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HydroComp NavCad 2013

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Evaluation Demo Guide

About NavCad

NavCad is for the prediction and analysis of vessel speed and power
performance. It also provides for the selection of suitable propulsion system
components engines, gears and propellers. NavCad can be used for the design
and analysis of virtually any type of monohull or catamaran from large
displacement vessels to fast planing craft.
In this Evaluation Demo Guide, you can find:
How to get started with the HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo
Step by step resistance and propulsion example
Explanations of data entry screens and fields
Description of features in teh full commercial version of NavCad

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


2013 HydroComp, Inc.
All rights reserved. No parts of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, or
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Products that are referred to in this document may be either trademarks and/or registered trademarks of the
respective owners. The publisher and the author make no claim to these trademarks.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document, the publisher and the author assume no
responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of information contained in this document
or from the use of programs and source code that may accompany it. In no event shall the publisher and the author be
liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or
indirectly by this document.

Contents

Table of Contents
Part I What Can I Do With The NavCad Demo?

1 Demo Limitations
................................................................................................................................... 8

Part II Getting Started

10

1 Getting Around
...................................................................................................................................
NavCad
10
2 Toolbar Guide
................................................................................................................................... 11
3 Configuring
...................................................................................................................................
NavCad Options For First Use
12

Part III A General Example

16

1 Step 1 - Beginning
...................................................................................................................................
a New Project
16
2 Step 2 - Make
...................................................................................................................................
a Task List
16
3 Step 3 - Setting
...................................................................................................................................
Units for the New Project
17
4 Step 4 - Enter
...................................................................................................................................
Condition Data
17
5 Step 5 - Enter
...................................................................................................................................
Hull Data
18
6 Step 6 - Enter
...................................................................................................................................
Appendage Data
19
7 Step 7 - Build
...................................................................................................................................
a Resistance Prediction
21
8 Step 8 - Select
...................................................................................................................................
the Bare-Hull Prediction Method
21
9 Step 9 - Enter
...................................................................................................................................
Remaining Prediction Parameters
22
10 Step 10 - ...................................................................................................................................
Run the Resistance Prediction
22
11 Step 11 - ...................................................................................................................................
View and Save Graphs
23
12 Step 12 - ...................................................................................................................................
Create Custom Graphs
24
13 Step 13 - ...................................................................................................................................
View and Print Reports
25
14 Step 14 - ...................................................................................................................................
Define the Propulsor
25
15 Step 15 - ...................................................................................................................................
Configure a Propulsion Analysis
26
16 Step 16 - ...................................................................................................................................
Run the Propulsion Analysis
27
17 Step 17 - ...................................................................................................................................
Create Engine Data
27
18 Step 18 - ...................................................................................................................................
Propeller Sizing
28
19 Step 19 - ...................................................................................................................................
Review the Propulsion Analysis
29
20 Step 20 - ...................................................................................................................................
Closing NavCad
31

Part IV Supplemental Tools

34

1 Export Propeller
...................................................................................................................................
CAD Shape
34
2 Resistance
...................................................................................................................................
Parameter Influence
34

Part V Data Files

38

1 HydroComp
...................................................................................................................................
Common Format Files
38

Part VI Prediction Sources


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HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


1 Vessel

................................................................................................................................... 40

Holtrop

.......................................................................................................................................................... 40

Part VII Symbols and Values

44

1 Symbols ...................................................................................................................................
and Values
44

Part VIII Commercial Features

48

1 Blade Scan
...................................................................................................................................
Analysis
48
2 Catamaran
...................................................................................................................................
Interference
48
3 Custom Bow
...................................................................................................................................
and Stern Shape Coefficients
48
4 Confidence
...................................................................................................................................
Plots and Benchmark Vessels
49
5 Drag Reduction
................................................................................................................................... 50
6 Dynamic ...................................................................................................................................
Stability
50
7 Dynamic ...................................................................................................................................
Trim
51
8 Effect of Initial
...................................................................................................................................
Trim
51
9 Hydroacoustic
...................................................................................................................................
Analysis
51
10 Oblique Flow
...................................................................................................................................
Correction
52
11 Planing Station
...................................................................................................................................
Estimate
53
12 Propeller ...................................................................................................................................
Cup
53
13 Propeller ...................................................................................................................................
KTKQ Corrections
53
14 Propeller ...................................................................................................................................
Sizing By Thrust
54
15 Propulsor...................................................................................................................................
Options
55
16 Propulsor...................................................................................................................................
Type for Planing
56
17 Shallow Water
...................................................................................................................................
Sinkage and Trim
56
18 Sizing Gear
...................................................................................................................................
Ratio and BAR
56
19 Spray Drag
................................................................................................................................... 57
20 Submarine/SWATH
................................................................................................................................... 57
21 Synchronous
...................................................................................................................................
Pitching
57
22 Tunnel Thruster
...................................................................................................................................
Sizing
58
23 Vessel Prediction
...................................................................................................................................
Methods
58

Part IX The NavCad User's Guide


Index

62
0

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Part

I
What Can I Do With The
NavCad Demo?

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

What Can I Do With The NavCad Demo?


This demo of NavCad is functional, but limited to a small set of prediction methods and features.
However, most screens are accessible for your review, so you should investigate those capabilities
which you require.

1.1

Demo Limitations
The following table lists the subset of the full NavCad capabilities which are available in the demo:
Available in the demo

NOT available in the demo

Monohulls

Catamarans

Bare-hull and Appendage resistance


prediction

Wind, Seas or Channel resistance; drag of


towed nets or barges; supplemental
calculations

Holtrop prediction methods for bare-hull


and appendage resistance, and hullpropulsor interaction coefficients (e.g.,
wake fraction)

All other prediction methods (over 50


others from tankers to small fast craft,
including semi-displacement and full
planing)

ITTC-57 friction line

All other friction lines

Prediction technique

Aligned prediction, Scale from test, or


Defined techniques (incorporating your
own individual model tests)

Free-run propulsion analysis

Towing, Fixed RPM, Acceleration, or


Defined analyses

Plots of results for resistance and power

Confidence plots and Benchmark vessels

Fixed-pitch (FPP) propellers

Controllable-pitch (CPP) or contra-rotating


(CRP) propellers

B Series propellers

All other propeller series (Gawn and


Kaplan variants) and other propulsors
(surface-piercing propellers, waterjets,
cycloidal propellers, user-defined
propulsors)

Four-bladed propellers of 0.55 blade area


ratio with no series corrections

All other blades numbers (2 to 7), other


BARs, series corrections (including shaft
angle effects)

Sub-cavitating performance

Correction for trans- and full-cavitation

Propeller sizing of Diameter and Pitch

Sizing of Gear ratio or BAR

Propeller sizing based on Power

Propeller sizing based on Thrust or Total


drag

Single or twin screw

More than two propellers

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Part

II
Getting Started

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HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Getting Started
This chapter provides an overview on the operation of NavCad, including a tutorial example. It is
intended to allow you to investigate the entire interface, calculation procedures, and output.

2.1

Getting Around NavCad


NavCad is based on two principal view modes Resistance and Propulsion. Each of these two
mode pages contains data entry tables, a summary results table, project management aids, graphs
and reports.

At the top of the window is the Main menu (File, Edit, etc.) containing the many menu commands
which bring up data entry forms and launch calculations. Immediately underneath is the Toolbar
with buttons for frequently-used commands. To the left of the screen are the Resistance mode
analysis parameters and Propulsion mode analysis parameters, as well as a Task list. In the
center of the screen are the various Vessel parameters tables. To the right is the Graphs and
reports window. At the bottom is the Performance summary spreadsheet.
Note: A Toolbar Guide is found in the next section of this chapter. This guide describes the function
of each button.

Resistance and Propulsion modes


The Analysis parameters entry table (left side) is specific to the mode Resistance or Propulsion.
These analysis parameters are always shown to allow for quick entry and revision, and rapid recalculation.
The Vessel parameters entry table (center) changes depending upon the selected data set
Condition, Hull, Appendage, Environment, Margin, or Propulsor.

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Getting Started

11

Graphs and reports window


A graph of the current job results is always displayed. A different graph is shown depending upon
the analysis mode (e.g., for Resistance calculations, the graph might show RBARE bare-hull
resistance, for Propulsion it might be PBTOTAL total brake power). The currently displayed graph
will be updated after a calculation.

Task list
A user-definable Task List is available to help with project management. A variety of standard task
lists are available as initial templates.

Performance summary
A Performance summary spreadsheet shown at the bottom of the NavCad screen holds the active
performance analysis results. The values shown in the summary are different for Resistance and
Propulsion modes, and all of the results are updated on every calculation. This insures that all data
and results are properly related to their equilibrium resistance-propulsion relationships.

