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Fovism

PUBLICAT DE ARTEX LA 8 - FEBRUARIE - 2009

DEFINITIE
Fovismul este o miscare artistica care se dezvolta in Europa inca din anul 1895 si pina
in anul 1907, cu o maxima perioada de dezvoltare intre anii 1905-1907.
Fovismul este cu adevarat prima revolutie artistica din secolul XX. Ea determina o
mutatie radicala in domeniul limbajului plastic, presupune o schimbare fundamentala a
intelegerii relatiei arta-realitate si eliberarea totala a temperamentului si instinctului
artistic.

DENUMIRE
Termenul de Fovism vine de la cuvantul francez fauve, adica fiara salbatica. Acesta
este utilizat pentru prima data de catre criticul Vauxcelles Louis, cu ocazia expozitiei de
la Salonul de Toamna din 1905 (care reprezinta si anul de aparitie a grupului Die Brucke)
unde sunt reunite lucrari de Matisse, Vlamink, Braque, Dufy, etc., caracterizate printr-un
colorit proaspat si violent.
Cu acest prilej Vauxcelles exclama referitor la o statuie de Donatello aflata in mijlocul
salii si conceputa in cel mai pur stil renascentist florentin: Donatello parmis les
fauves (Donatello printre animale salbatice).
Insasi sala expozitiei a fost botezata la cage aux fauves (cusca animalelor salbatice).
Aceasta ironie reprezinta lansarea miscarii foviste.

PUNCTE DE PORNIRE

Impresionism. Punctele de pornire se regasesc in descompunerile cromatice, folosirea


culorilor pure si a raporturilor de complementaritate: dar parasesc impresionismul prin
refuzul fata de caracterul sau esential senzorial, deplasarea interesului de la impresie la
expresia culorii (existand paralelisme cu expresionistii, mai ales cu membrii grupului Die
Brucke) si refuzul de pulverizare a formei sau excesiva divizare a tusei care destrama
structura lumii vizibile.

Neoimpresionism. Punctele de pornire se regasesc in divizarea stiintifica a tuselor, dar


Matisse care este pana la un punct adeptul pointilismului, le reproseaza micsorarea tusei
(punctului), practicand pastilele si pata de culoare pentru a mari capacitatea tusei de a
modela forma.

Opera lui Gauguin. Punctele de pornire se regasesc in exotismul, decorativismul si


arabescul linear specific.

Opera lui Van Gogh. Punctele de pornire se regasesc in expresivitatea culorii.

CARACTERISTICI FUNDAMENTALE

Se pastreaza legatura cu lumea realului, dar prin ceea ce simte artistul in fata realitatii si
nu printr-o descriere, redare a ceea ce se vede. Aceasta pastrare a contactului cu realitatea
atesta implicarea artistului in societate si functia sociala a artei.

Culoarea are rolul principal in structurarea viziunii si constructia formei, de aceea i se


atribuie rolul de a soca privitorul prin suprafete (pete) mari de culori pure (cu dominanta

rosu), in raporturi violente, de complementaritate si in tonuri stralucitoare. Ele permit


aducerea senzatiilor pe panza cu maximum de brutalitate si explozivitate (Derain:
Culorile erau pentru noi cartuse de dinamita).

Eliminarea clar-obscurului sia modelarii prin nuante si pasaje de culoare.

Accentuarea pe efectul de decorativism si bidimensionalitate. Forma este delimitata in


spatiu printr-o linie de contur. Ea este excesiv simplificata, redusa doar la suprafete si este
lipsita de consistenta si volum. Uneori datorita vibrarii suprafetei tabloului prin pete mari
de culoare violent asezate, se ajunge la dispersarea obiectelor si la eliminarea relatiei
fond-forma (dispare impresia de spatialitate, de tridimensional).

REPREZENTANTI FOVISM

Matisse, Henri

Derain, Andre

Vlaminck, Maurice

Dufy, Raoul

Kees van Dongen

Marquet, Albert

Camoin, Charles

Valtat, Louis

Evenepoel, Henri

Puy, Jean

Manguin, Henri

Friesz, Othon

Rouault, Georges

Bailly, Alice

Braque, Georges

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Andre Derain

Andre Derain

Andre Derain

Maurice de Vlaminck

Fauvismul[1] (un franuzism care se citete [ pron. fo-vism]) a fost un curent formalist
n pictura francez de la nceputul secolului al XX-lea, care reprezenta lumea concret n culori
violente, folosind tonuri pure i renunnd la perspectiv.

