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Specializarea: Toate specializrile

LIMBA ENGLEZ
COMUNICARE N
AFACERI
ANUL III Semestrele 1 i 2

Cluj-Napoca 2013

Cod disciplin: ELE 1050 (semestrul 1); ELE 2050 (semestrul 2)

SPECIALIZAREA

TITULAR DE DISCIPLINA

TUTORE

Contabilitate i Informatic
de Gestiune

Conf. univ. dr. Petru Maria

Lect. univ. dr. Hoprtean Ana Maria

maria.petrut@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

anca.hopartean@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

Economie i Afaceri
Internaionale

Conf. univ. dr. Plcintar Silvia


Emilia

Conf. univ. dr. Irimia Eugenia


Antoneta

Finane i Bnci

emilia.placintar@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

eugenia.irimias@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

Economia Comerului,
Turismului i Serviciilor

Conf. univ. dr. Irimia Eugenia


Antoneta

Asist. univ. drd. Nan Ioana Gabriela

Marketing

eugenia.irimias@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

Informatic Economic

Conf. univ. dr. Petru Maria

Lect. univ. dr. Hoprtean Ana Maria

maria.petrut@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

anca.hopartean@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

Conf. univ. dr. Toma Mariana

Lect. univ. dr. Kelemen Antonia


Izabella

Management

mariana.toma@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

ioana.nan@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

antonia.kelemen@lingua.ubbcluj.ro
Management linia maghiar

Conf. univ. dr. Plcintar Silvia


Emilia

Asist. univ. dr. Ionescu Alexandra


Denisa

emilia.placintar@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

anda.ionescu@lingua.ubbcluj.ro

Condiionri i cunotine prealabile


nscrierea i frecventarea acestui curs presupune parcurgerea i promovarea
programei de studiu din anii 1 si 2 de la FSEGA la disciplina Limba englez, sau un
nivel de limba englez cel putin B2 conform Portofoliului lingvistic european.
Descrierea cursului
Cursul se adreseaz studenilor de la Facultatea de tiine Economice i Gestiunea
Afacerilor, care i-au nsuit deja deprinderile vizate de cursurile practice generale
de limb englez aplicat la domeniul afacerilor (anii I-II). Studenii trebuie s
manifeste curiozitatea de a recurge la bibliografie i disponibilitatea de a lucra
interactiv.

Organizarea temelor n cadrul cursului


Organizarea temelor din cadrul cursului precum i bibliografia care trebuie
consultat sunt prezentate n detaliu n paginile introductive ale syllabus-ului.
Formatul i tipul activitilor implicate de curs
Studentul are libertatea de a-i gestiona singur, fr constrngeri, modalitatea i
timpul de parcurgere a cursului. n cadrul cursului vor fi abordate urmtoarele tipuri
de activiti: proiecte de grup, proiecte individuale, studiu individual, activiti
tutoriale.
Materiale bibliografice obligatorii
Sursele bibliografice obligatorii pentru acest curs se regasesc n syllabus-ul aferent
cursului. Dintre acestea, enumerm:
Beresford, Cynthia. Business Communication. Practical Written English
for the Modern Business World, BBC English by Radio and
Television, 1995.
Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication Today,
McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.

Brieger, N, S. Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar


and Functions, Prentice Hall, New York, 1994.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura Fundaiei
pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar, R., J. Petit, M. Flatley. Basic Business Communication, IRWIN,
Illinois, 1993.
Calendar al cursului
S
tema

termen
predare

pt

n
a
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Communicating in Business
Professional Communication
noiembrie
Types of Communication
Effective Communication
Avoiding Discrimination in Communication
Writing Employment Documents
ianuarie
Interviews
Memos. Minutes.
Reports
Types of Business Letters. Letter of Inquiry aprilie
and Reply. Letter of Complaint. Letter of

11
12
13
14

Apology and Settlement. Orders.


Business Meetings
Planning a Presentation
Presentations. Intercultural Aspects.
Negotiating in Business

mai

Politica de evaluare i notare


-

tipurile de evaluare ce vor fi utilizate: test gril, proiect de cercetare.

criteriile de notare pentru sarcinile notate i grila de notare: evaluarea


studenilor se va realiza conform detalierii de mai jos:
Examinare n timpul semestrului (Proiect)
Examinare final
Rspunsuri la ntrebrile bazate pe materialul citit

40%
40%
20%

(activitate semestriala ) / participare i contribuie la


studii de caz, simulri
-

situaiile n care temele/proiectele au fost predate dup data limit, studenii


nu au participat la testele pariale sau examenul final i orice alte activiti ce
presupun un termen limit, dar nu au fost realizate sau depuse la timp, sunt
notate dar n aceste situaii se vor practica deduceri din punctajul aferent
sarcinii.

studenii trebuie s pstreze toate sarcinile realizate pe parcursul cursului


pn la primirea notei finale

forma sub care studenii vor primi feed-back la sarcinile realizate: prin e-mail
de ctre tutori, prin comunicare direct pentru cei ce solicit acest feed-back

Elemente de deontologie academic


Codul de deontologie academic reglementeaz urmtoarele:
Frauda se refer la:
a. Copiat (utilizarea de materiale sau informaii neautorizate), plagiat, falsificri,
i orice alte activiti care pot afecta o corect evaluare a performanelor
studenilor;
b. Ajutorul acordat altora n aceste privine
c. ncercarea de a se angaja n astfel de fapte.
Studeni cu dizabiliti

Exist disponibilitatea de a lua legtura cu studenii afectai de dizabiliti motorii


sau intelectuale pentru a identifica eventuale soluii n vederea oferirii de anse egale
acestora. Calea de comunicare prin care putem fi contactai pentru acest gen de
situaii: e-mail sau prin comunicare direct pentru cei ce solicit acest feed-back
Strategii de studiu recomandate
Numrul de ore estimativ pentru parcurgerea cursului (suport de curs, activiti,
discuii, sarcini etc.) este de 100.

Contents

Chapter 1
Unit 1
Unit 2
Unit 3
Chapter 2
Unit 1
Unit 2
Chapter 3
Unit 1
Unit 2
Chapter 4
Unit 1
Unit 2
Chapter 5
Unit 1

COMMUNICATION
Communicating in Business
Professional Communication
Types of Communication
COMMUNICATION STYLES
Effective Communication
Avoiding Discrimination in Communication
COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT
Writing Employment Documents
Interviews
COMMUNICATION INSIDE THE FIRM
Memos. Minutes.
Reports
COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS
Types of Business Letters. Letter of Inquiry and Reply.

9
10
14
19
22
23
26
30
31
36
41
42
47
52
53

Letter of Complaint. Letter of Apology and Settlement.


Unit 2
Chapter 6
Unit 1
Unit 2
Chapter 7
Unit 1

Orders.
Business Meetings
PRESENTATIONS
Planning a Presentation
Presentations. Intercultural Aspects.
NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS
Steps of a Negotiation
GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY

59
64
65
68
73
74
78
82

Chapter 1
COMMUNICATION
Basic Concepts:
Non-verbal/ oral/ written/ computer communication, business communication,
communication network, professional communication
Objectives:
a. to improve students command of English
b. to help students develop and practice basic skills to enable them to
operate effectively in real life situations
c. to increase students knowledge of business terms
Recommendations:
a.

read the texts carefully and try to address the corresponding tasks

b.

use the dictionary to improve your vocabulary

c.

focus on content and on language use

d.

improve your control of grammar and build your vocabulary by


practicing different types of exercises

Expected results:
a. improve students command of English
b. build up speaking and writing skills
c. practice writing for specific purposes
d. encourage the independent study and self-instruction

Unit 1
Communicating in Business
Objectives:
a) to increase students knowledge of business forms of communication
b) to provide information about the communication network of an
organization
Basic notions : types of communication, business communication, communication
network
1. Discussion
1. What do you know about the following forms of communication? Where/ when/
how/ by whom are they used?
FORMS OF COMMUNICATION

NON-VERBAL
ORAL
WRITTEN
COMPUTER

2. Read about some forms of communication in business. Can you identify some
other examples?
FORMS OF

INTERNAL

COMMUNICATION IN OPERATIONAL: the


BUSINESS

i.e.: giving orders,


assembling reports,

communicating done in

writing

conducting work within

memorandums, and

a business

communicating by

EXTERNAL

computers
i.e.: personal selling,

OPERATIONAL: work-

telephoning,

related communication

advertising, and

with people outside the

letter writing

business

Techn
ology
(com
puter,
fax)
assist
s in
makin
g&
sendi
ng
these
comm
unicat
ions.
PERSONAL: non-

It may affect worker

business-related

attitudes, which, in their

exchanges of information turn, affect worker


and feelings among

performance.

people.
3. Use the information in the table below and describe the communication
network in an organization you know.
The information flow in business can be:
COMMUNICATION NETWORK OF
THE ORGANIZATION

downward/ upward/ horizontal


The communication channels can be:

formal/ informal
(adapted from R. Lesikar, J. Petit, M. Flatley 1993: 3-15)
2. Reading
Read about the importance of effective communication in the work place. The
concluding sentence in some paragraphs of the text (1-7) has been removed. Choose
the best sentence from the list below (A-I) to conclude each paragraph. There is one
sentence that you do not need. There is an example at the beginning (0 D ).