Getting help within NavCad


NavCad contains a context-sensitive help system that is attached to the various windows and fields.
It contains program guides and technical information useful for the successful operation of the
program. Pressing F1, the Help toolbar button, or any Help button on a form will display the help
screen.
Within the Help menu are particular topics that may be of general interest. These items describe the
interface commands and menu selections.

2.2

Toolbar Guide
The toolbar enables quick access to frequently-used tasks. The first section holds File handling
buttons. The second group selects the Calculation mode Resistance or Propulsion. The Edit and
Calculate groups follow. Graph file handling buttons are followed by Graphing and Reporting
buttons. The last group holds the Help button.

File handling
New project creates a new NavCad job file.
Open project opens a previously saved NavCad job file.
Save project saves the current NavCad job file.

Calculation mode
Mode: Resistance enables the resistance analysis mode.
Mode: Propulsion enables the propulsion analysis mode.

Data editing
Units opens the unit and formatting entry window.
Show as coefficients toggles between units and coefficients for the current entry
table.
Edit condition data opens the condition edit entry table.

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HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


Edit hull data opens the hull edit entry table.
Edit appendage data opens the appendage edit entry table.
Edit environment data opens the environment edit entry table.
Edit margin/towed barge/towed net data opens the misc edit entry table.
Edit propulsion data opens the propulsion edit entry table.

Calculations and results


Calculate resistance analysis / Calculate propulsion analysis performs a resistance
or propulsion analysis (depending on the selected Calculation mode). Note: When
the button background is red it signifies that the results shown are not current with
the data. A calculation is needed to display the correct results.
Edit results mode enabled/disables the editing of Performance summary
(described in the Edit Results Toolbar section that follows).
Show sensitivity analysis Performs and displays the results of a sensitivity
analysis.

Graphing and reporting


Graph Choose between the an active Graph: single or Graph: multiple which
displays a custom-defined graph, or one of a selection of pre-defined graphs.
Graph options choose variables for the x and y axis on the graph. Choose other
data to display on the graph including a legend and data from other NavCad project
files.
Save graph save the currently displayed graph as an image file.
Report Choose what type of results are displayed. Choose between Report:
Results report, Report: Data and results report or the Report: Active graph in report
format.
Save report save the currently displayed report as a pdf file.

Print toolbar
Page setup set print page size, margins and orientation.
Print report prints the currently displayed report.

Help
Help opens the NavCad help file.

2.3

Configuring NavCad Options For First Use


Before the first use of NavCad, it is recommended to set up a few standard options. These options
pertain to customization, computer specifications, and localization. Click Tools | Options... from the
menu to set up your program options.

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Getting Started

13

Interface
This group sets standard interface options.
Theme
Choose the color theme that you prefer Silver, Sky, or Forest.

Reports
Configure how your reports will be prepared in this group.
Prepared by
Enter your name or company name.
Symbols page
You can choose to Show or Omit the standard results symbols page in each report.
Default layout
Set up your selection of report page size Letter/Portrait, A4/Portrait or User defined. You can
use the User defined option to set up other orientations.

Email
Reports can be packaged directly to an email, so you can set up email messaging details here.
(Error and warning messages can also be forwarded to an email.)
Messaging
This is the description of the messaging protocol supporting your email program. There are
three principal email setting options, all based on MAPI email messaging MAPI/Control, MAPI/
Direct, and MAPI/CDO that support most popular Windows email programs (e.g., Outlook,
Outlook Express, Thunderbird, Windows Live Mail). You can choose your preferred email
setting in the Page setup. (Note: They may also be set by the application program). Click the
Find... button to let NavCad identify and test which protocol is recommended.
Notes: MAPI/CDO is for Microsoft Outlook only, and it requires the CDO.DLL system file
(v1.21 or newer). This DLL file is not always installed with Windows or Outlook, so if you
need this file, you can download it from Microsoft. A MAPI "Profile" is required for this
feature. Most email programs will establish a Profile without special setup by the user.
Resolve name
This is an optional setting that is required by some email programs. If the email messaging in
NavCad is not functioning properly, you can try changing this setting.

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15

Part

III
A General Example

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HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

A General Example
This chapter is an multi-step introduction to the operation of NavCad. The example uses data for a
78 m fast monohull vessel.

3.1

Step 1 - Beginning a New Project


Run NavCad and you will see
the main screen.
Click on File | New
project (or the
associated toolbar icon)
to start a new project.

This tutorial example is used to illustrate many of NavCads


various program functions, and will be a good introduction to
the operation of NavCad. A resistance prediction, as well as a
propeller selection and analysis of a fast displacement vessel is
used to demonstrate a typical job session.

Create and save the project file


by clicking on File | Save
project, or by pressing Ctrl+S
or clicking the Save project
toolbar button.
File name = enter Fast78m.nc5

3.2

Step 2 - Make a Task List


Set up a task list for this project
by right-clicking the first cell in
the Task list. Select New, then
Yes to see the pre-set lists.
Select the Standard speed
prediction as the task list
template for this project.

Use the Task lists to help establish "best practices" for your use
of NavCad.

Once the list has been created


for you, check the Create new
project line in the Task list to
indicate that this task is
finished. As you proceed
through this tutorial, check off
the tasks as they are
completed.

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

A General Example

3.3

17

Step 3 - Setting Units for the New Project


Open the units entry
window by clicking Edit |
Units from the menu
or the corresponding
toolbar icon.

You will want to configure NavCad for the appropriate


dimensional units and report formatting. Each job may require
that you select different units, but we will use SI (metric) units
for this example.

Click on SI to set all of the units


to SI (metric). Then click OK to
continue.

3.4

Step 4 - Enter Condition Data


Define speeds and water
parameters by clicking
Edit | Condition from
the menu (or with the
corresponding toolbar
button).
Enter or select the following
data in the Condition window:
Project ID: = Sample tutorial
Description: = Fast 78 m
round-bilge vessel
Scope: = select ITTC-78 (CT)
Configuration: = select
Monohull
Chine type: = Round/multiple
Length on WL: = 78.05
Displacement: = 1859.4
Propulsor type: = select
Propeller
Count: = select 2
Water type: = select Salt
Speeds = enter 6, 8, 10, 12, 14,
16, 18, 20 and 22
Design speed: = select 20

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

The process of building a resistance prediction will be to first


enter complete condition and vessel data, then use this data to
predict resistance per your particular design requirements.

18

3.5

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Step 5 - Enter Hull Data


Click Edit | Hull data
from the menu, or the
toolbar button.
Enter or select the following
data in the Hull data window:

A full description of your hull is necessary for a reliable


analysis. This screen is used to enter information about your
hull. The data is parametric meaning that the shape is
described by individual numerical values (such as length or
displacement) rather than by three-dimensional geometry.

Configuration: = select
Monohull
Chine typ:e = select Roundbilge
Length on WL: = 78.05
Max beam on WL: = 11.5
Max molded draft: = 4.25
Displacement: = 1859.4
Wetted surface: = omit for now
LCB fwd TR: = 38.58 (forward
transom)
LCF fwd TR: = 0 (unknown)
Click Show as
coefficients toolbar
button to allow nondimensional entry.
Max section area: = 0.771 [CX]
Waterplane area: = 0.765
[CWP]
Click the button again to return
to dimensional editing.

You can also enter data in non-dimensional form. For example,


suppose we have data for Max section area and Waterplane
area in coefficient form (CX, CWP). The Show as coefficient
toolbar button toggles between dimensional and nondimensional entry.

Bulb section area: = 0 (no bulb)


Bulb ctr below WL: = 0
Bulb nose fwd TR: = 0
Transom area: = 14.8
Transom beam WL: = 0
(unknown)
Transom immersion: = 0
(unknown)
Half entrance angle: = 11.4
Bow shape factor: = click and
select 0 (average flow)
Stern shape factor: = click and
select -1 (buttock flow)
All data is now entered, except
the Wetted surface. We will let
NavCad suggest an estimate
for this item.

NavCad provides a broad range of estimated values for many


data items. It provides you with the corresponding range of hull
parameters for each estimate to help insure that you select the
most suitable choice.

Click the estimate button


next to the Wetted
surface field. Choose
the Holtrop estimate.
Click OK to enter this
value into the field.

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A General Example

19

Any field with this button


located next to it can be
estimated using a documented
method.