nceputuri[modificare | modificare surs]


n anul 1905, la Salonul de Toamn din Paris, civa tineri pictori - Henri Matisse, Andr
Derain, Maurice de Vlaminck, Jean Puy,Henri Manguin i Albert Marquet - expun tablouri care
ocheaz prin violena exploziei de culori. Criticul de art Louis Vauxcelles, surprins de contrastul
dintre culorile pure ale acestor pnze i dou busturi n stil clasic expuse n aceea i sal,
exclam: "S-ar putea spune: Donatello printre bestii slbatice" (n francez: fauves = animale
slbatice). Expresia a prins i, n ochii publicului, acest nou gen de experiment reprezint
naterea unui nou curent. Fauvismul nu este totui o micare organizat, nu are un program sau
o definiie exact, se nate din ntlnirea unor pictori cu temperamente artistice foarte diferite, dar
frmntai de aceleai probleme ale creaiei. Pe fauviti i caracterizeaz spontaneitatea de
creaie, culorile nealterate de amestec, aplatizarea spaiului, nregistrarea direct a senza iilor
trite. Revoluionnd folosirea culorii i sensul perspectivei, modificnd rela iile dintre pictur i
realitate, ei sunt cei care stau n pragul modernitii.

Evoluie[modificare | modificare surs]


Ieind n aer liber, prsindu-i atelierul n cutarea autenticului n natur, impresionitii au impus
folosirea culorilor pure, neamalgamate. Fauvitii vor dezvolta aceast premis, vor renun a ns
repede la spaiul, lumina i naturalismul predecesorilor lor. Ei se afl totodat i sub influen a
lui Van Gogh i Gauguin, pe care i consider precursorii noii maniere de abordare a culorii n
pictur. Fauvismul ajunge la maturitate sub influene dintre cele mai variate. Un rol important l-a
jucat atelierul lui Gustave Moreau, frecventat i de romnul Theodor Pallady. Acest pictor
simbolist, profesor la cole des Beaux-Arts, a tiut s-i impulsioneze colegii mai tineri s
dezvolte tendine foarte diferite de propriile sale preocupri artistice. Mai
ales Matisse i Marquet vor invoca adeseori cuvintele maestrului:
Trebuie s gndeti n culoare i s ai imaginaie. Dac nu ave i imagina ie, nu ve i ob ine niciodat o
culoare frumoas.
Gustave Moreau

Fauvismul capt n scurt vreme dimensiuni internaionale. Realizrile artistice ale pictorilor
francezi i exercit influena asupra altor pictori europeni, printre care se numr cei ru i,
ca Wassily Kandinsky sau Alexi von Jawlensky. Expresionitii germani se inspir nemijlocit din
creaia fauvitilor. Fiecare din pictorii care creeaz n spirit fauvist va exercita propria influen
asupra picturii de mai trziu - cubismul, suprarealismul,pictura abstract. Chiar i dup cel de-al
doilea rzboi mondial novatorii expresioniti abstraci se vor raporta la principiile stilistice ale
predecesorilor lor. Mai ales Mark Rothko, n pnzele lui de mari dimensiuni cu suprafee de
culoare plate care se suprapun, va analiza rolul culorii n creaia fauvitilor, ca sugernd mi carea
i spaiul.

Fovism
Fovismul e un curent in pictura, aparut la Salonul de Toamna din 1905, in Franta.
Promotorii miscarii au fost porecliti fauves (fiare, salbatici) de catre criticul Louis Vauxcelles din
cauza exacerbarii culorii care este folosita in toata puritatea si stralucirea ei, aproape de incandescent.
Nu intamplator, unul dintre adepti, Vlaminck, afirmand ca vrea, cu cobalturile si vermilionurile sale sa
dea foc Scolii de arte frumoase. Asadar, fovismul presupune inainte de toate un triumf deplin al
culorii.
Principalii fovi au fost Matisse, Vlaminck, Derain, Friesz, Marquet, Dufy, Van Dongen s.a. Fireste,
ca si in celelalte curente, protagonistii difera mult unii de altii si, in afara catorva trasaturi commune, ei
isi afirma personalitatea in parametrii proprii care-i deosebesc pe unii de altii. Spre deosebire
de Vlaminck, de pilda, care este cel mai radical, pictand cu o verva brutal, cu violent, in tuse largi ce
definesc aproximativ forma, Matissepicteaza atent la armonii, la arabescul linei, acordand culorii un
rol decorativ.

Sat pe malul unui rau


Maurice de Valminck, 1915
sursa

Desertul: armonie in rosu


(Camera rosie)
Henri Matisse, 1908
Muzeul Hermitage, Sankt Petersburg
sursa
La fel de mult se deosebeste voluptuosul Dufy cu propensiunea sa spre tonuri vii, eclatante, de mai
potolitulMarquet, care nu intelege sa foloseasca tonuri aprinse decat ca accente pe o suprafata
mentinuta intr-o gama de griuri mai mult sau mai putin colorate.