A We can only discuss them very briefly here, although each of these four is worth an essay
on its own.
B Encouraging a free flow of input from the receiver is the best way of ensuring that
understanding has been achieved.
C The task of the communicator is to change the aspect of "fear" into that of
"understanding".
D They need to realize that successful communication is no one-way process.
E Assimilation of a concept presented by management, or by another worker, goes a long
way towards ensuring active participation, and harmonious cooperation, in the workplace.
F To communicate successfully managers and supervisors have to understand the other
person, and have to work hard to get the other person to understand them.
G However, respect for the other person is an important prerequisite for attention getting.
H The originator of the message must play his part, too, with abundant support and
encouragement.
I Effective communication requires tools and planning.
Communicating Effectively in the Workplace: Four Essential Steps
by Azriel Winnett
Ineffective communication is a major, yet avoidable, obstacle to business
productivity. And yes, it can be avoided. Given the will, the bleakest of situations
can be turned around for the better. Management must face squarely the challenge of
formulating strategies to encourage personnel to communicate effectively. On the
other hand, managers themselves have to set the example. /0 D/
On the contrary, reciprocity is the essence of communication. This applies
whether the process is conducted verbally or through the medium of the written
word. Managers are human beings involved with other human beings. They are far
more than givers of information or instructions. Communication is as much a matter
of human relationships as it is about transmitting facts. /1__/
The vital four steps in effective communication might well help people to
correct this distorted view of the communication process. Some call them the four
A's of communication. /2__/

Attention. Winning the attention of the person with whom we wish to


communicate, is an obvious first step. In order to achieve this goal, we must first try
to eliminate - as far as is humanly possible - what experts in this field call "noise".
Real empathy, all the more so important in downward communication from superior
to subordinate, leads quickly to the second step in the process - apprehension. /3__/
Apprehension. Although this word usually carries the connotation of "fear",
its primary meaning is "understanding". We have preferred the term "apprehension"
here primarily to retain the mnemonic of "four A's". Its two meanings, however, are
related; they are two sides of one coin. /4__/
Achieving apprehension is a critical part of the communication process, but it
is a very subtle one also. Managers sometimes defend their inability to communicate
by asking, "Do you understand?" On the other hand, if there is the right relationship
between the transmitter and the receiver of a message, indirect ways of establishing
the degree of understanding will present themselves. /5__/
Assimilation. As crucial as is the function of apprehension (in its positive
sense as we defined it) it is not enough. Often, a person has understood a message
perfectly, but he or she has not accepted it. Alternatively, it is accepted in a halfhearted manner, without any conviction. Communication is still incomplete if he has
not assimilated the information into his own being. The initiator has achieved an
ideal result if the recipient has assimilated the message to the extent that he becomes
one with the sender, as it were. /6__/
Action. This is the final step in our communication process. It is that
ingredient which propels abstract or theoretical knowledge into the world of reality.
If assimilation has indeed taken place, action on the part of the receiver should
follow inevitably. But what we have said about the two-sided nature of
communication applies here as well. /7__/
(http://www.hodu.com/business-communication.shtml)
3. Vocabulary
Use the following pairs of words correctly in sentences of your own, after you
discuss the differences in meaning.
accede exceed

discreet discrete

accept except

levee levy

access excess

loath loathe

allot a lot

material materiel

born borne

moral morale

complement compliment

shear sheer

correspondent corespondent

stationary stationery

council counsel

waive wave

defer differ

weather whether
(selected from Bove, Thill 1992: 613)

4. Writing
In not more than 200 words, describe the network of communication in an
organization you are familiar with

Unit 2
Professional Communication
Objectives:
a. to increase students knowledge of professional communication
b. to provide information about forms of communication in an organization
Basic notions : communication chain/ channels/ network/ skills/ effectiveness/
climate/ technology/ barriers/ crisis
1. Discussion
Identify the types of technology used primarily in internal and external- operational
communication to transmit messages.
2. Reading
Technical communication represents one of the most important elements that
contribute to the success of communication in the business environment. By reading
this fragment from Ten Technical Communication Myths, you will re-consider the
effect of communication technology and the contribution of the specialists in this
domain to the development of a productive communication climate within or outside
an organization. It is not business properly, but you will see that it is indispensable
to the modern business world. Decide whether the following statements (1-7) are
true (T) or false (F).
1. Despite the degree of abstraction or exaggeration that makes myths so fascinating,
there is often a grain of truth but no insight into some fundamental aspects of the
human condition at their heart.
2. The things we usually do in our daily work are strongly influenced by "rules of
thumb".
3. Some modern communicators misinterpret the occasional rule to the point where it
becomes valid for any circumstance it is applied to.
4. There are 14 central myths in modern technical communication.

5. It is a rule that audiences are always dynamic.


6. Technical communicators know that documentation is very expensive.
7. A culture can reinvent a myth by recasting it in their own unique context.
Ten Technical Communication Myths
by Geoff Hart
Myths often represent the very human attempt to explain something
important but poorly understood, such as the turning of the seasons, or to provide
cautionary tales to warn listeners against unsanctioned behavior, as in the myths of
Prometheus and Epimetheus. The fascination inspired by myths has kept many alive
across the millennia, but despite the degree of abstraction or exaggeration that makes
them so fascinating, there is often a grain of truth or an insight into some
fundamental aspects of the human condition at their heart. In our current enlightened
age, we fancy that we've grown beyond the need for myths, yet "urban legends"
abound (particularly on the Internet), and many of the things we do in our daily work
are strongly influenced by "rules of thumb" that are, in a very real sense, a form of
myth.
(par. 1)
As any other profession, technical communication has accumulated its share
of mythical rules of thumb, but the good news about our profession's myths is that
they too contain grains of truth and insights into things that are truly important to us.
The bad news is that we've also internalized some of these myths to the point that we
no longer question them and have begun to let them constrain our choices rather than
to help us remember and see the truth. Some communicators even overgeneralize the
occasional rule to the point where it loses its validity and becomes dangerously
misleading.
(par. 2)
So what myths do we live by? In no particular order, this paper presents my
"top 10 list" of what I consider to be the central myths in modern technical
communication. There are undoubtedly others. By acting as devil's advocate,
intentionally presenting these myths in a bad light, I'm hoping that I can persuade

you to question these and other rules of thumb that you use daily. When you pay
closer attention to the rules you obey, consciously or otherwise, and question why,
you can start to recognize the disabling aspects of a myth and begin taking steps to
free yourself from those constraints. And here they are:
(par. 3)

Knowledge of Specific Tools Is Vitally Important (1)

Sans Serif Fonts are Always More Legible Online (2)

Audiences are Static (3)

Minimalism Means Keeping Text as Short as Possible (4)

The Optimum Number of Steps in a Procedure is 7 Plus or Minus 2 (5)

You Can Make a Bad Interface Easy to Use Through Superior


Documentation (6)

We Cant Talk to the SMEs (7)

Usability Testing is Prohibitively Expensive and Difficult (8)

Single-sourcing Means Dumping Printed Documents Online (9)

Documentation is a Cost Center (10)


(par. 4)
But myths aren't always invalid. Myths endure because no matter how much

they simplify or exaggerate reality, they are nonetheless based on something truthful,
something important to us, or something that sheds a bright light on an aspect of our
lives. Two of the things that fascinate me most about mythology are just how
universal the themes can be and how creatively each person or culture can be in
reinventing a myth by recasting it in their own unique context. Folklorist Josepha
Sherman has observed that "Myths are attempts to explain the cosmic truths.... All
peoples have the same questions, and so all peoples have the same basic type of
myths."
(par. 5)
Each of the ten myths I've presented in this guest editorial passes this test for
that idiosyncratic group of people known as technical communicators. My hope is
that each of us will find ways to answer those universal questions for ourselves by
seeking out the underlying truths and building on them to create something more

useful and fascinating still. By making the myths more relevant to ourselves, we
reinvigorate them and ourselves. One obvious way to do this is to re-examine our
current rules of thumb and see how they can be refined. After all, the thing to
remember about "rules of thumb" is that thumbs bend when necessary.
(par. 6)
(adapted from: http://www.techwrl.com/techwhirl/magazine/gettingstarted/tenmyths.html#myth1)
3. Vocabulary
Explain with your own words; if possible, find synonyms for the following:
Paragraph 1: cautionary, unsanctioned, fancy
Paragraph 2: share, insights, overgeneralize, misleading
Paragraph 3: advocate, obey, disabling
Paragraph 4: legible, interface dumping
Paragraph 5: shed, attempt
Paragraph 6: idiosyncratic, invigorate, refine
4. Writing
Learn how to write a correct paragraph!
The paragraph consists of several sentences all related to the same topic. It is a unit
of thought. It involves logical thinking.
The paragraph consists of three basic elements:
Elements
Topic sentence

Role
It contains the essence of the whole paragraph
(main idea).
It indicates how the subject of the paragraph
will be developed.
It can come first, in the middle, or last,

Related sentences

depending on the writers plan.


Explain the topic sentence.
They are more specific than the topic sentence,

Transitional elements:

dealing with some details.


They indicate how paragraphs and ideas are

Connecting words (i.e. conjunctions)

related.

Repeated words or phrases

They make the text coherent.

Pronouns
Words that are frequently paired
illustration

Methods to develop a
paragraph

- it gives examples that

comparison or contrast

demonstrate the general idea


- it presents similarities or

discussion of cause and

differences among thoughts


- it focuses on the reasons of

effect
classification

something
- it indicates the specific

discussion of problem and

categories of a general idea


- it presents a problem and

solution

debates a possible solution to


that problem
(adapted from Bove, Thill 1992: 129)

DO NOT FORGET:
Limit each paragraph to one general idea! Write short paragraphs (100 words or
less)! Leave out unessential details! Your message should contain unified, well
developed, and coherent paragraphs!

Unit 3
Types of Communication
Objectives:
a. to increase students knowledge of different types of communication
b. to provide information about the main characteristics of different
communication instances
Basic

Notions:

varieties,

functions,

characteristics,

verbal/non-verbal

communication, oral/written communication


1. Discussion. Study the table below:
Types of communication
Nonverbal

Varieties

Facial expressions,

verbal
oral
Face-to-face conversation

written
Letters

eye behaviour,

Phone conversation

Memos

gestures and

Conferences

Minutes

postures, vocal

Presentations

Reports

characteristics,

Meetings

personal

Interviews

appearance,

Training programmes, etc.

touching behaviour,
use of time and
Functions

space
Supports and

It largely has an interactive

informative,

clarifies verbal

function.

persuasive,

communication

It can be: locutionary (say

collaborative

something), illocutionary

(inquiring,

(content), perlocutionary

claiming,

(intention), constatative/

ordering,

performative (according to the

acknowledging,

theory of speech acts).

accepting,

It can be: representative

refusing, etc.)

(statements); directive (order,


request, advice); promising
(promise, offer, inviting);
expressive (congratulating,
thanking); declarative

Main

Less-structured, not

(appointment, declaration).
Easy, spontaneous, efficient,

planned,

learned,

quicker, more convenient than

controlled,

spontaneous, it

written communication, it

organized

facilitates feedback.

It is more likely

characteristi often occurs


cs

unconsciously

to involve
creative effort.

Importan
ce

More reliable and

It maximizes collaboration.

It increases the

more efficient than

It saves time and provides

senders control

verbal

opportunities for social

but makes

communication

interaction.

immediate

- In job interviews

feedback

- In speech delivery

impossible.

(adapted from C. L. Bove, J. V. Thill, Business Communication Today, New York: Mc Graw Hill
Inc., 1992)

2. Writing. Answer in two paragraphs: Is written communication or spoken


communication more susceptible to be misunderstood and misinterpreted?

Summary
This chapter contains information about communication in general and
business communication in particular. Different forms of communication were
presented within the context of professional communication.
Test Your Knowledge

Take into account the following positions: company president, chief


accountant, supervisor, business consultant, and worker. To what extent is the
ability to communicate important to the successful performance of each of
them? Address the question to some other jobs you consider worth
discussing.

