Click the

Find... button to let NavCad identify and test which protocol is recommended.

Notes: MAPI/CDO is for Microsoft Outlook only, and it requires the CDO.DLL system file

(v1.21 or newer). This DLL file is not always installed with Windows or Outlook, so if you

need this file, you can download it from Microsoft. A MAPI "Profile" is required for this

feature. Most email programs will establish a Profile without special setup by the user.

Resolve name

This is an optional setting that is required by some email programs. If the email messaging in

NavCad is not functioning properly, you can try changing this setting.

15

Part

III

A General Example

16

A General Example

This chapter is an multi-step introduction to the operation of NavCad. The example uses data for a

78 m fast monohull vessel.

3.1

Run NavCad and you will see

the main screen.

Click on File | New

project (or the

associated toolbar icon)

to start a new project.

various program functions, and will be a good introduction to

the operation of NavCad. A resistance prediction, as well as a

propeller selection and analysis of a fast displacement vessel is

used to demonstrate a typical job session.

by clicking on File | Save

project, or by pressing Ctrl+S

or clicking the Save project

toolbar button.

File name = enter Fast78m.nc5

3.2

Set up a task list for this project

by right-clicking the first cell in

the Task list. Select New, then

Yes to see the pre-set lists.

Select the Standard speed

prediction as the task list

template for this project.

Use the Task lists to help establish "best practices" for your use

of NavCad.

for you, check the Create new

project line in the Task list to

indicate that this task is

finished. As you proceed

through this tutorial, check off

the tasks as they are

completed.

A General Example

3.3

17

Open the units entry

window by clicking Edit |

Units from the menu

or the corresponding

toolbar icon.

dimensional units and report formatting. Each job may require

that you select different units, but we will use SI (metric) units

for this example.

to SI (metric). Then click OK to

continue.

3.4

Define speeds and water

parameters by clicking

Edit | Condition from

the menu (or with the

corresponding toolbar

button).

Enter or select the following

data in the Condition window:

Project ID: = Sample tutorial

Description: = Fast 78 m

round-bilge vessel

Scope: = select ITTC-78 (CT)

Configuration: = select

Monohull

Chine type: = Round/multiple

Length on WL: = 78.05

Displacement: = 1859.4

Propulsor type: = select

Propeller

Count: = select 2

Water type: = select Salt

Speeds = enter 6, 8, 10, 12, 14,

16, 18, 20 and 22

Design speed: = select 20

enter complete condition and vessel data, then use this data to

predict resistance per your particular design requirements.

18

3.5

Click Edit | Hull data

from the menu, or the

toolbar button.

Enter or select the following

data in the Hull data window:

analysis. This screen is used to enter information about your

hull. The data is parametric meaning that the shape is

described by individual numerical values (such as length or

displacement) rather than by three-dimensional geometry.

Configuration: = select

Monohull

Chine typ:e = select Roundbilge

Length on WL: = 78.05

Max beam on WL: = 11.5

Max molded draft: = 4.25

Displacement: = 1859.4

Wetted surface: = omit for now

LCB fwd TR: = 38.58 (forward

transom)

LCF fwd TR: = 0 (unknown)

Click Show as

coefficients toolbar

button to allow nondimensional entry.

Max section area: = 0.771 [CX]

Waterplane area: = 0.765

[CWP]

Click the button again to return

to dimensional editing.

suppose we have data for Max section area and Waterplane

area in coefficient form (CX, CWP). The Show as coefficient

toolbar button toggles between dimensional and nondimensional entry.

Bulb ctr below WL: = 0

Bulb nose fwd TR: = 0

Transom area: = 14.8

Transom beam WL: = 0

(unknown)

Transom immersion: = 0

(unknown)

Half entrance angle: = 11.4

Bow shape factor: = click and

select 0 (average flow)

Stern shape factor: = click and

select -1 (buttock flow)

All data is now entered, except

the Wetted surface. We will let

NavCad suggest an estimate

for this item.

data items. It provides you with the corresponding range of hull

parameters for each estimate to help insure that you select the

most suitable choice.

next to the Wetted

surface field. Choose

the Holtrop estimate.

Click OK to enter this

value into the field.

A General Example

19

located next to it can be

estimated using a documented

method.

3.6

Click Edit | Appendage

data or the

corresponding toolbar

button.

Enter or select the following

data about the Shafting for this

craft:

Count: = select 2

Max prop diameter: = 0 (we can

ignore propulsion details for

now)

Shaft angle to WL: = 10 (an

estimate)

Exposed shaft length: = 0

(unknown)

Shaft diameter: = 0 (unknown)

Wetted surface: = 13

Strut bossing length: = 0

(unknown)

Bossing diameter: = 0

(unknown)

Wetted surface: = 8.4

Hull bossing length: = 0

(unknown)

Bossing diameter: = 0

(unknown)

Wetted surface: = 6.9

The following details about a

single Strut are entered for this

craft:

Count: = select 1

Root chord: = 0

Tip chord: = 0

Span: = 0

T/C ratio: = 0

Projected area: = 0

Wetted surface: = 5.5

Exposed palm depth: = 0

Exposed palm width: = 0

The following details about the

the added drags. Appendage drag can be a significant portion of

the total drag.

20

Rudders are entered or

selected:

Count: = select 2

Rudder location: = select

Behind propeller

Type = select Balanced foil

Root chord: = 2.58

Tip chord: = 1.79

Span: = 3.87

T/C ratio: = 0.15

LE sweep: = 0

Projected area: = 0 (unknown)

Click the estimate button

located next to the

Wetted surface field.

Choose the ChordSpan-Thick calc

estimate, then click OK

to bring this value into

the field.

The following Skeg/Keel data

are entered for this craft:

Count: = select 1

Type: = select Skeg

Mean length: = 0 (unknown)

Mead width: = 0 (unknown)

Height aft: = 0 (unknown)

Height mid: = 0 (unknown)

Height fwd: = 0 (unknown)

Skeg projected area: = 0

(unknown)

Skeg wetted surface: = 58.5

This particular vessel does not

have Stabilizers:

Count: = select 0.

Enter the following about Bilge

keels:

Count: = select 2

Mean length: = 0

Mean base width: = 0

Mean projection: = 0

Wetted surface: = 35.3

The ship has no Tunnel

thrusters:

Count: = select 0.

Nor does it have Sonar domes:

Count: = select 0.

No Miscellaneous appendages

are defined:

Count: = select 0.

A General Example

3.7

21

Configure the Resistance

prediction parameters (in the

left-most table):

Vessel drag: = select Calc (to

tell NavCad that you want to

predict the bare-hull drag)

This will enable other fields.