Regatta at Cowes
Raoul Dufy, 1934
Galeria Nationala de Arta, Washington D.C.
sursa

Port de Bougie, Algiers (The Port in


Sunlight), 1925
Albert Marquet (Bordeaux 1875 - Paris 1947)
Robert Lehman Collection, 1975 (1975.1.191)
sursa: metmuseum.org

Bibliografie: Mica enciclopedie de arta universala, Vasile Florea si Gheorghe Szekely, Editura
Litera International, 2005

The Primitivism of the Fauves


January 21, 2011 by Jeanne Willette
The Question of Primitivism and the Fauves
Today, primitivism is considered a derogatory term, connoting the Twentieth Century Western attitude
towards the presumed inferiority of non-Western art. Primitivism refers to the abiding belief that nonWestern cultures and peoples of color were, by definition, primitive and uncivilized and in need of the
civilizing influences of European powers. Primitivism has become equated with imperialism and colonialism
and the exploitation of the Other by the West. A more polite term has replaced primitivism: Tribal Art,
indicating an indigenous art by non-Western people. However, it is important to note two little discussed facts:
first, that the so-called native art came from colonized peoples and second, this art was often made
expressly for the tourist trade and/or had been altered by Western influences. The tribal art so admired by
Parisian artists was likely to be both African and inauthentic. By the beginning of the Twentieth Century, fully
eighty-five percent of the world was dominated by a tiny group of European nations.
Art critic, Robert Hughes, called the aesthetic pillaging of non-Western art by Western artists cultural
imperialisman apt phrase, given that the artistic looting was paralleled by wholesale colonization of the
globe. The artists were riveted by the freedom with which the African artists treated the human body. Instead
of an anatomically idealized Classical ideal, the African body was not perceptual but conceptual or symbolic in

form. The huge mask like faces, the generalized bodies and the stunted arms and legs suggested anything but
beauty and beauty and art had long been co-dependent in Western art. The idea that the body could be
stylistically and expressively deformed and that the face could be grotesque and morphologically transformed
inspired artists in Paris to re-conceptualize the human form.
The early writings on primitivism, such as Primitivism and Modern Art (1938) by Robert Goldwater, equated
non-Western art with the art making of undeveloped people, such as children. But Goldwater valiantly
attempted to point out that this equation was made by the art world of pre-War Paris and that the art of
Africans was sophisticated and beautifully crafted. Primitivism was, instead, a state of mind or a mindset on
the part of certain artists, looking for new ideas. African art was discovered in Paris around 1904 by the
Fauve artists, notably Andr Derain, and by Pablo Picasso. The sources and sightings included the Muse de
lHomme and artifacts purchased by travelers. Henri Matisse purchased some examples of African tribal art,
and the inspiration of these objects appears in his Green Stripe with his wifes mask-like face. The interest in
tribal art caused these artists to shift their attention from the bright colors of Fauvism to the darker aspects
of the primitive. Derain painted a series of clumsy nudes, Bathers, lumbering through a dark jungle and
Matisse painted a subdued Blue Nude by 1907. It is highly unlikely that any of these artists knew or cared
about the original (and probably lost) meanings of the tribal works or about how the art might have functioned
in tribal societies. Fauve primitivism consisted of seizing upon new ideas and absorbing the concepts and
adapting the tribal for the avant-garde.
As the book, Primitivism, cubism, abstraction: The Early Twentieth Century, put it,
The appeal of African and Oceanic objects for the Fauves as rooted in those same interests and assumptions,
which underpinned the appeal of Gauguins work for the group. They signified the exotic or the primitive
redefined according to a Western avant-garde artistic code. Moreover, the absence of an accessible
iconography or history to these objects allowed them to be easily absorbed into a modern artistic culture.
In their own time, the Fauves inherited the Nineteenth Centurys fear of anarchism and political chaos and
were called barbarians (or wild beasts), indicating a baleful anti-authoritarian attitude. The Fauves may have
been seeking new artistic ideas but they had no intention of overthrowing any governments. To the
establishment mind, any feints, no matter how remote, against the prevailing powers, was a threat and had to
be countered with cries of childishness, youthfulness, and dangerous waywardness. The possible Dionysian
attitudes of the Fauves and their rollicking colors seemed quite possible compared to the regal and serene
murals of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, painted in cool cerebral colors. But the Fauves were more interested in
stripping modern art of tradition and in finding new ways to draw and new reasons to paint than in importing
tribal art into their art world. What drew them to African art was the powerful urge to withdraw from an over
industrialized landscape into something more simple, hence primitive, and primal: the lost atavistic golden
age.
The Primitivism of the Fauves could be found in their choice of subjectsthe nudes bathing in landscape with
a new treatment of the human body. Compared to Emile Bernards painting of nudes in a landscape in 1097 in
which the artist expressly contrasted the women to nature, the Fauve nude is part of landscape and is coextensive with nature. The nude and the landscape are drawn and colored and painted without hierarchy, with
equality. There is no humanistic center, only a reduction of the painting to a mood. There is no unified action
and there is no exterior determinant or reason for the picture to exits other that the figures that fill the
frame. The forms are psychologically unrelated to each other and the figures are rendered unimportant by
the random cutting of the edges by Derain and Vlaminck. In the fantasy world of Matisse, nudity accepted as
being a signifier of harmony between humans and bucolic nature in a pastoral landscape.
The Fauve artists simplified their lines, often leaving them unfinished or forgotten about, as if a child had been
distracted by another task. Also child-like (in the sense that Friedrich Schiller meant it) is the use of large
areas of pure and undifferentiated color, floating unanchored by perspective. In addition to their appreciation
of childrens art and the nave art of Henri Rousseau, the Fauves were not concerned about the traditional
subtleties of drawing and attempted to find simplicity (primitivism). The artists wanted to communicate
directly with the spectator by replacing the world of objects with basic human emotions (considered
primitive by authoritarian regimes). Some of the more immature artists, such as Vlaminck were dependent
upon violent effects of color and upon the sensationalism of deliberate dissonance, but Fauvism sought merely

