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CUPRINS

Alfabetul limbii engleze 3


Vocalele limbii engleze 4
Consoanele limbii engleze 5
Substantivul ... 6
Articolul 9

Prepozitia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 13
Conjunctia ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 21
Adverbul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 23
Adejectivul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 30
Numeralul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 38
Pronumele ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 43
Verbul ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 47

Alfabetului Limbii Engleze


Engleza foloseste un alfabet latin cu literele cunoscute si in alte limbi straine de origine indo-europeana dar
cunoaste grupuri de litere care se pronunta diferit. De exemplu, "th" este grupul cel mai cunoscut.
Ceea ce este mai interesant in alfabetul englez este ca adesea "y" si "w" devin vocale si astfel intervin
schimbarile necesare (articolul nehotarat "a" se transforma in "an" daca cuvintele incep cu una dintre aceste litere).
Engleza este o limba tonala in care intonatia este importanta. De aceea, adesea, vocea ajuta sa transmita
ironia sau surpriza, afirmatia sau interogatia. Spre exemplu, intrebarea poate fi formata cu ajutorul inversiunii
subiectului cu auxiliarul verbului dar exista si posibilitatea mentinerii afirmatiei si a schimbarii intonatiei.
Diacriticele apar destul de rar in limba engleza, in special in cuvintele imprmutate (appliqu, attach, crpe,
lite) si pronuntia lor este identica cu cea din limba din care provin, in mare parte din franceza.
Litera
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u

Transcriere fonetica
[ei]
[bi:]
[si:]
[di:]
[i:]
[ef]
[dji:]
[eitch]
[ai]
[gei]
[kei]
[el]
[em]
[en]
[ou]
[pi:]
[kju:]
[a:]
[es]
[ti:]
[ju:]

v
w
x
y
z

[vi:]
['dablju:]
[eks]
[wai]
[zed]

Vocalele Limbii Engleze (the


voewls)
Limba engleza are 12
vocale, lungi (mai lungi decat in
limba romana, pe care le indicam
in transcrierea fonemica prin doua
puncte [:]), si scurte (mai scurte
decat in limba romana):
a scurt, intre "a" anterior si "o",
ex.: nut [nat] nuca
a: mai lunga decat vocala
romaneasca, urmata de obicei de
"r" (care nu se pronunta, doar daca
urmatorul cuvant incape cu o
vocala!), ex.: arm [a:m] brat, car
[ca:] masina

[a] a cu barcuta deasupra, e scurt,


si intalnit in silabe neaccentuate, ex.: a pen [ a pen] un stilou, at home [at haum] acasa, after [a:fta] dupa,
England [ingland] Anglia
[a: ] a cu barcuta deasupra, prelungit si pronuntat printre dinti, intr-un zambet larg, ex.: girl [ga:l] fata, learn [la:n]
a invata
[ae] este un sunet intermediar intre "e" si "a", pronuntat cu gura foarte mult deschisa, ex.: Ann [aen] Ana, has
[haez] (el, ea) are
e similar cu vocala romaneasca, ex.: men [men] barbati, many [meni] multi, multe
i scurt, intre "i" si "e"
it [it] el, ea (pentru substantive ce denumesc obiecte, animale si notiuni abstracte), ex: big [big] mare
i: vocala lunga, intalnita in exclamatiile din limba romana!, ex: be [bi:] a fi, see [si:] a vedea

o intermediara intre o si a, ex: dog [dog] caine, not [not] nu (adverb)


o: lung, intre "u" si "o", ex: all [o:l] toti, toate, door [do:] usa
u scurt, intre "u" si "o", ex: good [gud] bun
u: lung, ex: you [iu:] tu, voi, do [du:] a face

Consoanele Lmbii Egleze


Unele consoane englezesti sunt deosebite de cele din limba romana:
a.

urmate de aspiratie, de un "h" usor, cand sunt folosite la inceputul cuvintelor


k come [cham] a veni (de regula, "e"-ul din pozitie finala nu se citeste!)
p pen [phen] stilou
t ten [then] zece

b. alveolare; varful limbii se sprijina pe alveolele incisivilor superiori


d did [did] facut
t ten [ten] zece
n not [not] nu
c.

interdentale, tine varful limbii intre dinti si rosteste "s" (consoana surda) sau "z" (consoana sonora)
["s"] thank ["s"aenc] multumesc
["z"] then ["z"en] atunci

d. "l" velar, pozitie finala / "l" clar, apare inainte de vocale


tell [tel] a povesti like [laic] a place
e.

"n" velar / "n" clar


sun [san] soare English [inglish] englez

f.

"r" fricativ, nu se pronunta in pozitie finala, decat daca urmatorul cuvant incepe cu o vocala
Henry

g.

"s"-ul dintre doua vocale, sau uneori cel aflat la sfarsitul cuvantului se pronunta "z"
please [pli:z] va rog (adu-ti aminte ca "e" final, dupa consoana, nu se citeste!)
his [hiz] al lui

h. "sh" are ca echivalent "sh"-ul romanesc: shogun


English [inglish] englez
i.

"ts" indentic cu "ts"-ul romanesc


nuts [nats] nuci

Substantivul (the noun)


Felul substantivelor
Substantivele n limba engleza se pot mparti n patru categorii:
substantive comune: cat, girl, lamp
substantive proprii: England, London, Mr Smith, Mary
substantive abstracte: beauty, love, courage, fear, joy
substantive colective: crowd, group, team
Genul
Substantive de genul masculin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex masculin:
Ex.: man, boy, lion, dog
Substantivele de genul feminin sunt fiintele si animalele de sex feminin:
Ex.: woman, girl, cat, giraffe
Substantive de genul neutru sunt lucrurile, plantele, animale sau fiinte al caror sex nu este cunoscut
(pronume: it/they):
Ex.: world, peace, house, mouse, baby
Exceptii: tarile, navele, n majoritatea cazurilor si autovehiculele sau alte vehicule sunt de genul
feminin.
Substantivele de genul comun sunt o particularitate a limbii engleze. Substantivele care intra n aceasta
categorie au aceeasi forma pentru ambele sexe:
Ex.: child (copil, copila), cook (bucatar, bucatareasa), teacher (profesor, profesoara).
Unele substantive au forme diferite pentru genul masculin si cel feminin:
Ex.: boy - girl, husband - wife, brother - sister, father - mother, son - daughter, uncle - aunt, dog bitch, bull - cow, king - queen
Numarul
Numarul este forma pe care o ia un substantiv pentru a arata ca ne referim la unul sau mai multe obiecte sau
fiinte.
Singularul coincide cu forma de baza a unui substantiv: dog, girl, wife, world, storm
Pluralul substantivelor se formeaza prin adaugarea unui s la forma de singular:
Ex.: cat+s=cats, day+s=days, world+s=worlds
Pluralul substantivelor teminate n ch, o, sh, s, x se formeaza adaugnd es la singular.
Ex.:
church+es=churches,
bush+es=bushes,
class+es=classes,
potato+es=potatoes,
bush+es=bushes, box+es=boxes
Pluralul neregulat
Substantive terminate n consoana+y fac pluralul n ies:
Ex.: company - companies, factory - factories, baby - babies
Unele substantive terminate n o fac plural prin adaugarea unui s.
Ex.: soprano - sopranos, piano - pianos, photo - photos
Unele substantive terminate n f sau fe vor suferi la plural schimbarea n ves.
Ex.: leaf - leaves, half - halves, wife - wives, life - lives, self - selves, wolf wolves
Exceptii: roof - roofs, handkerchief - handkerchiefs, gulf - gulfs, wharf - wharfs/ wharves
Cteva substantive formeaza pluralul prin schimbarea unei vocale interne
Ex.: foot - feet, man - men, tooth - teeth
Pluralul substantivului child este children.
Unele substantive ramn identice la plural Ex.: aircraft, deer, series, sheep, species, fish
Pluralul substantivelor compuse
n cazul substantivelor compuse numai ultimul cuvnt va trece la plural.
Ex.: boy-friends, break-ins, travel agents
Exceptii: substantivele compuse al caror prim element este man sau woman vor primi semnul pluralului pentru
ambele substantive componente.
Ex.: men drivers, women teachers, men servants
n cazul substantivelor compuse formate din constructii de genul substantiv + prepozitie / adverb + substantiv,
substantivul de baza va primi semnul pluralului.
Ex.: sisters-in-law, passers-by, men-of-war, hangers-on, lookers-on, runners-up
Abrevierile sau initialele vor forma pluralul prin adaugarea unui s
Ex.: MPs (Members of Parliament), VIPs (very important persons)

Substantivele unice (uncountable nouns)


Sunt substantive care nu se pot numara (uncountable) deoarece reprezinta fie unicate, obiecte puternic
individualizate, notiuni abstracte.
Nume de substante: bread, coffee, gold, paper, cloth, glass, oil, stone, wood
Abstractiuni: earth, paradise, nature, the present, advice, death, help, information, news, beauty, experience,
horror, knowledge, friendship, theory, literature
Alte substantive: baggage, damage, shopping, reading, luggage, parking, weather
Substantivele unice sunt ntotdeana la singular si vor lua un verb la singular:
Ex.: This coffee is cold. The weather was dreadful.
Nu sunt precedate de a/an; pentru a exprima o unitate din aceste substantive se foloseste: some, any, no, a little,
bit, piece of, slice of, etc.
Ex.: I do not want any help. I need some information. This slice of bread is hard. The piece of advice you gave
me helped.
Nota: Multe dintre substantivele unice pot avea si sensuri care se pot numara, astfel devenind substantive
comune si comportndu-se ca atare (primes a/an la singular, pot avea plural).
Sens Unic / Sens Comun
Her hair is black. (Parul ei este negru.)
She found a hair in the milk. (A gasit un fir de par n lapte.)
Their house was made of wood. (Casa lor este din lemn.)
We picnicked in the woods. (Am mers la picnic n padure.)
1.5. Forma posesiva
Se adauga 's la forma de singular a substantivelor care nu se termina n s:
Ex.: a child's voice, the people's choice, a horse's mouth, women's clothes
Vom folosi doar apostroful (') cu formele de plural ale substantivelor care se termina n s.
Ex.: a boys' school, the Johnsons' residence
Numele proprii terminate n s vor primi fie doar apostrof ('), fie 's
Ex.: Mr Jones's / Mr Jones' car, Yeats's / Yeats' poems
n cazul substantivelor compuse si a titlurilor ultimul cuvnt va primi 's
Ex.: My father-in-law's guitar, Henry the Eighth's wives
's se foloseste si dupa initiale sau abrevieri.
Ex.: The CEO's assistant, the PM's speech
Forma posesiva se foloseste n general cnd vorbim de oameni, animale, tari. Se foloseste de asemenea n
urmatoarele cazuri:
n expresii temporale
Ex.: yesterday's newspaper, in five years' time, ten minutes' break
n expresii construite dupa modelul bani + worth
Ex.: ten dollars' worth of bananas, a shilling's worth of stamps
n alte expresii uzuale:
Ex.: for heaven's sake, a winter's day, the water's edge, the plane's wings, the train's departure
n cazul anumitor substantive folosite la posesiv, este uzuala omisiunea substantivului urmator atunci cnd
sensul
comunicarii
este
clar
(magazine,
birouri,
oficii,
casa,
locuinta).
Ex.: You can buy this at the baker's (shop). Mary bought her tickets at the travel agent's (office). The kids went
to Bobby's (house).
Ideea de posesie se poate exprima si cu ajutorul constructiei of+substantiv. Aceasta constructie se foloseste mai
ales pentru lucruri sau fiinte umane sau animale atunci cand acestea sunt urmate de o propozitie subordonata.
Ex.: the walls of the town, the roof of the church, the keys of the house
I took the advice of the girl I met on the bus and went to buy the book.

Articolul (the article)


Pentru ca un substantiv sa capete nteles ntr-o propozitie oarecare, acesta trebuie sa fie nsotit de un
determinant substantival. Cel mai des folosit determinant substantival este articolul. Articolele se pot clasifica dupa
cum urmeaza:
Articolul hotart - the
Articolul nehotart - a / an
Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata)
Articolele sunt forme invariabile, adica nu se schimba n functie de numarul sau genul substantivului si se
aseaza n fata substantivului determinat.
Articolul hotart (the) se foloseste:
1. inaintea unui substantiv singular numarabil sau nenumarabil sau a unui substantiv plural numarabil pentru a
face o noua referire la ceva ce a fost deja sau la care s-a facut deja aluzie:
He wanted to go to the bank to change some money, but all the banks were on strike.
Dave had a nasty accident when he was young. You can still see the scar.
Do you remember the fun we had when we were at school together?
2. pentru a face referire la cineva sau ceva anume:
The American economy is suffering at the moment.
The people I work with are very friendly.
I dont like the president of that company.
3. in fata unui substantiv reprezentand o anume persoana sau un lucru sau un grup de persoane sau lucruri:
I dont feel well. Can you call the doctor? (= medicul personal)
The kids arent at home. (= proprii tai copii)
Can you pass me the butter, please? (= untul de pe aceasta masa)
Shall I drive the car? (= aceasta masina)
Maria Callas sang so beautifully that the audience threw flowers onto the stage. (= publicul care
o urmarea a aruncat flori pe scena pe care canta ea)
4. cu referire la ceva unic in mod absolut:
The sun rises in the East and sets in the West.
The weather at the North Pole is very cold.
The President of the United States visited the Pope last May.
5. in fata adjectivelor pentru a face referire la un anumit grup sau clasa de oameni. In acest caz NU este
nevoie de substantiv:
Only the strong survive. (= oamenii puternici in general)
The question of the unemployed came up again.
Robin Hood stole from the rich and gave to the poor.
6. in fata unui substantiv la singular pentru a se referi la un anume grup de oameni, animale sau obiecte:
The Indian elephant is smaller than the African elephant.
The dolphin is said to be a very intelligent animal.
Henry Ford invented the automobile.
The customer is always right.
7. inaintea unor substantive proprii pentru a denumi zone geografice, nume de mari si rauri, lanturi muntoase,
grupuri de insule, nume la plural de tari si deserturi:
the Middle East, the North of England, the Ivory Coast
the Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, the English Channel, the River Thames, the Straits of
Gibraltar
the Himalayas, the Alps, the Carpathians
the Hawaiian Islands, the Falklands
the United States of America, the Netherlands, the Philippines
the Arizona Desert, the Mojave Desert
NOTA: THE nu se foloseste cu nume de munti izolati.
Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Scotland.
THE nu se foloseste cu nume de lacuri.
Lake Superior, Lake Victoria, Lake Ontario
8. in fata numelor de instruente muzicale:
Rachmaninov began to play the piano when he was only 4 years old.
The guitar has always been my favourite instrument.
9. in fata unor adjective nationalitati cu referire la oameni dintr-o anumita tara. Aici se foloseste un verb la
plural:

The Swiss have decided not to join the EU.