3.6

Step 6 - Enter Appendage Data


Click Edit | Appendage
data or the
corresponding toolbar
button.
Enter or select the following
data about the Shafting for this
craft:
Count: = select 2
Max prop diameter: = 0 (we can
ignore propulsion details for
now)
Shaft angle to WL: = 10 (an
estimate)
Exposed shaft length: = 0
(unknown)
Shaft diameter: = 0 (unknown)
Wetted surface: = 13
Strut bossing length: = 0
(unknown)
Bossing diameter: = 0
(unknown)
Wetted surface: = 8.4
Hull bossing length: = 0
(unknown)
Bossing diameter: = 0
(unknown)
Wetted surface: = 6.9
The following details about a
single Strut are entered for this
craft:
Count: = select 1
Root chord: = 0
Tip chord: = 0
Span: = 0
T/C ratio: = 0
Projected area: = 0
Wetted surface: = 5.5
Exposed palm depth: = 0
Exposed palm width: = 0
The following details about the

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

The prediction of resistance is not complete with the analysis of


the added drags. Appendage drag can be a significant portion of
the total drag.

20

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


Rudders are entered or
selected:
Count: = select 2
Rudder location: = select
Behind propeller
Type = select Balanced foil
Root chord: = 2.58
Tip chord: = 1.79
Span: = 3.87
T/C ratio: = 0.15
LE sweep: = 0
Projected area: = 0 (unknown)
Click the estimate button
located next to the
Wetted surface field.
Choose the ChordSpan-Thick calc
estimate, then click OK
to bring this value into
the field.
The following Skeg/Keel data
are entered for this craft:
Count: = select 1
Type: = select Skeg
Mean length: = 0 (unknown)
Mead width: = 0 (unknown)
Height aft: = 0 (unknown)
Height mid: = 0 (unknown)
Height fwd: = 0 (unknown)
Skeg projected area: = 0
(unknown)
Skeg wetted surface: = 58.5
This particular vessel does not
have Stabilizers:
Count: = select 0.
Enter the following about Bilge
keels:
Count: = select 2
Mean length: = 0
Mean base width: = 0
Mean projection: = 0
Wetted surface: = 35.3
The ship has no Tunnel
thrusters:
Count: = select 0.
Nor does it have Sonar domes:
Count: = select 0.
No Miscellaneous appendages
are defined:
Count: = select 0.

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

A General Example

3.7

21

Step 7 - Build a Resistance Prediction


Configure the Resistance
prediction parameters (in the
left-most table):
Vessel drag: = select Calc (to
tell NavCad that you want to
predict the bare-hull drag)
This will enable other fields.
(Note: Other options are to set
this to Off to clear the data, or
Lock to keep user-entered
data.)

Once all of the data is entered for the condition, hull and
appendage, you can build a resistance prediction. (With the full
commercial version of NavCad, you would also consider drag
for wind, seas, even shallow water.)

Technique: = select Prediction


(to use a prediction algorithm)
(Note: Other options allow you
to select a resistance
calculation technique based on
an Aligned prediction, to
Scale from test, or expressly
entered Defined data, such as
from a model test.)
Prediction: = Click the popup
button to display NavCad's
"Method Expert" selection table.
Continue to the next section.

3.8

Step 8 - Select the Bare-Hull Prediction Method


Continue with the selection of
the bare-hull resistance
prediction method by reviewing
the recommendation provided
by the Method Expert window.
NavCad has indicated that the
Holtrop method meets all of
the parameters. It also points
out that the method "may
underpredict for hulls with
significant immersed transom
area". Keep this in mind as you
proceed through the example!
Click Help if you would like to
see additional details about the
method, and close the help
window when you are through.
Select the Holtrop method and
then click OK to close the
window.

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

The Method Expert is a prediction method ranking system that


can help you determine which of the many prediction methods
can provide the highest reliability and success. The ranking
evaluates a variety of characteristics, from principal vessel
characteristics to speed range to hull details. These assessments
are supplemented by subjective comments based on information
from NavCad users and industry experts. It also applies
HydroComp's extensive knowledge about the various methods'
behavior. Warnings are raised if a particular method has shown
poor results for vessels of the type you have entered.

22

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

The important elements of the Method Expert window are:


Method - the name of the prediction method
Speed - a speed regime ranking
Hull - a primary hull data ranking (for principal size and shape
parameters)
Details - a ranking of available hull data details (such as bulb or
immersed transom)
Parameters - the parameters for a specific method and the
current project values, valuable for direct comparison
Notes - important considerations

3.9

Step 9 - Enter Remaining Prediction Parameters


To define these parameters to
be used in the prediction, enter
or select the following data:
Expansion: = select Standard
(this set full compliance to the
ITTC-1978 protocol)
Friction line: = ITTC-57
(standard)
Hull form factor: = select On
(standard); then click the popup
button and choose the Holtrop
[ITTC57] estimate
Speed corr: = On (for a speeddependent form factor
correction)
Spray drag corr: = Off
Corr allowance: = standard set
Roughness: = Off

A full resistance prediction requires you are describe a number


of additional parameters for the bare-hull prediction method, and
to define what additional drag methods you wish to use (e.g.,
appendages). (In many cases, you would also consider drag for
wind, seas, even shallow water.)

The only Added drag to be set


for this example is
Appendages.
Appendage: = select Calc, then
click the popup button and
choose Holtrop (Viscous
Form) method.

3.10

Step 10 - Run the Resistance Prediction


Once all of the data is entered
for the hull, appendages, and
prediction parameters, you can
build a resistance prediction.

Once you have entered all data and defined how you want the
prediction calculation to proceed, you can run the analysis.

Click Analysis |
Calculate: Resistance

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A General Example

23

from the menu, or the


toolbar button.
You will see that the button
background had turned red to
indicate that the results do not
correspond with the data. In
other words, something about
the data or parameters have
changed, and a new calculation
is needed.
Expand and contract the
Performance Summary with
the Expand button. (This is the
plus-sign [+] in the upper right
corner of the spreadsheet.) The
highlighted row is the Design
speed., which is also shown
when the spreadsheet is
contracted.
You can also shift between
result groups with the Previous
and Next buttons.
Perform a sensitivity
analysis by clicking
Analysis | Parameter
influence... or the
corresponding toolbar
button.

Results are presented in the Performance Summary spreadsheet.


You can view the entire resistance prediction results - including
all of the coefficients - from within this table. Changes to results
can be made from within the table when Edit results mode is
enabled. (This is only available in the full commercial version.)

Sometimes you may have a hull that does not fully comply with
any prediction method, where some parameters of the hull may
be outside method's range. The Parameter influence analysis
evaluates the "influence" of each hull data item.

Review the information, then


click OK to continue.

3.11

Step 11 - View and Save Graphs


Click on any header in the
Performance Summary
spreadsheet to quickly change
the graph. For example, click
on CR under the ITTC-78
COEFS group. This will change
the graph to CR vs. SPEED.

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

A graph is always shown in NavCad for quick viewing of


results. The graph is constantly updated using the most recently
calculated data.

24

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


Save the graph as a
JPEG or BMP image file
by clicking Tools | Save
graph as... or the
corresponding toolbar
button.

3.12

Step 12 - Create Custom Graphs


Create a custom graph
by clicking Tools |
Graph | Multiple or the
corresponding toolbar
button (in the dropdown
list).

The [Confidence] plot help you evaluate the fidelity of your


prediction by displaying a "potential minimum" or "best
possible" drag for vessels of an appropriate type. In this
example, the plot is showing a "best possible drag" line for
High-Speed Round-Bilge Displacement Hulls (HSRBDH Min).

This will set the graph to a


multiple plot mode, and launch
a Graph options dialog for
creating and formatting a
variety of custom graphs.
If the Graph options
dialog is not displayed,
then you can open it by
clicking Tools | Multiple
graph options... or the
toolbar button.
For this example, investigate
the [Confidence] graph by
selecting it from the Presets:
field. Click OK to display the
confidence plot.

Remember the Method Expert note regarding the tendency of


this method to underpredict drag for hulls with substantial
immersed transom? This is another validation of that tendency.
Your design response would typically be to add a margin to the
prediction to account for this tendency.

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

A General Example

3.13

25

Step 13 - View and Print Reports


Generate a
report with
Tools |
Report | Data
and results
from the
menu, or
dropdown and
click the
associated
report button
from the
toolbar.

NavCad generates all reports via an integrated "report viewer". Reports can
viewed, printed, and saved as a PDF or CSV file.

General report page


layout options can
be changed through
Tools | Options... in
the menu.
Additional
formatting,
such as for
margins, can
be made by
clicking the
report viewer
page button.

3.14

Step 14 - Define the Propulsor


Click Edit | Propulsor
from the menu, or click
the toolbar button.
An initial propulsion analysis for
this example will use a
representative stock propeller
with no consideration of engine
or reduction gear - just to
evaluate efficiencies and
powers.
So, select or enter the
following:
Count: = 2 (for twin screw)
Propulsor type: = Propeller
series
Propeller type: = select FPP
Propeller series: = select B
Series

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

A variety of propulsors can be used in NavCad, including many


different types of propellers and waterjets. The specifications of
the propulsor and the power delivery are described here.