How much personal communication should be permitted in a business


organization?

Think of an organization you are familiar with and make a list of the means
used for downward communication (i.e. methods used by top executives to
inform individuals about the organization itself, organization policies,
employee or member responsibilities, etc.). Compare your list with another,
made by one of your colleagues. Which of the systems described is better?
How could the organization improve its downward communication?

Think of a communication experience you have had recently. Describe it


taking into account the main elements communication involves (sender,
receiver, the message, the transmission channel, feedback, any possible
barriers which affected the communication process).
Bibliography

Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication


Today, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Brieger, N, S. Sweeney. The Language of Business English.
Grammar and Functions, Prentice Hall, New York,
1994.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura
Fundaiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar,

R.,

J.

Petit,

M.

Flatley.

Basic

Communication, IRWIN, Illinois, 1993.


Chapter 2

Business

COMMUNICATION STYLES
Basic Concepts:
formal/informal style, simplicity, coherence, cohesion
Objectives:
a. improve students command of English
b. help students develop and practice basic skills to enable them to
operate effectively in real life situations
c. increase students knowledge of business terms
Recommendations:
a. read the texts carefully and try to address the corresponding tasks
b. use the dictionary to improve your vocabulary
c. focus on content and on language use
d. improve your control of grammar and build your vocabulary by
practicing different types of exercises
Expected results:
a. improve students command of English
b. build up speaking and writing skills
c. practice writing for specific purposes
d. encourage the independent study and self-instruction

Unit 1
Effective Communication
Objectives:
a. to teach students how to compose an accurate, clear and concise message
b. to provide information about style, audience and the sender of the
message
Basic notions : style, register, formality, audience, effective listening
1. Discussion
1.1. There always exists a company style you should be prepared to adjust to as an
employee. Think of a company whose employee you would like to become. What do
you know about that companys style? Could you subordinate your own style to that
of the company you chose?
1.2. When delivering speeches and presentations you have to decide on the style you
will use casual or formal. Identify some particular events and topics, decide upon
the appropriate style and give your reasons for the choice youve made.
2. Reading
Read the following text about style in business communication and point out the
main ideas.
Have you got style?
Most people connect the word style with fashion, particularly with clothes. In
a sense, language too is either "dressed up" or "dressed down", depending on the
situation you are in or who you are talking to. Style covers a variety of subjects but
two aspects of style which are vitally important in business communication are
formality and diplomacy. (1)

Formality. English is different from many other languages in that its spoken
form differs considerably from its written form. Naturally, written English tends to
be more formal. Spoken English contains a great many contractions such as "it's",
meaning "it is" or "it has", "I've", meaning "I have", "he's", meaning "he is" or "he
has", "we'd", meaning "we would" or "we had". These contractions, used widely in
conversation, are not used in written English (except, perhaps, in informal friendly
letters). They would not be used in a formal letter or report. (2)
Another aspect of formality which is important in report writing, for example,
is the use of the passive voice. If you were giving advice in spoken English, for
example, you would probably use an "active" sentence, such as "If I were you, I'd
relocate the factory." This type of sentence would not be used in a business letter or
report. The sentence would probably read: "It is recommended that the factory be
relocated." (3)
Diplomacy. In addition to formal written style, English also has a unique
diplomatic spoken style. Native speakers often try not to sound too direct. Examples
of this tactful style include using I'd like instead of I want. Another example is
"Perhaps we should now consider..." rather than "Now, it's time to consider...". (4)
Native speakers also try to avoid giving an unnecessarily negative
impression. For example, instead of saying "That is impossible" they say "That is not
very likely". Notice the use of would which gives a more tentative sound to a
statement or question. For example, "That is too expensive" can become "That would
be rather expensive". Statements are usually softened by qualifiers such as rather,
somewhat, quite, some, etc. (5)
Modifying your language in this way can be a useful tactic in business
dealings when you are trying to establish a pleasant cooperative atmosphere,
particularly with people of other cultural backgrounds. In many business meetings
and negotiations such diplomatic use of the English language can be a very positive
aid to avoiding direct confrontation with your counterparts and a useful tactic. (6)
Non-native speakers whose own language is far more direct may find it odd
to use such diplomatic language. However, they should at least be aware of its
existence, especially if they are doing business with native speakers of English. (7)
(http://www.linguarama.com/ps/294-6.htm)

3. Writing
Does audience represent a problem for you? Explain.
Profile
take into account:

needs (information, motivational, practical)


a. Make the difference: what do they want/ need
to know?
Anticipate possible questions.

A
U

Audiences size and

Mind the quality of information (accuracy,

composition (Who?)

logic, importance, specificity)

D
I

b. Try to win the audience to your point of view


Reaction (How? Why?)

E
N
C

(agreement).
c. Current problems audience may face: lack of

Level of understanding

time, distraction, and problem priority.

(How much?)

Overcome them by: a convenient format of your

message, use devices that make the message


Relationship with the sender easy to understand (summaries, overviews,
of information (What type?)

headings, lists, appendixes, handouts, charts,


graphs, etc.)

Unit 2
Avoiding Discrimination in Communication
Objectives:
a. to provide information about forms of discrimination in communication
b. to make students avoid discriminatory writing
Basic notions : language discrimination, ethics, discriminatory writing

1 1 Discussion
Read and comment the table above. Can communication be discriminatory in certain
situations? Explain.
Possible situations in which
discrimination by
communication occurs

a. the interview for a job (discriminatory questions)


b. giving/ checking references for a post
c. employment testing
d. others

2. Reading
Read and discuss the table below:
TIPS FOR AVOIDING DISCRIMINATORY WRITING
Tips
Do not use

Suggestions
a. rephrase the sentence

Examples
a. When a client needs

masculine pronouns

assistance, it is his right to

for both sexes.

get it. = A client who needs


assistance has the right to get
it.
b. make the reference plural

b. When clients need


assistance, they have the
right to get it.

c. substitute neutral expressions

c. When assistance is needed,

(he or she, he/she, you, one,

one has the right to ask for it.

Avoid words

person)
Replace these words.

Man-made manufactured

derived from

Congressman

masculine words.

representative, member of
the Congress
Businessman business

Avoid words

Take care to the effects of your

executive
Italians are Mafia members

indicating minorities words!

Wrong!

in a stereotyped

Blacks can do only menial

way.

jobs Wrong!
the ghetto areas of the

Avoid words that

Carefully judge the use of such

city - Wrong!
e.g. mature, elderly, juvenile

indicate age.
Avoid words that

terms.
Find nonbiased vocabulary to

etc.
Deaf and dumb = hearing and

describe disabilities.

replace such words.


speech disabled
(adapted from Lesikar, Petit, Flatley 1993: 38)

3. Vocabulary
In each of the following (groups of) sentences (1-7), there are four underlined parts,
A, B, C, and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A, B, C or D, that makes
the sentence incorrect. There is always one possible answer.
What is language discrimination?
1. Language discrimination (A) means to treat someone differently solely (B)
because of his or her native language (C) or other characteristics (D) of speech.
2. (A) On the job, for example, an employee (B) may be subjected to language
discrimination if the workplace has a "speak-English-only" policy, (C) especially if
her (D) primar language is not English.
3. An employee (A) may also be the victim of language discrimination if she is
treated (B) less favorable than other employees because she speaks English (C) with

an accent, or if she is told she does not (D) qualify for a position because she does
not speak English well enough.
4. But (A) language discrimination doesn't only happen (B) in the job. For example,
a person may be denied (C) access to businesses or government services because (D)
he or she does not speak English.
5. The (A) question rises: Is language discrimination illegal? Although the (B) law
in this area is still developing, there are many court (C) decisions which have found
language discrimination (D) to be a violation of people's constitutional rights and
civil rights laws.
6. Some courts have found language discrimination to be (A) the same like
discrimination (B) based on race or national origin. (C) As early as 1926, the United
States Supreme Court ruled that a requirement that accounting (D) records be kept in
English or local dialects but not Chinese, violated the Constitution (Yu Cong Eng v.
Trinidad).
7. In 1974, the Supreme Court ruled that (A) failing to provide bilingual instruction
for public school students who did not speak English effectively (B) denied them
equal access to educational opportunities, and thus constituted national origin (C)
discrimination under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, (Lau v. Nichols). And,
as recently as 1991, the court ruled that (D) in some cases, language-based
discrimination should be treated as race discrimination (Hernandez v. New York).
(http://www.aclunc.org/language/lang-report.html)
4. Writing
Complain to the local newspaper that your firm has been discriminated by a
previous article that appeared in the same newspaper a week ago. That article
contained distorted data about your organization. You wonder whos to blame but
do not accuse your competitors.
Summary
This chapter contains information about the different styles that may be used
while communicating in business, the importance of the audience and the language
discrimination that should be avoided in professional messages.

Test Your Knowledge

Style is important in establishing a successful relation sender-audience. Do


you agree or disagree with that?

Is distorted information a source and a tool of discrimination in


communication?

How would you explain the concept of discrimination, generally, and


language discrimination, in particular?

Name some ethical dilemmas in business communication; choose one and


describe it in detail (source, elements, characteristics, ways of preventing it,
etc.)

Can a business report be discriminatory? Give examples.

In not more than 200 words make the profile of the ideal audience; consider a
particular occasion (conference, presentation, trade fair, negotiation, etc.).
Bibliography

Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication


Today, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura
Fundaiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar,

R.,

J.

Petit,

M.

Flatley.

Basic

Business

Communication, IRWIN, Illinois, 1993.

Chapter 3
COMMUNICATION AND RECRUITMENT

Basic Concepts:

recruitment,

interview, job application, communication skills

Objectives:
a. to improve students command of English
b. to help students develop and practice basic skills to enable them to
operate effectively in real life situations
c. to increase students knowledge of business terms
Recommendations:
a. read the texts carefully and try to address the corresponding tasks
b. use the dictionary to improve your vocabulary
c. focus on content and on language use
d. improve your control of grammar and build your vocabulary by
practicing different types of exercises
Expected results:
a. improve students command of English
b. build up speaking and writing skills
c. practice writing for specific purposes
d. encourage the independent study and self-instruction

Unit 1
Writing Employment Documents
Objectives:
1 1 to provide essential information about the recruitment activity
1 1 to make students aware of the skills they need when applying for a job
1 1 to improve writing skills
Basic notions : job search, application/cover letter, credibility, opportunity,
communication skills
1. Discussion
Consider the steps you have to take, the activities you should perform and the skills
you may be required in applying for a job. Do you have suggestions of your own to
improve the table below?
Essential use of communication in recruitment activity
steps
the job

activities
- analyze your work skills and

skills required
- analytical and synthetic judgment

search

qualifications

- assessment ability

- list your best prospects for

- creative thinking

employment (build a network

of contacts)

- develop a strategy for selling


the

yourself
- apply for an interview

interview

- attend the interview

1. Skills for the position you apply for:

the job

- write your CV (resume)

- functional skills (leadership, speaking

applicatio

- write the application letter

ability,

(cover letter)

- education and experience


- personal characteristics (i.e. outgoing,
articulate, great with people, aggressive,
)
2. Skills for the interview and the
written documents you have to produce
- speaking and writing skills
- use correct business vocabulary
- use correct grammar
- .

