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India had 38 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of
January 2007.The total gas production in India was about
31,400 mcm in 2002-03 compared with 2,358 mcm in 198081. At this production level, India's reserves are likely to last
for around 29 years; that is significantly longer than the 19
years estimated for oil reserves. Almost 70% of India. natural
gas reserves are found in the Bombay High basin and in
Gujarat. Offshore gas reserves are also located in Andhra
Pradesh coast (Krishna Godavari Basin) and Tamil Nadu coast
(Cauvery Basin). Onshore reserves are located in Gujarat and
the North Eastern states (Assam and Tripura).

Dry natural gas production & consumption (2003) - 0.96 tcf (consumption
equalled production in 2003)

Current Energy Production

16,385.61 MW

Major Gas Based Projects



Commissioned Capacity (MW)

RGPPL, Anjanvel




Uttar Pradesh






Uttar Pradesh














Vemagiri Power Generation Ltd. Andhra Pradesh 388.5

Problems with Natural Gas

1. Not a renewable source of energy.
2. India has only limited reserves of natural gas, though further discoveries
are being made from recent explorations
3. Owing to the high percentage of methane in natural gas, it is highly
4. The process of extraction of natural gas involves making large cavities in
the ground. Natural gas requires highly complex treatment plants and
pipelines for its delivery.
5. Natural gas occupies four times the space of a gasoline-equivalent

LNG is a clear, colourless, non-toxic liquid that can be transported and
stored more easily than natural gas because it occupies up to
600 times less space.
When LNG reaches its destination, it is returned to a gas at regasification
facilities. It is then piped to homes, businesses and industries.
LNG Terminals

LNG Terminal

Capacity (MMTPA)


Dahej Exp



Shell Hazira









India LNG

Potential Supply

and Demand

India Natural Gas Sector


Compressed Natural Gas, or CNG, is quite simply gas that has

been compressed such that it can be transported in pressure
vessels rather than by pipeline as is the traditional method.
CNG is generally used to fuel transit and fleet vehicles in large
cities, as well as in a limited number of personal Natural Gas
Vehicles (NGVs).

India CNG Scenario

In India CNG is primarily used as an alternative fuel for transportation.
The Table Summarizes the LNG activities in India in terms of stations,
growth in vehicles etc.

Oil & Natural gas companies

The Reliance Group was founded by Dhirubhai H. Ambani (1932-2002).
The group's annual revenues are in excess of US$ 34 billion.
The flagship company, Reliance Industries Limited, is a
Fortune Global 500 company and is the largest private sector
company in India.
The Company's operations can be classified into four
segments namely:
Petroleum Refining and Marketing business
Petrochemicals business
Oil and Gas Exploration & Production business

Cairn Energy
Cairn is an Edinburgh-based oil and gas exploration and production
company listed on the London Stock Exchange since 1988. There are two
arms to the business: Cairn IndiaIndia is an autonomous business listed on
the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange of India and
has interests in a total of 14 blocks in India and Sri Lanka. and Capricorn.

Oil India Limited
Oil India Limited (OIL) is a premier National oil company, engaged in the
business of exploration, production and transportation of crude oil and
natural gas. Oil India Limited is a "Schedule A" company under the Ministry
of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Government of India.
Indian Oil Corporation Limited
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. 18th largest petroleum company in the world
and has a current turnover of Rs. 247,479 crore (US $59.22 billion), and
profit of Rs. 6963 crore (US $ 1.67 billion) for fiscal 2007. The IndianOil
Group of companies owns and operates 10 of India's 19 refineries with a
combined refining capacity of 60.2 million metric tonnes per annum
(MMTPA, .i.e. 1.2 million barrels per day). These include two refineries of
subsidiary Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (CPCL) and one of
Bongaigaon Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited (BRPL).
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd. (ONGC) is engaged in E&P activities
both in Onshore and Offshore. The Corporation is now venturing out to new
areas i.e. deepwater exploration and drilling, exploration in frontier basins,
marginal field development, optimization of field development plan field
recovery and other allied areas of service sector.

HPCL is a Fortune 500 company, with an annual turnover of over Rs

1,03,837 Crores ($ 25,142 Millions) during FY 2007-08, 16% Refining &
Marketing share in India and a strong market infrastructure. Corresponding
figures for FY 2006-07 are: Rs 91,448 crores ($20,892 Million). The
Corporation operates 2 major refineries producing a wide variety of
petroleum fuels & specialties, one in Mumbai5.5 MMTPA capacity and the
other in Vishakapatnam, (East Coast) with a capacity of 7.5 MMTPA.
Engineers India Limited
Engineers India Limited was established in 1965 to provide engineering and
related technical services for petroleum refineries and other industrial
projects. In addition to petroleum refineries, with which EIL started initially,
it has diversified into and excelled in other fields such as pipelines,
petrochemicals, oil and gas processing, offshore structures and platforms,
fertilizers, metallurgy and power. EIL now provides a range of project
services in these fields and has emerged as Asia's leading design and
engineering Company.
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited engages in refining, storing,
marketing, and distributing petroleum products in India. It also involves in
the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The company offers various
products, including liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, motor spirit,
special boiling point spirit/hexane, benzene, toluene, polypropylene
feedstock and more.
GAIL (India) Limited

