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1.

Ideal Vapour-Compression Refrigeration Cycle and its


assumptions:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Constant pressure (P) in condenser and evaporator.


Isentropic (S) process in Compressor.
State 1 is saturated vapour, state 3 is saturated liquid.

2.

Actual Vapour-Compression Refrigeration Cycle


(i)

(ii)
(iii)
3.

Compression in compressor is not isentropic, irreversibility due to


heat losses, pressure losses and temperature difference.
[Isentropic compressor efficiency]
Pressure drop when refrigerant flows through the condenser,
evaporator and piping network.
Difficult to control state 4 and state 8 to be saturated liquid and
saturated vapour respectively.
Unit mass
considerati
on

Cascade Vapour-Refrigeration Cycle


(i)

(ii)

Enable the use of different refrigerants to suit the different


operating conditions of individual cycles, especially for low
temperature applications.
Performance of vapour compression cycle can be improved.

4.

Ideal Vapour Compression Heat Pump Cycle


5.

6.

Gas Refrigeration
Systems
(i)

Reverse
Brayton
Gas
Turbine
Power
Cycle.

of

(ii)

Throttling
fails
to
reduce
temperature

losed System
7.

Pv=RT

8.

9.

Otto Cycle: Ideal cycle for Spark-Ignition Engines


(i)
(ii)

2 isentropic processes, 2 constant volume heat transfer


processes.
In analysis of cold air standard Otto Cycle, specific heats of
working are treated as constant.

Closed System

10.

Diesel Cycle: Ideal cycle for Compression-Ignition Engines


(i)
(ii)

Only air is compressed during compression stroke, avoids auto


ignition, and thus operates at much higher compression ratios.
2 isentropic processes, 1 constant pressure heat addition
process and 1 constant volume heat rejection process.

11.

Pressure
ratio
12.

Actual Gas-Turbine Cycles, deviation from idealized Brayton Cycle.


13.

Brayton Cycle with Regeneration:


(i)
(ii)

Highest possible temperature that state 5 can reach is the


temperature of state 4.
Regenerator effectiveness is introduced:

14.

Tds=dhvdP

Reheat

15.

Intercooli
ng

Ideal Jet-Propulsion Cycle:


(i)
(ii)
(iii)

Aircraft is assumed stationary; hence air enters diffuser at a


certain speed and will leave diffuser at zero speed.
Air leaves turbine at zero speed in ideal case.

Idea of
relativ
e
veloci

16.

Vapour Power Cycle: Ideal Rankine Cycle


(i)
(ii)

2 isentropic processes and 2 constant pressure heat transfer


processes.
State 1 is at saturated liquid phase, while state 2 is in compressed
liquid region.

17.

18.

Actual Vapour
Power Cycle

19.

Ideal Reheat Ranking Cycle:


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

Superheating of steam is constrained by maximum


temperature due to metallurgical limit.
Reheat + superheating achieve higher thermal efficiency without
increasing the wetness of fluid at turbine exit.
Reheating requires usage of more than one turbine stage
[High Pressure, Intermediate Pressure and Low Pressure turbines].
Cycle comprises of 3 isentropic processes (2 expansions and 1
compression), 2 constant pressure heating (superheat +
reheat) processes and 1 constant pressure heat rejection
(condensation) process.

20.

One of the main causes of lower efficiency of Rankine cycle compared


to Carnot cycle is that heat addition takes place over a range of (low)
temperatures. Utilize regeneration to heat feedwater (liquid leaving
pump) by extracting steam from turbine.
21.

q out
q

y
1y

Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle-1: Ideal open feedwater heater


(i)

(ii)
(iii)

Open feedwater heater: Steam extracted from turbine is mixed


with feedwater exiting pump one. Both state 1 and state 3 will be
saturated liquid for ideal cycle.
Steam extraction at intermediate pressure and use of an
additional feed water pump is required.
Isentropic processes and constant pressure heat transfer
processes.

22.

Ideal Regenerative Rankine Cycle-2: Ideal closed feedwater heaters


(i)
(ii)

23.

24.

Steam extracted from turbine does not mix with feedwater exiting
pump one.
In ideal feedwater heater, feedwater is heated to the exit
temperature of extracted steam (which leaves heater as saturated
liquid).

Combined Gas-Vapour Power Cycles:


(i)
(ii)

(iii)

Combined Gas turbine-Steam turbine power plant.


Make use of desirable characteristics of gas turbine cycle at
high temperature; heat energy rejected from exhaust gases is
recovered by transferring it to the steam in a heat exchanger
(boiler for steam cycle).
Energy balance at heat exchanger enables the relative mass
flow rate of gas and steam to be determined.