(Note: Other options are to set

this to Off to clear the data, or

Lock to keep user-entered

data.)

Once all of the data is entered for the condition, hull and

appendage, you can build a resistance prediction. (With the full

commercial version of NavCad, you would also consider drag

for wind, seas, even shallow water.)

(to use a prediction algorithm)

(Note: Other options allow you

to select a resistance

calculation technique based on

an Aligned prediction, to

Scale from test, or expressly

entered Defined data, such as

from a model test.)

Prediction: = Click the popup

button to display NavCad's

"Method Expert" selection table.

Continue to the next section.

3.8

Continue with the selection of

the bare-hull resistance

prediction method by reviewing

the recommendation provided

by the Method Expert window.

NavCad has indicated that the

Holtrop method meets all of

the parameters. It also points

out that the method "may

underpredict for hulls with

significant immersed transom

area". Keep this in mind as you

proceed through the example!

Click Help if you would like to

see additional details about the

method, and close the help

window when you are through.

Select the Holtrop method and

then click OK to close the

window.

can help you determine which of the many prediction methods

can provide the highest reliability and success. The ranking

evaluates a variety of characteristics, from principal vessel

characteristics to speed range to hull details. These assessments

are supplemented by subjective comments based on information

from NavCad users and industry experts. It also applies

HydroComp's extensive knowledge about the various methods'

behavior. Warnings are raised if a particular method has shown

poor results for vessels of the type you have entered.

22

Method - the name of the prediction method

Speed - a speed regime ranking

Hull - a primary hull data ranking (for principal size and shape

parameters)

Details - a ranking of available hull data details (such as bulb or

immersed transom)

Parameters - the parameters for a specific method and the

current project values, valuable for direct comparison

Notes - important considerations

3.9

To define these parameters to

be used in the prediction, enter

or select the following data:

Expansion: = select Standard

(this set full compliance to the

ITTC-1978 protocol)

Friction line: = ITTC-57

(standard)

Hull form factor: = select On

(standard); then click the popup

button and choose the Holtrop

[ITTC57] estimate

Speed corr: = On (for a speeddependent form factor

correction)

Spray drag corr: = Off

Corr allowance: = standard set

Roughness: = Off

of additional parameters for the bare-hull prediction method, and

to define what additional drag methods you wish to use (e.g.,

appendages). (In many cases, you would also consider drag for

wind, seas, even shallow water.)

for this example is

Appendages.

Appendage: = select Calc, then

click the popup button and

choose Holtrop (Viscous

Form) method.

3.10

Once all of the data is entered

for the hull, appendages, and

prediction parameters, you can

build a resistance prediction.

Once you have entered all data and defined how you want the

prediction calculation to proceed, you can run the analysis.

Click Analysis |

Calculate: Resistance

A General Example

23

toolbar button.

You will see that the button

background had turned red to

indicate that the results do not

correspond with the data. In

other words, something about

the data or parameters have

changed, and a new calculation

is needed.

Expand and contract the

Performance Summary with

the Expand button. (This is the

plus-sign [+] in the upper right

corner of the spreadsheet.) The

highlighted row is the Design

speed., which is also shown

when the spreadsheet is

contracted.

You can also shift between

result groups with the Previous

and Next buttons.

Perform a sensitivity

analysis by clicking

Analysis | Parameter

influence... or the

corresponding toolbar

button.

You can view the entire resistance prediction results - including

all of the coefficients - from within this table. Changes to results

can be made from within the table when Edit results mode is

enabled. (This is only available in the full commercial version.)

Sometimes you may have a hull that does not fully comply with

any prediction method, where some parameters of the hull may

be outside method's range. The Parameter influence analysis

evaluates the "influence" of each hull data item.

click OK to continue.

3.11

Click on any header in the

Performance Summary

spreadsheet to quickly change

the graph. For example, click

on CR under the ITTC-78

COEFS group. This will change

the graph to CR vs. SPEED.

results. The graph is constantly updated using the most recently

calculated data.

24

Save the graph as a

JPEG or BMP image file

by clicking Tools | Save

graph as... or the

corresponding toolbar

button.

3.12

Create a custom graph

by clicking Tools |

Graph | Multiple or the

corresponding toolbar

button (in the dropdown

list).

prediction by displaying a "potential minimum" or "best

possible" drag for vessels of an appropriate type. In this

example, the plot is showing a "best possible drag" line for

High-Speed Round-Bilge Displacement Hulls (HSRBDH Min).

multiple plot mode, and launch

a Graph options dialog for

creating and formatting a

variety of custom graphs.

If the Graph options

dialog is not displayed,

then you can open it by

clicking Tools | Multiple

graph options... or the

toolbar button.

For this example, investigate

the [Confidence] graph by

selecting it from the Presets:

field. Click OK to display the

confidence plot.

this method to underpredict drag for hulls with substantial

immersed transom? This is another validation of that tendency.

Your design response would typically be to add a margin to the

prediction to account for this tendency.

A General Example

3.13

25

Generate a

report with

Tools |

Report | Data

and results

from the

menu, or

dropdown and

click the

associated

report button

from the

toolbar.

NavCad generates all reports via an integrated "report viewer". Reports can

viewed, printed, and saved as a PDF or CSV file.

layout options can

be changed through

Tools | Options... in

the menu.

Additional

formatting,

such as for

margins, can

be made by

clicking the

report viewer

page button.

3.14

Click Edit | Propulsor

from the menu, or click

the toolbar button.

An initial propulsion analysis for

this example will use a

representative stock propeller

with no consideration of engine

or reduction gear - just to

evaluate efficiencies and

powers.

So, select or enter the

following:

Count: = 2 (for twin screw)

Propulsor type: = Propeller

series

Propeller type: = select FPP

Propeller series: = select B

Series

different types of propellers and waterjets. The specifications of

the propulsor and the power delivery are described here.

26

Propeller sizing: = select No

sizing

Blade count: = select 4

Expanded area ratio: = 0.55

Propeller diameter: = 3000

Propeller mean pitch = 3000

Hub Immersion = 1950

Engine file: = ignore for now

Gear efficiency: = 0.97

Gear ratio: = 1 (setting this to 1

simply makes the engine RPM

equal to the required shaft

RPM)

Shaft efficiency: = select 0.98

estimate

Oblique angle corr: = set Off

Propeller cup: = 0.0

KTKQ corrections: = Standard

3.15

Select View |

Propulsion mode from

the menu, or click the

corresponding toolbar

button to activate this set

of calculations.

with a propulsion analysis. The first part of this analysis will run

calculations for a pre-defined propulsion system. Then you will

have an opportunity to optimize your propeller.

prediction parameters:

Hull-propulsor: = select Calc (to

tell NavCad that you want to

predict the wake fraction, thrust

deduction and relative-rotative

efficiencies)

This will enable other fields.