The Spanish are doing very well in this years Olympics.
NOTA: In anumite cazuri, se pot folosi numai substantive la plural.
The Germans were upset about losing the WW II.
The Americans hosted the 1994 World Football Championship.
10. inaintea adjectivelor superlative si a numeralelor ordinale:
Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.
Laura is the most beautiful in my class.
That is the silliest thing I have ever heard.
NOTA: Uneori numeralele oridinale pot fi folosite fara THE atunci cand se face referire la ordinea
in care se petrec evenimentele.
Brendan came first ad Colin second at 100 meters.
We went to Manhattan first, then on to Brooklyn.
Articolul nehotart (a / an).
Se foloseste a naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o consoana si an naintea substantivelor care ncep cu o
vocala (a, e, i, o, u). Articolul nehotart se foloseste:
1. inaintea unui substantiv pentru a ne referi la ceva sau cineva pentru prima data:
Ive received a postcard from a friend of mine in the US.
After months of searching, my brother found a job.
The Jacksons live in a bungalow.
2. pentru a exprima ce este ceva sau cineva, inclusiv slujbe sau profesii:
My neighbour is a sociologist and his wife is an architect.
Jenny doesnt eat meat; shes a vegetarian.
There is a man at the door who says he is a detective.
That was a kind thing to say.
3. dupa verbul be sau alte verbele copulative, cand dupa ele urmeaza locutiuni prepozitionala sau propozitii
relative care ofera mai multa informatie despre cineva sau ceva:
I read an interesting article about pollution in yesterdays paper.
Jacks son is a talented artist.
He studied law at University and became a judge.
I bought a painting that reminded me of my childhood home.
John Smith wrote an interesting article on Education in the Times yesterday.
4. cu unele expresii numerice insemnand unu sau su expresii ale pretului, vitezei, raportului si cantitatii:
A hundred guests were invited.
Petrol costs 1.50 a litre in England.
Hes crazy driving at 190 kilometres an hour.
You must take this medicine four times a day if you want to get better.
There was a great deal of noise coming form the house next door.
5. cu substantive numarabile la singular pentru a da definitii, a face afirmatii generale, exclamatii sau cand ne
exprimam dorinte:
A thesaurus is a dictionary of synonyms.
A house built of stone is stronger than a house built of wood.
An apple a day keeps the doctor away. (proverb)
Wow! What a pretty girl walked by just now.
Id like a nice cool glass of beer.
Articolul a / an si one
1.
Atunci cnd numeri sau masori timpul, distanta, greutatea, etc. se poate folosi fie a/an fie one
pentru singular:
Ex.: a / one pound, a / one million pounds
You can take an/ one hour for lunch.
2.
Dar a/an si one nu nseamna ntotdeauna acelasi lucru:
Ex.: A box is no good. (We need a crate not a box).
One box is no good, we need two boxes.
Articolul zero. Nu se foloseste articol n urmatoarele cazuri:
1. in fata substantivelor nenumarabile sau numarabile la plural cand se face o afirmatie generala (adesea
precedate de determinanti ca: some, any, a piece of, a lot of etc.):
Water quenches thirst on a hot day.

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2.

3.

4.
5.
6.

Pollution in big cities is very worrying.


Dogs make good companions.
There is some luggage to be taken upstairs.
Is there any bread in the kitchen?
in fata substativelor abstracte cand sunt folosite in mod generic: beauty, happiness, fear, hope, knowledge,
intelligence etc.; cu exceptia cazurilor cand sunt folosite cu sens mai bine specificat:
Knowledge comes to us through our senses. DAR: She got the job because she has a knowledge of
English.
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder. DAR: What a beauty!
in fata substantivelor proprii, nume de persoane si numele unei companii, cu exceptia situatiilor cand se
vorbeste de familie ca un tot:
He works for Microsoft.
Helen and George Parker are coming to dinner tonight. DAR: The Parkers are coming to dinner
tonight.
pentru a vorbi despre sporturi, in fata numelor de echipe etc:
He loves football and supports Manchester Utd.
inaintea meselor zilei:
Where did you have breakfast / lunch / dinner?
inaintea cuvintelor home, church, university, prison, hospital, market etc. atunci cand ele reprezinta o
institutie sau o idee generala. THE se foloseste totusi atunci cand se face o referire speciala la locul
respectiv:
Al Capone was arrested and put in prison for tax evasion. (ne referim nu la o anumita inchisoare,
ci la institutie)
His mother went to the prison once a week to visit him. (aici ne referim la acea inchisoare unde se
afla Al Capone)
My mother goes to church every Sunday. (biserica in sensul de institutie, serviciu religios)
She sometimes goes to the church near the Royal Palace. (acea biserica anume).
Our University is 150 years old. (institutia universitatii)
Emma and Ben often go to the university to talk to their professor. (la o universitate anume, in
cladirea ei)

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Prepozitia
1. Prepozitia de loc - se foloseste cu verbe statice: to be/to stay/to exist/to stand, etc.
in in, la, pentru spatii mari
Ex: I live in Bucharest.
at in, la, pentru spatii reduse Ex: I live at Sinaia.
within in cadrul, pentru suprafete restranse Ex: A lot of words have been said within these walls.
against rezemat
Ex: The man is against the wall.
impotriva
Ex: We are against them.
on pe (pozitia pe o suprafata) Ex: The book is on the table.
Pentru apropiere:
imediata: next to, close to, beside
apropiere: near, near by, by
Pozitia pe verticala:
over deasupra
under dedesubt
(fara raportare la un punct fix)
above deasupra
below dedesubt
(cu raportare la un punct fix) Ex: above zero, below the water level
underneath punctul cel mai de jos
on top of punctul cel mai de sus (prin atingere) Ex: The green book is underneath. (este cea mai de jos
carte)
Pozitia pe orizontala:
in front of in fata
behind in spate (pentru lucruri pentru a indica pozitia) Ex: The tree is in front of the house.
after dupa
before inainte (pentru oameni, pentru a indica ordinea) Ex: Im before you at the queue.
between intre 2
among printre (mai mult de 2)
2. Prepozitia de miscare - se foloseste numai cu verbe de miscare
to la, catre (pp atingerea punctului)
Ex: I go to school.
towards la, catre (nu pp atingerea punctului) Ex: I go towards office.
Into in (pp patrunderea intr-un spatiu)
Ex: Put the bag into the house.
Onto pe (pp miscarea pe o suprafata orizontala;se pune ondaca sta)The cat is running onto the floor.
along de-a lungul (pp miscarea pe o suprafata plana si lunga) Ex: Im walking along the beech.
through prin (pp traversare si patrundere) Ex: I walk through the park.
across traversare (nu si patrundere)
Ex: I run across the street.
about prin (arata o miscare nedefinita)
Ex: I walk about town (prin oras, fara un tel precis)
around in jurul (pp o miscare circulara)
Ex: I dance around the fire.
out of pp iesirea dintr-un volum
Ex: Get out of my house.
off pp desprinderea de o suprafata
Ex: The plane takes off.
up-and-down in sus si in jos pe un plan vertical Ex: The children run up-and-down the stairs.
from de la, de pe, din
Ex: Take it from my bag.
past langa (pp apropierea imediata prin miscare) Ex: I drive past the university (si nu near the university!,
pt ca sunt in miscare)
3. Prepozitia de timp
in pentru ani, lunile anului, anotimpuri, perioade ale vietii (in my childhood),
in anumite momente ale zilei (in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening)
at pentru ora (at 10 oclock), in anumite momente ale zilei (at noon, at midday, at midnight, at dusk),
pentru varsta (at the age of 15), mesele zilei (at lunch time), cu week-end (at the week-end) si in sarbatori (at
Christmas)
on cu zilele saptamanii (on Sunday), data (on the 15th of June) si
sarbatorile (on
Christmas day cand este vorba de ziua de Craciun, nu de toata perioada)
before si after inainte si dupa, cu raportare la un punct fix
by nu mai tarziu de Ex: Try to arrive by ten.
during in timpul
over in timpul, dar pe perioade scurte Ex: Read it over the week-end.

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throughout / althrough de-a lungul, dar pe o prioada lunga de timp Ex: Althrough the years.
4. Diferentiere intre prepozitii
in time
on time
cu ceva timp inainte
la fix
in the end
at the end
finally, in cele din urma
la capatul (urmeaza un substantiv)
in
with
pentru ceva cu care esti imbracat pentru o trasatura fizica
Ex: A woman in trousers.
A woman with long hair.
as
like
pentru rol, functie, pozitie
pentru comparatie
Ex: I work as a teacher.
Ex: I talk like a teacher.
(I am a teacher)
(I am an engineer)
on
about
in legatura cu, folosit academic
despre
Ex: Give me a book on Economics. Ex: Lets talk about sex.
due to
owing to
datorita (doar dupa to be)
datorita (restul inafara de to be)
Ex: My success is due to her.
Ex: Owing to my work I succeeded.
over
across
pp traversarea peste un obstacol
traversare pe jos
Ex: Im over the ocean. (cu avionul)
Ex: Im across the ocean. (cu barca)
despite
in spite of
dupa urmeaza CD (niciodata sub.) dupa urmeaza genitiv
Ex: Despite the bad weather I left. Ex: In spite of the bad weather I left.
made of recunosc materialul
Ex: made of gold
made from deduc ceva elemente Ex: the cake is made from cocoa
made with recunosc 1 element Ex: a chocolate made with milk (dar laptele nu este elementul de baza)
in in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening
at at dawn, at midnight
on pentru orice moment al zilei atunci cand exista un atribut
Ex:
In the morning dar On a fine day
At night
dar On a starry night
5. Pentru mijloace de locomotie
by cu orice mijloc de transport, daca nu este determinat
Ex: by car, by bus, by plane (dar on foot!)
in pentru autovehicule, daca sunt determinate
Ex: in my fathers car, in the car that you bought me
on pentru toate celelalte in afara de autovehicule daca sunt determinate
Ex: on my fathers plane, on the tube/subway/underground
6. Expresii cu Prepoziii
Prepozitia
About (despre)

Across (de-a curmeziul sau de-a latul)


After (dup)

Against-mpotriv,contra

Expresii
About the town-prin ora
About six oclock-n jurul orei ase
A journey about the world-o cltorie prin lume
About my head-deasupra capului meu
About all-mai presus de orice,n primul rnd
To walk across the street-a traversa strada
Across the road-peste drum
After dark-dup lsarea ntunericului
After breakfast-dup micul dejun
After five oclock-dup ora cinci
Day after day-zi de zi,zi dup zi
Time after time-deseori,foarte adesea
After theat-dup aceea
The day after tomorrow-poimine
Against the laws-mpotriva legilor

13

Along-de-a lungul
Among-ntre
Around-mprejur
At la

Byfore-nainte
Behind(bihaind)-n spate
Below(bilou)-sub

Beneath-sub,mai jos de
Besides-n afar de
Between-ntre, se folosete cnd este vorba
de dou elemente sau dou persoane
Beyond-dincolo de
By-de,de ctre,prin