2. Reading
Read the following letter. Discuss its content (logical sequence of ideas, accuracy,
tone, style, layout, etc.). Notice what are the points the applicant is making.
3303 West Valley Cove
Round Rock, Texas 78664
August 5, 1990
Personnel Assistant
JD Employee Credit Bank of Texas
P.O. Box 32345
Austin, Texas 78745
Dear Personnel Assistant:
I am writing about your newspaper ad in the August 1 Austin-American Statesman
concerning your need for an experienced programmer in the database environment. I
believe that I have the qualifications and experience that you are looking for.

As for my experience with database programming, I have worked for the past year as
a programmer/analyst in the Query database environment for Advanced Software
Design. In that capacity, I have converted a large database that was originally written
in a customized C language database into the Query database environment. I am
currently working on a contract with Texas Parks and Wildlife to make major
modifications to its existing Query database application. On both of these
assignments, I have also served as customer contact person.
Related to this database-programming experience is the work I have been doing to
write and market an automated documentation utility for Query database
applications. This product was written using a combination of C, Pascal, and Query
programming languages. I was responsible for the authorship of the Pascal and
Query programs. The Pascal programs are completely responsible for the user
interface and system integration management.
Enclosed you will find a resume, which will give you additional information on my
background and qualifications. I would welcome a chance to talk further with you
about the position you are seeking to fill. I can be reached by phone between 9:00
a.m. and 6:00 p.m. at (512) 545-0098.
Sincerely,
Virginia Rementeria
Encl.: resume
(http://www.io.com/~hcexres/tcm1603/acchtml/applex2.html

3. Vocabulary
Use the word given in capitals at the end of each gapped line (1-10) to derive a word
that fits in the space.

Job fairs, like interviews, are face-to-face meetings


between 1__ and employers. They are one of the easiest SEEK
places to find good job leads. Every employer 2__ is ATTEND
there to hire one or more workers. At a fair, jobseekers
gather 3__ about a company to help them decide if they INFORM
want to apply for a job. 4__ staff booths and answer RECRUIT
questions, distribute brochures, accept resumes, and size
up jobseekers. Making a good 5__ at a job fair may give IMPRESS
your resume or 6__ added weight. The 7__ tips can help APPLY
you make the most of any fair. But you have to find the FOLLOW
fair. Career centers, associations, State and local 8__, GOVERN
and private companies organize job fairs. Find the fairs
in your area by looking 9__ they might be announced. WHERE
Ask a career counselor, review the business bulletin
board at your school or local library, check the
employment section of the newspaper, and search online
via an Internet job fair 10__. You know that before LOCATE
attending a fair, you should prepare a resume. Bring
several copies to the fair. Leave at least one with every
company that seems promising.
(http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp.txt)
4. Writing
Read the following useful phrases in an application letter and use some of them to
apply for the position of a financial adviser in a multinational:
Getting attention:

Highlight your strongest work skills: When you need a who can call
me.

Mention the name of a person highly regarded by the reader: When X of your
division spoke to our business communication class last week, he said you
need.

Make reference to publicized company activities or achievements: The


Financial Times reports that you may need the expertise of a ..for the
opening of your new division in Germany.

Use a question referring to the organizations needs: Can your R&D division
use a specialist in with nine - year experience in the field, a BA in
chemistry and a real desire to succeed? If so, please consider me for the
position.

Stating the reason for writing:


I am applying for theposition advertised by your firm in..
I am seeking a position in.
Subject: Application for position (you may use a title at the opening of your letter)
Expressing motivation and expectations:
If my application were successful, I should like to
I wish to become involved in // I feel strongly that
Giving evidence of work experience:
I feel I am well qualified to for the following reasons:
As a who has, my experience would be invaluable in
My particular interest is
Through I am well aware of
By ing and ing I would be able to
Ways of ending a letter of application:
I have no urgent commitments at present.
After you have reviewed my qualifications, could we discuss the possibility of
putting my skills to work for your company?
I am available; should you wish to discuss matters further, please contact me at
I would welcome the opportunity to meet you.
You can contact me on (your telephone number) between 11 am and 6 pm at the
above address.
Expressing application follow-ups:
Please keep my application in your active file, and let me know when you need a
skilled// Please keep my application in your active file, and let me know when a
position opens for a capable.

Unit 2
Interviews
Objectives:
a. to prepare students to attend a job interview
b. to develop communication skills that may be used during job interviews
c. to provide information about what employers look for
Basic notions : job interview, employment interviewing, opportunity, jobseeker,
employer
1. Discussion
What types of interview do you know?
2. Reading
Read the article about employment interviewing. Choose the best sentence from the
list below (A-K) to fill each gap (1-9). There is one sentence that you do not need.
There is an example at the beginning (0 C).
A Employers say they are impressed by well-informed jobseekers.
B Another important step in preparing for a job interview is to practice describing
your professional characteristics.
C But it doesn't have to be.
D Responding to interview questions should not sound as if you are reciting a
script.
E Although these interviews often have different purposes, they all require basic
interviewing skills.
F As a starting point, try to respond aloud to the following:
G Preparation can be as important as the interview itself.
H Focus on what you learned from the experience, being careful never to criticize
a previous employer or coworker.
I The company itself is often the easiest place to start your search.

J When responding, focus on subjects related to the job.


K Clothes should be clean, well fitting, and wrinkle free.
Employment Interviewing. Seizing the Opportunity and the Job
by Olivia Crosby
Interviewing is the most stressful part of the job search for many people. /0 C/
Interviews are an opportunity to show you are an enthusiastic worker who would do
a job well. You can make the most of that opportunity by being prepared, presenting
a professional demeanor, and describing your qualifications well.
There are many types of interviews: screening interviews, designed to whittle
the applicant pool; longer second and third interviews, intended to help employers
make final selections; and telephone and video conferencing interviews, arranged to
capitalize on available technology. /1/ Read on for advice about what to do before,
during, and after a job interview.
Preparation. Career counselors say a good job interview starts well before
the jobseeker and interviewer meet. /2/ Researching, practicing, and dressing
appropriately are the first steps to making the most of a job interview.
Research. One of the best, but most frequently overlooked, ways to
demonstrate enthusiasm for a job is to research both the company and the position
for which you are being interviewed. /3/ Before arriving for an interview, you should
know what the company does, how large it is, any recent changes it has undergone,
and what role you could play in its organization. Try to learn about the company's
goals and values. With these facts, you can show how your qualifications match the
company's needs.
/4/ Many businesses fill their websites with information tailored to
jobseekers. These sites often include a history of the company and a description of its
products and customers. And many companies' human resources departments will
send recruiting information if you request it.
Public libraries and career centers also have valuable information about
employers, including companies' annual reports to shareholders, reports kept by local
chambers of commerce, trade journals, and business indexes, such as Hoover's
Business Index and Dun and Bradstreet.

Practice describing yourself. /5/ Think of examples from past jobs,


schoolwork, and activities to illustrate important skills. Recalling accomplishments
beforehand, when you don't have to respond under interview pressure, will
strengthen your answers during the actual event.
Every interview will be different, and there may always be surprising
questions. Nevertheless, interviewers suggest rehearsing with a career counselor or
friend to gain confidence and poise. /6/
* How would you describe yourself?
* What did you like most about your last job?
* What types of courses do you enjoy most?
* Why should I select you over other applicants?
* What are your greatest strengths and weaknesses?
* What are your hobbies?
* Tell me more about the project you described on your resume.
* Describe a work or school-related problem and how you solved it.
* Tell me about a time you worked as part of a team.
* What are your short-term goals?
* Why do you want to work in this occupation and for this company?
Each question gives you an opportunity to illustrate your favorable
characteristics. /7/ For example, if asked to describe yourself, talk about your
professional characteristics and background, not your personal life.
Some questions such as those about hobbies or interests may seem
irrelevant. Interviewers ask these types of questions to learn about your personality
and test your interpersonal skills. In addition, answering questions about your
hobbies or interests allows you to highlight some of your other strengths.
Participating in a sport might demonstrate teamwork; ability in a craft, such as
needlepoint, shows an attention to detail.
Career centers and libraries have many books with additional questions and
possible answers. The goal is not to memorize responses to these questions but to
become comfortable speaking about yourself, your training and experience, and your
career goals. /8/

Whatever the question, be ready to accentuate the positive. The interviewer


might ask for a weakness or failure; choose one that does not affect your ability to do
the job, or describe a shortcoming you are working to overcome. For example, if
interviewing for an entry-level job, cite your lack of paid experience. If there are
weaknesses evident on your resume; or transcript, such as being fired from a job or
receiving poor grades, rehearse an explanation before the interview in case you are
asked about them. /9/
Interviewers suggest rehearsing with a career counselor or friend to gain
confidence and poise. The goal is to become comfortable speaking about yourself,
your training and experience, and your career goals.
(http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/employ/employ-interview/emp.txt)
3. Writing
Select a job advertisement from the local newspaper and write the following letters:
a job inquiry letter
a thank-you letter for the interview
a request for more time to decide
a letter of acceptance
a letter declining the job offer

Summary
This chapter contains information about the recruitment activity: how to
prepare for a job interview, how to write an application letter and how to detect the
skills you need when applying for a job.
Test Your Knowledge
1. Look in the local newspaper for a job advertisement or compose the advertisement
for an imaginary post you would like to apply for.
2. Write the corresponding letter of application.
3. Write a letter to follow up a job application using the information below:

A month ago you applied for the position of.with.(the name and the
address of the company) sending an application letter and your CV to, the
director of personnel. Since you have ten-year experience in ..industry and a
good academic record, you are very confident in your chance to get the position.
Unfortunately, you havent got any reply yet, so you decide to write a follow-up
letter to show your interest in the position.
Consider the following points in your letter:
You dont know what has happened with your resume and application letter you sent
them a month ago
Since you wrote, you.
You have submitted applications to several other firms but would prefer to work
at..
Write a follow-up letter tothat will reinforce your application with

Bibliography

Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication Today,


McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Brieger, N, S. Sweeney. The Language of Business English. Grammar
and Functions, Prentice Hall, New York, 1994.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura Fundaiei
pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar, R., J. Petit, M. Flatley. Basic Business Communication, IRWIN,
Illinois, 1993.