Technique: = select Prediction

(to use a prediction algorithm)

(Note: The other options are

similar to Resistance - Aligned

prediction, Scale from test,

or Defined.)

Prediction: = Click the popup

button to display NavCad's

"Method Expert" selection table.

Select Holtrop.

Max prop diam: = 3000 (mm)

Viscous scale corr: = select On;

then select Standard

Additional System analysis

parameters to be set are:

Cavitation criteria: = 10% cav

line

A General Example

27

3.16

Click Analysis |

Calculate: Propulsion

from the menu, or the

toolbar button.

You can now review the

analysis results in the

Performance summary

spreadsheet, as well as view or

print any reports or graphs.

3.17

Towing, Fixed RPM, Acceleration, and Defined. The objective

of each analysis is to find the RPM that meets the analysis

objectives. For example, in a Free run analysis, the resulting

RPM is the one which provides just the right delivered thrust to

match the total resistance at each speed.

Click the Engine data dropdown

list button and select Click to

define... to launch the engine

data editor.

Select or enter the following

Properties:

Description: = Engine 3000 kW

at 1000 RPM

Set Units as:

Power: = select [0.0] (format)

and kW

Fuel rate: = select [0.00]

(format) and L/h

The engine Parameters are:

Max (rated) power: = 3000

Max (rated) RPM: = 1000

Enter the following

combinations of RPM, Power

and Fuel for the MAX POWER

select an engine, and the analysis results will . Review PBPROP

(brake power per prop) in the ENGINE group and RPMPROP

(propeller RPM) in the POWER DELIVERY group to help

determine required engine power and to point you to a reduction

gear. For this example, you will define a 3000 kW engine.

28

CURVE:

1100

1

1

1050

3000

753

1000

3000

753

890

2793

696

790

2487

616

680

1788

443

530

1034

263

420

686

178

The 1100 RPM point is the "no

load" point of the governor limit.

Enter the following

combinations of RPM, Power

and Fuel for the DEFINED

LOAD CURVE:

1000

3000

753

890

2793

696

790

2487

616

680

1788

443

530

1034

263

420

686

178

The Defined Load Curve is

where you would enter typical

"prop curve" data, or a CPP

combinator line.

You can save this data and

build your own library of engine

files by using the Import and

Export button. Export the file

as Example.engn.

Click OK to use the data for this

project.

3.18

Click Edit | Propulsor

from the menu, or click

the corresponding

toolbar button.

Enable propeller sizing for the

analysis:

Propeller sizing: = By power

representative propeller and have selected a main engine, you

can refine the propulsion system by sizing the propeller (and

optionally the reduction gear ratio). This step will allow you to

find the best propeller diameter and pitch for your application.

Propeller sizing is

conducted as part of the

propulsion analysis, so

click Analysis |

Calculate: Propulsion

from the menu, or the

toolbar button.

The Propeller sizing window

will be displayed. In the window

enter the following data:

Gear ratio: = select Keep and

A General Example

29

enter 4

Expanded area ratio: = Keep

and enter 0.55

Propeller diameter: = Size

Propeller mean pitch: = Size

The propeller will be sized for

the following Design condition

:

Max prop diam: = 3000

Design speed: = 20

Reference power: = Click the

estimate button, and select the

engine's Rated power value

Design point: = Click the

estimate button, and select

100% MCR

Reference RPM: = Click the

estimate button, and select the

Rated RPM value

Design point: = select 100%

rated (to size for full rated

RPM)

Click the Size button and

review the results. Click OK to

update the propeller data with

the new results.

3.19

The Propulsion analysis is

completed upon closing of the

Propeller Sizing window. The

engine and propeller matching

can be further evaluated

graphically.

Create a custom graph

by clicking Tools |

Graph | Multiple or the

corresponding toolbar

button (in the dropdown

list).

If the Graph options

dialog is not displayed,

then you can open it by

clicking Tools | Multiple

graph options... or the

toolbar button.

Select the [Engine load] from

the the Presets: field. Click OK

to display an engine-propeller

plot. This plot displays the

demand overlayed with the

groups - HULL-PROPULSOR, ENGINE, EFFICIENCY,

POWER DELIVERY, CAVITATION, and PROPULSOR COEFS.

In particular, look for results that have notice symbols, such as

"!!". These indicators are explained in the Symbols and values

page of the report (typically the last page).

30

engine's power curve.

Define Benchmark vessels for

reference by clicking Tools |

Propulsion analysis |

Benchmark vessels.

benchmark vessels. These benchmark points provide compatible

system-level comparisons to known ships.

1:

Description: = Diving support

Length on WL: = 84.75

Displacement: = 2950

Speed: = 18

Installed brake power: = 7100

Power margin: = 10

And for Ship 2:

Description: = Fisheries

research

Length on WL: = 75.2

Displacement: = 2520

Speed: = 20

Installed brake power: = 9200

Power margin: = 0

Check one final plot to insure

that the prediction is sound.

Open the Graph options

dialog by clicking Tools |

Multiple graph

options... or the toolbar

button.

predicted speed-power is reasonable and reliable. The

representative minimum power line plus the Benchmark vessels

indicate that the power may be just a bit too optimistic.

However, we already knew that the bare-hull resistance was

expected to be somewhat low, and the use of a resistance margin

to account for this would increase the predicted power.

the Presets: field. Click OK to

display the confidence plot.

appropriate confidence line

(s) with any Benchmark

vessels that may have been

defined.

A General Example

3.20

31

Save your file with File |

Save, or the

corresponding toolbar

button.

Close NavCad by clicking File |

Exit.

and propulsion prediction. There are many other features of

NavCad that were not demonstrated. However, we encourage

you to review the other features (with their supporting help

pages).

32

33

Part

IV

Supplemental Tools

34

Supplemental Tools

NavCad provides a number of Supplemental tools, which are independent of standard

resistance or power prediction analyses. You can find these utilities and calculations in the

Vessel analysis, Propulsion analysis, and Utilities groups under the Tools menu.

Clicking on one of the Quick-calc reports will immediately run a prediction and launch a report.

All data, results and parameters are shown on the report. The other supplemental calculations

will be launched from its own data entry form.