For-pentru

A race against time-o curs contra cronometru


To lean against a wall-a se sprijini de un perete
Along a valley-de.a lungul unei vi
Along the sea shore-de-a lungul rmului
Among us-ntre noi(cnd este vorba de 3 sau mai multe persoane)
Among his friends-printre(ntre) prietenii lui
Among the most important reasons-printre cele m.imp.cauze(motive)
A trip around the contry-o cltorie prin ar
To sit around the table-a edea n jurul mesei
I will come around ten-o s vin pe la zece (n jur de ora zece)
At noon-la prnz
At day break-la revrsatul zorilor
At sunset-la apusul soarelui,la asfinit
At rondom-la intmplare
At work-la lucru
At the door-la u
At the beginning-la nceput
At the end-la sfrit
At the same time-n acelai timp
At the age of-la vrsta de
At first-la nceput
At last-la sfrit,n cele din urm
At full speed-la vitez maxim,cu toat viteza
At first sight-la prima vedere
At what time?-la ce or?
At once-imediat
At least-cel puin
At my disposal-la dispoziia mea
Byfore my eyes-naintea ochilor mei
Byfore one aclock-nainte de ora unu
To sail byfore the wind-a naviga cu vntul n spate
Behind the clouds-n spatele norilor
To hide behind the door-a se ascunde n spatele uii
To strike below the belt-a lovi sub centur
Below sea level-sub nivelul mrii
Below the ground-sub pmnt
Below the average-sub nivelul mediu
Beneath ones dignity-sub demnitatea cuiva
He has two cars besides this-el are dou maini n afar de aceasta
Between the two world wars-ntre cele dou rzboaie mondiale
An understanding between us-o nelegere ntre noi
Beyond doubt(deaut)-fr ndoial
Beyond the sea-dincolo de mare
Beyond limits-peste limit
To open by force-a deschide cu fora
To travel by train-a cltori cu trenul
To go by car-a merge cu maina
Day by day-zi de zi
Step by step-pas cu pas
Drop by drop-strop cu strop
Piece by piece-bucat cu bucat
One by one-unul cte unul
Two by two-doi cte doi
To learn by heart-a nva pe de rost
To go by the post-office-a trece pe lng pot
By force of circunstances-prin fora mprejurrilor
To sleep side by side-a dormi unul lng altul
Good for food-comestibil
To leave for school-a pleca la coal
To look for help-a cuta ajutor

14

From-din,de la

In-n

Into-n,spre

To cry for help-a striga dup ajutor


For a time-un timp,pentru un timp
To go for a walk-a merge la plimbare
To read for pleasure-a citi de plcere
What is this good for?-la ce este bun sta?
For all the world-pentru nimic n lume
To have a taste for art-a avea gust artistic
For this reason-pentru(din) acest motiv
For the sake of peace-n numele pcii
Enough(inagh) for the present-suficient deocamdat
Im sorry for you-mi pare ru de tine(pentru tine)
From first to last-de la primul la ultimul
From heaven to earth-de la cer la pmnt
From bad(bead) to worse-din ce n ce mai ru
From place to place-din cnd n cnd
From morning to night-de dimineaa pn seara
Light from the sun-lumin de la soare
A man free from care-un om liber de griji
A man from the country-un om de la ar
To be far from home-a fi departe de cas
From theat point of view-din punctul acela de vedere
From my point of view-din punctul meu de vedere
To be released from prisom-a fi eliberat din nchisoare
Seen from above-vzut de sus
Seen from below(bilou)-vzut de dedesubt
On my way from Piteti to Bucharest-n drumul meu de la P.la B
To tell one thing from another-a deosebi un lucru de cellalt
In the morning-dimineaa
In the shade(eid)-la umbr
In the end-la final
In the garden-n grdin
In heaven-n cer
In spring-primvara
In summer-vara
In fall-toamna
In winter-iarna
To be in danger(deinger)-a fi n pericol
To lie(lai) in bed-a sta ntins n pat
To live in the country-a sta la ar
In our centuri(aur senturi)In all seasons-n toate anotimpurile
In my youth-n tinereea mea
In his memory-n memoria lui
Early in the morning-dimineaa devreme
In the past-n trecut
In the future(fiucir)-n viitor
In come just in time-a veni la timp
To keep(kip)in mind(maind)-a ine minte
Done in haste-fcut n grab
To put in mind-a-i pune n gnd
To put in order-a pune n ordine
In general-n general
To work in vain-a munci n zadar
To be in pain-a fi ndurerat
To speak in public-a vorbi n public
To take in hand-a lua n mn
To lead into error-a duce n eroare
To get into difficulties-a da de greuti
To fall into the river-a cdea n ru(lac)
To burst into tears-a izbucni n lacrimi

15

Inside-nuntru
Near-lng
Of-de

Off-departe de
On-pe

Over-peste

Past

Round-n jurul

To get into trouble-a da de bucluc,belea,necaz


To pour walter into a glass-a turna ap n pahar
Inside the room-nuntrul camerei
His is inside-el e nuntru
Near the sea shore-lng rm
Near at hand-la ndemn,aproape
Near you-lng tine
A crown of gold-o coroan de aur
A flock of sheep-o turm de oi
Hard of hearing(hiring)-surd,tare de urechi
A book of proverbs-o carte de proverbe
The force of the wind-fora vntului
A place of honour-n loc de onoare
A man of mark-un om nsemnat(important)
A man of no importance-un om oarecare(fr importan)
To wear adress of silk-a purta o rochie de mtase
Love of a mother-iubire de mam
Master of the house-stpnul casei
A piece of paper-o bucat de hrtie
A friend of mine-un prieten de-al meu
The events of late-evenimentele din ultimul timp
In days of old-n zilele de mult apuse
Of course-bineneles,cu siguran,sigur c da
Keep off the grass-nu clcai pe iarb
To be off duty-a fi liber,a nu fi la serviciu
To fall off the horse-a cdea de pe cal
To be on duty-a fi de serviciu
To sit on the grass-a sta pe iarb
Some goods(gudz)on sale-nite mrfuri de vnzare
Haus on fire-o cas n flcri
To go on foot-a merge pe jos
On a beautiful day-ntr-o zi frumoas
On such a day-ntr-o astfel de zi
On this occasion(ocheijen)-cu aceast ocazie
On certain conditions-cu anumite condiii
To stand on tip toe-a sta n vrful picioarelor
To be on land-a fi pe uscat
On the whole-n ansamblu,n general,n mare
On an average-n medie
To be on holiday-a fi n vacan
To sit on a chair-a sta pe un scaun
To pay on demand-a plti la cerere
To pay on the spot-a plti pe loc
On the celing-pe tavan
On a desert island(ailnd)-pe o insul pustie
On the point of-a fi pe punctul de a
Over the rocks-peste stnci
To be head over heels in love-a fi ndrgostit lulea
To stay somewhere(samuer) over night-a sta undeva peste noapte
To be famous all over the world-a fi celebru(cunoscut )n toat ara
To cook over the fire-a gti la foc
To tremble all over-a tremura din toate mdularele,a tremura tot
Past his comprehension-peste puterea lui de a nelege
To be past work-a nu mai putea munci,a nu mai putea s munceasc
To be past danger(deinger)-a fi n afara pericolului
Have past one-unu i jumtate
It is past five oclock-este trecut de ora cinci
A round table-o mas rotund
A round peg in a square hole-potrivit ca nuca n perete
Round the world-n jurul lumii

16

Since-de,de la
Through-prin

Through whom?-prin cine


Till-pn,pn la
To-la,ctre

Under-sub

Up-n susul,ctre

Until-pn la,pn n
UponWithin-n,nuntrul,nu mai trziu de

Without-fr

Since four oclock-de la ora patru


I havent seen him since-nu l-am mai vzut de atunci
To go through thick and thin-a trece prin foc i ap
Through the wood-prin pdure
To at through fear-a aciona de fric
All through the night-toat noaptea,tot timpul nopii
To go through life-a trece prin via
Throughout this country-de-a lungul i de-a latul acestei ri Throughout our
holidays-pe tot parcursul vacanei noastre,tot timpul vacanei noastre
To be up lill late-a se culca trziu,a nu se culca devreme
Till death do us part-pn ce moartea ne va despri
To go to bed-a merge la culcare
To take to wife-a lua de soie(nevast)
From end to end-de la cap la cap
From hand to mouth-de la mn pn la gur
To come to an end-a lua sfrit
To finish-a termina,a se termina
To be wet to the skin-a fi ud pn la piele
To count up to ten-a numra pn la zece
From time to time-din cnd n cnd,din timp n timp
To dance to the musics-a dansa dup muzic
I dont want to!-nu vreau
Under lock and key-sub cheie,sub paz
Under the tree-sub copac
To swim under water-a nota sub ap
To be under arms-a fi sub arme
To be under a vow(veau)-a fi sub un jurmnt,a fi legat prin jurmnt
To be under sentence of death-a fi condamnat la moarte
Under what conditions?-n ce condiii
Under these conditions-n aceste condiii
In under ten minutes-n mai puin de 10 minute
To be under age-a fi minor
To be under treatement-a fi sub ngrijire medical a fi n tratament
Under my feet-sub tlpile(picioarele) mele
The ball rolled underneath a table-mingea s-a rostogolit sub o mas
The ups and downs of life-urcuurile i coborurile vieii,geutile vieii
To run up the hill-a alerga pe deal n sus
To walk up a hill-a urca un deal
Wake up!-trezete-te,scoal-te
Until the end of life-pn la sfritul vieii
To refuse upon the principle-a refuza din principiu
Upon the top of the hill-n vrful dealului
Upon our word-pe cuvntul nostru
To keep within doors-a ine n cas
Within the law-n limita legii
Within a week-n mai puin de o sptmn
Within our room-n interiorul camerei noastre
To be without help-a fi fr de ajutor
To come without delay-a veni fr ntrziere
To escape without damage-a scpa nevtmat
To come without fail-a veni sigur(negreit)
To come without doubt-a veni fr ndoial
It goes withaut sayng(seing)-se nelege de la sine
I will leave withaut him-o s plec fr el

17

18

Conjunctia
A. Dupa aspect
1. Simple: but, if, and.
2. Compuse: however, unless, otherwise.
3. De legatura: asas, bothand, eitheror, neithernor, not onlybut also, whetheror .
4. Locutiuni: as well as, as if (de parca), as though (de parca), for instance, thats why, so long as (atata timp cat).
B. Dupa functie
1. De coordonare
a) and - care leaga
- propozitii intre ele
- parti de vorbire de acelasi fel
Ex: I go and stay there for a week
b) as well as
Ex: I work in a school as well as at home.
c) neithernor
Ex: I am neither in the kitchen nor in the bathroom.
d) not onlybut also
Ex: I am not only intelligent but also pretty.
e) as well
Ex: He is calm and good as well.
f) eitheror
Ex: They are either brother and sister or husband and wife.
g) furthermore (cu atat mai mult)
Ex: I speak English, furthermore I wood like to visit England.
h) conjunctii adversative: but, while, whereas (pe cata vreme, tinand seama de) contrasteaza cu propozitia
principala.
Ex:
I am tall but fat.
I am talking while you are righting.
k) conjunctii disjunctive: or, else, or else (ori, cu alte cuvinte), otherwise (altfel).
Ex:
Would you prefer coffee or tea?
Please put your coat else you get whet.
Learn your lesson otherwise you fail.
i) conjunctiile concluzive: consequently, on that account, so, then, that is why (iata de ce), therefore (de
aceea).
Ex: I havent slept therefore/that is why I am tired.
j) conjunctii explicative: for example, for instance, namely, that is to say.
Ex:
Only one friend of mine left Romania, namely Ela.
I like do a lot of thinks for instance/example reading, dancing,
2. De subordonare acelea care introduc o propozitie secundara. Unele dintre ele sunt specializate pe anumite
tipuri de propozitii.
Ex:
pt. concesive: through, although (desi)
pt. conditionale: if
pt. comparative: as if (de parca), as though
pt. predicative sau pt. subiective, completive directe, attributive
Subordonate predicative introduse prin:
a) what - Ex: The question is what I must read.
b) who - Ex: The question is who is he.
c) where - Ex: The question is were I go.
d) when - Ex: The question is when I can come.
e) whatever, whoever, that, why
Subordonate subiective introduse prin:
a) that - Ex: It is necessary that you should understand this rule.
b) what Ex: It doesnt matter what you believe.
c) who Ex: It hasnt be decided who is the leader of the team.
d) which, whoever, whatever, whichever, when, how, why, where, if, whether.

19

Subordonate completive directe (cele cu forma de complement): if, that, whether, whatever, whoever,
wherever, why, whichever.
Ex:
She sad that she was tired.
I dont know if you leave Romania.
I dont know whoever wants my dog.
I do whatever you want me to do.
I may take whatever book you want.
Subordonate indirecte introduse prin: to whom, to what, to anyone, whoever.
Ex: I may give the flowers to whom you want.
You interpret whatever she says.
Subordonate prepozitionale introduse prin: who, whom, whoever, whichever, how daca sunt precedate de o
prepoziitie.
Ex: You depend on what I say.
You must approved of whatever she says.
Subordonate atributive introduse prin: whose, which, whom, were, why, when, that.
Ex:
This is the woman who loves me.
This is the man whose wife is pretty.
This is the boy whom I greeted.
Subordonate adverbiale introduse prin: as, like, much as, how, in the manner, as if, as though, just.
Ex:
No one speaks like you do.
They acted much as I told them. (respectand majoritatea celor spuse de mine)
Subordonate conditionale introduse prin: if, on condition that, only if.
Ex:
I shall come soon if/on condition that I find my passport.