26

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


Propeller sizing: = select No
sizing
Blade count: = select 4
Expanded area ratio: = 0.55
Propeller diameter: = 3000
Propeller mean pitch = 3000
Hub Immersion = 1950
Engine file: = ignore for now
Gear efficiency: = 0.97
Gear ratio: = 1 (setting this to 1
simply makes the engine RPM
equal to the required shaft
RPM)
Shaft efficiency: = select 0.98
estimate
Oblique angle corr: = set Off
Propeller cup: = 0.0
KTKQ corrections: = Standard

3.15

Step 15 - Configure a Propulsion Analysis


Select View |
Propulsion mode from
the menu, or click the
corresponding toolbar
button to activate this set
of calculations.

After your resistance prediction is completed, you can proceed


with a propulsion analysis. The first part of this analysis will run
calculations for a pre-defined propulsion system. Then you will
have an opportunity to optimize your propeller.

Configure the Hull-propulsor


prediction parameters:
Hull-propulsor: = select Calc (to
tell NavCad that you want to
predict the wake fraction, thrust
deduction and relative-rotative
efficiencies)
This will enable other fields.
Technique: = select Prediction
(to use a prediction algorithm)
(Note: The other options are
similar to Resistance - Aligned
prediction, Scale from test,
or Defined.)
Prediction: = Click the popup
button to display NavCad's
"Method Expert" selection table.
Select Holtrop.
Max prop diam: = 3000 (mm)
Viscous scale corr: = select On;
then select Standard
Additional System analysis
parameters to be set are:
Cavitation criteria: = 10% cav
line

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A General Example

27

Cavitation criteria: = Free run

3.16

Step 16 - Run the Propulsion Analysis


Click Analysis |
Calculate: Propulsion
from the menu, or the
toolbar button.
You can now review the
analysis results in the
Performance summary
spreadsheet, as well as view or
print any reports or graphs.

3.17

NavCad offers five different propulsion analyses - Free run,


Towing, Fixed RPM, Acceleration, and Defined. The objective
of each analysis is to find the RPM that meets the analysis
objectives. For example, in a Free run analysis, the resulting
RPM is the one which provides just the right delivered thrust to
match the total resistance at each speed.

Step 17 - Create Engine Data


Click the Engine data dropdown
list button and select Click to
define... to launch the engine
data editor.
Select or enter the following
Properties:
Description: = Engine 3000 kW
at 1000 RPM
Set Units as:
Power: = select [0.0] (format)
and kW
Fuel rate: = select [0.00]
(format) and L/h
The engine Parameters are:
Max (rated) power: = 3000
Max (rated) RPM: = 1000
Enter the following
combinations of RPM, Power
and Fuel for the MAX POWER

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

At this point, you typically will have enough information to


select an engine, and the analysis results will . Review PBPROP
(brake power per prop) in the ENGINE group and RPMPROP
(propeller RPM) in the POWER DELIVERY group to help
determine required engine power and to point you to a reduction
gear. For this example, you will define a 3000 kW engine.

28

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


CURVE:
1100
1
1
1050
3000
753
1000
3000
753
890
2793
696
790
2487
616
680
1788
443
530
1034
263
420
686
178
The 1100 RPM point is the "no
load" point of the governor limit.
Enter the following
combinations of RPM, Power
and Fuel for the DEFINED
LOAD CURVE:
1000
3000
753
890
2793
696
790
2487
616
680
1788
443
530
1034
263
420
686
178
The Defined Load Curve is
where you would enter typical
"prop curve" data, or a CPP
combinator line.
You can save this data and
build your own library of engine
files by using the Import and
Export button. Export the file
as Example.engn.
Click OK to use the data for this
project.

3.18

Step 18 - Propeller Sizing


Click Edit | Propulsor
from the menu, or click
the corresponding
toolbar button.
Enable propeller sizing for the
analysis:
Propeller sizing: = By power

Once you have conducted a propulsion analysis for a


representative propeller and have selected a main engine, you
can refine the propulsion system by sizing the propeller (and
optionally the reduction gear ratio). This step will allow you to
find the best propeller diameter and pitch for your application.

Propeller sizing is
conducted as part of the
propulsion analysis, so
click Analysis |
Calculate: Propulsion
from the menu, or the
toolbar button.
The Propeller sizing window
will be displayed. In the window
enter the following data:
Gear ratio: = select Keep and

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A General Example

29

enter 4
Expanded area ratio: = Keep
and enter 0.55
Propeller diameter: = Size
Propeller mean pitch: = Size
The propeller will be sized for
the following Design condition
:
Max prop diam: = 3000
Design speed: = 20
Reference power: = Click the
estimate button, and select the
engine's Rated power value
Design point: = Click the
estimate button, and select
100% MCR
Reference RPM: = Click the
estimate button, and select the
Rated RPM value
Design point: = select 100%
rated (to size for full rated
RPM)
Click the Size button and
review the results. Click OK to
update the propeller data with
the new results.

3.19

Step 19 - Review the Propulsion Analysis


The Propulsion analysis is
completed upon closing of the
Propeller Sizing window. The
engine and propeller matching
can be further evaluated
graphically.
Create a custom graph
by clicking Tools |
Graph | Multiple or the
corresponding toolbar
button (in the dropdown
list).
If the Graph options
dialog is not displayed,
then you can open it by
clicking Tools | Multiple
graph options... or the
toolbar button.
Select the [Engine load] from
the the Presets: field. Click OK
to display an engine-propeller
plot. This plot displays the

propeller's brake power


demand overlayed with the

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

The Propulsion analysis is finished. Review the resulting results


groups - HULL-PROPULSOR, ENGINE, EFFICIENCY,
POWER DELIVERY, CAVITATION, and PROPULSOR COEFS.
In particular, look for results that have notice symbols, such as
"!!". These indicators are explained in the Symbols and values
page of the report (typically the last page).

30

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo


engine's power curve.
Define Benchmark vessels for
reference by clicking Tools |
Propulsion analysis |
Benchmark vessels.

Equivalent performance figures can be derived from the


benchmark vessels. These benchmark points provide compatible
system-level comparisons to known ships.

Enter the following data for Ship


1:
Description: = Diving support
Length on WL: = 84.75
Displacement: = 2950
Speed: = 18
Installed brake power: = 7100
Power margin: = 10
And for Ship 2:
Description: = Fisheries
research
Length on WL: = 75.2
Displacement: = 2520
Speed: = 20
Installed brake power: = 9200
Power margin: = 0

Click OK to save this data.


Check one final plot to insure
that the prediction is sound.
Open the Graph options
dialog by clicking Tools |
Multiple graph
options... or the toolbar
button.

The Propulsion [Confidence] plots can be used to insure that the


predicted speed-power is reasonable and reliable. The
representative minimum power line plus the Benchmark vessels
indicate that the power may be just a bit too optimistic.
However, we already knew that the bare-hull resistance was
expected to be somewhat low, and the use of a resistance margin
to account for this would increase the predicted power.

Select [Confidence] from the


the Presets: field. Click OK to
display the confidence plot.

This plot displays the


appropriate confidence line
(s) with any Benchmark
vessels that may have been
defined.

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

A General Example

3.20

31

Step 20 - Closing NavCad


Save your file with File |
Save, or the
corresponding toolbar
button.
Close NavCad by clicking File |
Exit.

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

This general tutorial example has illustrated a typical resistance


and propulsion prediction. There are many other features of
NavCad that were not demonstrated. However, we encourage
you to review the other features (with their supporting help
pages).

32

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

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33

Part

IV
Supplemental Tools

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34

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Supplemental Tools
NavCad provides a number of Supplemental tools, which are independent of standard
resistance or power prediction analyses. You can find these utilities and calculations in the
Vessel analysis, Propulsion analysis, and Utilities groups under the Tools menu.
Clicking on one of the Quick-calc reports will immediately run a prediction and launch a report.
All data, results and parameters are shown on the report. The other supplemental calculations
will be launched from its own data entry form.

4.1

Export Propeller CAD Shape


Export propeller CAD shape is a utility which creates a representative CAD shape of the defined
propeller. This utility uses the propeller's series, diameter, and number of blades to export a file
in IGES format of a properly scaled propeller shape. This shape can then be imported into CAD
software to enhance the visualization of a vessel CAD design. Note: This is not a proper 3D
geometry of a propeller, just a representative single surface that can improve the look of a
propeller on your vessel CAD designs.
The propeller shape includes blades and hub for a right-handed propeller, which can be copied
and "mirrored" in the CAD software for a left-handed propeller. Ducted propellers will also
include a generic nozzle shape. To help with properly locating the propeller shape onto a
defined propeller shaft, the shape also contains two points within the hub that can be used to
snap and orient the shape onto your shaft line. The graphic below shows a sample of the CAD
shape for a 4-bladed open propeller.