Chapter 4
COMMUNICATION INSIDE THE FIRM
Basic Concepts:
memos, minutes, reports, plannig, structure, conciseness
Objectives:
a. to improve students command of English
b. to help students develop and practice basic skills to enable them to
operate effectively in real life situations
c. to increase students knowledge of business terms
Recommendations:
a. read the texts carefully and try to address the corresponding tasks
b. use the dictionary to improve your vocabulary
c. focus on content and on language use
d. improve your control of grammar and build your vocabulary by
practicing different types of exercises
Expected results:
a. improve students command of English
b. build up speaking and writing skills
c. practice writing for specific purposes
d. encourage the independent study and self-instruction

Unit 1
Memos. Minutes
Objectives:
11 to increase students knowledge of different forms of communication
inside the firm
11 to provide information about the structure and composition of the memos
and minutes as valuable documents that help effective activity within an
organization
Basic notions : business communication, communication network, memos, minutes,
plan, composition, revision
1. Discussion
What is a memo? When and where is it used?
Are you familiar with the structure of the minutes? Why is the minutes
necessary?
2. Reading
2. 1. MEMO LAYOUT
The memo is usually used for the routine, day-to-day exchange of information within
a company.
A typical memo contains:
Date:
To:
From:
Subject:
Many organizations have memo forms printed and contain the 4 pieces of
information (arranged in almost any order, as long as they are present).

The characteristics of a memo are:

The subject line must be short but still informative.

The memo often has internal headings.

Qualities of a good memo: clarity, careful arrangement, neatness; to help


recipients understand at a glance what they have received and from whom.

Sometimes memos are addressed to groups of people: All Sales Rep,


Production Group, Assistant Vice Presidents, etc.

A memo does not require a complimentary close or a signature.

Read the following memo reporting an accident, addressed to an insurance company


in order to obtain money to repair the damaged car.
Is the memo adequately written? Would you have any suggestions for its
improvement?
Date: 1 May 2003
To: ARDAF Insurance Reinsurance Company
From: Tom Smith
Subject: Car accident
On 23 April 2003 I was driving the motor lorry with the registration number CX 473,
with the semi trailer YZ 209 from York to Manchester on the M 45. I was driving
according to regulations on the left lane.
At Junction 7 on the motorway I was outran on the left side by a green vehicle whose
registration number I was unable to see. After getting in front of my lorry, the driver
lost control of the wheel, crossing transversely the three lanes on the right, hitting the
right parapet, being thrown back and hitting the back of the trailer, the right corner of
the bumper.

We waited for the police to come and they asked for all documents and the amount
of $ 300. They took the green card and they didnt want to return it saying that this
was the procedure.
I put down the address of the police officer who took my green card.
I do not consider myself guilty for the accident as I was driving according to
regulations. The car had an excessive speed, the driver losing control of the wheel
2. 2 MINUTES
MINUTES LAYOUT
SUBJECT:
DATE:
PRESENT: (attendees are listed, generally by rank, in alphabetical order, or in
some combination)
ABSENT:
THE BODY OF THE MINUTES

includes all major decisions reached at the meeting, all assignments of tasks
to meeting participants, all subjects that were deferred to a later meeting

it objectively summarizes important discussions and the names of those who


contributed major points

additional documentation may be added, if necessary (i.e. tables, charts,


reports, etc.

CLOSE
ending formula: Submitted by (signature of the person who took the minutes,
followed by the typed name and position of the person); the typist initials should be
added if someone else typed the minutes.
3. Vocabulary

3. 1. Re-read the memo above and find antonyms for outrun, lose control, guilty,
excessive.
3. 2. In each of the following paragraphs (1-3) there are four underlined parts, A, B,
C, and D. For each sentence, find the underlined part, A, B, C, or D, that makes the
sentence incorrect. There is always one possible answer.
Writing meeting minutes
1. It is estimated that (A) up to 70% of small and medium size corporations in the
United States are not (B) in compliance to their State or Federal Requirements. They
do not document their corporation meetings with minutes, (C) have them recorded,
signed, and installed in their corporation record's book. One of the main reasons is
that their meeting minutes are incomplete and improperly recorded (D) due to the
lack of appropriate systems and tools to accurately record meeting minutes.
2. EasyScript/ComputerScript was introduced (A) to writing and typing faster, easier,
and more efficiently than any method (B) you have ever used. This revolutionary
way to learn speed writing and typing will enable you to take meeting minutes
quickly and accurately. (C) It doesn't take long to learn, just a few hours, and you (D)
can become effective taking meeting minutes and more comfortable with this work
assignment.
3. Real-time captioning and speech-to-text systems provide an accurate transcription
of words (A) for they are spoken into text. These systems (B) are mainly used in the
courtrooms and for deaf and hard of hearing individuals to provide real time
translation from speech to text and a written record that (C) can be reviewed later.
Currently, two major options (D) are available to provide real-time captioning and
speech-to-text processing.

4. Writing
4. 1. Consider the following situation:

You are a supervisor interested in your employeesopinion about the quality of food
at the canteen. You give them a questionnaire and ask them to respond to the
questions. (2 par.)
You request action: you make some suggestions for improving the service activity at
the canteen and ask your employees to vote for them. (1 par.)
You end the memo like that: Please feel free to make additional signed or unsigned
comments at the bottom of this memo. Return your completed questionnaire by
Friday.
Your task is to write the memo, following the suggestions above.

4. 2. Prepare the formal minutes of a meeting you have attended. Present it to your
colleagues.

Unit 2
Reports
Objectives:
a. to increase students knowledge of different types of reports used in
business
b. to provide information about report planning and composition
Basic notions : business reports, primary/secondary sources, factual information
1. Discussion
A business report is an orderly and objective communication of factual
information that serves a business purpose.
Prerequisites of a good report:

Carefully prepared

Unbiased approach

Based on real events, objective records and accurate data

Useful for the organization

Comment upon the information above.


2. Reading
2. 1. Here are some tips for writing a report:

consider the audience before beginning and while writing the report

describe facts or events in concrete terms

be clear and concise

report all the relevant facts

put the facts in perspective

give plenty of evidence for your conclusions

present only valid evidence and supportable conclusions

keep your personal biases in check

Choose one of them and discuss the advantages of using it and the disadvantages of
ignoring it. Work in groups.
2. 2. Generally, a report should contain:
A. title page: the report title, the name of the person/ company/ organization for
whom the report has been prepared, the name of the author, the date the report was
completed, (contract number, a security classification, i.e. CONFIDENTIAL);
include keywords in your title but omit words and phrases such as A study on,
An investigation of
e.g.: Using personal computers in PR department
Submitted to
Mr. Tom Smith
Chief Executive Officer
AMRO Bank
13 July 2003
by
Anna Thomson
PR director
B. abstract: the representation of the contents, in an abbreviated form; in a paragraph
of about 150 words, you should introduce your subject matter, tell what was done
and present selected results. The parts of the abstract are: BASIC ELEMENTS,
research problem, body, results and conclusion.
C. table of contents: contains each major section of the report.
D. introduction: your hypothesis, an explanation of your idea, your expectations//
introduces the purpose, scope (outlines the method of investigation), and background
of the research (facts that the reader must know in order to understand the
discussion)

E. body: it includes details, data, results of tests, facts, conclusions (it may consist of:
a. experiment: describe the method you used to collect your data and observations; b.
discussion: analyze the results; c. conclusion: summarize your results)
F. recommendations
G. acknowledgements: you should give credit to all who assisted you
H. references: the list includes any documentation that is not your own (books,
articles)
(adapted from Bove, Thill 1992: part five Reports and Proposals)
3. Vocabulary
DESCRIBING TRENDS
Trends are changes or movements. There are three basic trends: ascending,
horizontal, descending, each expressed by several verbs and nouns, as you can read
in the following table:
Trends

Transitive verbs
increase
raise
put/push/step up
extend
expand

Intransitive
verbs
increase
rise
go/be up
grow
extend
expand
boom

keep/ hold stable/ remain stable

Nouns
increase
rise
growth
extension
expansion
boom
stability

constant
maintain (at the stay constant
same level)
decrease
drop
put/ push down

decrease
fall
drop
go/ be down
decline

cut
reduce
collapse
slump

decrease
fall
drop
decline
cut
reduction
collapse (dramatic fall)
slump (dramatic fall)

4. Writing
You are the manager of a large high-tech retail store and you are concerned about
customers complaints of late deliveries of computers purchased. You want to know
the cause of the delays. Consequently, in a memo, you ask your assistant to write a
short report about this problem. Write the memo.
You are the managers assistant in the case above. Write the short report.
Summary
This chapter contains information about memos, minutes and reports as
useful tools in business communication. Details about their structure and layout are
given, as well as useful terms that may be included in the specific intended message.
Test Your Knowledge
a. Write a report about the consequence of introducing 20 new buses (bought from
Icarus) on the already existing routes of your transport agency. Mention the fact that
you had to hire new personnel (15 bus-drivers) and to train them. Link this project to
your future plans of expanding your business.
b. Write a report about the meeting between three bank officials and two groups of
students, requiring capital for their business. The first group wants to open a small
shop selling CDs. They have much knowledge in the field but they dont have
experience at all in business. The second group operates part-time computing
consultancy for two years already but they still have to improve their market
strategy. Give arguments for the choice of the three bank officials.
c. You are John McGuiver, the manager of the loan department of a commercial
Bank. Write a report to the Board in which you highly recommend Mr. Clark
Nicholson as a potential client of the bank. Highlight his qualities as a businessman
and mention some of his profitable businesses. Suggest that the bank committee may

trust him in offering a loan of $ 200, 000 for a new business he wants to start (The
National Gazette, a financial magazine).
d. Write short reports on the following topics:
1. What can your company do to improve the quality of its product or service?
2. Investigate the problem of unemployment in your town/city and recommend ways
to decrease it.
3. Advise your company on the advantages and disadvantages of hiring students from
the local university.
4. Report to your company on the ethics and effectiveness of subliminal advertising.
Bibliography

Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication


Today, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura
Fundaiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar,

R.,

J.

Petit,

M.

Flatley.

Basic

Communication, IRWIN, Illinois, 1993.