20

Adverbul

Adverbele sunt cuvinte care ne spun mai multe despre cum , unde, cnd, ct de frecvent sau n ce msura
are loc o actiune.
Functia adverbelor
Astfel, adverbele determina n general verbe:
Ex.: The bus moved slowly. (cum?)
I am going home tomorrow. (cnd?)
Adverbele pot determina:
adjective: You look absolutely fabulous!
adverbe: She played the violin extremely well. You're speaking too quietly.
propozitii intregi: Perhaps we'll see you again next year.
In general adverbul este terminat in ly, dar nu tot ce are ly este adverb. De regula se formeaza din
adjectiv + ly.
Modificari ortografice:
1. daca adjectivul se termina in e, acesta se pastreaza ely
Ex: nice nicely
Exceptii:
due duly (datorat)
true truly
whole wholly
2. daca adjectivul se termina in le, se transforma e in y/ ly
Ex: capable capably
3. daca adjectivul se termina in ll, se adauga doar lly
Ex: full fully
4. daca adjectivul se termina in ic, se adauga ally
Ex: automatic automatically
5. daca adjectivul se termina in y, indiferent daca este precedat de vocala sau de consoana, se transforma in
i si se adauga ily
Ex:
pretty prettily
gay gaily
Exceptii:
shy shyly
wry wryly
coy coyly (sfios)
6. adjectivul good face adverbul well
NOTA: ca sa verific L-urile unui adverb, il desfac in adjectiv + ly
Ex:
usually = usual + ly
bitterly = bitter + ly
awfully = awful + ly
Adverbe care au 2 forme cu acelasi inteles (oricare din ele este corect)
1. bright = brightly
2. sound = soundly
3. fair = fairly
4. tight = tightly
(sunt echivalente)
5. dear = dearly
6. dead = deadly
7. cheap = cheaply
Ex: The sun shines bright / brightly.
NOTA: forma in ly se va prefera totusi cand adverbul determina un adjectiv
Ex: He is deadly tired. (si nu he is dead tired).
Adverbul cheap se va folosi in loc de cheaply doar pentru a caracteriza activitati comerciale (to buy, to sell,
to get)
Ex:
She bought it cheap.
dar
We traveled cheaply.

21

Adverbe cu 2 forme cu 2 intelesuri diferite


clean = complet
cleanly = intr-o maniera curata
clear = exact
clearly = intr-o maniera clara
close = apropiat
closely = indeaproape
deep = adanc
deeply = profund
direct = direct
directly = imediat
due = spre (la busola)
duly = punctual

Ex: They went due South.

easy = usor
easily = intr-o maniera lejera

Ex: Take it easy!

free = gratis
freely = pe sleau, deschis
full = complet
fully = pe scara larga, intr-o maniera extinsa
hard = greu
hardly = de-abia, cu greu, aproape deloc
high = sus
highly = foarte
just = tocmai
justly = asa cum se cuvine
late = tarziu
lately = in ultima vreme
large = extins
largely = pe scara larga
most = majoritatea
mostly = cu precadere
near = langa
nearly = aproape ca
pretty = foarte
prettily = intr-o maniera draguta
right = exact
rightly = cu precizie, clar
sharp = fix
sharply = intr-o maniera taioasa
short = brusc
shortly = imediat

22

Adverbe si adjective cu aceeasi forma si inteles


fast
far
early
alike
alone
past

solo
straight
next
little
outside

NOTA: daca adjectivul se termina in ly, el devine adverb prin contructia


in a + adj + manner
Ex:

He is a friendly person.
adj
He speaks to me in a friendly way / manner.
adv
coward = las (substantiv)
cowardly = las (adjectiv)
in a cowardly manner = cu lasitate (adverb)
Gradele de comparatie - se construiesc astfel:
daca adjectivul si adverbul au aceeasi forma, se comporta ca un adjectiv scurt (gradele se fac cu er si
est)
Ex: I run fast / not so fast as / as fast as / faster than / the fastest of all / very fast
daca adverbul se obtine din adjectiv + ly, face gradele de comparatie ca un adjectiv lung
(cu more si
the most)
Ex: He runs quickly / less quickly than / as quickly as / more quickly than / the most quickly of all / very
quickly
Comparatia regulata
well better the best
badly worse the worst
much more the most
far farther the farthest
further the furthest
near nearer the next
little less the least
late later the last
Clasificarea adverbelor
1. Adverbe de mod
2. Adverbe de loc si directie
3. Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
4. Adverbe de probabilitate
5. Adverbe de grad
Adverbe de mod
Adverbele de mod ne arata cum, in ce mod are loc o actiune. Ele se aseaza in propozitie dupa verb sau dupa
complementul acestuia.
fairly foarte, dar nu extraordinary. Fairly se cupleaza intotdeauna cu adjectivul la gradul pozitiv.
Ex: Your story is fairly interesting.
quite este mai puternic decat fairly. Se foloseste cand vreau sa fac o apreciere favorabila.
Ex: This car is quite cheap.
NOTA : cand se refera la adjective sau adverbe care nu au grade de comparatie, quite capata
sensul de absolut, complet, de-a dreptul.
Ex: Your dress is quite unique.

23

rather se foloseste cand am de facut o apreciere nefavorabila si sensul este = foarte, neasteptat
de. Se foloseste numai cu caracteristici negative. Poate fi precedat si urmat de articolul a
Ex: This car is rather expensive.
Ex:
This is a rather difficult exercise.
This is rather a difficult exercise.
pretty foarte (familiar, intre prieteni)
Ex: Im pretty tired.
very Este cel mai cunoscut si se cupleaza cu orice (pozitiv, comparativ sau superlativ)
Ex:
I do my very best.
He is very much faster than I am.
much / a lot = se cupleaza cu comparativul
Ex: He is much faster than I am.
by far = se cupleaza cu superlativul
Ex: He is by far the fastest of all.
too se cupleaza cu pozitivul
Ex: He is too fast.
enough se cupleaza cu pozitivul, dar se aseaza dupa el
Ex: He is fast enough for a champion.
so se cupleaza
- cu much, many, little, few + substantiv
- cu adjectiv / adverb la pozitiv
Ex:
It is so difficult.
I have so many friends / so much money.
There is so little time left.
such urmat de
- substantiv numarabil la sg precedat de a
- de constructia adjectiv + substantiv la pl
Ex:
He is such a man.
They are such interesting persons.
Adverbe de loc si directie
Ne arata unde are loc actiunea verbului. Se aseaza in general dupa verbul principal sau complementul sau.
Ex:
Dupa verb:
I looked everywhere.
John looked ...away, up, down, around...
I'm going ...home, out, back...
Dupa complement:
They built a house nearby.
She took the child outside.
A. Here / there. Cu verbe de miscare, here exprima ideea de nspre/ cu / mpreuna cu vorbitorul, iar there
contrariul, departe, fara participarea vorbitorului:
Ex.: Come here (= spre mine)
It's in here (= vino impreuna cu mine sa vezi)
Put it there (= departe de mine)
It's in there (= du-te singur sa vezi)
Expresii cu here/ there: down here, down there, over here, over there, under here, under there, up here, up
there.
B. Adverbele de loc terminate n -wards - exprima ideea de miscare ntr-o anumita directie:
Ex.: backwards, forwards, downwards, upwards, inwards, outwards, northwards, southwards, eastwards,
westwards, homewards, onwards.
Cats don't usually walk backwards.
The ship sailed westwards.
De retinut! Towards este prepozitie, nu adverb, astfel nct va fi ntotdeauna urmat de un substantiv
sau pronume:
Ex.: He walked towards the car. She ran towards me.
C. Adverbe care exprima att locul ct si directia: ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways,
indoors, outdoors.
Adverbe de timp, durata si frecventa
Arata cand a avut loc o actiune dar si durata sau frecventa actiunii.

24

Cnd: today, yesterday, later, now, last year


Durata, pentru ct timp: all day, not long, for a while, since last year
Ct de frecvent: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly
De obicei, adverbele de timp se aseaza la sfrsitul propozitiei sau emfatic, la nceputul ei:
Ex.: One of my children wrote to me yesterday.
Later the boy understood the story.
Adverbele care indica durata se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei:
Ex.:
She stayed in the house all day.
My mother lived in France for a year.
Adverbele de frecventa exprima frecventa unei actiuni si se aseaza de obicei in fata verbului principal, dar
dupa verbele auxiliare (cum ar fi be, have, may, must):
I often eat vegetarian food. (in fata verbului principal)
You must always fasten your seat belt. (dupa verbul auxiliar must)
I have never forgotten my first kiss. (dupa verbul auxiliar have si in fata verbului principal forgotten)
Unele adverbe de frecventa exprima regularitatea incidentei unei actiuni si se plaseaza la sfarsitul
prepozitiei:
This magazine is published monthly.
He visits his mother once a week.
Adverbe de fecventa: frequently, generally, normally, occasionally, often, regularly, sometimes, usually.
De retinut! Yet se foloseste in propozitii interogative sau negative.
Have you finished your work yet? No, not yet.
They haven't met him yet.
Still exprima ideea de continuitate. Se foloseste in propozitii pozitive sau interogative.
I am still hungry.
Do you still work for the BBC?
Adverbe de timp usuale:
ago se foloseste cand raportarea se face fata de un moment prezent
Ex: I saw her one hour ago.
NOTA! daca raportarea se face fata de un moment trecut, in loc de ago se pune before
Ex: I told her that I had met her one hour before.
for arata durata unei actiuni fara a prezenta momentul de inceput si sfarsit al actiunii.
Este specific
prezentului perfect simplu si continuu si trecutului perfect continuu.
Ex: I havent met her for two years.
NOTA! se poate intalni si cu timpul trecut
Ex: I was a student for two years (Im no longer a student).
NOTA! pentru perioade lungi de timp (for ages, for centuries)
ATENTIE! nu se pune for dupa verbele:
to last
to take
to wait
to spend
to stay
Ex:
Ive been waiting ten minutes, (si nu Ive been waiting for ten minutes).
It lasts five seconds, (si nu it lasts for five seconds).
since arata inceputul perioadei fara a preciza durata si momentul final. Este specific prezentului perfect
simplu si continuu si trecutului continuu.
Ex: I havent met her since Monday.
Adverbe de siguranta si probabilitate
Acestea exprima cat de sigur este vorbitorul de actiunea sau evenimentul pe care il relateaza: certainly,
definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surely, maybe, obviously, perhaps, possibly, really. Se aseaza in propozitie intre
verbul auxiliar si verbul principal.
Ex.: He has certainly forgotten the meeting.
Pentru o formulare emfatica sau o reliefare a afirmatiilor, se aseaza n debutul frazei:
Ex.: Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.
De retinut! Surely asezat la inceputul propozitiei inseamna ca vorbitorul este convins de adevarul
unei afirmatii, dar incearca sa obtina o confirmare: Surely you've got a bicycle?

25

Adverbe de grad
Aceastea exprima intensitatea sau gradul de indeplinire a actiunii unui verb, adjectiv sau adverb: almost,
nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely, very, extremely.
Locul lor in propozitie este fie in fata adjectivului sau adverbului pe care il determina, fie in fata verbului
principal:
Ex.:
The water was extremely cold.
He was just leaving.
She has almost finished.
Enough, very, too
Enough inseamna "pana la punctul necesar pentru a..." si se plaseaza dupa adjectiv sau adverb:
Is your coffee hot enough? (adjectiv)
He didn't work hard enough. (adverb)
Too = "mai mult decat este necesar pentru..." si se aseaza in fata adjectivului sau adverbului:
This coffee is too hot. (adjective)
He works too hard. (adverb)
Very intareste sensul unui adjectiv sau adverb si se aseaza in fata acestora:
The girl was very beautiful. (adjectiv)
He worked very quickly. (adverb)
De retinut! Exista o diferenta importanta intre too si very: Very exprima un fapt: He speaks very quickly.
Too sugereaza existenta unei probleme: He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).
Alte adverbe asemanatoare lui very: extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather, not
especially, not particularly.
Locutiuni adverbiale
subst + after + subst
day after day
year after year
month after month
during urmat intotdeauna de substantiv. A nu se confunda cu while (in timp ce), care presupune actiuni
paralele. During poate fi inlocuit cu in daca se refera la perioade de timp
Ex: during my life = in my life
from to poate fi inlocuit cu till, dar niciodata cu until, pentru ca until nu presupune cunoasterea
momentului de sfarsit al actiunii
Ex:
I work until I die. (nu stiu cand)
I get up at 8 oclock and work till 10 oclock.
NOTA! until nu poate fi cuprins in expresia from to in loc de to

26

Adjectivul (the adjective)


Forma adjectivului
Adjectivele sunt invariabile. Ele nu si schimba forma n functie de gen sau numar.
Ex.:
A hot potato, some hot potatoes.
Pentru a sublinia sau accentua sensul unui adjectiv se pot folosi very, really:
Ex.:
A very hot potato, some really hot potatoes.
Pozitia adjectivului
De obicei adjectivul se aseaza n fata substantivului determinat:
Ex.:
A good movie.
Dupa verbe auxiliare ca to be, to become, to seem, to look, to taste, to appear, to feel, to keep, to make, to
smell, to sound, to turn, etc:
Ex.:
The movie is good.
You seem upset.
This cheese tastes different.
Dupa substantiv n expresii fixe:
Ex.:
the Princess Royal, the President elect, the court martial
Cteva adjective, ca de exemplu chief, main, poor (=unfortunate) stau numai n fata substantivului
determinat:
Ex.:
This is the main purpose of the meeting.
That poor woman was living in a garage.
Altele pot sta numai dupa un verb auxiliar: asleep, upset, awake, afraid, alike, alive, alone, annoyed, ill,
well, sorry
Ex.:
He's asleep.
I'm alone.
Unele adjective si schimba sensul n functie de pozitia pe care o ocupa. Adjectivele involved, present,
concerned au sens diferit daca sunt plasate n fata substantivului sau dupa acesta.
Ex.:
These are the people involved / concerned. (the people who have something to do with
the matter)
They had an involved discussion on the matter. (detailed, complex)
I am a concerned mother. (worried, anxious)
The list of the students present is outside, on the door. (students who were there)
The present status of the matter requires urgent attention. (current)
Functiile adjectivului
Adjectivul ne spune mai multe despre calitatile substantivul determinat. Pot exprima:
Sentimente sau calitati:
Ex.:
They make an original couple.
She is a single mother.
Nationalitatea sau originea:
Ex.:
Ricardo is Spanish. His mother is Argentinean and his father is Canadian.
I bought him a Swiss watch for Christmas.
Diferite caracteristici ale unui obiect:
Ex.:
The table is long.
The steel tray was a gift.
Vrsta:
Ex.:

My hat is too old. I will buy another one.