Example
A propeller must be defined in the Propulsor table before exporting the propeller CAD shape.
1. Click Tools | Utilities | Export propeller CAD shape... from the menu to export a CAD
file of the propeller shape in IGES format.
2. Then use import the file in your CAD modeling program.

4.2

Resistance Parameter Influence


This form provides supporting information about the selected resistance prediction method.

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Supplemental Tools

35

Sometimes you may have a hull that does not fully comply with any prediction method, where some
parameters of the hull may be outside method's range. The Parameter influence analysis evaluates
the "influence" of each hull data item.

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37

Part

V
Data Files

HydroComp Common Format Files

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38

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Data Files

5.1

HydroComp Common Format Files


Data files created by NavCad (2012 and newer) are ASCII text files that follow a set of specifications
based on the HydroComp Common Format. The specifications of this format are not published
here, but you can contact HydroComp if you need clarification or additional documentation.

JSON format
All HydroComp Common Format files are based on the JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)
architecture [Kaplan, 2011]. The format for data contained in JSON files will be recognizable to
anyone that has written C-language code, as the organization is very much like a C-language class
data structure. Each block begins with an identifier for a data group (e.g., "Units", "Hull,
"SpeedPerformance") and within each block are a series of related entries.

Project files
The project and external data files for NavCad 2012+ area:
1. HydroComp NavCad (*.hcnc). This project file contains all of the calculation parameters
and results of a NavCad analysis. No external reference files (e.g., for engines or waterjets)
are needed, as all imported data is saved with the file.

Common object files


It is useful for certain data to be contained in an external object file. For example, main engine
or waterjet data can be prepared and saved for use in multiple projects. These files will conform
to a HydroComp Common Object specification (also in JSON format). They are:
1. HydroComp Common Engine Object (*.engn). Contains power-RPM and other information
about an engine model.
2. HydroComp Common Waterjet Object (*.wjet). Contains speed-thrust-power performance and
other information about a waterjet model.
3. HydroComp Common Propeller Object (*.prop). Contains test thrust and torque coefficients
and other information about a propeller model.
4. HydroComp Common Ship Object (*.ship). Contains test resistance and hull-propulsor
performance from a ship model test or sea trial.
5. HydroComp Common Tunnel Thruster Object (*.tthr). Contains the project data for the
tunnel thruster utility.
Note: Common object data that is imported into a NavCad project will be embedded into the
project data file.

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39

Part

VI
Prediction Sources

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40

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Prediction Sources
This chapter contains summaries of the many performance prediction sources used in NavCad.

6.1

Vessel
The various vessel-specific resistance and hull-propulsor prediction methods found in NavCad
are described here.

A note about hull parameter symbols


Care has been taken to define the particular nature of a symbol. For example, certain parameters
are related to the waterline and the letters WL are appended to identify this (e.g., BWL for beam on
waterline). Other identifiers include PX for the value for planing.
Many of the older series and methods defined their reference length to be a "length
between perpendiculars" (LPP). As noted in the Hydrodynamic Dimensions topic,
equivalent LWL figures were identified for these method, and parameters based on LWL are
used here.
CVOL is a length/volume parameter, equal to LWL/VOL1/3. (It is often called the "fineness" or
"slenderness" coefficient.) This parameter is used in place of the traditional "displacementlength ratio" to insure compatibility with varying water densities, and to express this information
in a truly non-dimensional manner.

6.1.1

Holtrop
Reference

Holtrop, J., "A Statistical Re-Analysis of Resistance and


Propulsion Data", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 31, No.
363 Nov 1984.
Holtrop, J., "A Statistical Resistance Prediction Method With a
Speed Dependent Form Factor", Proceedings SMSSH '88, Varna,
Oct 1988.
Holtrop, J. and Mennen, G.G.J., "An Approximate Power
Prediction Method", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 29,
No. 335, July 1982.
Holtrop, J., and Mennen, G.G.J., "A Statistical Power Prediction
Method", International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 25, October 1978.

Vessel type

Commercial and naval vessels, Single and twin-screw

Prediction scope

Hull:
Data estimates
Resistance:
Bare-hull resistance
Propulsion:
Hull-propulsor interaction coefficients

Parameters

Propellers 12
CP(LWL) 0.550.85
LWL/BWL 3.914.9
BWL/T 2.14.0
Lambda 0max determined by FN (see Remarks below)
Includes analysis for: Immersed transom and bulbous bow

Speed range

FN(LWL) 0.060.80 [see note]


Note: The upper limit for the speed range may be shown as less than

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Prediction Sources

41

in the original publication. HydroComp has identified and developed an


upper speed constraint that is a function of certain hull parameters,
notably transom immersion. The Method Expert will adjust the upper
speed limit of this method based on this constraint.
Formula error

Not presented.

Methodology

3-D CW , ITTC-57 CF, random model tests and full scale trial data.
Pseudo-drag coefficient.
Full scale, open propellers.

Remarks

A random collection of 334 models of tankers, bulk carriers, cargo


ships, fishing vessels, tugs, container ships and military craft
make up the data set.
[Resistance]
Widely regarded as a complete and reliable method for cruiser
stern ships, it seems to underpredict resistance for transom-stern
craft. (Use of the speed-dependent form factor correction
improves this tendency.)
The regression is derived with a speed-dependent relationship
using the Havelock wave shape as its foundation. The basis for
the use of the Havelock theory is currently out of favor, as a
speed-dependent analysis like Havelock has trouble matching the
typical CW /CR curve shape below FN of about 0.3
An additional parameter lambda has been added to the data
check for this method. Anecdotal experience and testing by
HydroComp have identified combinations of hull parameters that
produce significant errors with the Holtrop method, and lambda
has proven to be an indicator of these potential errors. Lambda is
a parameter used within the Holtrop method and is equal to 1.446
* CP - 0.03 * L/B. A recommended upper limit for lambda has
been developed by HydroComp and is used in the data check and
the Method Expert ranking.

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43

Part

VII
Symbols and Values

Symbols and Values

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44

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Symbols and Values

7.1

Symbols and Values


ACCEL
CA
CAVAVG
CAVMAX
CF
CP
CPPITCH
CR
CR MULT
CT
CTH
CTLR
CTLT
CTN
CTP
CV
dCF
DELTHR
DIST
EFFO
EFFOA
EFFR
EFFR MULT
FN
FNB
FNH
FUEL
FV
HUMP
J
JH
KQ
KQJ3
KT
KTH
KTJ2
KTN
KTP
LC
LIFT
LK
LK/LP
LM
LOADENG
MINBAR
PBPROP
PBTOTAL
PDPROP
PEBARE
PETOTAL
PITCHFC
PRESS
PSPROP
PSTOTAL
QPROP

Vessel acceleration in G's


Correlation allowance
Average predicted back cavitation percentage
Peak predicted back cavitation percentage [if in oblique flow]
Frictional resistance coefficient
Propulsor thrust loading coefficient
Operational pitch of CPP
Residuary resistance coefficient
Bare-hull residuary resistance multiplier for aligned prediction
Total bare-hull resistance coefficient
Horizontal component of bare-hull resistance coefficient
Telfer residuary resistance coefficient
Telfer total bare-hull resistance coefficient
Propulsor thrust loading coefficient
Propulsor power loading coefficient
Viscous resistance coefficient
Added frictional resistance coefficient for roughness
Total vessel delivered thrust
Accelerating distance traveled from start
Propulsor open-water efficiency
Overall propulsion efficiency [=PETOTAL/PSTOTAL]
Relative-rotative efficiency
Relative-rotative efficiency multiplier for aligned prediction
Froude number [LWL]
Froude number [BCH] by effective chine beam
Froude number [H] by water depth
Fuel rate per engine
Froude number [VOL]
Blount (M factor) hump-speed multiplier
Propulsor advance coefficient [axial]
Propulsor advance coefficient [horizontal, if in oblique flow]
Propulsor torque coefficient
Propulsor torque loading ratio
Propulsor thrust coefficient [axial]
Propulsor thrust coefficient [horizontal, if in oblique flow]
Propulsor thrust loading ratio
Nozzle thrust coefficient
Propeller component of thrust coefficient [=KT-KTN]
Wetted length on chine [planing]
Hydrodynamic planing lift coefficient
Wetted length on keel [planing]
Predicted wetted keel vs chine length ratio
Mean wetted length [planing]
Percentage of engine max available power at given RPM
Minimum expanded blade area ratio recommended by selected cavitation criteria
Brake power per propulsor
Total vessel brake power
Delivered power per propulsor
Bare-hull effective power
Total effective power
Minimum recommended pitch to avoid face cavitation
Average propeller loading pressure
Shaft power per propulsor
Total vessel shaft power
Propulsor open water torque
2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Symbols and Values


