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UEO n 168-EN-22

Master 1 IMA
Master 1 IMDEA

tutorial labs in Physical Acoustics

Laurianne Barguet, Louis Delebeque, Guillaume Penelet, LAUM, UMR CNRS 6613

annee universitaire 2014-2015

Organization of the tutorial labs


Formation of binomes
You are asked to form a binome with one of your colleague. Trinomes are not allowed. Attribute
yourself a binome number, and then proceed to the different tutorial labs (1 tutorial lab per 4h session)
according to the table below.
binome

session 1

session 2

session 3

session 4

TP1

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP1

TP3

TP4

TP1

TP2

TP4

TP1

TP2

TP3

TP1

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP2

TP3

TP4

TP1

TP3

TP4

TP1

TP2

TP4

TP1

TP2

TP3

Preparation of the tutorial labs, reports.


Each of the tutorial lab requires preliminary, theoretical works. These preliminary works should
be treated before the lab session. Some of the theoretical derivations you are asked to perform have
not been yet treated in the lecture course (or wont be treated during the course), so that you may
need to consult textbooks such as A.D. Pierce (Acoustics : an introduction to its physical principles
and applications), M. Bruneau (Manuel dAcoustique Fondamentale), or C. Potel and M. Bruneau
(Acoustique Generale).
You are asked to write a report for each of the tutorial lab. This report can be handwriten or
(preferently) typewriten. It must be given to your advisor one week (at the latest) after the
tutorial lab, either by E-mail (pdf file) if it is typewritten, or in the personal box of your advisor (2nd
floor of the acoustics building).

1.- Radiation impedance of a duct


Equipment
a duct
a baffle
an impedance sensor and its devoted software (capteurZ)

Objectives
to measure the radiation impedance at the end of the duct
to compare experimental data with theory (sound emission from a piston in an infinite wall)

To do list
Preliminary questions (not to be treated during the tutorial labs)
1. Give the approximate expression of the radiation impedance Zrad. , in the low frequency range,
of a duct terminated with an infinite bafle (this has been treated as an exercise during the first
semester).
2. Show that the expression of the input impedance at the entrance of a duct (length L) terminated
by a load impedance Zload is given by :
Zinput = 0 c0

j tan kL +

Zload
0 c0

1 + j Zload
tan kL
0 c0

(1)

3. Now assume that Zload = Zrad. , and assume that |Zrad. | << 1. Calculate the expressions of the
resonant frequencies as well as the amplitude of acoustic pressure at resonance.

Preliminary note
During the second semester, we will show that the analytical expression of the radiation impedance
of a duct terminated with a rigid bafle is given by (without the low frequency approximation) :


J1 (2ka)
S1 (2ka)
Zrad = 0 c0 1
+i
,
(2)
ka
ka
3

where a stand for the radius of the duct, and where J1 and S1 stand for the Bessel function of
the first kind (and order 1) and the Struve function, respectively. In order to see how does the
radiation impedance vary with the frequency (more precisely with the parameter ka), you can
download and execute the matlab programs radiation impedance.m and struve.m at the following
url : www.univ-lemans.fr/~gpenelet/TPM1

Experiments
1. Proceed to the impedance sensor calibration (ask your advisor if you do not know how to do).
2. Measure the input impedance of the duct when it is terminated by a rigid wall.
3. From the obtained results, calculate the sound speed for each resonant frequency (phase velocity
of the wave, which accounts for energy dissipation due to viscous and thermal losses along the
inner walls of the duct). To that purpose, you should treat the problem of the propagation of
plane waves through a duct with dissipation, the dissipation being treated as a complex wave
number

k=
[1 + (1 i)] ,
c0
with  1 to be determined ( may vary with frequency . . .). The wave velocity is then given
by c = /<(k).
4. Measure the input impedance of the duct when it is terminated with a baffle, and determine the
amplitudes and the frequencies fi of the resonances. Compare your results with the ones you
would obtain from a simple modeling neglecting the radiation impedance at the end of the duct
as well as thermoviscous losses inside the duct, and provide a discussion about the differences
between the experimental results and the model.
5. From the measured input impedance of the duct terminated with a baffle, calculate (using
Matlab/octave and the raw data Zinput ) the impedance Zload at the end of the duct (which
actually corresponds to Zrad ), and proceed to a plot of its real and imaginary parts as a function
of frequency.
6. Compare the real part and the imaginary part of the radiation impedance obtained from
measurements, with the ones given by theory (exact solution and low frequency approximations).
Provide a discussion of these results.
7. Repeat the measurements when the duct is open to free space, and compare your results with
the ones obtained with a baffle. Provide a discussion of these results.

2.- Monopole, dipole, quadrupole


Equipment

One small loudspeaker in an enclosure.


Two small loudspeakers
A microphone
Audio power amplifier
Appropriate software and data acquisition card for measuring Frequency Response Functions
A phase shifter

Objectives
The objective of this tutorial lab is to characterize the radiation of sound by elementary sources.
To that purpose, a single or several loudspeakers will be used in order to tune the directivity of sound
radiation. More precisely, the objective is to realize a monopole, a dipole, a lateral quadrupole and a
linear quadrupole.