He is still very young, almost a boy.

Dimensiuni, marime si masuri:


Ex.:
"Gone with the Wind" is a very long film.
That boy is too tall.
Culoarea:
Ex.:
I have a red jacket to go with my new white skirt.
Materie / material:
Ex.:
He wore a cotton shirt.

It was a silver tray, not a steel tray.


Forma:
Ex.:

A rectangular envelope.
A round table.
Judecati, pareri sau opinii:
Ex.:
Grammar is fascinating.
The show was entertaining.
Ordinea adjectivelor
Atunci cnd se folosesc doua sau mai multe adjective pentru a descrie acelasi substantiv, ordinea lor depinde de
functiile acestora. Exista mai multe variante, dar cea mai obisnuita ordine este: Value/opinion, Size,
Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, Material
Value/opinion

delicious, lovely, charming

Size

small, huge, tiny

Age/Temperature

old, hot, young, little

Shape

round, square, rectangular

Colour

red, blonde, black

Origin

Swedish, Victorian, Chinese

Material

plastic, wooden, silver

Ex:

a green round plastic bucket


an elegant little French clock
a small round wooden table

Gradele de comparatie
1. pozitiv = adjectivul nu se schimba
2. comparative:
a. de inferioritate
b. de egalitate
c. de superioritate
3. superlative:
a. relative
b. absolut
Comparativ de inferioritate
adj scurte (mono si bisilabice) se formeaza din: not so/not as + adj + as
Ex:
This room is not so big as the bedroom.
This room is not as big as the bedroom.
adj lungi se formeaza: less + adj + than
Ex:
The chair is less comfortable than the bed.
Comparativ de egalitate
Atat pt adj scurte cat si pt lungi: as + adj + as.
Ex: The bed is as good as the chair.
Ideea de egalitate mai poate fi sugerata si prin constructia: the same + subst + as
NOTA! as si nu like !!!
Ex: This room is the same size as the other one.
Schimbare de valoare gramaticala
Adjectiv
Substantiv
big, small
size (masura)
long, short
length (lungime)
broad, narrow
breadth (largime pt ceva concret)
wide, narrow
width (largime pt ceva abstract)
high, low
height (inaltime)
deep, shallow
depth (adancime)
heavy, light
weight (greutate)

strong, weak

strength (putere)..etc.

Constructii cu comparativul de egalitate:


as brave as a lion
as blind as a bat
as black as coal
as busy as a bee
as cool as a cucumber
as clear as daylight
as dry as a bone
as easy as ABC
as fresh as a daisy
as hairy as a gorilla
as mad as a hatter (palarier)
as poor as a church-mouse
as silent as a grave
as wise as Solomon
as soft as silk
as smooth as grass
as gentle as a lamb.etc.
Comparativul de superioritate
adj scurte: adj + er + than. Modificari ortografice:
daca adj se termina in e, se adauga doar r Ex: nice nicer
daca adj se termina in y precedat de consoana, se transforma y in ier Ex: pretty prettier
Exceptii:
shy shyer
sly slyer
wry wryer (stramb)
daca adj se termina in consoana precedata de vocala, dublez consoana finala Ex: big bigger
pt adj lungi: more + adj + than
Ex: The book is more interesting than the movie.
Adj provenite din latina sunt urmate de to si nu de than
Ex: He is superior to me.
Superlativul relativ
adj scurte: the + adj +est
Ex:
large the largest
silly the silliest
adj lungi: the most+ adj
Ex: This is the most expensive thing.
ATENTIE! dupa superlativ urmeaza prepozitiile of sau in
Ex: He is the best of all/the best in my group.
ATENTIE! daca se face comparatie intre 2 elemente, comparativul implica superlativul: the +
comparativ
Ex: Between you and me, I am the older.
Superlativul absolut
very + adj
very poate fi inlocuit cu:

extremely
exceptionally
tremendously
awfully

ATENTIE! nu toate adj au grad de comparatie, unele definesc ideea de unitate (own, complete, proper,
perfect, marvelous, maximum, minimum). Altele au sufixe si prefixe:
extra large
over crowded
super fine
ultra short

priceless
Comparatia neregulata
good better the best
bad worse the worst
ill worse the worst
many more the most
much more the most
little less the least
near nearer the nearest (cel mai apropiat); next (urmatorul)
far farther the farthest (in spatiu)
far further the furthest (in timp)
late later the latest; the last (ultimul); the latter (ult din 2). Dintre 2, primul este the former, nu the first.
up upper the upmost
in inner the inmost
out outer the outmost
fore former the foremost
old older the oldest
old elder the eldest (doar atributiv, pt membrii aceleiasi familii)
Ex: My elder brother is older than me. (fratele meu mai mare)
Constructii adjectivale
1) cu mult mai = much/ a lot + comparativ
Ex: It is much warmer today / a lot warmer today
2) de departe cel mai = by far + superlativ
Ex: This is by far the hottest day of the year.
3) din ce in ce mai = comp + and + comp
Ex: It is warmer and warmer
ATENTIE! pt adj lungi se repeta doar more
Ex: It is more and more interesting.
4) cu cat mai, cu atat mai (the + comparativ the + comparativ)
ATENTIE! Expresia e obligatoriu sa se repete identic si verbul to be lipseste:
Ex: The more, the better (cu cat mai mare, cu atat mai bine)
ATENTIE! Mai multe adjective care determina acelasi substantiv se despart prin virgula. Daca nu apare
virgula intre ele atunci cel care nu este urmat de virgula este adverb.
ATENTIE! Ordinea adjectivelor care determina un substantiv va tine cont de cele subiective (primele
expuse) si de cele obiective (imediat langa substantiv).
ATENTIE! Un adjectiv poate sa determine si un verb. Verbul va fi obligatoriu to be sau orice alt verb
de perceptie care poate fi inlocuit cu to be.
Ex:
I am intelligent
He looks happy sau He is happy.
Adjectivul demonstrativ
anuleza articolul substantivului
invariabil ca forma (M/F)
se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care il determina
daca nu determina un substantiv devine pronume demonstrativ
Ex:
this aceasta, acesta (singular apropiere)
these acestea, acestia (plural apropiere)
ambele merg cu here.
that acela, aceea (singular departare)
those acelea, aceia (plural departare)
ambele merg cu there.
NOTA! Indepartarea in spatiu presupune si indepartarea in timp. Deci that si those se vor cupla cu
trecutul.
Ex:
This book is good. (this = adjectiv, book = substantiv)
This is a good book. (this = pronume)
Adjectivul posesiv

invariabil ca forma si numar


anuleaza articolul substantivului
se aseaza in fata substantivului pe care-l determina
forme: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their
Ex: My book.
Adjectivul interogativ
pozitie initiala in propozitie
invariabil ca forma
anuleaza articolul
determina un substantiv
forme: what, which, whose, how much, how many.
Diferenta: what./which
Which presupune selectie dintr-un numar limitat.
Ex: Which boy is your best friend?
What nu presupune selectie.
Ex: What days of the week do you know?
Diferenta how much / how many
How much presupune cantitatea si se foloseste pentru substantive nenumarabile.
Ex: How much money do you want?
How many inseamna numar si se foloseste la substantive numarabile.
Ex: How many books do you want?
Adjectivul relativ
pozitie mediana
introduce o propozitie secundara
invariabil
determina un substantiv anulandu-i articolul
forme:
whatever (fara selectie),
whichever (selectie din numar limitat),
whose (a, al, ai, ale cui).
Ex: You may take 1/ whatever books you want 2/.
Adjectivul nehotarat
SOME (unii, niste, vreo, cativa) - Utilizare:
1. In propozitia enuntiativa urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.
Ex: I have some money / friends.
2. In propozitia interogativa in care se face o afirmatie sau o invitatie.
Ex: Would you like some coffee?
3. In propozitia in care stiu sigur ca primesc raspuns pozitiv.
Ex: Mother, can you give me some money?
4. In propozitia interogativa in care intrebarea nu se refera la some.
Ex: Why are there so many people in some (so many) restaurants?
5. In propozitia negativa al carui sens este afirmativ.
Ex: I never go home without buying some chocolate.
6. Cand poate fi inlocuitorul lui certain.
Ex: Certain people/some people believe they are the best.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

ANY - este inlocuitorul lui some in:


Propozitia interogativa la care nu stiu ce raspuns voi primi.
Ex: Is there any milk left?
In propozitia enuntiativa dar cu sensul de oricine, oricare, orice.
Ex: Any book is good for you.
In propozitia care contine un adverb negativ de genul: hardly, barely, scarcely (de abia, cu greu, deloc).
Ex: I hardly eat any bread (nu mananc paine aproape deloc)
In propozitia care contine if. (if = incertitudine)
Ex: If you find any books, buy them.
In propozitia care contine o expresie de indoiala: maybe, perhaps.

6.

Ex: I doubt there are any good films in town.


In propozitia negativa in care verbul este negat.
Ex: I havent any friends here.
NO - Se foloseste numai in propozitia negativa in care verbul este la afirmativ.
Ex: I have no friends here.
EVERY (fara particularizare)
Ex: Every day I go to my office. (nu ma duc chiar in fiecare zi)
EACH (cu particularizare)
Ex: Each person has a name. (fiecare, particularizare)
EITHER (fiecare din doi)

NEITHER (nici unul din doi)


ATENTIE! Dupa each, every, either sau neither rmeaza substantiv numarabil la singular iar acordul cu
verbul se face la singular.
Expresii cu every si each
Each other = unul pe altul (pp reciprocitate)
Every bit/inch = fiecare bucatica
Every right = tot dreptul
Every now and than = din cand in cand
Every other day = alternativ
Every so often = la interval regulat de timp fara a sti exact cand.
SUCH (astfel) - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.
Ex: I have such friends/information.
SUCH A - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.
Ex: This is such a man of honor.
ALL - Urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural.
Ex: All books/information must be used.
WHOLE - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular.
Ex: I like the whole book.
NOTA! Pt perioade de timp se poate folosi si whole si all
Ex: Im home all the morning/ the whole morning. (whole este cotat ca fiind mai puternic)
THE OTHER - Urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular sau plural.
Ex: The other child/children can swim.
Expresia The other day = some days ago, cere obligatoriu trecutul.
Ex: I was there the other day. (Am fost acolo acum cateva zile)
OTHER
+ Urmat de substantiv numarabil la plural.
Ex: Give me other examples.
+ Daca e precedat de no poate fi urmat si de numarabil la singular.
Ex: No other man is as good as you are.
ANOTHER + substantiv la singular (different, in addition)
Ex: Would you like another drink? = vrei inca unul (suplimentar) sau un altul (diferit)?
BOTH + substantiv numarabil la plural (pt. doi)
Ex:
I like both kids -> acordul in plural
Both are intelligent.
SEVERAL (mai multi intr-un numar nedefinit) + substantiv numarabil la plural.

Ex: We spent several days there.


MOST (majoritatea) + substantiv numarabil la plural sau nenumarabil.
Ex: Most books/information can be read easily.
ENOUGH
ATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv nenumarabil sau numarabil la plural are pozitie mobila.
Ex: I have enough money/money enough to be happy.
ATENTIE! Daca e urmat de substantiv numarabil la singular se aseaza dupa el.
Ex: He is man enough to understand me.