Business

Chapter 5
COMMUNICATION WITH PARTNERS
Basic Concepts:
block style, letter layout, style, business correspondence, meetings, planning and
steps of a meeting
Objectives:
a. to improve students command of English
b. to help students develop and practice basic skills to enable them to
operate effectively in real life situations
c. to increase students knowledge of business terms
Recommendations:
a. read the texts carefully and try to address the corresponding tasks
b. use the dictionary to improve your vocabulary
c. focus on content and on language use
d. improve your control of grammar and build your vocabulary by
practicing different types of exercises
Expected results:
a. improve students command of English
b. build up speaking and writing skills
c. practice writing for specific purposes
d. encourage the independent study and self-instruction

Unit 1
Types of Business Letters
Objectives:
c) to increase students knowledge of different types of business letters
d) to provide information about the letter layout and structure in business
correspondence
Basic notions : block style, letter layout, style, business correspondence
1. Discussion
What function do letters perform in society/ in business?
What do the style and tone of a letter depend on?
2. Reading
2. 1. Business letters usually use the BLOCK STYLE. This means:

the addressees name and address are at the top ON THE LEFT

the date: usually, on the right

no punctuation in the address or after the salutation

the paragraphs start at the margin, with double space between them

the writers name and title are under the signature

Letter layout
The logo of the firm
The senders address

The recipients address

Your ref:
Our ref:
The date

The salutation (Dear Sir/ Sirs/ Madam/ Mr. Thomson/ Mrs/ Miss/ Ms/ Kate)

Heading (it says what the letter is about)


The body of the letter
Introduction: it says why you are writing
The main message: details
The close: it usually mentions a future, planned activity
The ending of the letter
Closing formula
The signature
The name (typed)
Keep in mind

Ref. = references: names (initials of the author/ typist of the letter)

Common introduction formulae: I am writing in connection with/ I have


received your letter ofconcerning

Ending formulae: I look forward to receiving your / Looking forward to


hearing from you

Closing the letter: Yours faithfully/ Yours sincerely/ Sincerely

2. 2. Read the following letter of inquiry and identify its main parts:
Dear Sir
We are a multinational corporation established in 2000 by the merger of two of the
biggest organizations in car industry and we have been operating in your country for
2 years, since 2001.
We are most interested in developing secondary industry in this area. One of our
projects is to establish a car-components industry and we wonder if you could help
us to find a suitable partner.

The sort of company we have in mind is a large-scale manufacturer of wheels and


accessories, with international marketing experience and a strong technical staff.
We would be most grateful if you could recommend a Romanian company, which
fits this description.
Yours faithfully
Signature
Tom Smith
Director
2. 3. The reply to a letter of complaint: some tips for keeping the business running, in
spite of complaints, apologies, problems of any kind.

respond quickly; the correspondent needs to know the complaint has been
received and is being dealt with

acknowledge and apologize

give your version of the facts

explain what action is being taken

concede a point if possible

sympathize and reassure your correspondent

In answering complaints you may refer at three distinct situations: 1. making


concessions, 2. disclaiming possibility and 3. apologizing and excusing. Read the
three lists with expressions used in such situations and attach a suitable heading (13) to each of them:
A.
We are sorry to hear/// We were distressed to learn/ hear about/// We must
apologize for the delay in returning/ replying/ forwarding./// The delay was due to
the fact that/ the result of./// I would like to explain the situation.

B.
In the normal way we would have been obliged to/// However, in view of the
circumstances/// Under the circumstances we are prepared to/ can.
C.
We regret that in no way can we be held responsible for/// We would like to
emphasize that it is your responsibility to./// Now that you know the full facts
perhaps you/// Now that you understand the situation perhaps you/// We are
bound by the terms of our contract./// If you check, you will find that the guarantee
states.
3. Vocabulary
3. 1. Read some useful phrases you may use in a letter of inquiry:
Introducing yourself:
Your company has been recommended to us by
We have heard of your firm
We are particularly interested in
We are most interested in/ increasing/ developing/ extending
Your name has been given to us as one of the most important manufacturers in
Europe.
What we have in mind is
Making the request:
You will appreciate that We need Would you consider supplying us with?
If you could send/ give we would be most grateful.
Could you please let me/ us have
You will appreciate that we require/ need
We would like your comments/ thoughts on the possibility of opening/ becoming/
entering/ sharing/
What we require is// What we need is // We would like you to
Offering further information:
We will be only too happy to supply you with/ let you have more details.

Please do not hesitate to contact us if you require/ need further information.


Offering an alternative: However, we are interested in
Expressing interest/ regret: We could possiblybut we regret that
Ending the letter
We look forward to hearing from you/ meeting you/ seeing you
We would be most grateful if you could help/ advise/ send/ give us
3.2. In the following list, you will find some useful phrases for a letter of complaint;
some belong to mild complaints (1), others to strong complaints (2), some suggest
warning (3), while others make a point (4). Place each expression under its
appropriate heading 1, 2, 3, or 4.
I am writing to complain about
I am sure you will appreciate the annoyance
I look forward to hearing your comments// to receiving your cheque
Unfortunately, we/I have not received We would be grateful if you could
I should like to point out
Unless. we will be forced to
It is now ten weeks since we I should like to point out that we We really must
insist that
Unless we hear from you
If you not, we will.
I should like to draw your attention to (the fact that)
Unfortunately, you forgot. Please, could you
I hope that is not necessary to remind you that
I regret// Unfortunately// I am afraid
I have had nothing but trouble.//it is still unserviceable.// I am not prepared to
I am now left with no alternative but to..
You leave me no option but to
I am forced to/ obliged to.
1. Mild
complaint

2. Strong complaint

3. Warning

4. Making a
point

3. 3. Read the following letter and fill in the blanks with the missing words. You will
find the vocabulary items at the end of each paragraph.
Dear Mr. X
We were most 1. to receive your letter of 1 September 2003 and have given it
careful 2. . Please accept our 3. for the delay in replying. I must explain that Mr.
B was suddenly taken ill and your letter was 4. put on one side. I have been asked
to take over where he left off.
Apologies, accidentally, consideration, concerned
On re-considering the 5. we do realize that you were 6. . in a difficult position.
We appreciate that you felt it would have been 7. to expect you to stick to the fine
print on the contract. Therefore we are happy to 8 our cheque for $ 10, 000. We
would not like you to think however, that we 9. produce unsafe sewing machines.
On checking with the main agents of Toronto they confirm that the assembling
disfunctions could not have been discovered without 6 months use and careful
examination which, I have to remind you, was not possible since you ordered the
machines in a shorter period of time. You have our 10. that the misfortunes of the
production process will disappear. We hope that in spite of these problems, you still
will consider us your main deliverer.
Negligently, unreasonable, assurance, circumstances, enclose, placed

4. Writing
4. 1. You are the system chief engineer of the university. Write a letter to the
Department of Modern Languages Applied to Business in which you communicate
your plan for installing the equipment for a new computer-assisted languageteaching laboratory.
4. 2. Write a letter in which you complain about the poor quality of the after-sales
services of the firm that sold you 20 computers and 2 OHPs.

Unit 2
Business Meetings
Objectives:
a. to provide information about the planning and steps of a meeting
b. to develop communication skills useful in the interaction with the
business partners
Basic notions : purpose, agenda, result, goal, report, meeting information, controlled
discussion
1. Discussion
When should you call a meeting?
Debate upon the importance of the meetings for the business environment.
2. Reading
OPEN THE MEETING

invite introductions from participants (if necessary)

explain purpose

present agenda

discuss ground rules (who speaks, decision-making, etc.)

GO ALONG/ BODY OF THE MEETING

move to the first point on the agenda

hand over to another person

bring people into discussion/stop people talking

listen actively/ask for repetition or clarification

prevent irrelevance

paraphrase

summarize

(keep eye on time)

move to the next point

control decision-making

indicate follow-up task

CLOSE MEETING

thank participants

announce next meeting

3. Vocabulary
Match the following groups of useful phrases you can use during a meeting with the
current steps of the meeting, arranged in logical order according to the table below:
STEPS OF THE MEETING
1. opening/ objectives
2. moving to the 1st point
3. handling over to another person
4. encouraging hesitant speakers
5. stopping people talking
6. listening actively
7. asking for repetition/clarification
8. preventing irrelevance
9. paraphrase
10. summarizing
11. keeping an eye on the time
12. moving to the next point
13. controlling decision making
14. indicating follow-up tasks
15. closing the meeting
PHRASES
A. Tom, do you think you could?
Tina, how about preparing some figures for the next meeting?
B. To sum up then
So, to summarize what has been said so far

C. Well, ladies and gentlemen, I think we should begin.


Perhaps wed better get started/ get down to business.
Right then, I think its about time we got started/ going.
Right then, I think we should begin.
Lets begin/ get going, shall we?
Shall we start/ get started/ make a start?
First of all, Id like to introduce two colleagues from
Have you all got a copy of the agenda?
The purpose of this meeting is, first, toand secondly to
We are here today to consider firstlysecondlythirdly
The main objective of our meeting is
Ive called this meeting first to. secondly to.
D. Would you like to begin/ to open the discussion?
Perhaps youd like to explain/ tell us/ give us
What do you think?
Shall we continue then?
Lets move on.
Would you like to comment here?
What about you?
E. As some of you probably know,
As you know,
Some months / years ago/ yesterday
The situation now is
Right. Lets move on to/look at the first point.
F. We havent heard from you yet, Tom. What do you think about
Would you like to add anything, Tina?
Anything to add, Paul?
G. Im afraid thats outside the scope of this meeting.
Were beginning to lose sight of the main point.
Keep to the point, please.
I think wed better leave that subject for another meeting.
H. One at a time, please!