To do list
Preliminary questions (not to be treated during the tutorial labs)
1. Assume you have a source which is made by four small pulsating spheres driven in phase and
placed at the corner of a (virtual) square, each source being separated by a distance d. Accounting
for the distance d between each elementary source, what is the maximum frequency above which
the assumption of a ponctual source (i.e. the 4 sources considered as a unique one) is no longer
valid ?
2. Accounting for the size and the distance between the sources, what is distance from the sources
above which the far-field approximation may be reasonably retained ?
5

Figure 1 monopole

Experiments
Monopole
1. Build a monopole (just take the loudspeaker enclosure) and choose an appropriate distance from
the source to the microphone.
2. Proceed to the measurement of the frequency responses functions of the acoustic source from
50 Hz to 500 Hz and for different values of the azimuthal angle (an appropriate choice of
the angular discretization should be made in order to be able to trace directivity patterns).
From the obtained data, trace the directivity pattern of the source at a frequency to be chosen
appropriately.
3. Calculate the volume velocity radiated by the source (consider this source to be equivalent to a
monopole, and use the theoretical formula for the radiation of a monopole)
Dipole

Figure 2 Dipole

1. Build a dipole (take a loudspeaker without an enclosure)


2. Proceed to the measurement of the frequency responses functions of the acoustic source from
50 Hz to 500 Hz and and for different values of the azimuthal angle . From the obtained data,
trace the directivity pattern of the source at a frequency to be chosen appropriately.

3. Is the observed directivity in agreement with theory ?


4. Proceed to the ratio between the frequency responses of the dipole and the one(s) of the
monopole. Is the obtained result in agreement with theory (in both terms of frequency response
and directivity pattern) ?
5. Determine from your measurements the distance separating the two (virtual) elementary sources
of the dipole (once again, use the theoretical formula for the radiation of an acoustic dipole).
Lateral quadrupole

Figure 3 lateral quadrupole

1. Build a lateral quadrupole


2. Proceed to the measurement of the frequency responses functions of the acoustic source from
50 Hz to 500 Hz and and for different values of the azimuthal angle . From the obtained data,
trace the directivity pattern of the source at a frequency to be chosen appropriately.
3. Proceed to the ratio between the frequency response of the lateral quadrupole and the one of the
monopole. Is the obtained result in agreement with theory (in both terms of frequency response
and directivity pattern) ?
Linear quadrupole

Figure 4 Oblique quadrupole

1. Build a linear quadrupole


2. Proceed to the measurement of the frequency responses functions of the acoustic source from 50
Hz to 500 Hz and and for different values of the azimuthal angle . From the obtained data, trace
the directivity pattern of the source at a frequency to be chosen appropriately. Proceed to the
ratio between the frequency response of the lateral quadrupole and the one of the monopole. Is
the obtained result in agreement with theory (in both terms of frequency response and directivity
pattern) ?
Bonus
If time is remaining, build once again an linear quadrupole, but apply a phase shift (e.g. of about
/3) to one of the two loudspeakers. Proceed to the measurement of the directivity pattern. Discuss
the obtained results, and compare with a model (cf. infra)
Theoretical analysis
This part should be treated after (or possibly before) the tutorial lab, and it is aimed at getting
a deeper insight about the differences between the experimental results and the analytical results for
the radiation of a monopole, a dipole, and a quadrupole.
1. Consider that each of the loudspeakers can be modeled as two pulsating sphere (of appropriate
radius, and separted by some distance d). Compute the radiation of a set of two loudspeakers in the different configurations mentioned above (i.e. monopole, dipole, linear and lateral
quadrupoles), and calculate the resulting acoustic pressure at some point corresponding to the
observation point in experiments.
2. Compare the resulting directivity pattern with the one obtained in experiments and with the
one obtained theoretically (assuming both the radius of the sources and the distance between
the sources are small compared with the wavelength).

3.- Guided waves in a cylindrical duct


Equipment
Duct with four microphones arranged on the four quadrants of a section at one end, and equipped
with two loudspeakers at the other end
A data acquisition system (with four channels) and four microphones
Audio power amplifier

Objectives
To measure the amplitudes of the modes 10 and 20 below and above their associated cut-off
frequencies

To do list
Preliminary questions (not to be treated during the tutorial labs)
1. From the knowledge of the inner diameter of the duct, determine the cut-off frequencies of the
modes 10, and 20.
2. Assuming that only the plane wave mode and the mode 10 and 20 are existing within the duct,
give the expression of the acoustic pressure measured by each microphone. Show that the linear
combinations of the measured acoustic pressure should allow to determine the amplitudes of each
mode (00, 10, 20), and explain how we can anticipate the positions of the nodal lines associated
with the modes 10 and 20.