Numeralul
1. Numeralul cardinal - arata numarul, cantitatea
Numeralul zero
1) zero = pentru calcul matematic si pentru exprimarea temperaturii
Ex: Its ten degrees above zero.
2) love = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la tenis (15-0 = fifteen-love)
3) nil = (nothing) = zero pentru exprimarea scorului la fotbal
4) naught = zero cand face parte din partea zecimala a unui numar
5) oh = zero pentru numere de telefon
De la 1 la 12 avem forme distincte
De la 13 la 19 avem (numeral simplu + teen), la care accentul cade pe sufix si i-ul este lung.
De la 20 la 90 avem (numeral cardinal + ty), care este scurt si cu accentul pe prima silaba.
Ex: 40 = forty (nu mai are u!)
Numeralele compuse se scriu cu cratima
Ex: 42 = forty-two
One hundred = 100 - Ca numeral nu poate avea plural, dar are ca substantiv. Este substantiv cand:
a) este urmat de of:
Ex: hundreds of pages
b) nu determina alt substantiv:
Ex: hundreds are here
Numeralul compus peste suta se scrie cu prepozitia and la englezi si fara la americani.
Ex: 210 = two hundred and ten
One thousand = 1,000 - Aceleasi reguli ca la suta.
One million = 1,000,000 - Fara s la TOEFL, dar este corect si cu s (2 millions) in engleza.
One billion = 1,000,000,000 - Americanii zic milliard.
Utilizarea numeralului cardinal:
1) pentru exprimarea temperaturii (cu verbul to be)
2) pentru calcule matematice:
Addition (to add = a aduna)
2+3=5
two plus/and three is/are/equals five
(acordul se face in sg si in pl)
Subtraction (to subtract = a scadea)
53=2
five minus/take away is two
(acordul se face doar in sg)
Multiplication (to multiply = a inmulti)
2x3=6
two multiplied by three/twice three/3 times 2 is/are/equals six
(acordul se face in sg si in pl)
Division (to divide = a imparti)
6:3=2
six divided by three is two
(acordul se face doar in sg)
reminder = rest
Root = radical
- cube root = radical de ordinul 3
- square root = radical de ordinul 2
Power = putere
More than = >
Less than = <
Equal to = egal
Unequal to = diferit de
Parallel to = paralel
Perpendicular to = perpendicular
Angle = unghi
Right angle = unghi drept
Straight angle = unghi de 180 grade
Circle angle = unghi de 360 grade
Even = par

Odd = impar
3) pentru exprimarea unitatii monetare:
coin = moneda
bill/note = bancnota
nickel = 5 centi
dime = 10 centi
quarter of a dollar = 25 centi
half of a dollar = 50 centi
4) pentru unitati de masura la timpul potrivit (cand primim I20) !!!
5) pentru exprimarea anilor: se citesc cifrele 2 cate 2, iar anii formati din mai putin de 4 cifre se citesc ca un
numeral.
NOTA! zero nu se citeste in cadrul acestor 4 cifre ale anilor
Ex: 1907 = nineteen seven
- era noastra (e.n.) = a.d. (ante domini) sau in the year of Lord
- inaintea erei noastre = b.c. (before Christ)
6) pentru exprimarea numerelor zecimale (decimal fractions), intregul se citeste ca atare, punct in loc de virgula,
iar partea zecimala cifra cu cifra
Ex: 20.03 = twenty point naught three
NOTA! daca intregul este <1, nu se citeste
Ex: 0.1 = point one
7) pentru exprimarea varstei (cu verbul to be)
Ex:
Im twenty (years old) / Im twenty years of age.
sau
Im aged twenty.
Aproximarea varstei se face cu: almost, about (around), over, under
Ex:
Im in my twenties (am douazeci si)
Im mid-twenty (25 ani)
8) pentru exprimarea numerelor de telefon
to dial = a forma un numar
figure = cifra
slot = orificiu pentru ban
booth = cabina telefonica
receiver = receptor
long-distance call = convorbire la distanta
call collector = convorbire cu taxa inversa
operator = centralista
extension = interior
to be through = a avea legatura
to hang on = a ramane pe fir
to hang up = a inchide
Numerele de telefon se citesc cifra cu cifra cu exceptia cifrei repetate daca este la inceputul sau la sfarsitul
numarului. Regula nu se aplica pentru zero.
Ex: 223700 double two, 3, 7, oh, oh
9) pentru exprimarea orei:
- formal
- informal
Ex:
Whats the time?
What time is it?
Whats the time by your watch?
My watch is fast = ceasul meu e inainte
My watch is slow = ceasul meu e in urma
My watch is wrong = ceasul meu nu merge bine

My watch is broken = ceasul meu e stricat


face = cadran
belt = curelusa
hand = limba de ceas (minutes hand, seconds hand)
Pentru ora exacta:
a) Its seven oclock sharp PM/AM
b) 00.00 = midnight
12.00 = midday
c) Its half past (e si jumate)
d) Its a quarter past/to (e si un sfert/ fara un sfert)
e) Its ten minutes past/to (e si/fara zece)
Ora oficiala: 08:00 = oh eight hundred hours
23:24 = twenty three twenty four
Numerale speciale:
couple = 2 (pt oameni si pt timp); couple of minutes = 2 minute
pair = 2 pereche (pt imbracaminte, incaltaminte, unelte cu structuri paralele)
Ex: a pair of shoes
yoke = team = 2 pentru animale
Ex:
a yoke of cattle = 2 vite
a team of oxen = 2 boi
brace = 2 pentru vanat
Ex: I have brace duck (am 2 rate salbatice)
score = 20
half a score = 10
dozen = 12
gross = 144 (12 duzini)
2. Numeralul ordinal
Se formeaza din: the + numeral cardinal + th
Exceptii:
the first (primul)
the second (al doilea)
the third (al treilea)
+
toate celelalte numerale compuse care contin una din aceste exceptii
(21, 22, 23, 31, 32, 33, 101, 102, 1001, 1002, etc)
Prescurtari: 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 21st, 22nd, etc.
NOTA! th se aplica doar ultimei cifre !
Modificari ortografice:
five the fifth
eight the eighth
nine the ninth
twelve the twelfth
twenty the twentieth (+ toate cele terminate in ty)
Utilizarea numeralului ordinal:
1) exprimarea datei (in 2 forme)
a) luna/zi/an
b) zi/luna/an
2) exprimarea ordinii intr-o insiruire
Ex:
Henry the eighth
the first floor
the second World War

3) pentru numeralul fractionar (common fraction/vulgar fraction)


numerator = numaratorul (cardinal)
denominator = numitorul (ordinal)
Ex: 1/3 = one third
NOTA! daca numaratorul > 1, numitorul va fi in plural
Ex: 2/3 = two thirds
Intregul = the whole
Fractia pe 100 = per cent
Procentaj = percentage
Numeralul distributiv - Arata distributia lucrurilor:
One by one = unul cate unul
Two at a time = 2 odata
By twos / in twos = cate 2
Numeralul adverbial - Arata de cate ori se repeta o actiune:
once = o data
twice = de 2 ori
3 times
4 times, etc.
NOTA! nu exista twice more, ci twice as much as = de 2 ori mai mult
Numeralul multiplicativ - Arata de cate ori creste o cantitate:
double = twofold = indoit (de 2 ori)
tenfold = inzecit

Pronumele
Functia pronumelui
Pronumele sunt cuvinte lipsite de inteles de sine statator. Ele nu denumesc si nu aracterizeaza nimic, functia lor
fiind aceea de a inlocui un substantiv, facand astfel referire la o idee, obiect sau actiune mentionate anterior sau
cunoscuta de catre interlocutor.
Ex.:
John did all the work.
He did all the work.
Who did all the work?
Forma pronumelui
Pronumele au forme specifice in functie de:
Numar: singular - this; plural these
Caz: Nominativ - she; Genitiv - hers; Dativ - to her; Acuzativ her
Gen: masculin - he; Feminin - she; neutru - it
Pronumele pot fi simple (you, which, many) sau compuse (everybody, whatever, no one).
Clasificarea pronumelor
1. Personale
2. Reflexive
3. Nehotarate
4. Demonstrative
5. Relative
6. De ntarire
7. Interogative
8. Reciproce
Pronumele personale

Singular

Plural

Nominativ

Genitiv

Dativ

Acuzativ

mine

(to) me

me

you

yours

(to) you

you

he

his

(to) him

him

she

hers

(to) her

her

it

its

(to) it

it

we

ours

(to) us

us

you

yours

(to) you

you

they

theirs

(to) them

them

ATENTIE! I se scrie intotdeauna cu majuscula. Its (pronume) nu are apostrof. It's vine de la it is sau it
has!
Forme arhaice si poetice: pers. II sg. - thou, thine, (to) thee
You / They impersonal - putem folosi aceste doua pronume pentru a vorbi despre oameni in general.
Ex.:
You have to drive on the other side of the road in Great Britain.
They say she's very clever.
It - poate indeplini o serie de functii de mare importanta:
It impersonal (in expresii impersonale temporale, exprimand starea vremii, distante sau in contructii
pasive)
Ex.:

It's 7 o'clock.
It was spring.
Is it Monday?
How hot it is!
How far is it to the station?
It demostrativ
Ex.: Who is it? It's the postman.
It's the children.
Pronumele reflexive

Acestea insotesc un verb si se refera la subiect. Se folosesc atunci cand subiectul si complementul direct se
refera la aceeasi persoana.
Forme:
Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.:
I wanted to do it myself but he insisted on helping me.
he fell off the ladder and injured herself.
Pronumele nehotarate
Some, any, every se pot combina cu -one, -body, -thing pentru a obtine pronumele nehotarate: anyone, anybody,
anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything.
No poate forma impreuna cu -body sau -one pronumele: nobody, no-one.
NOTA! Atat in engleza britanica cat si in cea americana, pronumele nehotarate anyone, anybody,
someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, no-one sunt din punct de vedere gramatical la singular si trebuie
folosite cu un verb la singular.
Alte pronume nehotarate: enough, few, fewer, less, little, many, much, several, more, most, all, both, every,
each, any, either, neither, none, some.
De retinut! Daca acestea forme preceda un substantiv nu mai sunt pronume, ci determinanti
substantivali.
Ex.: Few will be chosen; fewer will finish, Little is expected.
Pronumele demonstrativ
Pronumele demostrative: this, these, that, those, such pot functiona atat ca pronume, cat si ca determinanti
substantivali.
Ex.: That is incredible! (referring to something you just saw)
I will never forget this. (referring to a recent experience)
Such is my belief. (referring to an explanation just made)
This si these sugereaza ideea de apropiere temporala sau spatiala, pe cand that si those sugereaza ideea de
departare.
Ex.: These (pancakes sitting here now on my plate) are delicious. Those (pancakes that I had yesterday
morning) were even better.
This (book in my hand) is well written; that (book that I'm pointing to, over there, on the table) is
trash.
Aceasta idee de departare se poate transforma chiar in dispret sau instrainare afectiva:
Ex.: Are you going to wear these? (They are awful. I do not like them at all.)
Can you belive I would have bought that?
Pronumele relative
Pronumele relativ face referire la un substantiv sau inlocuitor substantival mentionat in contextul aterior
(antecedent) si leaga propozitia sau grupul de cuvinte care explica sau da mai multe detalii despre substantivul
antecedent de propozitia continand substantivul determinat.
Pronumele relative sunt : who, whoever, which, that.
Ex.: The student who studies hardest usually does the best.
Alegerea corecta dintre which si that se inscrie printre cele mai frecvente nelamuriri ale studentilor la limba
engleza. In general, which se foloseste pentru a introduce propozitii care au natura de paranteze, explicatii
suplimentare dar care pot fi inlaturate sau omise fara a schimba intelesul frazei. Din acest motiv propozitiile
introduse prin which sunt in general intre virgule. Din contra propozitiile introduse de that sunt considerate
indispensabile sensului frazei si nu se vor pune intre virgule.
Who si formele sale se refera la persoane, which se refera la lucruri, iar that poate face referire la ambele.
Ex.: The man who hijacked the plane wanted to get to Cuba
The couple who live next door have the radio on all night.
The team that won the championship received a great reception.
This is the program which won the prize.
We'll plant new trees to replace those which fell.
Pronumele de intarire
Insoteste substantive sau pronume personale pentru a le sublinia. Ca forma sunt identice cu pronumele
reflexive:
Singular: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself
Plural: ourselves, yourselves, themselves
Ex.:
I myself don't know the answer.
Mary did all this herself.

Mary herself did all this.


Expresii: by myself = singur, de unul singur Ex.: I worked by myself.
Pronumele interogativ
Pronumele interogative introduc intrebari, propozitii interogative directe sau indirecte.
Forme: who? what? which? whose? (to) whom?
Ex.:
Who said that?
Whose are those books?
I do not remember to whom I gave my sweater.
What happened?
What's the weather like?
Pronumele reciproce
Forme: each other si one another. Se folosesc pentru a exprima relatii de reciprocitate intre fiinte, idei, lucruri.
Ex.: If Bob gave Alicia a book for Christmas and Alicia gave Bob a book for Christmas, we can say that
they gave each other books.
My mother and I give each other a hard time.
They borrowed each other's ideas.
De retinut! Each other se refera la doua obiecte, pe cand one another face referire la mai mult de doua
obiecte sau fiinte.
Ex.:
The scientists in this lab often use one another's equipment.
Hockey players hit one another quite frequently.
Pronumele IT functii:
1. Pronume personal, persoana a treia sg.,gen neutru folosit pentru obiecte i noiuni abstracte,
nepersonificate, animale nepersonificate i crora nu li se cunosc sexul sau sunt luate n sens generic.
Ex:
Here is a book. It is very interesting.
How ould is your baby? It is five months ould.
2.

Pronume personal-folosit pentru a indica:


a. Timpul dup calendar sau ceas : It is six oclock on the 4th of February.
b. Scurgerea timpului: It is getting lake se face trziu
c. Starea atmosferic: It is getting dark se ntunericete; Its rather cloudy mai degrab e norat
d. Fenomene meteorologice i naturale: It is raining cats and dogs plou cu gleata(torenial); It
thunders tun; It lightens fulger; It is ten degrees above zero sunt +10
f. Distanele: Itsnearly ten kilometres to Albota-sunt aproape 10 km pn la Albota.
g. Starea lucrurilor n general: Its ok sau its all right!

3.