a return and renewal of a more direct way of living and of self-expression. The primitivism of Fauvism was a
means to an end, not the end itself.
In fact, the Fauve turn towards the primitive was brief, a mere glitch on the way to the end of the
movement. The same was true of Picasso who used primitivismIberian and African influencesto start but
never finish Les Demoiselles dAvignon (1907) on the way to Cubism. The whole concept of primitivism and
the influence of tribal art on Modern Art was revived after the two world wars and was reordered as a kind of
formal affinity. The last gasp of affinity was the 1984 exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, Primitivism
in Twentieth Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern, curated by William Rubin. Rubin came under
a barrage of criticism by a younger generation of art critics, such as Thomas McEvilley, for equating modernism
with the universal and for viewing tribal art as a kind of raw material for Western artists to elevate into
transcendence. As McEvilley charged, the curators wanted to present modern art as a creative process, not as
an art of appropriation (in the sense of colonialism). More tellingly, in Doctor, Lawyer, Indian Chief,
McEvilley pointed out that Rubins so-called affinity was based upon a morphological resemblance without
establishing any connection between selected examples of non-Western art and modern art.
In the end, after a few short eventful years, the imfluence of Fauvism far outweighed its duration. Although
the art of Matisse suggested that the logic of form or reality could be created thru color, this liberation of color
did not immediately affect Twentieth Century art, due to the monochrome of Cubism. But for the more
mainstream art world, lagging behind the avant-garde, there were educational consequences. The bright
colors helped painters to leave Impressionism and to come to terms with Post-Impressionism. The late
Czannist period of Fauvism combined a Western structure and geometricism with primitivism by 1907.
After Ernst Ludwig Kirchner saw Fauve paintings in Berlin in 1908, Die Brcke in northern Germany took up this
route of structured primitivism, or sharp edged figures. Although Matisses work in Berlin in 1908 was badly
reviewed, Die Brcke artists began heightening their palettes and simplifying their forms. Both the Fauves and
Die Brcke were impacted by tribal art, with the German artists finding or discovering the new forms in the
ethnographic museum in Dresdent. Both groups were actively seeking a return to nature and saw
primitivism as a means to accomplish a more simple way of life. In contrast, the Munich group, Der Blaue
Reiter, led by Kandinsky and Jawlensky, saw Fauvism at Salon dautomne in 1905 and were inspired by the
formal innovations. By 1908, Kandinsky at Murnau, near Munich, mixed the Fauve technique of high color and
flat planes with Post-Impressionist exaggerated broken brushstrokes. Interestd in Bavarian folk art, Jawlensky
used high pitched colors, harsh bright outlining, complementary shadows, all borrowed from the Fauves to
create a kind of raw modern folk art in the frontal aspect of his painted mask like faces.
Formally speaking, primitivism led the Fauves and those influenced by them to find an all-over construction
through color. Reductiveness and simplicity, directness of means and a search for the basic elements of art,
stripped of conventions-all were hallmarks of Fauvism. The desire to return and to renew suggested a
reliance on instinct, indicated through intense color and free form that indicated a primal wildness. In
Fauvism, imagination and feeling ruled, but being French, their formal dislocations were tempered and tamed
by a devotion to the decorative. To the art intellectuals, this frankly decorative tendency, especially on the
part of Matisse, was an excursion into the exotic, the primitive, the alien Other to the civilized European.
The primitivism of Fauvism, like Fauvism itself, waned. Derain and Vlaminck became virulently
conservative, especially after the Great War and Braque became a controlled Cubist and Matisse became a
cultural lion, a giant of the Twentieth Century. Fauvism was tamed and the Fauves grew up.