RAPP
RBARE
RBARE/W
RCHAN
REQL
RMARGIN
RN
RN
RNPROP
RPMENG
RPMPROP
RSEAS
RTOTAL
RWIND
SIGMA07R
SIGMAN
SIGMAV
SPEED
SPEEDADV
TAU07R
THD
THD MULT
THRPROP
TIME
TIPSPEED
TRANSP
TRIM
WFT
WFT MULT

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Additional appendage resistance


Bare-hull resistance
Bare-hull resistance to weight ratio
Additional shallow/channel resistance
Equilibrium planing resistance
Resistance margin
Reynolds number [LWL or LM]
Reynolds number [LM] by mean planing length
Propeller Reynolds number at 0.7 r/R
Engine RPM
Propulsor RPM
Additional sea-state resistance
Total vessel resistance
Additional wind resistance
Cavitation number of blade section at 0.7R
Cavitation number of propeller by RPM
Cavitation number of propeller by vessel speed
Vessel speed
Vessel speed of advance [=SPEED*(1-WFT)]
Thrust loading coefficient [at 0.7R, for cavitation]
Thrust deduction coefficient
Thrust deduction coefficient multiplier for aligned prediction
Open-water thrust per propulsor
Accelerating time-to-speed from start
Propeller circumferential tip speed
Transport factor
Dynamic trim angle
Taylor wake fraction coefficient
Taylor wake fraction coefficient multiplier for aligned prediction

45

47

Part

VIII
Commercial Features

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

48

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Commercial Features
These are features that are only available in the commercial version of NavCad.

8.1

Blade Scan Analysis


Many propellers have radially varying pitch distribution, so definition of an appropriate mean pitch is
necessary. The Blade scan analysis utility can be used to estimate important propeller parameters
from typical blade scan data. Using measured chord and pitch from the blade scan, this utility will
provide estimates for mean pitch (also known as the hydrodynamic effective pitch) and EAR (the
expanded blade area ratio).
Note: If only a few radii have been scanned, however, you can select a standard blade outline
shape (e.g., Gawn, AU) that gives the closest shape to your measured points.

8.2

Catamaran Interference
A catamaran is made up of two hulls in close proximity with each other, and this proximity
causes some measure of hydrodynamic interaction. In some cases, this interaction is extremely
small. In other cases, it can be quite significant. The NavCad demo only supports Monohulls.
Catamaran interference is generally a function of hull geometry, spacing, and speed. There will
be a change in the viscous (frictional) drag due to a number of factors, such as a "blockage
effect" between the hulls. The increase in local water speed between the demi-hulls changes
local pressures and wave systems, non-symmetric flow changes the stern wave system
(particularly with a transom-stern), and the reflection of waves off of the other hull interact with
the principle waves. There is an additional effect with planing catamarans, whereby the altered
water flow results in a different "angle of attack" of the planing body.
HydroComp has developed algorithms for the prediction of the interference factors using a
variety of model tests, CFD analyses, and full-scale trials.

8.3

Custom Bow and Stern Shape Coefficients


The Holtrop and Anderson methods use "shape coefficient" to help describe the hydrodynamic
influence of the stern shape. (The demo only allows use of standard values, which can be
selected in the field estimates.)

2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Commercial Features

8.4

49

Confidence Plots and Benchmark Vessels


One of the options in the Resistance and Propulsion multi-line graphs is a [Confidence] plot. These
plots help you evaluate the fidelity of your prediction by displaying a "potential minimum" or "best
possible" drag for vessels of an appropriate type. An addition to the Propulsion [Confidence] plot is
the ability to include points for up to five Benchmark vessels. This feature allows entry of basic data
(length, displacement, speed, power), from which NavCad scales equivalent values for the project
ship. These benchmark points will therefore provide compatible system-level comparisons to known
ships.

Confidence plots
These plots display the predicted RBARE (for Resistance) or PBTOTAL (for Propulsion) versus
Speed. Lines of anticipated lower limits are added to provide end-user guidance. In other words, it
would be unexpected to have a vessel with a drag or power prediction that would be lower than the
plotted confidence lines. In these examples, the plots are showing a "best possible drag" line for
high-speed round-bilge displacement hulls (HSRBDH Min) and a "best power" line for round-bilge
monohulls (RB monohull). The plots suggest that the example prediction may be a bit too optimistic,
and the use of a resistance margin would increase the predictions.

An additional option is the Efficiency confidence plot. This compares the prediction of propeller
efficiency against the calculated Ideal efficiency and an estimate of the "best reasonable" state-ofthe-art efficiency.

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50

HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Benchmark vessels
An addition to the Propulsion [Confidence] plot is the ability to include points for up to five
Benchmark vessels. (See the Propulsion confidence plot above.)This feature allows entry of basic
data (length, displacement, speed, power), which which NavCad scales equivalent values for the
project ship. These benchmark points will therefore provide compatible system-level comparisons to
known ships.

8.5

Drag Reduction
In the full NavCad, once hull data has been entered and a resistance prediction built, you can use
the supplemental Drag reduction calculation to evaluate how a change in a hull parameter can
reduce drag. You can define Primary and Secondary speeds of operation, and NavCad evaluates
and ranks the influence on drag for significant data items (e.g., length, beam, LCB).
The change that would lead to a reduction in drag is indicated (e.g., Increase [+]) and is ranked
by the influence of change in drag versus the change in the parameter. Significant parameters
are shown in blue.
When Speed and Time at speed are entered for both Primary and Secondary operation, the
analysis evaluates a weighted influence of the parameter. More than just a time-weighted
influence, the analysis includes the basis bare-hull resistance at each speed to derive a Total
energy weighted influence. In other words, since resistance at top speed can be substantially
more than at lower speeds, it should (and does) have greater significance in the analysis.

8.6

Dynamic Stability
Beyond the steady-state equilibrium of forces and moments that are evaluated for planing hull,
the full commercial versions of NavCad provides a basic assessment of dynamic stability. This
is only pertinent to planing hulls, and deals with both longitudinal (porpoising) and transverse
(roll) stability.
NavCad provides a prediction of the likelihood of longitudinal dynamic instability (more
commonly known as "porpoising"). Porpoising is a complex coupling of heave and pitch that are
2013 HydroComp, Inc.

Commercial Features

51

dependent on a variety of hull properties, such as loading, speed and LCG position. Three
different evaluation algorithms are evaluated in NavCad.
The prediction of transverse (roll) stability is based on a comparison of VCG to a virtual
"metacenter". This is a simplified "uncoupled" check (i.e., without effect of appendages or
coupled yaw), and is therefore likely to be conservative.
NavCad evaluates the criteria and presents the likelihood of dynamic stability as Stable (no
instability is indicated), Uncertain ! (instability is potentially indicated), or Unstable !! (instability
is clearly indicated). Where multiple methods are available, a Summary is shown.

8.7

Dynamic Trim
While the Planing hull analysis in NavCad incorporates an equilibrium-trim analysis that
explicitly identifies the dynamic operating trim at each speed, certain non-planing hull types (i.e.,
transom-stern "semi-displacement" forms) also will trim at higher speeds. The Dynamic trim
supplemental calculation provides predictions for dynamic trim.
In the full commercial version of NavCad, there are two prediction methods available for the
prediction of dynamic trim for ITTC-78 (CT) hulls, and one additional method for Planing hulls.

8.8

Effect of Initial Trim


In an effort to reduce fuel consumption, ship operators are often interested in the effect of initial trim
on the performance of the vessel. This supplemental tool, available in the full NavCad, will provide a
rudimentary assessment of the effect of initial trim on bare-hull resistance. It is only available for
ITTC-78 (CT) analysis.
Once hull data has been entered and a resistance prediction built, you can use the supplemental
Effect of initial trim calculation to evaluate how much change in bare-hull resistance can be
achieved for a constant displacement with different amounts of trim. A trim range of +/- 20% draft is
presented. (Positive trim is by the stern.) You can define Primary and Secondary speeds of
operation, and NavCad evaluates a Total energy weighted average of two speeds.