We cant all speak at once. Tom first, then Nina, then Tim.
Would you mind addressing your remarks to the chair?
Well, thank you, Clint. I think thats clear now. Could we have some other opinions?
Right, thank you, Pete. I think weve all got the point now. Shall we move on?
Okay, Tom, thanks. Mary, I think you wanted to say something?
I. Right, George, over to you.
Right. That just about covers everything.
Id like to thank our guest for coming over from.
So, the next meeting will be on (date) at(time)
Thanks for your participation
Right, I declare the meeting closed.
J. We are running short of time.
Theres not much time left.
Could you please be brief?
K. Right, I see. / Okay, I understand. / Thats interesting. / Okay. / Right.
L. So what you are saying is
In other words/ So you mean/ So, if I understand you correctly
M. Id like to propose that/ the following amendment
Can we take a vote on that proposal?
All those in favour. Right. All those against. Right, thank you.
So that motion has been accepted/ rejected by 5 votes to 3.
Very well, then, we agree with some reservations/ unanimously that
Well, it seems that we are broadly in agreement that
N. Would you mind repeating it, please?
Im sorry. I dont quite follow you. Could you go over that again, please?
What exactly do you mean by?
O. Right. Lets move on to the next point.
Tim, would you like to introduce the next point, please? Okay, on to item five.
Whos going to open this one?
Well, I think that covers everything on that point. Lets move on.
(see Ellis, Driscoll, Pilbeam, Meetings and discussions, )

4. Writing
Prepare the agenda of a meeting you have decided to call.
Summary
This chapter contains information about different types of business letters and
their specific layout. It also provides useful tips for planning and conducting an
effective business meeting.
Test Your Knowledge
1. You are a textile company tailoring sportswear for famous football teams. Write
inquiry letters to:

football clubs, enquiring why payments have not been done yet

your suppliers, announcing them that you didnt receive an important quantity
of material you have already ordered and paid and enquiring about the
reasons of the delay

2. Considering the same two situations from 1, write two letters of complaint, one
mild complaint and one strong complaint.
3. Which is more effective a letter of complaint or an inquiry letter?
4. Write an answer to one of the two letters from 1.
5. Home assignment: look for a business letter on the internet and write a letter to a
friend you havent spoken to for many years. Compare the two letters. What do the
two letters have in common, what differences have you noticed?
Bibliography
Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication
Today, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura
Fundaiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar,

R.,

J.

Petit,

M.

Flatley.

Basic

Communication, IRWIN, Illinois, 1993.

Business

Chapter 6
PRESENTATIONS
Basic Concepts:
transmitter, receiver, presentation, audience, structure, techniques
Objectives:
a. to improve students command of English
b. to help students develop and practice basic skills to enable them to
operate effectively in real life situations
c. to increase students knowledge of business terms
Recommendations:
a. read the texts carefully and try to address the corresponding tasks
b. use the dictionary to improve your vocabulary
c. focus on content and on language use
d. improve your control of grammar and build your vocabulary by
practicing different types of exercises
Expected results:
a. improve students command of English
b. build up speaking and writing skills
c. practice writing for specific purposes
d. encourage the independent study and self-instruction

Unit 1
Planning a Presentation
Objectives:
a. to teach students how to plan an effective presentation
b. to provide information about the components and the structure of a
presentation
c. to develop presentation skills by practicing different presentation
techniques
Basic notions : planning, goal, expectations, audience, speaker, order
1. Discussion
What kind of presentations have you delivered during your school years?
Analyze yourselves as effective speakers. Have your personal characteristics
influenced your presentations?
2. Reading
1.
Components of a

Constitutives

presentation
Pre-preparation
Planning

Preparing

Consider:
objectives, audience, time, location
Consider:
goal, expectations, main points, best order, your
relationship with the audience, their reaction
collect materials

select relevant points

group common points

arrange ideas in the most meaningful


sequence

consider ways of linking pieces of

information most effectively


Consider the structure of your presentation

Delivering
2.
The
structure of

Elements

a
presentation
introduction Greeting

Action

Gain attention

Introduce yourself (if necessary)

Opening

Introduce your talk (subject of your

possibilities: human

speech)

interest, humour,
quotations, questions,

body

Present main point divided into: point

etc.
Be logical, coherent,

1, point 2, etc.

clear

Emphasize transition between parts


conclusion

Invite questions (if necessary)


Restate the subject

Call for action

Summarize main points


Draw a conclusion
3. Vocabulary
Here are some phrases you can use during a presentation. Practice them in short
presentations in your work group.
INTRODUCTION
Good morning/afternoon/evening ladies and gentlemen/ colleagues. My name is
and I am
I would like to say a few words to you about/ I would like to talk to you about/ I
would like to explain to you the operation of.
I will take about 20 minute of your time. // I aim to talk to you for about minutes.

This will take about // I have divided my talk into three main parts. // The subject
may be looked at under four main headings. // During my talk Ill be looking at two
main areas. // If you have any questions, please feel free to interrupt. // Ill be glad to
try to answer your questions at the end of my talk. // To start with, Id like to
consider
LINKING SENTENCES:
First of all, Id like to look at // Those are the main points on // Thats all I have
to say about // Now we have looked at/ dealt with// Now lets turn to/ move
on to// Id like now to consider/examine // Next we come to// Turning now
to// Lets move on now to// The next point Id like to make is// As I said at
the beginning // I told you a few moments ago that // In the first part of my talk I
said// As I have already said // As I mentioned earlier // Ill come to that later.
Ill return to this point in a few minutes. // Ill talk about this in the next part of my
presentation. // Ill comment on this in my conclusion.
CONCLUSIONS
So now, Id just like to summarize the main points. // In brief, we have looked at//
Thats all I have to say for now. // I think that covers most of the points. // That
concludes my talk. // Thank you for your attention.
GETTING FEEDBACK
And now, if you have any questions, Ill be glad to answer them. // Does anyone
have any questions? // Any questions?
4. Writing
Prepare outlines for the following speaking situations:

a five-minute talk to 15 workers that must improve the quality of their work.

A 10-minute informative presentation to a group of high school pupils


interested in attending the Faculty of Economics
Unit 2

Presentations. Intercultural Aspects


Objectives:
to make students aware of cultural differences that may affect presentation
making
Basic notions : effective presentations, cultural identity, cultural differences
1. Discussion
How do cultural differences affect a presentation making?
2. Reading
Read the text about how to deliver an effective presentation. The topic sentence has
been removed from some paragraphs. Choose the suitable topic sentence for each
paragraph.
A As you can see, communication is a complex two-way process.
B The most important thing to remember is that the message that you intend to
communicate is likely to be misunderstood.
C Creating and delivering an effective presentation require a basic understanding of
the communication process.
The Communication Process. Delivering effective presentations
/1/ Most business presentations require the clear and unambiguous
communication of a message in a way that can be clearly understood by the recipient.
It is human nature to assume that when we communicate we are doing so effectively;
and that if anything goes wrong consequently then the responsibility for that must
rest with the recipient. This screen highlights six steps that constitute a typical twoway communication, and when the opportunities for miss-communication are
considered you may view it as surprising how often communication works without a
problem.

A presenter speaks to an audience. Therefore we have:


1. What the presenter thinks they say;
2. What they actually say;
3. What the audience thinks they say.
None of these are necessarily the same and three chances already exist for a
breakdown in communication. As a result of what a recipient hears, they may make a
reply, giving:
1. What they think they say;
2. What they actually say;
3. What the presenter thinks they say.
Six Steps in Effective Communications
Lets examine each of the six steps in slightly more detail - with a view to providing
some guidelines that should help to promote more effective two-way communication.
1. Ensure that your audience are tuned in and paying full attention to what you are
about to say. Once you have the attention of the audience the communication of the
message can begin.
2. Each recipient listens to the message.
3. Each recipient will have some feeling about the message and will interpret its
meaning. This is often done in the light of individual attitudes and prejudices or
alternatively with reference to previous experience or associations. Your problem is
that the audience may not feel and interpret in the way that you intended. The result
may range from a simple failure for the message to hit home, through to a serious
misunderstanding.
4. Each recipient may respond to the original message.
5. You have now become the receiver, and should listen carefully to the message.
6. You will feel and interpret something about this message. This may range from
satisfaction that the communication is proceeding as you intended, to bewilderment
at how your original message was miss-interpreted.
/2/ This is why it so often breaks down and is ineffective. With the complexity
apparent even in a simple communication, it should be apparent that there is a need
for clarity and simplicity - to minimize the chance of misunderstandings.

Communication is a skill and like any skill it requires practice. It is improvement


through practice that differentiates a skill from other forms of knowledge.
Understanding the theory of communication and effective presentation will not in
itself make you a brilliant communicator or presenter but should make you aware of
how to maximize the impact of your presentations.
/3/ Therefore in addition to carefully preparing and presenting your message, stay
alert for any signs that your audience is misinterpreting it. It is up to you, the
presenter, to continually check that your message has been received, understood,
correctly interpreted and filed in the receivers mind.
(http://www.getahead-direct.com/gwpr01-presentation-skills-training.htm)

3. Vocabulary
Read about the Seven Steps to Better Presentations, by Jeffrey Veen. For each blank
(1-10), decide which of the options A, B, C, or D is best. Only one answer is correct
and there is always one correct answer.
Seven Steps to Better Presentations
I've noticed a lot of talk about Powerpoint lately. About how it's so terrible
and how it 1__ awful presentations. But the problem isn't Powerpoint, of course. The
problem is bad content delivered poorly. I speak for a living, and hear lots and lots of
presentations at the conferences I attend. Here are some notes I wrote up for someone
who is 2__ to give his first ever public presentation.
Tell stories. Seriously. People could care less about the five ways some XML
vocabulary will enable enterprise whatever. Rather, put a screenshot of your project
up, tell people what you learned 3__ doing it, then give them a slide that reiterates
those ideas in easy to digest bullets. That's do not go from bullet-point slide to bulletpoint slide trying to tell people what to think.
Show pictures. Got a good metaphor? Use it. "The Web is like a school of
fish." But go to images.google.com and type in "sardines" or "school of fish" or 4__.
Make it a slide. Then say the Web is like that. Much more powerful and memorable.
Don't apologize. Ever. If something is out of order, or if something occurs
5__ you as a mistake during the presentation, keep it to yourself. They'll never know.

Besides, nobody cares about the presentation itself. This is really hard, because you
know the whole backstory, and you'll be tempted to explain why something isn't
quite perfect. Skip it. Also, you don't need to apologize about the color on the
projector, or the fact that your mic just popped off your lapel, or that a staff person
spilled a pitcher of water. Commiserating is fine, however. "If it 6__ another 5
degrees colder in here, I'll be able to see my breath!"
Start strong. I can't believe how many presenters forget this. Do not get up
there and say, "Um, well, I guess we should probably get started." Instead, say, "Hi,
I'm Jeff. It's really great to be here, and thank you so much for coming to my session.
Today, we're going to talk about...." Make sure those are the absolute first words you
say out 7__. No need for a joke or an opening or any of that. Just start strong and
confident.
End strong too. "...so that's why I like social software. I appreciate your
attention today. Thank you." Then stand there and wait. Everyone will clap, because
you just told them you were done. When they've finished, ask them if they have any
questions. If nobody asks anything, 8__ the uncomfortable silence with "Well, I
guess I told you everything you need to know then. [heh heh] I'll be around after if
you think of anything. Thanks again!" and start packing up your stuff.
Stand. Away from the podium. Out from behind the presenter table. Keep
your hands 9__ of your pockets. Take off your conference badge (the lights will
catch it and be distracting). I pace a little bit around the stage, timed with my points,
saying one thing from over here, and another from over there. But don't move too
much.
Pause. When you say something important, leave a gap 10__ it. Let it hang
there for a few seconds. Try it when talking to your friends. "You know what I think?
(pause...two...three...four...) I think
(http://www.veen.com/jeff/archives/000483.html)

A creates

B enables

C produces

D imagines

A on

B ever

C aloud

D about

A while

B in

C from

D about

A whoever

B whatever

C what

D alike

A with

B about

C to

D by

A gets

B makes

C becomes

D rises

A louder

B loud

C in loud

D loudly

A disrupt

B interrupt

C stop

D break

A out

B of

C off

D outside

10

A following

B ending

C after

D besides

4. Writing
Draft the plan of a presentation you have to make in front of a group of investors
willing to finance a project about the environment protection
Summary
This chapter contains information about the importance of making your
presentations effective and successful by planning them thoroughly.
Test Your Knowledge

Present some advantages and disadvantages of getting feedback during a


presentation.