Pronume demonstrativ (echivalent cu That sau Which rsferindu-se la ceva vzut sau menionat nainte)
Ex :
He expressed his sympathies i-a prezentat condoleanele
It was nice of him (to do that) drgu din partea lui (s fac asta)
4. Pronume introductiv
a. Introductiv anticipativ - are rolul de a introduce propoyiia printr-un subiect formal deoarece subiectul
real este deplasat dup numele predicativ pentru a-l scoate n eviden.
Ex:
Its nice to see /seeing such a garden este o plcere s vezi o asmenea grdin.
Subiectul real se poate exprima prin:
Infinitivul lung to see
Construcii gerumviale
O propoziie subiectiv,de obicei introdus prin conjuncia That.
b. Introductiv de ntrire sau subliniere avnd rolul de a sublinia foarte puternic sau de a scoate n eviden
oricare parte a propoziiei cu excepia predicatului.
Ex:
Its Peter who/that solved all the problems.- Peter este cel care a rezolvat toate
problemele.
5.

Pronume nesemnificativ folosit ca, complement direct formal mai ales al unor verbe intranzitive. Acest tip
de pronume apare frecvent n engleza vorbit.
Ex:
Shall we cab it to the station ? S lum taxiul pn la staie.
No,I would rather foot it. Nu,prefer s merg pe jos.

Verbul (the verb)


A. Verbele auxiliare (to be, to do, to have)
Sunt verbe deosebit de puternice
Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut
Intra in alcatuirea altor timpuri verbale:
to be la toate formele de continuu
to have la toate timpurile perfecte
Nu-si pot forma participiul nedefinit (forma in ing) cu exceptia situatiei cand verbul to have pierde sensul
de a avea, a poseda si intra in alcatuirea alocutiunilor verbale (to have a bath, to have a shower, to have a rest,
to have talk, to have a walk, to have lunch).
Isi fac singure interogativul prin inversarea cu subiectul
Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not
Isi fac singure intrebarea disjunctiva si raspunsul scurt
Ex: He has a car. Hasnt he? Yes, he has.
Trecutul verbelor auxiliare
Pt. to be was la pers I si a II-a singular, were pt. toate celelalte
Pt. to have had
VERBUL BE
BE WAS BEEN
Utilizare:
1. pentru construirea timpurilor continue si a formei pasive:
The old man is taking an afternoon nap.
The bridge was destroyed by the earthquake.
2. pentru a exprima existenta, starea fizica sau mentala sau alte informatii despre o persoana sau un lucru:
Dr. Johnson is a dentist. He is calm and patient.
3. pentru a exprima varsta:
The baby is two months old. How old are you?
4. BE TO + INFINITIV: pentru a da ordine/instructiuni sau pentru a comunica un plan:
You are to finish your homework before dinner. (= You must finish)
The chairman is to give his annual speech tomorrow. (= He plans to give)
5. BE ABOUT TO + INFINITIV: pentru a indica viitorul imediat:
Meg is about to leave. (= Meg is on the point of leaving.)
6. THERE + BE + SUBSTANTIV: pentru a indica existenta unei fiinte sau a unui lucru:
There are two pieces of cake left in the fridge.
There is a person outside the door.
VERBUL DO
DO DID DONE
Utilizare: DO se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis.
A. DO ca verb auxiliar:
1. pentru a forma negativul si interogativul prezentului simplu so trecutului simplu:
The kitten doesnt play with strangers.
Did they go to the opera yesterday?
2. pentru a evita repetarea aceluiasi verb sau aceleiasi expresii:
My company made a profit last year but IBM did not.
Mary typed that letter very badly. She certainly did!
3. pentru a sublinia un afirmativ sau imperativ:
Do eat your vegetables!
Youre wrong: I did pay you!
B. DO ca verb propriu-zis are sensul general de a duce la bun sfarsit, a realiza, a executa, a administra, a pune in
practica:
Students should do the exercises at the end of each unit.
He always does the job well.
The office clerk did the transaction yesterday.
NOTA: A nu se confunda DO cu MAKE! Verbul MAKE are sensul general de a crea, a produce, a construi, a

cauza, a face sa fie sau a prepara. Comparati:


to do someone a favour
to make a friend
to do ones best
to make the bed
to do good
to make money
to do the dishes
to make a rule
to do the shopping
to make a mistake
to do ones homework
to make a mess
to do a crossword puzzle
to make a living
to do ones duty
to make fun of someone
to do well/badly
to make oneself at home
VERBUL HAVE
HAVE HAD HAD
Utilizare: HAVE se foloseste atat ca verb auxiliar cat si ca verb propriu-zis.
A. HAVE ca verb auxiliar:
1. pentru a forma alte timpuri:
Present perfect: I have worked.
Past perfect: I had worked.
Future perfect: I will have worked.
Past conditional: I would have worked.
2. HAD BETTER + INFINITIV fara TO (short INFINITIVE):
They had better study hard from the first day of school. (It would be a good idea if they studied
hard from)
Youd better go home. (It would be a good idea if you went home.)
3. I WONT HAVE + COMPLEMENT + -ING:
I wont have that dog sleeping on my bed! (I wont permit that dog to sleep on my bed!)
B. HAVE ca verb propriu-zis:
1. posesia:
Anne always has a cold.
Anne doesnt always have a cold.
Does Anne always have a cold?
Cand HAVE este urmat de GOT, se intareste sensul posesiv.
Debbies got a lovely voice.
Have you got a computer?
2.

3.

a manca, a bea sau a organiza:


The twins usually have dinner early.
My aunt Mary doesnt have coffee often.
Our neighbours had a cocktail party last week.
HAVE + COMPLEMENT + PAST PARTICIPLE:
Mrs. Riley had her house painted. (Mrs. Riley got someone to paint her house.)
My best friend has his hair trimmed every Friday. (My best friend has someone to cut his hair
every Friday.)

B. Verbele modale
Verbe puternice
Au forme distincte pt. prezent si trecut
Nu au infinitiv lung (adica cu to in fata)
Ex: I can (fara to) go
Nu permit dupa ele verbe la infinitiv lung
Nu apar niciodata singure, cu exceptia raspunsului scurt
Nu pot avea forma in ing
Nu isi pot forma toate timpurile
Au inlocuitori
Isi fac interogativul prin inversare cu subiectul
Isi fac negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not
Isi fac singure intrebarea disjuncta si raspunsul scurt

CAN
Utilizare:
1. pentru a cere, a acorda sau a refuza permisiunea, similar cu may, dar mai putin formal:
You can drive at seventeen in the UK.
Can I borrow your pen, please? Ive left mine at home.
You cannot go hunting out of season.
NOTA: forme alternative: You are permitted / are allowed to / may drive ar seventeen in the UK.
ATENTIE: la negativ, could si might au sensuri diferite.
Ex:
Ken could not be building the house by himself. (It is impossible, it is too much work.)
Ken might not be building thehouse by himself. (He is building the house himself, he
probably has help.)
2.

pentru a face referire la probabilitate, posibilitate sau imposibilitate in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional:
Look, theres plenty of snow, we can go skiing today.
Lets try his office, he could be there.
Bill cannot drive for a few weeks, hes broken his leg.

3.

pentru a face referire la abilitate sau indemanare in prezent, in trecut sau la conditional:
She is a great secretary; she can type ninety words a minute.
Can you speak English?
Tim is hopeless. He cant even fry and egg.
If he studied harder, he could pass the exam.

NOTA: pentru alte timpuri, se foloseste be able to:


She will be able to / has been able to type 100 words a minute.
4.

could + INFINITIV perfect, pentru a se referi la o actiune care nu a avut loc:


You could have hurt your back lifting that heavy table.
I could have driven you to the airport, but I didnt have my car.
cand nu stim daca actiunea s-a petrecut sau nu:
Have you seen my umbrella? Dad could have taken it.
NOTA: forme alternative:
You might have hurt your back lifting that heavy table.
You would probably have hurt your back lifting that heavy table.

Inlocuitori: to be able to, to be capable to


MAY
Utilizare:
1. cu referire la evenimente sau actiuni posibile sau probabile in prezent, adesea cu sens de viitor. Might poate
fi folosit pentru a sublinia o foarte redusa posibilitate:
Theres a black cloud above us. It may rain.
Alice may get angry if you tell her.
If you try hard enough, you might convince him to come.
si cu forma continua:
Call me after eight I may be working hard late tonight.
Alex says he might be going on holiday without his parents this year.
NOTA: formele alternative sunt:
Maybe it wil rain. It is likely to rain.
Maybe Alice will get angry if you tell her. Alice is likely to get angry if you tell her.
2.

pentru a cere, a oferi sau a refuza permisiunea politicos:


May I open the window? It is very hot in this office.
You may go in to see the doctor now.
You may not smoke in my car.
NOTA: forme alternative:
Am I allowed to open the window?
You are not permitted to smoke in my car.

Can I open the window? (can poate fi si el folosit, dar este considerat mai putin politicos)
3.

cu well pentru a indica o foarte mare probabilitate:


I think it may well rain today, look at those black clouds.
The Government may well decide to raise the price of gas again.
NOTA: forme alternative:
I think it is very likely to rain today.
The Government is very likely to deicde to raise the price of gas.
ATENTIE: may / might as well are alt sens:
There is nothing interesting on TV this evening, I may / might as well have an early night. (= Din moment
ce nu este nimic interesant la TV, e mai bine sa ma duc devreme la culcare.)
4.

cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la o presupunere in trecut:


Bill isnt at his office, he may have gone home early.
Brian might not have been killed by Sally.

5.

cu o constructie perfecta pentru a face referire la ceva care s-ar fi putut petrece in trecut, dar nu s-a
petrecut; se poate folosi numai might:
You might have burnt your hand while taking that hot tray out of the oven (but you didnt).
A lot of people, who might have been saved, died when the Titanic sank.

6.

Exprimarea unei interdictii


Ex: People may not bring dogs into the hotel.
7. Exprimarea unei urari
Ex: May all your dreams come true.
8. Dupa verbele to hope si to trust
Ex: I hope you may find tickets for the cinema.
9. La forma negativa are doar forma may not (nu exista forma contrasa maynt)
10. La trecut are forma may have+participiu trecut si might mai ales pt conditional.
11. Inlocuitori: to be allowed to, to be permitted to
MUST
1. = trebuie, arata obligativitatea
Ex: I must go now.
2. Arata o deductie logica
Ex: As she left at four she must be at home now.
3. Negativ: mustnt (nu trebuie), neednt (nu este necesar).
4. Trecut: must + have + participiu trecut si had to.
5. Inlocuitori: to have to, to be obliged to, to be compelled to (toate = a fi obligat)
6. Diferenta dintre must si have to.
Must => arata obligativitatea din punctul meu de vedere;
Have to => arata obligativitatea impusa de altii.
Ex:
I must go now.
I have to wear uniform.
NEED
1. Are 2 valori: (a) verb lexical, (b) verb modal.
(a) Verb lexical - este un verb regulat
Ex: I need a new car. Do I need a new car?
(b) Verb modal se foloseste numai in propozitii interogative si negative.
Ex: Need she get up early?
She neednt go there.
Atentie! Totusi need se poate intalni si in afirmative ca modal propozitii in care exista de regula
never, hardly, barely, scarcely
Ex: He hardly need mention his name.
2. Exista 2 constructii cu need considerate arhaice.
a) Must needs

Ex: I must needs see your teacher.


b) Needs must sugereaza ideea de sarcasm
Ex: She needs must bring me now when I have
OUGHT TO
1. Arata obligativitatea morala de a-si face datoria
Ex: I ought to go (nu are acelasi nuanta cu must)
2. Daca e urmat de have si verb la participiul trecut exprima o datorie care s-a indeplinit
Ex: You ought to have waited till 2 oclock.
3. Nu are forma de sine statatoare de trecut. Se formeaza: ought + have + participiu trecut + to
Ex: Ought have invited to join the party.
4. Negativ: oughtnt
SHOULD - Este mai moale ca ought to
1. Arata o datorie ca recomandare, e cel mai slab din cele care = trebuie
Ex: You should read this book.
2. Pt exprimarea supozitiei
Ex: For his age he should be taller.
3. Folosit daca e precedat de verbe ca: to suggest, to propose, to insist, to recommend, to advice
Ex: I suggest that you should learn English.
4. Folosit cand este precedat de o constructie impersonala: it is important/ necessary/ natural/ better
Ex: It is important that you should understand.
5. Folosit dupa constructii ca: so that, in order that, for fear that, lest (ca sa nu).
Ex: I got up early for fear that/ lest/ so that I should arrive in time.
6. Dupa verbe de stari emotionale: to feel sorry for, to be delighted, to be annoyed (uimit).
Ex: I feel sorry that he should go back. Imi pare rau ca trebuie sa se intoarca.
7. Dupa expresiile: dont know why, cant think why, see no reason why
Ex: I dont know why you should ask me that.
WOULD
1. Folosit pt. o cerere politicoasa
Ex: Would you give me your tel. number?
2. Urmat de like ca sa aiba inteles mai politicos
Ex: I would like to meet you.
3. Poate fi urmat de rather sau sooner pentru a exprima preferinta
Ex: I would rather sleep than go for a walk.
4. Pt. a exprima un obicei, actiune repetata in trecut
Ex: I would meet you whenever I crossed the road.
5. Pt a exprima probabilitatea
Ex: The man would be his neighbor.
USED TO
1. Arata un obicei trecut
Ex: I used to visit my grand parents when I was child.
2. A nu se confunda cu to be used to care cere dupa ea verbul in ing
Ex: I am used to getting up early. (sunt obisnuit cu sculatul de dimineata)
DARE
1. Are 2 valori: (a) modala; (b) lexicala.
(a) Valoarea modala in propozitii negative si interogative.
Ex:
Dare you say this? (indraznesti sa spui asta)
I darent go there (nu indraznesc sa merg acolo)
(b) valoare ca verb lexical in propozitii afirmative fiind verb regulat.
Ex:
I dare to ask you about my dog.
I dare say = I suppose
I dare say I will invite them to dinner.
I daresay = I accept
I daresay you are right again.