8.9

Hydroacoustic Analysis
Many ships operate with a highly-variable propeller wake field caused by appendages, skegs,
and narrow blade tip clearance to the hull. This can result in high impulse pressures and blade
tip vortices as the propeller blades pass through regions of changing water velocity. This is
particularly significant when the blade tip is nearest the hull, where these impulses and the tip
vortex can be causes of noise and vibration. The commercial version of NavCad offers some
simple hydroacoustic analyses that can be used to evaluate the potential for noise and vibration.
Multiple parametric analyses are employed to assess the hydroacoustic properties. First, direct

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numerical calculation is made for blade pass frequency, propeller tip speed, and cavitation
number at the tip. Tip speed is checked and compared to standard criteria.
Two methods are available to estimate cavitating and non-cavitating blade impulse pressures.
Criteria for acceptable levels of blade impulse pressure will vary by application and hull
geometry (e.g., deck height above the stern aperture), but NavCad compares the predictions to
recommended ranges.
The pressure associated with the volume of the tip vortex can also be a source of noise and
vibration. An engineering analysis of both tip vortex acoustic pressure and predicted noise
levels at the hull nearest the blade tip is based on a "Tip Vortex Index". There are no criteria for
minimum levels of these indicators.

8.10

Oblique Flow Correction


Propeller performance is typically evaluated from model tests. Tests of individual propeller
models are used to determine the thrust and torque performance for a particular application,
and the multiple tests of a propeller "series" are the basis for prediction charts and formula (e.g.,
B Series). One characteristic of virtually all propeller model tests is that the water flow is axial (i.
e., in line with the propeller axis). Axial flow is suitable for laboratory tests, but it does not
necessarily correspond to real "behind-the-ship" applications. In fact, true axial flow is rare.
Non-axial flow commonly known as oblique flow (or inclined flow) can greatly influence
propeller performance when the angle of the oblique flow is high. What is considered high? That
depends on the application, but one would expect to see measurable effects above 5 degrees
of shaft angle and significant effects at 10 degrees or more.

NavCad's oblique flow analysis includes consideration of:


Shaft angle (and its cosine effects against horizontal)
Added rise of run (for the additional increase in inflow angle to the propeller
Inflow angle effects (for variations of "effective pitch" against the water flow as the propeller
rotates)
Suitable corrections for ducted propellers

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Planing Station Estimate


The planing station estimate utility in the full version of NavCad allows you to enter station
offsets of the planing bottom for the two representative planing stations (Aft and Fwd). Offsets
are entered from centerline to the maximum chine (where separation is expected to occur). The
utility will then calculate the proper chine beam and height below waterline, as well as an
effective deadrise.
The plot shows the station offsets (red), effective deadrise (green), and the waterline position at
the station (blue).

8.12

Propeller Cup
A widely used technique to alter propeller performance is with propeller cup a curvature
applied to the trailing edge of a propeller blade. Propeller cup is simply the deformation of a
propellers trailing edge toward the pressure face (see the figure below). Providing a measure of
camber to the blade, it changes the pressure distribution along the blades chord length
adding lift toward the trailing edge, thus allowing greater cavitation margin with increasing thrust
loading.

A propeller with cup acts like an uncupped propeller with a higher pitch. By describing the
amount of cup "drop" (dimension X above), NavCads cupping performance model can predict
the change in thrust and power, as well as appropriate cavitation levels.
Note: NavCad's current cupping prediction model is based on a re-analysis of the original work
(plus new supplemental data). This provides increased KT and KQ prediction accuracy, as well
as improvements in the prediction of cavitation breakdown.

8.13

Propeller KTKQ Corrections


Propellers do not always exactly match the tested propeller series. For example, the propeller's
overall size may be different from the tested model, it may be thicker or of a different foil shape,
or it may have edges that are not as smooth, for example. NavCad allows the user to make a
number of correction to the prediction of KT and KQ to reflect these differences.

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HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

Scale correction
An often overlooked correction necessary for a true reflection of full-scale performance is scale
correction. When a propeller is tested at a particular size (say, 250 mm or 10 in), the results of
the test include the influence of the water's viscosity. As a propeller's is increased (perhaps by
as much as 20-30 times), the change in the effect of viscosity is not consistent with the
proportional change in the size of the propeller. The KT and KQ charts and equations are usually
presented for one particular value of RN that represents a nominal model-scale propeller. These
nominal KT and KQ values are generally adequate "as is" for small craft propellers in slow and
moderate speed operation. As vessel speed, propeller RPM or diameter increases, however,
the effect of scale is much more pronounced. Thus, scale correction is an important
consideration for proper performance prediction.

KT & KQ multipliers (thrust and power factors)


A designer should try to choose the series that most closely resembles the propeller under
consideration. It is very possible, however, that none of the series will exactly match the given
propeller. Most propellers are different in some small manner or another from these series. For
example, the edges of smaller commercially available propellers do not have the precise "knifeedge" found on the tested models. Also, the root of the blades at the hub and the blades
themselves may be heavier on certain propeller models.
The most precise method to consider these differences is with the Aligned series or KTKQ data
propulsor type options. In many circumstances, however, a reference propeller is not available.
So, thrust and power multipliers can be applied to the prediction of KT and KQ (and in turn to the
propeller's efficiency) to account for common differences. Finding appropriate values of the
factors may require information from the manufacturer about how their propeller's performance
compares to standard series.

Geometric corrections
NavCad includes two additional corrections for any differences in thickness/chord (t/c) ratio and
blade roughness from the series standards.

Cavitation breakdown
The model propellers of the open-wheel series were tested in both non-cavitating and cavitating
modes. This allows for the effect of excessive cavitation on KT, KQ and efficiency to be
evaluated. The methods used to find the breakdown of thrust and torque are different for each
series:
B Series based on limiting thrust load and torque load coefficient lines.
Gawn AEW and Gawn KCA a relationship was developed by HydroComp based on a
re-analysis of the Gawn KCA data using cavitation and loading coefficients.
Kaplan 19A a modified version of the above cavitation breakdown for use with Kaplan
KA propellers in the 19A nozzle.

8.14

Propeller Sizing By Thrust


NavCad allows a user to select propeller parameters to meet either of two principal design load
options referred to as "identities" by propeller designers. These design load identities are "By
power" or "By thrust" (or its variant "By total drag"). The demo only allows sizing "By power".
By power. This option is typically used only when the operational thrust is not well defined,
such as if total resistance is questionable or if the vessel's operational thrust demand varies
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greatly. For example, Towing or Fixed engine RPM analyses are heavily influenced by the
maximum installed engine power (such as you would see with a harbor tug pushing a tanker,
or during a bollard test), so you would typically always size By power.
By thrust. Free run applications would be considered differently. Early in the design process
before an engine model is selected you generally are interested in finding a propeller to
match the hull's resistance demand, so you would size a propeller By thrust. Given your
defined maximum diameter, the propeller will then be optimized for a proper thrust
requirement, and you can see the corresponding required power and optimum RPM to help
select your engine and gear ratio. (Remember to consider your service margins throughout
this process.)
By total drag. A convenient variant of sizing By thrust is to size By total drag, where the
required thrust for the sizing is automatically calculated from the predicted total resistance
and thrust deduction.

8.15

Propulsor Options
The NavCad demo only supports a 4-bladed fixed-pitch B Series propeller 0.55 blade area ratio
as the propulsor option. The commercial version of NavCad also provides for use of waterjets
and propeller test data.

Propeller types
The NavCad demo supports only a Fixed Pitch Propeller (FPP). These propellers have a blade
that is rigidly fixed to its hub. Other options found in NavCad include Controllable Pitch
Propellers (CPP) and Contra-Rotating Propellers (CRP).

Propeller series
While the B Series open-wheel propeller series is only supported in the demo, there are nine
other series available in NavCad three open-wheel series, five ducted propeller series, one
surface-piercing series, and one cycloidal propeller method. The three open-wheel propeller
series are the B Series, Gawn AEW and Gawn KCA. For ducted propellers, NavCad includes
Kaplan propellers in the 19A, 33 and 37 nozzles in both KA and KC variants. The SP Series is
for surface-piercing propellers and the Cycloidal is used for the "Voith-Schneider" type cycloidal
propellers.

Aligned series
A propeller Aligned series prediction correlates a series prediction to the entered KT/KQ data of
the reference propeller. This allows you to alter the series' prediction based on the performance
of the propeller model. The resulting KT/KQ figures reflect the qualitative "shape" of the
underlying series, with a quantitative correction derived from the propeller model.

KTKQ data
Rather than using a Series or Aligned series to calculate the performance of a propeller, you
can directly point to a reference propeller's known KT/KQ data. Where a propeller series uses a
systematic collection of KT/KQ tests to make up a performance prediction algorithm, the KTKQ
data option points directly to the actual tested performance of a single reference propeller.
NavCad allows scaling of the propeller by diameter, but number of blades, pitch/diameter ratio,
and blade area ratio are constrained to that of the reference propeller.

Waterjets
In addition to propellers, propulsion analysis calculations in NavCad can be performed with
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waterjets. Unlike propellers, however, waterjet characteristics are stored in HydroComp
Common Waterjet Object (*.wjet) files, as well as directly within each NavCad project file. By
entering or importing data for a waterjet model and at least one of the impellers for the model,
the calculations with a waterjet are virtually identical to those with a conventional propeller.
Given a waterjet model, an impeller choice, vessel speed and shaft RPM, the information stored
for the waterjet is used to calculate thrust and power.