4.1

Export propeller CAD shape is a utility which creates a representative CAD shape of the defined

propeller. This utility uses the propeller's series, diameter, and number of blades to export a file

in IGES format of a properly scaled propeller shape. This shape can then be imported into CAD

software to enhance the visualization of a vessel CAD design. Note: This is not a proper 3D

geometry of a propeller, just a representative single surface that can improve the look of a

propeller on your vessel CAD designs.

The propeller shape includes blades and hub for a right-handed propeller, which can be copied

and "mirrored" in the CAD software for a left-handed propeller. Ducted propellers will also

include a generic nozzle shape. To help with properly locating the propeller shape onto a

defined propeller shaft, the shape also contains two points within the hub that can be used to

snap and orient the shape onto your shaft line. The graphic below shows a sample of the CAD

shape for a 4-bladed open propeller.

Example

A propeller must be defined in the Propulsor table before exporting the propeller CAD shape.

1. Click Tools | Utilities | Export propeller CAD shape... from the menu to export a CAD

file of the propeller shape in IGES format.

2. Then use import the file in your CAD modeling program.

4.2

This form provides supporting information about the selected resistance prediction method.

Supplemental Tools

35

Sometimes you may have a hull that does not fully comply with any prediction method, where some

parameters of the hull may be outside method's range. The Parameter influence analysis evaluates

the "influence" of each hull data item.

37

Part

V

Data Files

38

Data Files

5.1

Data files created by NavCad (2012 and newer) are ASCII text files that follow a set of specifications

based on the HydroComp Common Format. The specifications of this format are not published

here, but you can contact HydroComp if you need clarification or additional documentation.

JSON format

All HydroComp Common Format files are based on the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)

architecture [Kaplan, 2011]. The format for data contained in JSON files will be recognizable to

anyone that has written C-language code, as the organization is very much like a C-language class

data structure. Each block begins with an identifier for a data group (e.g., "Units", "Hull,

"SpeedPerformance") and within each block are a series of related entries.

Project files

The project and external data files for NavCad 2012+ area:

1. HydroComp NavCad (*.hcnc). This project file contains all of the calculation parameters

and results of a NavCad analysis. No external reference files (e.g., for engines or waterjets)

are needed, as all imported data is saved with the file.

It is useful for certain data to be contained in an external object file. For example, main engine

or waterjet data can be prepared and saved for use in multiple projects. These files will conform

to a HydroComp Common Object specification (also in JSON format). They are:

1. HydroComp Common Engine Object (*.engn). Contains power-RPM and other information

about an engine model.

2. HydroComp Common Waterjet Object (*.wjet). Contains speed-thrust-power performance and

other information about a waterjet model.

3. HydroComp Common Propeller Object (*.prop). Contains test thrust and torque coefficients

and other information about a propeller model.

4. HydroComp Common Ship Object (*.ship). Contains test resistance and hull-propulsor

performance from a ship model test or sea trial.

5. HydroComp Common Tunnel Thruster Object (*.tthr). Contains the project data for the

tunnel thruster utility.

Note: Common object data that is imported into a NavCad project will be embedded into the

project data file.

39

Part

VI

Prediction Sources

40

Prediction Sources

This chapter contains summaries of the many performance prediction sources used in NavCad.

6.1

Vessel

The various vessel-specific resistance and hull-propulsor prediction methods found in NavCad

are described here.

Care has been taken to define the particular nature of a symbol. For example, certain parameters

are related to the waterline and the letters WL are appended to identify this (e.g., BWL for beam on

waterline). Other identifiers include PX for the value for planing.

Many of the older series and methods defined their reference length to be a "length

between perpendiculars" (LPP). As noted in the Hydrodynamic Dimensions topic,

equivalent LWL figures were identified for these method, and parameters based on LWL are

used here.

CVOL is a length/volume parameter, equal to LWL/VOL1/3. (It is often called the "fineness" or

"slenderness" coefficient.) This parameter is used in place of the traditional "displacementlength ratio" to insure compatibility with varying water densities, and to express this information

in a truly non-dimensional manner.

6.1.1

Holtrop

Reference

Propulsion Data", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 31, No.

363 Nov 1984.

Holtrop, J., "A Statistical Resistance Prediction Method With a

Speed Dependent Form Factor", Proceedings SMSSH '88, Varna,

Oct 1988.

Holtrop, J. and Mennen, G.G.J., "An Approximate Power

Prediction Method", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 29,

No. 335, July 1982.

Holtrop, J., and Mennen, G.G.J., "A Statistical Power Prediction

Method", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 25, October 1978.

Vessel type

Prediction scope

Hull:

Data estimates

Resistance:

Bare-hull resistance

Propulsion:

Hull-propulsor interaction coefficients

Parameters

Propellers 12

CP(LWL) 0.550.85

LWL/BWL 3.914.9

BWL/T 2.14.0

Lambda 0max determined by FN (see Remarks below)

Includes analysis for: Immersed transom and bulbous bow

Speed range

Note: The upper limit for the speed range may be shown as less than

Prediction Sources

41

upper speed constraint that is a function of certain hull parameters,

notably transom immersion. The Method Expert will adjust the upper

speed limit of this method based on this constraint.

Formula error

Not presented.

Methodology

3-D CW , ITTC-57 CF, random model tests and full scale trial data.

Pseudo-drag coefficient.

Full scale, open propellers.

Remarks

ships, fishing vessels, tugs, container ships and military craft

make up the data set.

[Resistance]

Widely regarded as a complete and reliable method for cruiser

stern ships, it seems to underpredict resistance for transom-stern

craft. (Use of the speed-dependent form factor correction

improves this tendency.)

The regression is derived with a speed-dependent relationship

using the Havelock wave shape as its foundation. The basis for

the use of the Havelock theory is currently out of favor, as a

speed-dependent analysis like Havelock has trouble matching the

typical CW /CR curve shape below FN of about 0.3

An additional parameter lambda has been added to the data

check for this method. Anecdotal experience and testing by

HydroComp have identified combinations of hull parameters that

produce significant errors with the Holtrop method, and lambda

has proven to be an indicator of these potential errors. Lambda is

a parameter used within the Holtrop method and is equal to 1.446

* CP - 0.03 * L/B. A recommended upper limit for lambda has

been developed by HydroComp and is used in the data check and

the Method Expert ranking.