Experiments
Calibration of the transducers
1. Proceed to a careful relative calibration of the microphones. A way to proceed is to excite the
device at low frequency (for which only the plane wave mode is present) and to compare the
signals delivered by each microphone relative to one of the four microphone (seen as a reference
microphone). Check that the microphone have the same sensitivities in both terms of amplitude
9

10

and phase. If this is not the case, you should use these measurements to define a correction of
the frequency response functions you will be asked to measure in the following.
Measurements of cut-off frequencies
For the measurements described below, you are asked to use a 4 channel data acquisition card, and
an adequate data acquisition software, as well as Matlab for the post-processing of data. Moreover,
only one of the two loudspeakers should be excited at first.
iij () ,
1. Proceed to the measurement of the frequency response function Hij = ppji ()
() = Aij ()e
where pi and pj are the complex amplitudes measured by microphones i and j, and where these
two microphones should be chosen appropriately to determine the cut-off frequency of the mode
10 from the phase ij () of Hij . Compare the obtained value of the cut-off frequency f10 with
a theoretical estimate.

2. Try to do a similar experiment in order to determine f20 .


Measurements of the amplitudes of each mode
1. Only one of the two loudspeakers is used to excite acoustic waves in the duct. Proceed to
the measurement of the frequency response functions Hi1 = pp1i ()
() for each microphone, where
i = 2, 3, 4 and where j = 1 is to refer to the reference microphone you chose.
2. From the results above, determine the amplitudes of the plane wave mode as well as those of the
modes 10 and 20, at the axial position x0 under consideration (the position along x of the four
microphones). To that purpose, having answered to the preliminary questions is necessary . . .
3. Now, the two loudspeakers are used to excite acoustic waves in the duct, and both loudspeakers
are driven out of phase. Proceed to the measurement of the frequency response functions
Hi1 = pp1i ()
() for each microphone, where i = 2, 3, 4.
4. From the results above, determine the amplitudes of the plane wave mode as well as those of
the modes 10, and 20, at the axial position x0 under consideration.
5. Proceed to the same measurements when the two loudspeakers are driven in-phase.
6. Discuss your results and conclude.

4.- Sound scattering by a rigid cylinder


Equipment

a PVC duct
a loudspeaker (tweeter) and an audio power amplifier
a microphone
A data acquisition system and appropriate software
three matlab program to calculate sound scattering of a plane wave by a rigid cylinder, that can
be found at the url www.univ-lemans.fr/~gpenelet/TPM1

Objectives
to measure the directivity pattern associated to sound scattering of an incident plane wave by a
rigid cylinder
to measure the frequency response at a given observation point near the cylinder

To do list
Preliminary questions (not to be treated during the tutorial labs)
1. From what you have learn during your lecture course in the first semester, and with the help of
an appropriate textbook (e.g. in [C. Potel and M. Bruneau, Acoustique Generale, ed. Ellipse,
Paris 2006]), show that if one consider the problem of a plane progressive wave which arrives
perpendicular to the axis of an infinite and rigid duct (see. Fig. 5) of radius a, then the acoustic
pressure field is the sum of the incident wave (peak amplitude P0 )
r a, pi (r, , t) = P0 eikr cos eit ,
= P0 J0 (kr) eit + 2P0

(3)

in Jn (kr) cos(n)eit

(4)

n=1

and of the scattered wave


r a, ps (r, , t) = P0

J1 (ka)
(2)
H1 (ka)

(2)

H0 (kr)eit +

11

X
n=1

n Hn(2) (kr) cos(n)eit ,


B

(5)

12

(2)

where k = /c0 stand for the wave number, where Jn and Hn are the Bessel function of order
m and the Hankel function of the second kind and order m, and where
n
n = 2in P0 Jn1 (ka) ka Jn (ka) .
B
(2)
(2)
n
Hn1 (ka) ka
Hn (ka)

(6)

2. Calculate the intensity Ir = 12 < (


pvr ) of the scattered wave. Calculate the amplitude of this
intensity for the cases = 0 and in the limit cases ka >> 1 and ka << 1.

Figure 5

Experiments
A sketch of the experimental set-up that you are asked to realize is presented in Fig. 6.

Figure 6

1. Choose the radial position r = r0 of the microphone adequately, as well as the distance from the
source to the duct. In both cases, justify the choice you have made. You should also choose the
frequency bandwidth adequately (use the Matlab program diffraction-cylindre-f.m for a choice
guidance).
2. Fix the azimuthal angle to 0 = , and measure the frequency response p(r0 , 0 , ) of acoustic
pressure relative to the source signal. Make the proposal of a procedure allowing to prevent from

13

the non-uniform frequency response of the loudspeaker. Store your data into the analyser and
proceed to the display of the frequency response corrected by the non-uniform response of the
loudspeaker.
3. Repeat this measurement when choosing 0 = 5/6, 0 = 2/3, 0 = /2, 0 = /3, 0 = /6,
and 0 = 0 (NB : if time is at your disposal, a more accurate discretization, e.g. = /12
instead of /6 would even be better . . .)
4. Compare your results with theory (use the Matlab program diffraction-cylindre-f.m).
5. From your measurements, calculate approximate directivity patterns for different frequencies,
and notably for ka << 1, ka 1 and for ka >> 1. Compare the measurements with theory
(use the Matlab program diffraction-cylindre-theta.m), and provide justifications to explain the
difference between experiment and theory.