8.16

Propulsor Type for Planing


HydroComp has developed an estimate for the effect of propulsor lift on equilibrium planing
drag for different propulsor types conventional Propeller, surface-piercing propeller (SPP),
Waterjet, and Horizontal tow (to mimic a typical towing test). Propulsor lift force has traditionally
been omitted in the equilibrium analysis of planing, since there had been no prediction methods
available and the magnitudes are typically small. Also, the small reduction in hull-borne lift and
corresponding reduction in drag found with a propulsor lift component is typically offset by an
increase in drag due to a flattening of trim.
Note: The "horizontal tow" option sets the thrust vector to account for the dynamic trim (i.e.,
shaft angle is set to negative trim) to remain horizontal at all speeds. This option is useful when
validating model tests, and would typically not be used for a full-scale hull.

8.17

Shallow Water Sinkage and Trim


Shallow water contributes to a variety of hydrodynamic effects. In addition to an increase in
vessel drag, there is also a corresponding sinkage and trimming of the hull (also known as
squat). In the full commercial version of NavCad, two methods are available for the prediction of
sinkage and trim due to squat effects.

8.18

Sizing Gear Ratio and BAR


While the calculation of the optimum propeller parameters is conducted using a Numerical sizing
methodology, there are practical considerations beyond any numerical calculation that should
be evaluated for the four parameters of Gear ratio, Expanded area ratio, Propeller diameter, and
Propeller mean pitch. The sizing process also benefits from the order of parameter optimization,
and it is recommended to follow the hierarchy listed below.

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While not actually a propeller parameter, finding the optimum gear ratio (actually the solution of
optimum shaft RPM) is typically the first and perhaps most important part of a successful
propeller installation. The solution for optimum shaft RPM must be made in conjunction with a
Maximum propeller diameter. The largest diameter and the lowest shaft RPM typically produces the
greatest theoretical efficiency. However, the RPM can only be effectively lowered (and optimum
diameter increased) until the maximum allowable diameter is reached.
Small changes in expanded blade area ratio do not greatly affect theoretical performance, but the
clear trend is that less blade area increases efficiency. Cavitation limits are imposed on the solution
of optimum Expanded area ratio.

8.19

Spray Drag
An option to the prediction of resistance is for the addition of spray drag. The commercial
version of NavCad supports added spray drag for both ITTC-78 (CT) methods as well as
Planing methods.
For ITTC-78 (CT) methods, HydroComp has developed a prediction method for the added drag
due to spray in NavCad based on model tests using CVOL and B/T as the independent
variables. Spray drag is only significant above FN=1. For planing hulls, a method was
implemented that determines the area of the stagnation "whisker spray" along with a proper
prediction for the frictional resistance coefficient of the spray.

8.20

Submarine/SWATH
Prediction of resistance and hull-propulsor coefficients can be conducted with NavCad as a special
calculation using the Defined prediction technique. The resistance prediction methodology is based
on typical ITTC-78 (CT) approach, with residuary and viscous resistance. Prediction of the hullpropulsor interaction coefficients are also available.
The definition of the submerged hulls of submarines and SWATH vessels in NavCad is a treatment
of traditional parametric descriptions of "body-of-revolution" submarine hulls. The traditional
parametric data has been expanded to provide for non-cylindrical sections, as well as increased
detail of nose geometry. It also includes definition of single strut geometry suitable for SWATH
vessels.

8.21

Synchronous Pitching
Pitching is the bow up-and-down motion that a ship exhibits when moving into seas. One of the
more severe conditions that a ship might encounter is pitching when traveling into regular heads
seas. Given the right combination of ship-to-wavelength ratio and speed (or period of
encounter), a ship can develop a very dangerous resonance called Synchronous pitching.
Two levels of synchronous pitching are evaluated Severe or Moderate. NavCad evaluates the
criteria and presents the likelihood of synchronous pitching as Unlikely (no synchronous
pitching is indicated), Possible ! (synchronous pitching is potentially indicated), or Likely !!

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(synchronous pitching is clearly indicated).

8.22

Tunnel Thruster Sizing


The Tunnel thruster sizing utility is a tool to size and analyze bow and stern tunnel thruster
geometry, as well as the thruster's propeller. It is for a conventional transverse cylindrical tunnel
using a typical right-angle gear with a 4-bladed fixed-pitch propeller (FPP) of a Kaplan shape.
There are two principal calculation modules in the utility sizing the tunnel (diameter vs. power
vs. thrust) and sizing the propeller (gear ratio, EAR, and pitch).
The utility allows the initial sizing of proper tunnel diameter, input power, or maximum net thrust
(given one of the three variables). The propeller sizing feature uses the general sizing
calculation functions from NavCad. The fundamental propeller KT and KQ performance is based
on 4-bladed Kaplan style propellers in axial cylinders with a correction to properly model fully
symmetric sections.
Note: Flow curvature into (and out of) the tunnel creates a useful thrust component, much in the
same way that a nozzle contributes thrust to a ducted propeller unit. Therefore, the total net
thrust is the sum of the thrust of the propeller plus the added thrust from the tunnel. The tunnel's
contribution is based on nozzle contribution methodology developed for the HydroComp
PropElements detail propeller design software, where the a prediction of the tunnel thrust
contribution is a function of propeller loading, tunnel inlet radius, tunnel length, propeller hub
size, and tip gap (between the propeller and tunnel wall).

8.23

Vessel Prediction Methods


The NavCad demo only supports the Holtrop ITTC-78 (CT) prediction methods for resistance
and hull-propulsor interaction coefficients.
Other prediction methods available in the commercial version include:
Andersen

Single and twin-screw cargo ships

Blount-Fox

Twin-screw planing hulls

BSRA Series

Single-screw, cruiser stern cargo ships

DeGroot HC

Transom-stern, hard-chine craft

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DeGroot RB

Transom-stern, round-bilge craft

Delft Series (1)

Deep-keel sailing yachts

Delft Series (1/2)

Deep-keel sailing yachts

Delft Series (1/2/3)

Deep-keel sailing yachts

Delft Series (2)

Light displacement, deep-keel sailing yachts

Delft Series (2/3)

Light displacement, deep-keel sailing yachts

Denny

General use

Doust Trawler

Trawlers and work boats

Fung (CRTS)

Transom-stern, round-bilge vessels

Fung (HSTS)

Transom-stern, round-bilge vessels

Hamburg EWB Series

Low-speed, "extremely wide beam", low L/B ships

Holtrop

Commercial and naval vessels, Single and twin-screw

Jin (1980)

Transom-stern, round-bilge vessels

Jin (1988)

Transom-stern, round-bilge vessels

Kostov

Full form, single-screw ships

Lahtiharju (HC)

Transom-stern, hard-chine vessels

Lahtiharju (RB)

Transom-stern, round-bilge vessels

MARAD

Full form, single-screw ships

Mercier

Transom-stern, round-bilge and hard-chine craft

NPL Series

High-speed, transom-stern, round-bilge semi-displacement hulls

NTUA Series

Transom-stern, double-chine craft, semi-displacement craft

Oortmerssen

Single-screw small ships, tugs, trawlers

Roach

Tugboats

Savitsky

Prismatic, constant deadrise planing hulls

Series 60

Single-screw, cruiser stern cargo ships

Series 62

High deadrise, transom-stern planing hulls

Series 65B

High deadrise, transom-stern planing hulls

Simple Planing

Any planing hull

Simple Sailboat

Auxiliary-powered single-screw sailboats.

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Simple Ship

Any displacement hull

Simple Towboat

River barge train towboats

Simple Waterjet

Any displacement hull

SSPA Cargo Series

Single-screw, cruiser stern cargo ships

Swift

Full form, single-screw ships

UBC Series

Low L/B, heavy displacement fishing vessels

USNA YP Series (HC)

Transom-stern, patrol craft

USNA YP Series (RB)

Transom-stern, patrol craft

Webb Cargo Ship

Single-screw ocean and coastwise cargo vessels, bulkers, tankers

Webb Small Ship

Tugs, trawlers, lighters, small ships

Webb Twin-Screw

Twin-screw ocean-going cargo vessels and cruise liners

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Part

IX
The NavCad User's Guide

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HydroComp NavCad 2013 Evaluation Demo

The NavCad User's Guide


The User's Guide for the full commercial version of NavCad is a thorough instruction manual for
NavCad operation. It is also a comprehensive resource on various hydrodynamic topics. An
extensive Guide to NavCad Operation is followed by technical background for the calculations and
chapters containing detailed insight into individual prediction methods.

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