43

Part

VII

Symbols and Values

44

7.1

ACCEL

CA

CAVAVG

CAVMAX

CF

CP

CPPITCH

CR

CR MULT

CT

CTH

CTLR

CTLT

CTN

CTP

CV

dCF

DELTHR

DIST

EFFO

EFFOA

EFFR

EFFR MULT

FN

FNB

FNH

FUEL

FV

HUMP

J

JH

KQ

KQJ3

KT

KTH

KTJ2

KTN

KTP

LC

LIFT

LK

LK/LP

LM

LOADENG

MINBAR

PBPROP

PBTOTAL

PDPROP

PEBARE

PETOTAL

PITCHFC

PRESS

PSPROP

PSTOTAL

QPROP

Correlation allowance

Average predicted back cavitation percentage

Peak predicted back cavitation percentage [if in oblique flow]

Frictional resistance coefficient

Propulsor thrust loading coefficient

Operational pitch of CPP

Residuary resistance coefficient

Bare-hull residuary resistance multiplier for aligned prediction

Total bare-hull resistance coefficient

Horizontal component of bare-hull resistance coefficient

Telfer residuary resistance coefficient

Telfer total bare-hull resistance coefficient

Propulsor thrust loading coefficient

Propulsor power loading coefficient

Viscous resistance coefficient

Added frictional resistance coefficient for roughness

Total vessel delivered thrust

Accelerating distance traveled from start

Propulsor open-water efficiency

Overall propulsion efficiency [=PETOTAL/PSTOTAL]

Relative-rotative efficiency

Relative-rotative efficiency multiplier for aligned prediction

Froude number [LWL]

Froude number [BCH] by effective chine beam

Froude number [H] by water depth

Fuel rate per engine

Froude number [VOL]

Blount (M factor) hump-speed multiplier

Propulsor advance coefficient [axial]

Propulsor advance coefficient [horizontal, if in oblique flow]

Propulsor torque coefficient

Propulsor torque loading ratio

Propulsor thrust coefficient [axial]

Propulsor thrust coefficient [horizontal, if in oblique flow]

Propulsor thrust loading ratio

Nozzle thrust coefficient

Propeller component of thrust coefficient [=KT-KTN]

Wetted length on chine [planing]

Hydrodynamic planing lift coefficient

Wetted length on keel [planing]

Predicted wetted keel vs chine length ratio

Mean wetted length [planing]

Percentage of engine max available power at given RPM

Minimum expanded blade area ratio recommended by selected cavitation criteria

Brake power per propulsor

Total vessel brake power

Delivered power per propulsor

Bare-hull effective power

Total effective power

Minimum recommended pitch to avoid face cavitation

Average propeller loading pressure

Shaft power per propulsor

Total vessel shaft power

Propulsor open water torque

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

RAPP

RBARE

RBARE/W

RCHAN

REQL

RMARGIN

RN

RN

RNPROP

RPMENG

RPMPROP

RSEAS

RTOTAL

RWIND

SIGMA07R

SIGMAN

SIGMAV

SPEED

SPEEDADV

TAU07R

THD

THD MULT

THRPROP

TIME

TIPSPEED

TRANSP

TRIM

WFT

WFT MULT

Bare-hull resistance

Bare-hull resistance to weight ratio

Additional shallow/channel resistance

Equilibrium planing resistance

Resistance margin

Reynolds number [LWL or LM]

Reynolds number [LM] by mean planing length

Propeller Reynolds number at 0.7 r/R

Engine RPM

Propulsor RPM

Additional sea-state resistance

Total vessel resistance

Additional wind resistance

Cavitation number of blade section at 0.7R

Cavitation number of propeller by RPM

Cavitation number of propeller by vessel speed

Vessel speed

Vessel speed of advance [=SPEED*(1-WFT)]

Thrust loading coefficient [at 0.7R, for cavitation]

Thrust deduction coefficient

Thrust deduction coefficient multiplier for aligned prediction

Open-water thrust per propulsor

Accelerating time-to-speed from start

Propeller circumferential tip speed

Transport factor

Dynamic trim angle

Taylor wake fraction coefficient

Taylor wake fraction coefficient multiplier for aligned prediction

45

47

Part

VIII

Commercial Features

48

Commercial Features

These are features that are only available in the commercial version of NavCad.

8.1

Many propellers have radially varying pitch distribution, so definition of an appropriate mean pitch is

necessary. The Blade scan analysis utility can be used to estimate important propeller parameters

from typical blade scan data. Using measured chord and pitch from the blade scan, this utility will

provide estimates for mean pitch (also known as the hydrodynamic effective pitch) and EAR (the

expanded blade area ratio).

Note: If only a few radii have been scanned, however, you can select a standard blade outline

shape (e.g., Gawn, AU) that gives the closest shape to your measured points.

8.2

Catamaran Interference

A catamaran is made up of two hulls in close proximity with each other, and this proximity

causes some measure of hydrodynamic interaction. In some cases, this interaction is extremely

small. In other cases, it can be quite significant. The NavCad demo only supports Monohulls.

Catamaran interference is generally a function of hull geometry, spacing, and speed. There will

be a change in the viscous (frictional) drag due to a number of factors, such as a "blockage

effect" between the hulls. The increase in local water speed between the demi-hulls changes

local pressures and wave systems, non-symmetric flow changes the stern wave system

(particularly with a transom-stern), and the reflection of waves off of the other hull interact with

the principle waves. There is an additional effect with planing catamarans, whereby the altered

water flow results in a different "angle of attack" of the planing body.

HydroComp has developed algorithms for the prediction of the interference factors using a

variety of model tests, CFD analyses, and full-scale trials.

8.3

The Holtrop and Anderson methods use "shape coefficient" to help describe the hydrodynamic

influence of the stern shape. (The demo only allows use of standard values, which can be

selected in the field estimates.)

Commercial Features

8.4

49

One of the options in the Resistance and Propulsion multi-line graphs is a [Confidence] plot. These

plots help you evaluate the fidelity of your prediction by displaying a "potential minimum" or "best

possible" drag for vessels of an appropriate type. An addition to the Propulsion [Confidence] plot is

the ability to include points for up to five Benchmark vessels. This feature allows entry of basic data

(length, displacement, speed, power), from which NavCad scales equivalent values for the project

ship. These benchmark points will therefore provide compatible system-level comparisons to known

ships.

Confidence plots

These plots display the predicted RBARE (for Resistance) or PBTOTAL (for Propulsion) versus

Speed. Lines of anticipated lower limits are added to provide end-user guidance. In other words, it

would be unexpected to have a vessel with a drag or power prediction that would be lower than the

plotted confidence lines. In these examples, the plots are showing a "best possible drag" line for

high-speed round-bilge displacement hulls (HSRBDH Min) and a "best power" line for round-bilge

monohulls (RB monohull). The plots suggest that the example prediction may be a bit too optimistic,

and the use of a resistance margin would increase the predictions.