Discuss some good and bad techniques of using visuals.

Make a presentation to a hypothetical group of investors that may help you


begin a new business.
Bibliography
Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication
Today, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura
Fundaiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.

Chapter 7
NEGOTIATING IN BUSINESS
Basic Concepts: negotiation, mutually accepted solution, goal, compromise

Objectives:
a. to improve students command of English
b. to help students develop and practice basic skills to enable them to
operate effectively in real life situations
c. to increase students knowledge of business terms
Recommendations:
a. read the texts carefully and try to address the corresponding tasks
b. use the dictionary to improve your vocabulary
c. focus on content and on language use
d. improve your control of grammar and build your vocabulary by
practicing different types of exercises
Expected results:
a. improve students command of English
b. build up speaking and writing skills
c. practice writing for specific purposes
d. encourage the independent study and self-instruction

Unit 1
Steps of a Negotiation
Objectives:
a. to present the importance of negotiation in business
b. to provide information about negotiation techniques
c. to practice and develop negotiating skills
Basic notions : negotiation, mutually accepted solution, goal, compromise
1. Discussion
Evaluate the importance of negotiating in business.
2. Reading
2. 1. What is, in your opinion the key to being an effective negotiator?
Here are some tips for achieving this essential business skill, but they are not
arranged in the order of their importance. Would you find their right sequence?

do your homework: gather information that supports your position

resist the pressure to cave in: time pressure (This sale ends tomorrow); fear of
loss (Another customer wants it, but); extreme proposals (You must be
crazy to ask for $ 10, 000 5, 000 is my best offer)

know what you want: define your goals

consider the other persons needs: see that the other person benefits too

rehearse: the more you rehearse, the better your performance will be; practice
what you will say

know your strengths and weaknesses: minimize your disadvantages and make
the most of your strong points

search for mutually satisfactory solutions: look for compromises that result in
joint gain

2. 2. By answering the following questions, you will also improve your negotiating
techniques. Some suggestions are given to you between brackets; if possible, you
should improve the lists).
1. How do you prepare for a negotiation?
(plan, research, objectives, limits, strategy)
2. Do you use special techniques?
(rapport social talk, parameters confirm the purpose of your negotiation and
establish areas of common ground and possible areas of conflict, attitude be
constructive, listen attentively, approach concentrate on your key points,
flexibility consider a range of alternatives, review by summarizing and reviewing
you check understanding, agreement at the end of your negotiation, confirm
exactly what you have agreed, confirmation in a follow-up letter, confirm in
writing the points agreed)
3. Is the language you use important when you negotiate? To what extent?
(use a simple, clear language, use short words and sentences, ask questions if there is
anything you dont understand)
3. Vocabulary
Useful phrases while negotiating:
Persuading

You must admit that You have to agree that


Dont forget that Lets not forget that

Counter

Dont you agree/ think that?


Even so, But still, Still, Nevertheless, But then again,

arguing

All the same, In any case, Anyway, Even if that is true/

Conceding

so,
Yes, Ill go along with that.
Ill agree with you there.
Im willing to go along with you.

In that case,
Well, youve convinced me.
(see Matthews, Marino 1990: 223)

4. Writing
Debate upon the following: In some cultures a deal is not a deal unless bargaining is
involved. To win some concessions is considered a sign of your professionalism.

Summary
This chapter contains information about negotiating in business and the way
you can improve your negotiating skills.
Test Your Knowledge
1. Define negotiating.
2. State weather it is true (T) or false (F). In order to have a successful negotiation
process you should:

be rigid; its a sign of power

reject the first offer

not mind the tone of the speaker

avoid using the word never

concentrate only on the speakers words

embarrass your adversary

suggest time away from the table to think about options

make as many concessions as possible for the beginning

emphasize the need to reach an agreement

try to see the situation from the other persons perspective

3. What and how do you negotiate at a job interview?


4. Name some special negotiating techniques
5. You are the marketing director of Terapia pharmaceutical company and you
want to expand your business. Consequently you hire an important advertising
company to advertise your products for the next six months. Negotiate with them the
terms of providing their services. Use in your imaginary dialogue as many
negotiating expressions as possible.

Bibliography

Beresford, Cynthia. Business Communication. Practical


Written English for the Modern Business World, BBC
English by Radio and Television, 1995.
Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication
Today, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Brieger, N, S. Sweeney. The Language of Business English.
Grammar and Functions, Prentice Hall, New York,
1994.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura
Fundaiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar,

R.,

J.

Petit,

M.

Flatley.

Basic

Business

Communication, IRWIN, Illinois, 1993.

GLOSSARY
abstract A summary of a report, specifying the recommendations and the
reasons for them. Also called an executive summary.
active listening Feeding back the literal meaning or the emotional content or
both so that the speaker knows that the listener has heard and understood.
analytical report A report that interprets information.
argument The reasons or logic offered to persuade the audience.
assumptions Statements that are not proven in a report, but on which the
recommendations are based.
body language Nonverbal communication conveyed by posture and movement,
eye contact, facial expressions, and gestures.
chain The body of a direct mail letter, providing the logical and emotional links
that move readers from interest to the action the writer wants.
channel The physical means by which a message is sent. Written channels
include memos, letters, and billboards. Oral channels include phone calls,
speeches, and face-to-face conversations.
checking for inferences Trying to identify the unspoken content or feelings
implied by what the previous speaker has actually said.
collection letter A letter asking a customer to pay for goods and services
received.
collection series A series of letters asking customers to pay for goods and
services they have already received. Early letters in the series assume that the
reader intends to pay but final letters threaten legal action if the bill is not paid.
communication theory A theory explaining what happens when we
communicate and where miscommunication can occur.
connotations The emotional colorings or associations that accompany a word.
decode To extract meaning from symbols.

discourse community A group of people who share assumptions about what


channels, formats, and styles to use for communication, what topics to discuss
and how to discuss them, and what constitutes evidence.
editing Checking the draft to see that it satisfies the requirements of good
English and the principles of business writing. Unlike revision, which can
produce major changes in meaning, editing focuses on the surface of writing.
empathy The ability to put oneself in someone elses shoes, to feel with that
person.
enclosure A document that accompanies a letter.
encoding Putting ideas into symbols.
enunciate To voice all the sounds of each word while speaking.
formal meetings Meetings run under strict rules, like the rules of parliamentary
procedure summarized in Roberts Rules of Order.
formal report A report containing formal elements such as a title page, a
transmittal, a table of contents, and an abstract.
format The parts of a document and the way they are arranged on a page.
grapevine An organizations informal informational network that carries gossip
and rumors as well as accurate information.
grid system A means of designing layout by imposing columns on a page and
lining up graphic elements within the columns.
headings Words or short phrases that group points and divide your letter, memo,
or report into sections.
hearing Perceiving sounds. (Not the same thing as listening.)
inference A statement that has not yet been verified but whose truth or falsity
could be established, either now or in the future.
information report A report that collects data for the reader but does not
recommend action.

informative message Message to which the readers basic reaction will be


neutral.
informative presentation A presentation that informs or teaches the audience.
informative report A report that provides information.
initial audience The audience that assigns the message and routes it to other
audiences.
keywords Words used in a rsum to summarize areas of expertise,
qualifications.
keywords Words describing the content of an article used to permit computer
searches for information on a topic.
listening Decoding and interpreting sounds correctly.
low-context culture A culture in which most information is conveyed explicitly
in words rather than being inferred from context.
memo Document using memo format sent to readers in your organization.
nonsexist language Language that treats both sexes neutrally, that does not
make assumptions about the proper gender for a job, and that does not imply that
men are superior to or take precedence over women.
nonverbal communication Communication that does not use words.
organization The order in which ideas are arranged in a message.
organizational culture The values, attitudes, and philosophies shared by people
in an organization that shape its messages and its reward structure.
outsourcing Going outside the company for products and services that once
were made by the companys employees.
planning All the thinking done about a subject and the means of achieving your
purposes. Planning takes place not only when devising strategies for the

document as a whole, but also when generating miniplans that govern


sentences or paragraphs.
problem-solving pattern A pattern of organization that describes a problem that
affects the reader before offering a solution to the problem.
proposal Document that suggests a method for finding information or solving a
problem.
recommendations Section of a report that specifies items for action.
reference line A subject line that refers the reader to another document (usually
a numbered one, such as an invoice).
secondary letters Additional letters in a direct mail package. Often on smaller
paper, these letters may be to readers who have decided not to accept the offer,
from people who have benefited from the charity in the past, and from
recognized people corroborating the claims made in the main letter.
sentence outline An outline using complete sentences that lists the sentences
proving the thesis and the points proving each of those sentences. A sentence
outline is the basis for a summary abstract.
tone of voice The rising or falling inflection that indicates whether a group of
words is a question or a statement, whether the speaker is uncertain or confident,
whether a statement is sincere or sarcastic.
topic heading A heading that focuses on the structure of a report. Topic
headings give little information.
verbal communication Communication that uses words; may be either oral or
written.
wordiness Taking more words than necessary to express an idea.

Bibliography

Beresford, Cynthia. Business Communication. Practical


Written English for the Modern Business World, BBC
English by Radio and Television, 1995.
Bove, Courtland L, Thill, John V., Business Communication
Today, McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, etc., 1992.
Brieger, N, S. Sweeney. The Language of Business English.
Grammar and Functions, Prentice Hall, New York,
1994.
Irimias, Eugenia. Business Communication Topics, Editura
Fundaiei pentru Studii Europene, Cluj-Napoca, 2006.
Lesikar,

R.,

J.

Petit,

M.

Flatley.

Basic

Business

Communication, IRWIN, Illinois, 1993.