GAIL (India) Limited operates as a natural gas company in India and

internationally. The company involves in the exploration, production,
processing, transmission, distribution, and marketing of natural gas. It also
offers LPG and other liquid hydrocarbons, and petrochemicals. The
company owns approximately 5,800 kilometers of natural gas high pressure
trunk pipeline.
Premier Oil
Premier Oil plc engages in the exploration, development, and production of
oil and gas properties. It has oil and gas producing interests principally in
Asia, Middle East and Pakistan, the North Sea, and west Africa. As of
December 31, 2006, the company had proved plus probable reserves of 722
billion cubic feet of gas and 152.1 million barrels of oil equivalents of oil.
Adani Group
Adani Group has forayed into the Oil & Gas sector and has been awarded
two oil & gas blocks in Gujarat and AssamGujarat and another block with an
area of 95 sq. kms. is situated in Assam. under the recently concluded NELP
VI and also plans to participate in the upcoming NELP VII bids and is
actively looking at oil and gas blocks overseas. One Block with an area of 75
sq. kms is situated in Cambay.
Simon Carves
In Simon Carves as a part of its offshore development, projects have been
carried out in India and Indonesia in providing oil and natural gas
development facilities. In gas processing they have carried out projects in
Singapore, Indonesia and India in providing natural gas processing facilities

and gas field developments. A key part of many of these projects is the
provision of pipeline and tanks where in conjunction with Punj Lloyd they
have considerable expertise in the design and construction of these facilities
in often very difficult environments.
Petronet LNG Limited
Petronet LNG Ltd, one of the fast growing companies in the Indian energy
sector, has set up the country's s first LNG receiving and regasification
terminal at Dahej , Gujarat, and is in the process of building another terminal
at Kochi, Kerala. The Dahej terminal has a nominal capacity of 5 million
metric tones per annum (MMTPA) [equivalent to 20 million standard cubic
meters per day (MMSCMD) of natural gas], the Kochi terminal will have a
capacity of 2.5 MMTPA (equivalent to 10 MMSCMD of natural gas)

Oil & Natural gas research centres

1. The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)
The research areas of TERI in ONG include:
Connecting additional washing units to 30 MLD CETP at Bithuja in district Barmer,

2. Gujarat Energy Research & Management Institute (GERMI)

GERMI is promoted by Gujarat State Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (A Govt.
of Gujarat Undertaking). GSPC is a fully integrated energy company having
a presence in various operations like exploration & production,
transportation of gas, and power generation, IT services. It is one of the
fastest growing state owned companies and has excellent support from

Gujarat Govt. as well as from Central Govt. GERMI has already established
a specialized technology & management institute focusing on the Oil & Gas
Sector and is actively pursuing initiatives in the areas of research and
alternative energy resources.



Natural Gas
The present trend in oil consumption and its not encouraging prospects
makenatural gas a viable replacement for oil in near future. The
decomposition of organic matter in oxygen- poor (anaerobic) conditions and
aided by bacterial activity leads to the formation of natural gas. The presence
of high content of organic matter in most of the young sediment basins may
favor the generation of methane gas in such locales. The gas when formed
diffuses in surrounding regions unless it is trapped by suitable geological
structures. Commercial amounts of gas also can accumulate as a gas cap
above an oil pool or, if reservoir pressure is sufficiently high, dissolved gas
in the oil is derived from both land plants and marine organic matter. The gas
found in nature is formed due to physical, chemical, biological and
geological conditions prevailing in different at levels in the earths crust.
Most of the methane gas is of biogenetic nature and formed at shallow levels
of the crust, where biological and chemical processes dominate and is
confined to swamps, lake beds and shallow marine environment. In the
deeper parts of the earth the physical parameters of temperature and pressure
dominate the formation of thermogenic gas (see details Chap. 1). Natural
gas primarily comprises methane and ethane. Other gases like propane and
butane may also be present in the natural gas and such mixture without
presence of any liquid component is considered as dry natural gas. The

inclusion of higher isotope elements such as pentane containing liquids at

standard pressure and temperatures may be considered as natural gas liquids.
Natural gas reserve may also contain non-hydrocarbon elements such as
carbon dioxide, water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and such mixed
gas is considered as wet natural gas. The wet gases are processed
to remove the contaminants before the gases are used for normal
purposes. Gas is found abundant in nature; with its higher
recovery rate, higher fuel efficiency and low order pollutant may
work out to be a good future energy prospect. Natural gas
remains the main energy resources for many industrial plants and
the generation of electricity. Worldwide natural gas is third most
prominent energy resource amounting to 23% of global energy
consumption. It is expected that in future, industry will consume
40% of total gas production. In absence of goodtransport system
for transporting the gas to industrial plants most of the gas
associated with oil reservoirs is burnt at the wellhead. Owing to
its low calorie content it has lesser priority than oil for its use as
the energy source. In order of priority Russia,Iran, Qatar, Saudi
Arabia and UAE have the highest gas reserves of the world.
Russia is also highest gas producer of the world. Global gas
reserves are abundant, but unevenly distributed

Natural Gas Scenario

The global market for gas is much smaller than for oil because gas transport
is costly and difficult. Only about 16% of global gas production is
internationally traded, with less than 4% of the trade accounted for by
liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, in spite of the high cost of gas
transportation and the remote location of potential future supply regions,
increasing international trade in natural gas is expected. A significant portion
of gas production by major gas producing countries is meant for export in

the form of LNG. Middle East and Africa are likely to be main contributors
for the supply of LNG in the coming future. These two countries are likely
to have tremendous growth (~21 TCF) in the production of natural gas and
especially in terms of LNG and may cover a bigger portion for the demand
of gas from other countries (EIA 2008, 2009). Recent discovery in China
and India may help these countries to reduce their import from other
countries. The industrialized countries are the major gas importers, but the
major gas supplies are located in the Former Soviet Union and the Middle
East. Thus, similar to world oil, the expanded use of natural gas by Europe
and Japan will become increasingly dependent on the worlds politically
unstable regions. Canada provides most of the natural gas imports to the
United States.