An additional option is the Efficiency confidence plot. This compares the prediction of propeller

efficiency against the calculated Ideal efficiency and an estimate of the "best reasonable" state-ofthe-art efficiency.

50

Benchmark vessels

An addition to the Propulsion [Confidence] plot is the ability to include points for up to five

Benchmark vessels. (See the Propulsion confidence plot above.)This feature allows entry of basic

data (length, displacement, speed, power), which which NavCad scales equivalent values for the

project ship. These benchmark points will therefore provide compatible system-level comparisons to

known ships.

8.5

Drag Reduction

In the full NavCad, once hull data has been entered and a resistance prediction built, you can use

the supplemental Drag reduction calculation to evaluate how a change in a hull parameter can

reduce drag. You can define Primary and Secondary speeds of operation, and NavCad evaluates

and ranks the influence on drag for significant data items (e.g., length, beam, LCB).

The change that would lead to a reduction in drag is indicated (e.g., Increase [+]) and is ranked

by the influence of change in drag versus the change in the parameter. Significant parameters

are shown in blue.

When Speed and Time at speed are entered for both Primary and Secondary operation, the

analysis evaluates a weighted influence of the parameter. More than just a time-weighted

influence, the analysis includes the basis bare-hull resistance at each speed to derive a Total

energy weighted influence. In other words, since resistance at top speed can be substantially

more than at lower speeds, it should (and does) have greater significance in the analysis.

8.6

Dynamic Stability

Beyond the steady-state equilibrium of forces and moments that are evaluated for planing hull,

the full commercial versions of NavCad provides a basic assessment of dynamic stability. This

is only pertinent to planing hulls, and deals with both longitudinal (porpoising) and transverse

(roll) stability.

NavCad provides a prediction of the likelihood of longitudinal dynamic instability (more

commonly known as "porpoising"). Porpoising is a complex coupling of heave and pitch that are

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Commercial Features

51

dependent on a variety of hull properties, such as loading, speed and LCG position. Three

different evaluation algorithms are evaluated in NavCad.

The prediction of transverse (roll) stability is based on a comparison of VCG to a virtual

"metacenter". This is a simplified "uncoupled" check (i.e., without effect of appendages or

coupled yaw), and is therefore likely to be conservative.

NavCad evaluates the criteria and presents the likelihood of dynamic stability as Stable (no

instability is indicated), Uncertain ! (instability is potentially indicated), or Unstable !! (instability

is clearly indicated). Where multiple methods are available, a Summary is shown.

8.7

Dynamic Trim

While the Planing hull analysis in NavCad incorporates an equilibrium-trim analysis that

explicitly identifies the dynamic operating trim at each speed, certain non-planing hull types (i.e.,

transom-stern "semi-displacement" forms) also will trim at higher speeds. The Dynamic trim

supplemental calculation provides predictions for dynamic trim.

In the full commercial version of NavCad, there are two prediction methods available for the

prediction of dynamic trim for ITTC-78 (CT) hulls, and one additional method for Planing hulls.

8.8

In an effort to reduce fuel consumption, ship operators are often interested in the effect of initial trim

on the performance of the vessel. This supplemental tool, available in the full NavCad, will provide a

rudimentary assessment of the effect of initial trim on bare-hull resistance. It is only available for

ITTC-78 (CT) analysis.

Once hull data has been entered and a resistance prediction built, you can use the supplemental

Effect of initial trim calculation to evaluate how much change in bare-hull resistance can be

achieved for a constant displacement with different amounts of trim. A trim range of +/- 20% draft is

presented. (Positive trim is by the stern.) You can define Primary and Secondary speeds of

operation, and NavCad evaluates a Total energy weighted average of two speeds.

8.9

Hydroacoustic Analysis

Many ships operate with a highly-variable propeller wake field caused by appendages, skegs,

and narrow blade tip clearance to the hull. This can result in high impulse pressures and blade

tip vortices as the propeller blades pass through regions of changing water velocity. This is

particularly significant when the blade tip is nearest the hull, where these impulses and the tip

vortex can be causes of noise and vibration. The commercial version of NavCad offers some

simple hydroacoustic analyses that can be used to evaluate the potential for noise and vibration.

Multiple parametric analyses are employed to assess the hydroacoustic properties. First, direct

52

numerical calculation is made for blade pass frequency, propeller tip speed, and cavitation

number at the tip. Tip speed is checked and compared to standard criteria.

Two methods are available to estimate cavitating and non-cavitating blade impulse pressures.

Criteria for acceptable levels of blade impulse pressure will vary by application and hull

geometry (e.g., deck height above the stern aperture), but NavCad compares the predictions to

recommended ranges.

The pressure associated with the volume of the tip vortex can also be a source of noise and

vibration. An engineering analysis of both tip vortex acoustic pressure and predicted noise

levels at the hull nearest the blade tip is based on a "Tip Vortex Index". There are no criteria for

minimum levels of these indicators.

8.10

Propeller performance is typically evaluated from model tests. Tests of individual propeller

models are used to determine the thrust and torque performance for a particular application,

and the multiple tests of a propeller "series" are the basis for prediction charts and formula (e.g.,

B Series). One characteristic of virtually all propeller model tests is that the water flow is axial (i.

e., in line with the propeller axis). Axial flow is suitable for laboratory tests, but it does not

necessarily correspond to real "behind-the-ship" applications. In fact, true axial flow is rare.

Non-axial flow commonly known as oblique flow (or inclined flow) can greatly influence

propeller performance when the angle of the oblique flow is high. What is considered high? That

depends on the application, but one would expect to see measurable effects above 5 degrees

of shaft angle and significant effects at 10 degrees or more.

Shaft angle (and its cosine effects against horizontal)

Added rise of run (for the additional increase in inflow angle to the propeller

Inflow angle effects (for variations of "effective pitch" against the water flow as the propeller

rotates)

Suitable corrections for ducted propellers

Commercial Features

8.11

53

The planing station estimate utility in the full version of NavCad allows you to enter station

offsets of the planing bottom for the two representative planing stations (Aft and Fwd). Offsets

are entered from centerline to the maximum chine (where separation is expected to occur). The

utility will then calculate the proper chine beam and height below waterline, as well as an

effective deadrise.

The plot shows the station offsets (red), effective deadrise (green), and the waterline position at

the station (blue).