25.

Maximum rate of process heat


No process heat is
produced if all fluid flows through
supplied if all fluid flows
this path.
through this path.
An example of Ideal Cogeneration Plant:
(i)

Cogeneration produces more than one useful form of energy,


such as process heat, cooling and electric power.
(ii)
State 4 and state 5 have same pressure. State 9 and 10 also
have same pressure. State 7 and state 8 are saturated liquid.
(iii)
Processes involved in this example are isentropic processes,
constant pressure heat transfer/mixing processes and
throttling process.
(iv)
Utilization factor is used as a measure for cogeneration:
26.Ideal Gas Mixtures: Systems involving two or more gaseous components
such as combustion products, air water vapour mixtures. Molar analysis
[number of moles of each component] or gravimetric analysis [mass of
each component].

27.

28.Average molar mass of a mixture:

M m=

mm
= y M
Nm i i i

Average gas constant of mixture:

R m=

Ru
Mm

29.Daltons Law: Each gas component fills the entire volume. Pressure of
gas mixture is the sum of pressures each gas would exert if it existed
alone at the mixture temperature and volume.

Amagats Law: Each gas component exerts same pressure. Volume of gas
mixture is the sum of volumes each gas would occupy if it existed alone at
the mixture temperature and pressure.

30.

Air

31.Air Water vapour mixture [moist air] in psychrometrics:

Water vapour
Vapour pressure

ha =0 @T =0

Constant pressure 1 to 2: Dew point


temperature at point 2.
Constant volume 1 to 3:
temperature than dew point.

lower

Constant temperature 1 to 4: Water


added to mixture until saturation occurs.
[Same T, same Pg]

32.

33.Wet bulb temperature

T wb

is used to approximate the adiabatic

saturation temperature. [Sling psychrometer]


Dry bulb temperature: Ordinary air temperature measured with
thermometer.
Psychrometric chart [total air-water vapour pressure is 1 atm (101
kPa)]
Same
vapour
pressure for same
specific humidity

34.Air conditioning applications:


(i)
Cooling, Dehumification and Reheating

(ii)

ontrol Volume

Closed system

35.

Adiabatic Mixing

36.Standard compositions for dry air: 21% Oxygen and 79% Nitrogen.
(i)
(ii)

Nitrogen is assumed to be inert, does not take part in chemical


reaction.
If moisture is present, it has to be considered separately in the
reaction. Moisture does not react with anything, simply shows
up as additional H2O in the product.

37.

38.
Conservation

of

mass

complete

combustion

Deduce

minimum / theoretical / stoichiometric amount of air required for


process. [Balanced chemical equation]
39.For actual (non-stoichiometric) combustion:
Amount of air is either greater than or less than the theoretical amount.
[% of theoretical air]
Excess air results in free oxygen, whereas rich mixture/deficient air
results in incomplete combustion, with hydrogen taking first priority to
combine with (limited) oxygen [CO, C].
Water vapour is often present in products of combustion. Its dew point
temperature needs to be determined [using partial pressure and mole
fraction analysis (Daltons Law)].
40.Conservation of Energy for Reacting Systems:
T <T dp , we then
Pv =P=1atm
g @T . This allows us to
T =25 P
If reference
ref
(i)
Standard
state: refhave
; energies become
determine the amount of water vapour remains
h 0f u0f .
(ii)

At reference state, stable elements/compounds such as


oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon are assigned a value of
zero enthalpy.

(iii)

0
h f : Enthalpy of formation at reference state, energy absorbed or

released when compound is formed from its elements at reference


state.
Exothermic, negative
value
41.Specific enthalpy
of a compound
[molar] at a state other than the
Endothermic,
positive
reference state:

42.Energy Equation for Reacting Systems


C
o
n
tr
ol
V

n r : Molar flow rate of reactant


Cl

n p : Molar flow

o
s
e
d
S

C
p dT
h=

*Ideal
gas

43.Introducing enthalpy of combustion:

44.

Water component in liquid form


(product).
Any H2O formed as vapour in
product.

45.Adiabatic flame temperature: Energy residing in combustion products


is maximum for adiabatic combustion process.
(i)
Maximum final product temperature.
(ii)
Complete combustion + Stoichiometric conditions.
(iii)
Evaluated iteratively.

Adiabatic
flame
temperature can never be
achieved due to:

Adiabatic flame
temperature

Actual combustion
process

Heat losses, extra air dilute


products,
incomplete
combustion,
and