8.12

Propeller Cup

A widely used technique to alter propeller performance is with propeller cup a curvature

applied to the trailing edge of a propeller blade. Propeller cup is simply the deformation of a

propellers trailing edge toward the pressure face (see the figure below). Providing a measure of

camber to the blade, it changes the pressure distribution along the blades chord length

adding lift toward the trailing edge, thus allowing greater cavitation margin with increasing thrust

loading.

A propeller with cup acts like an uncupped propeller with a higher pitch. By describing the

amount of cup "drop" (dimension X above), NavCads cupping performance model can predict

the change in thrust and power, as well as appropriate cavitation levels.

Note: NavCad's current cupping prediction model is based on a re-analysis of the original work

(plus new supplemental data). This provides increased KT and KQ prediction accuracy, as well

as improvements in the prediction of cavitation breakdown.

8.13

Propellers do not always exactly match the tested propeller series. For example, the propeller's

overall size may be different from the tested model, it may be thicker or of a different foil shape,

or it may have edges that are not as smooth, for example. NavCad allows the user to make a

number of correction to the prediction of KT and KQ to reflect these differences.

54

Scale correction

An often overlooked correction necessary for a true reflection of full-scale performance is scale

correction. When a propeller is tested at a particular size (say, 250 mm or 10 in), the results of

the test include the influence of the water's viscosity. As a propeller's is increased (perhaps by

as much as 20-30 times), the change in the effect of viscosity is not consistent with the

proportional change in the size of the propeller. The KT and KQ charts and equations are usually

presented for one particular value of RN that represents a nominal model-scale propeller. These

nominal KT and KQ values are generally adequate "as is" for small craft propellers in slow and

moderate speed operation. As vessel speed, propeller RPM or diameter increases, however,

the effect of scale is much more pronounced. Thus, scale correction is an important

consideration for proper performance prediction.

A designer should try to choose the series that most closely resembles the propeller under

consideration. It is very possible, however, that none of the series will exactly match the given

propeller. Most propellers are different in some small manner or another from these series. For

example, the edges of smaller commercially available propellers do not have the precise "knifeedge" found on the tested models. Also, the root of the blades at the hub and the blades

themselves may be heavier on certain propeller models.

The most precise method to consider these differences is with the Aligned series or KTKQ data

propulsor type options. In many circumstances, however, a reference propeller is not available.

So, thrust and power multipliers can be applied to the prediction of KT and KQ (and in turn to the

propeller's efficiency) to account for common differences. Finding appropriate values of the

factors may require information from the manufacturer about how their propeller's performance

compares to standard series.

Geometric corrections

NavCad includes two additional corrections for any differences in thickness/chord (t/c) ratio and

blade roughness from the series standards.

Cavitation breakdown

The model propellers of the open-wheel series were tested in both non-cavitating and cavitating

modes. This allows for the effect of excessive cavitation on KT, KQ and efficiency to be

evaluated. The methods used to find the breakdown of thrust and torque are different for each

series:

B Series based on limiting thrust load and torque load coefficient lines.

Gawn AEW and Gawn KCA a relationship was developed by HydroComp based on a

re-analysis of the Gawn KCA data using cavitation and loading coefficients.

Kaplan 19A a modified version of the above cavitation breakdown for use with Kaplan

KA propellers in the 19A nozzle.

8.14

NavCad allows a user to select propeller parameters to meet either of two principal design load

options referred to as "identities" by propeller designers. These design load identities are "By

power" or "By thrust" (or its variant "By total drag"). The demo only allows sizing "By power".

By power. This option is typically used only when the operational thrust is not well defined,

such as if total resistance is questionable or if the vessel's operational thrust demand varies

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Commercial Features

55

greatly. For example, Towing or Fixed engine RPM analyses are heavily influenced by the

maximum installed engine power (such as you would see with a harbor tug pushing a tanker,

or during a bollard test), so you would typically always size By power.

By thrust. Free run applications would be considered differently. Early in the design process

before an engine model is selected you generally are interested in finding a propeller to

match the hull's resistance demand, so you would size a propeller By thrust. Given your

defined maximum diameter, the propeller will then be optimized for a proper thrust

requirement, and you can see the corresponding required power and optimum RPM to help

select your engine and gear ratio. (Remember to consider your service margins throughout

this process.)

By total drag. A convenient variant of sizing By thrust is to size By total drag, where the

required thrust for the sizing is automatically calculated from the predicted total resistance

and thrust deduction.

8.15

Propulsor Options

The NavCad demo only supports a 4-bladed fixed-pitch B Series propeller 0.55 blade area ratio

as the propulsor option. The commercial version of NavCad also provides for use of waterjets

and propeller test data.

Propeller types

The NavCad demo supports only a Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP). These propellers have a blade

that is rigidly fixed to its hub. Other options found in NavCad include Controllable Pitch

Propellers (CPP) and Contra-Rotating Propellers (CRP).

Propeller series

While the B Series open-wheel propeller series is only supported in the demo, there are nine

other series available in NavCad three open-wheel series, five ducted propeller series, one

surface-piercing series, and one cycloidal propeller method. The three open-wheel propeller

series are the B Series, Gawn AEW and Gawn KCA. For ducted propellers, NavCad includes

Kaplan propellers in the 19A, 33 and 37 nozzles in both KA and KC variants. The SP Series is

for surface-piercing propellers and the Cycloidal is used for the "Voith-Schneider" type cycloidal

propellers.

Aligned series

A propeller Aligned series prediction correlates a series prediction to the entered KT/KQ data of

the reference propeller. This allows you to alter the series' prediction based on the performance

of the propeller model. The resulting KT/KQ figures reflect the qualitative "shape" of the

underlying series, with a quantitative correction derived from the propeller model.

KTKQ data

Rather than using a Series or Aligned series to calculate the performance of a propeller, you

can directly point to a reference propeller's known KT/KQ data. Where a propeller series uses a

systematic collection of KT/KQ tests to make up a performance prediction algorithm, the KTKQ

data option points directly to the actual tested performance of a single reference propeller.

NavCad allows scaling of the propeller by diameter, but number of blades, pitch/diameter ratio,

and blade area ratio are constrained to that of the reference propeller.

Waterjets

In addition to propellers, propulsion analysis calculations in NavCad can be performed with

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

56

waterjets. Unlike propellers, however, waterjet characteristics are stored in HydroComp

Common Waterjet Object (*.wjet) files, as well as directly within each NavCad project file. By

entering or importing data for a waterjet model and at least one of the impellers for the model,

the calculations with a waterjet are virtually identical to those with a conventional propeller.

Given a waterjet model, an impeller choice, vessel speed and shaft RPM, the information stored

for the waterjet is used to calculate thrust and power.

8.16

HydroComp has developed an estimate for the effect of propulsor lift on equilibrium planing

drag for different propulsor types conventional Propeller, surface-piercing propeller (SPP),

Waterjet, and Horizontal tow (to mimic a typical towing test). Propulsor lift force has traditionally

been omitted in the equilibrium analysis of planing, since there had been no prediction methods

available and the magnitudes are typically small. Also, the small reduction in hull-borne lift and

corresponding reduction in drag found with a propulsor lift component is typically offset by an

increase in drag due to a flattening of trim.

Note: The "horizontal tow" option sets the thrust vector to account for the dynamic trim (i.e.,

shaft angle is set to negative trim) to remain horizontal at all speeds. This option is useful when

validating model tests, and would typically not be used for a full-scale hull.

8.17

Shallow water contributes to a variety of hydrodynamic effects. In addition to an increase in

vessel drag, there is also a corresponding sinkage and trimming of the hull (also known as

squat). In the full commercial version of NavCad, two methods are available for the prediction of

sinkage and trim due to squat effects.

8.18

While the calculation of the optimum propeller parameters is conducted using a Numerical sizing

methodology, there are practical considerations beyond any numerical calculation that should

be evaluated for the four parameters of Gear ratio, Expanded area ratio, Propeller diameter, and

Propeller mean pitch. The sizing process also benefits from the order of parameter optimization,

and it is recommended to follow the hierarchy listed below.

Commercial Features

57

While not actually a propeller parameter, finding the optimum gear ratio (actually the solution of

optimum shaft RPM) is typically the first and perhaps most important part of a successful

propeller installation. The solution for optimum shaft RPM must be made in conjunction with a

Maximum propeller diameter. The largest diameter and the lowest shaft RPM typically produces the

greatest theoretical efficiency. However, the RPM can only be effectively lowered (and optimum

diameter increased) until the maximum allowable diameter is reached.

Small changes in expanded blade area ratio do not greatly affect theoretical performance, but the

clear trend is that less blade area increases efficiency. Cavitation limits are imposed on the solution

of optimum Expanded area ratio.

8.19

Spray Drag

An option to the prediction of resistance is for the addition of spray drag. The commercial

version of NavCad supports added spray drag for both ITTC-78 (CT) methods as well as

Planing methods.

For ITTC-78 (CT) methods, HydroComp has developed a prediction method for the added drag

due to spray in NavCad based on model tests using CVOL and B/T as the independent

variables. Spray drag is only significant above FN=1. For planing hulls, a method was

implemented that determines the area of the stagnation "whisker spray" along with a proper

prediction for the frictional resistance coefficient of the spray.

8.20

Submarine/SWATH

Prediction of resistance and hull-propulsor coefficients can be conducted with NavCad as a special

calculation using the Defined prediction technique. The resistance prediction methodology is based

on typical ITTC-78 (CT) approach, with residuary and viscous resistance. Prediction of the hullpropulsor interaction coefficients are also available.

The definition of the submerged hulls of submarines and SWATH vessels in NavCad is a treatment

of traditional parametric descriptions of "body-of-revolution" submarine hulls. The traditional

parametric data has been expanded to provide for non-cylindrical sections, as well as increased

detail of nose geometry. It also includes definition of single strut geometry suitable for SWATH

vessels.

8.21

Synchronous Pitching

Pitching is the bow up-and-down motion that a ship exhibits when moving into seas. One of the

more severe conditions that a ship might encounter is pitching when traveling into regular heads

seas. Given the right combination of ship-to-wavelength ratio and speed (or period of

encounter), a ship can develop a very dangerous resonance called Synchronous pitching.

Two levels of synchronous pitching are evaluated Severe or Moderate. NavCad evaluates the

criteria and presents the likelihood of synchronous pitching as Unlikely (no synchronous

pitching is indicated), Possible ! (synchronous pitching is potentially indicated), or Likely !!

58

(synchronous pitching is clearly indicated).

8.22

The Tunnel thruster sizing utility is a tool to size and analyze bow and stern tunnel thruster

geometry, as well as the thruster's propeller. It is for a conventional transverse cylindrical tunnel

using a typical right-angle gear with a 4-bladed fixed-pitch propeller (FPP) of a Kaplan shape.

There are two principal calculation modules in the utility sizing the tunnel (diameter vs. power

vs. thrust) and sizing the propeller (gear ratio, EAR, and pitch).

The utility allows the initial sizing of proper tunnel diameter, input power, or maximum net thrust

(given one of the three variables). The propeller sizing feature uses the general sizing

calculation functions from NavCad. The fundamental propeller KT and KQ performance is based

on 4-bladed Kaplan style propellers in axial cylinders with a correction to properly model fully

symmetric sections.

Note: Flow curvature into (and out of) the tunnel creates a useful thrust component, much in the

same way that a nozzle contributes thrust to a ducted propeller unit. Therefore, the total net

thrust is the sum of the thrust of the propeller plus the added thrust from the tunnel. The tunnel's

contribution is based on nozzle contribution methodology developed for the HydroComp

PropElements detail propeller design software, where the a prediction of the tunnel thrust

contribution is a function of propeller loading, tunnel inlet radius, tunnel length, propeller hub

size, and tip gap (between the propeller and tunnel wall).

8.23

The NavCad demo only supports the Holtrop ITTC-78 (CT) prediction methods for resistance

and hull-propulsor interaction coefficients.

Other prediction methods available in the commercial version include:

Andersen

Blount-Fox

BSRA Series

DeGroot HC

Commercial Features

DeGroot RB

Denny

General use

Doust Trawler

Fung (CRTS)

Fung (HSTS)

Holtrop

Jin (1980)

Jin (1988)

Kostov

Lahtiharju (HC)

Lahtiharju (RB)

MARAD

Mercier

NPL Series

NTUA Series

Oortmerssen

Roach

Tugboats

Savitsky

Series 60

Series 62

Series 65B

Simple Planing

Simple Sailboat

59

60

Simple Ship

Simple Towboat

Simple Waterjet

Swift

UBC Series

Webb Twin-Screw

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Part

IX

The NavCad User's Guide

62

The User's Guide for the full commercial version of NavCad is a thorough instruction manual for

NavCad operation. It is also a comprehensive resource on various hydrodynamic topics. An

extensive Guide to NavCad Operation is followed by technical background for the calculations and

chapters containing detailed insight into individual prediction methods.

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