NOTA! Pt a exprima indignarea se foloseste expresia: How dare you


Ex: How dare you come so late?
C. Verbe lexicale
Modurile predicative (pot sa fie predicat in propozitie):
a) indicativ
b) conditional
c) subjonctiv
d) imperativ
(1)
a)
b)
c)

Modurile nepredicative:
infinitivul
participiul
gerund

MODUL INDICATIV
Are 3 timpuri: - prezent
- trecut
- viitor
Prezentul are 4 aspecte:

- Simplu
- Continuu
- Perfect
- Perfect continuu

PREZENTUL SIMPLU
1. Desemneaza o actiune repetata ce devine o obisnuinta
2. Adverbe specifice: usually, often, always, every, never
Ex: Every day I go to my office.
3. Desemneaza un adevar universal valabil, o lege
Ex. Fish swim.
4. Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de un program.
Ex: The train arrives tonight.
5.

Pt actiuni pas cu pas (instructiuni de utilizare, indicatii regizorale, comentarii sportive)

6. In naratiune
Ex: The boy enters the room, takes the ball and goes out.
7.

Pt actiuni care, desi se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii, nu au durata (verbe nondurative): to start, to end, to
finish, to stop, to quite, to cancel, to kill, to die, to shoot.

8.

Cu verbe de perceptie senzoriala: to see, to hear, to taste, to smell, to sound, to feel etc.

9.

Cu verbe de perceptie mentala: to think, to realize, to remember, to forget, to remind, to suppose.

10. Cu verbe de perceptie afectiva: to like, to enjoy, to hate, to dislike.


11. Se formeaza din subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt ; pentru pers III sg se adauga s
12. Modificari ortografice la persoana a III-a:
a) Daca verbul se termina in s, ss, sh, ch, tch, x, z sau o se adauga es
Ex:
to go => goes
wash => washes

b) Daca verbul se termina in y precedat de consoana se transforma y in i si se adauga es.


Ex: cry => cries
13. Interogativul do/does + subiect + verb la infinitiv scurt
Ex: She cries a lot. Does she cry a lot?
13. Negativ subiect + dont/doesnt + verb la infinitiv scurt
Ex: She doesnt cry.
PREZENTUL CONTINUU
1. Desemneaza o actiune ce se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii (in this very moment/now/right now)
Ex: I am speaking now.
2. Se foloseste in descrieri
Ex: The sun is shinning.
3. Cu valoare de viitor cand actiunea depinde de subiect
Ex: I am leaving soon.
4. Pt. actiuni prezente paralele in desfasurare (when, while).
Ex: While I am talking he is sleeping.
5. Pentru actiuni care, desi nu se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii, constituie o rupere de ritm.
Ex: Every day I get up at 7, but on Sunday I am getting up at 9.
6. Pt. actiuni repetate care ma enerveaza
Ex:
She always eats fruits before soup. (constatare obisnuita)
dar
She is always eating fruits before soup. (enervare)
7.

Se formeaza din subiect + verbul to be + verb in ing. (se conjuga doar to be)

Verbul in ing = participiu prezent si are urmatoarele modificari ortografice.:


a) Daca verbul se termina in e acesta cade inaintea lui ing
Ex: to dance => dancing
b) Verbele terminate in ie transforma ie in y
Ex: to lie => lying
c) verbele terminate in consoana precedata de vocala moale dubleaza consoana finala
Ex: to sit => sitting
! Sufixul ing nu afecteaza y si i final al verbului
Ex:
to play => playing
to ski => skiing
8. Interogativul - se formeaza prin inversarea auxiliarului cu subiectul
Ex: Am I sleeping?
9. Negativul - se formeaza prin adaugarea negatiei not la verbul to be
Ex: I am not drinking.
PREZENTUL PERFECT
1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, care fie tocmai s-a incheiat, fie ca se desfasoara intr-un timp deschis, nedeterminat.
Spre deosebire de trecut, care desemneaza tot o actiune trecuta, la prezent perfect momentul incheierii actiunii nu
trebuie sa fie cunoscut

Ex:

I saw her yesterday. (stiu cand => trecut)


dar
I have seen her lately. (nu stiu cand => prezent perfect)

Ex:

Did you see Gone with the wind? (nu mai poti sa-l vezi)
dar
Have you seen American Pie? (mai poti sa-l vezi)
! de multe ori la o intrebare in prezent perfect raspunsul vine in trecut daca precizez momentul cand a avut loc
actiunea
Ex:
Have you met her?
Yes, I have. I met her an hour ago.
(raspunsul trebuie sa contina have-ul din intrebare, dar trebuie sa precizez momentul, si atunci intra pe trecut).
Se formeaza din
have / has + verb III (participiu trecut)
Verbele se impart in:

- regulate (a)
- neregulate (b)

(a) Verbele regulate


Au forma II si forma III identice, se formeaza cu sufixul ed adaugata la forma infinitivului scurt
Modificari ortografice:
1) daca verbul se termina in e, adauga doar d
2) daca verbul se termina in y precedat de consoana, transforma y in i si adauga ed
Ex: cry cried
3) daca verbul se termina in l, il dubleaza mereu
Ex:
travel travelled
cancel cancelled
4) daca verbul se termina in ic, adauga ked
Ex: panic panicked
5) daca verbul se termina in consoana precedata de vocala moale (vocala intre 2 consoane), dubleaza consoana si
adauga ed
Ex: to stop stopped
(b) Verbele neregulate
Au forma II si forma III diferite.
Adverbele specifice prezentului perfect
Intre cele 2 verbe (auxiliar si verb) avem
- adverbe de frecventa definita: (often, seldom, ever, never, usually, sometimes)
- adverbe de frecventa indefinita: (just, recently, already)
Ex: I have just met her.
yet se aseaza doar pe finalul propozitiei si numai in propozitii interogative si negative. In interogative are sensul
de deja:
Ex: Have you met her yet? (daca ar trebui transpusa in propozitie afirmativa, yet ar deveni already) => I have
already met her.
In negativa are sensul de inca:
Ex: I havent met her yet.
for timp de (arata durata actiunii, fara a preciza momentul de inceput si de final). In propozitie are pozitie aproape
finala.
Ex: I havent met her for 2 years.

since incepand din (arata momentul de inceput, fara a preciza durata sau momentul de final). Pozitia este spre
finalul propozitiei.
Ex: I havent met you since Monday.
! dupa since urmeaza intotdeauna trecut daca mai urmeaza o propozitie
Ex: I havent met her since I came. (este o actiune mai trecuta decat cea cu intalnirea)
Pe pozitia finala mai avem adv de timp deschis (lately, today, this year / month / week).
! prezentul perfect corespunde in romana trecutului (perfectul compus)
Ex:
A nins = It has snowed (nu stiu cand)
dar
A nins acum o ora = It snowed an hour ago.
Interogativul avand in constructie auxiliarul to be, se obtine prin inversia acestuia cu subiectul
Ex: Has it snowed?
Negativul prin adaugarea negatiei not la auxiliarul have
Ex: It hasnt snowed.
PREZENT PERFECT CONTINUU
- corespunde in romana prezentului
Ex: Ninge de 2 zile. (ninge = prezent; de 2 zile = actiunea a inceput in trecut si continua pana in prezent)
have / has + been + V-ing
- desemneaza o actiune trecuta care s-a desfasurat necontenit si care fie tocmai s-a incheiat, fie se desfasoara intr-un
timp nedeterminat
Ex: It has been snowing for 2 days.
! se foloseste doar cu verbe durative care au o durata de actiune (nu poti sa spui ca moare de 2 ore)
! se foloseste cu verbe meteo
! are caracter subiectiv (nu pot spune despre altul ca doarme de 2 ore)
! cu:

to work
to live
to study nu se poate folosi forma continua decat daca precizez anumite
conditii
Ex:
NU ! I have been working all my life. (verb existential = pleonasm)
DA I have been working in this company all my life.
! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu mai pot folosi forma continua, pentru ca practic se
fragmenteaza actiunea.
Ex:
Citesc cartea asta de cand am venit (nu stiu de cate ori)
I have been reading this book since I came.
dar
Am citit cartea asta de 2 ori de cand am venit.
I have read this book twice since I came. (am inceput, am terminat, iar am inceput, etc.)
Adverbe specifice sunt de continuitate (since si for)
Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul have
TRECUTUL
Timpul trecut are 4 forme: - simplu (I)
- continuu (II)
- perfect (III)

- perfect continuu (IV)


I. Trecutul simplu
Forma: verbul la forma II
1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, devenita obisnuinta (in romana corespunde cu perfectul compus)
Ex: I used to visit my grandparents last year.
2) desemneaza o actiune la care momentul incheierii ei este bine precizat
Adverbe specifice yesterday, the day before yesterday, 3 days ago, last year / month, the other day, when, etc.
Ex: I visited them yesterday.
3) are valoare de prezent la trecerea de la vorbirea directa la vorbirea indirecta
Ex:
She said, I want to win.
devine
She told me that she wanted to win.
(Virgula are valoare de 2 puncte inainte de cuvintele cuiva si nu exista linie de dialog, ci ghilimelele de sus).
Interogativ Did + (S) + V infinitiv scurt
Ex: Did you watch TV?
Negativ (S) + didnt + V infinitiv scurt
Ex: I didnt watch TV.
II. Trecutul continuu
Corespunde imperfectului in romana (vorbeam, scriam, citeam)
Forma: was / were + V-ing
1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta ce se desfasoara intr-un anumit moment bine definit sau intr-un moment trecut
raportat momentului vorbirii (ieri pe vremea asta = this time yesterday)
Ex: I was writing this time yesterday / yesterday at 5 oclock.
2) se foloseste in descrierile pe trecut
Ex: That day the wind was blowing hard.
! pentru naratiune se foloseste trecutul simplu.
Ex: The child got the ball and put it into the box.
3) desemneaza actiunile trecute paralele in desfasurare (cu when si while)
Ex: While I was talking, you came.
4) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, repetata, care ma enerva
Ex: He was always asking me to help him!
Interogativul si negativul prin auxiliarul to be
Ex: Was I dancing when you came?
III. Trecutul perfect
Corespunde in romana cu mai mult ca perfectul (cantasem, vorbisem, citisem).
Forma: had + verb III
1) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute
Ex:
O vazusem inainte sa plece = (inainte am vazut-o si dupa aceea a plecat)
I had seen her before she left.

2) desemneaza o actiune trecuta, incheiata inaintea unui moment trecut


Ex:
O vazusem inainte de 1989.
I had seen her before 1989.
3) este specifica constructiilor cu hardly, barely, scarcely, no sooner, mai ales in inversie.
Ex:
I had met her before she left.
cu inversie devine
Hardly had I met her when she left.
Adv specifice after, before, hardly, barely, scarcely, just, already, by the time, for, since
Ex: I had just invited her to dinner when you arrived.
Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul had
IV. Trecut perfect continuu
Forma: had + been + V-ing
Desemneaza o actiune trecuta desfasurata necontenit si incheiata inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute sau al unui
moment trecut
Ex: I had been waiting for you 2 hours before you came.
Adverbe specifice for, since, after si before
! nu se foloseste decat cu verbe durative, are caracter subiectiv doar cand actiunea are o specificatie de genul
Ex: I had been living in this house for 5 years before we moved.
! daca precizez de cate ori s-a desfasurat o actiune, nu se mai poate folosi forma continua
Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul had
VIITORUL
Viitorul simplu
Forma: shall (I sg, pl) / will + V infinitiv scurt (in SUA will la toate persoanele)
Prescurtare: ll
Ex: Youll be home soon.
1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment bine definit
Adverbe specifice tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, next , the following
2) desemneaza o actiune viitoare desfasurata in mod repetat, devenita obisnuinta
Adverbe specifice always, usually, often
Ex: I shall always think of you.
! daca in propozitia principala am viitor, in secundara nu pot avea decat prezent. Acest prezent poate sa fie:
a) simplu daca depinde de un program
Ex: I shall come when the train arrives.
b) continuu daca depinde de subiect
Ex: I shall come when I am finding the ticket.
c) prezent perfect cand actiunea este anterioara momentului viitor
Ex: I shall come when I have saved enough money.
! propozitiile secundara introduse prin temporale (when, while, before, after, as soon as, till, until, etc.) si if, nu pot
sa contina viitor si contin prezent.
Interogativul prin inversia auxiliarului shall / will
Ex: Will you take this car?

Negativul

shall + not = shant


will + not = wont

Viitorul continuu
Forma: shall / will + be + V-ing
1) desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura intr-un moment viitor raportat momentului vorbirii sau intr-un
moment viitor raportat momentului precizat (tomorrow this time / tomorrow between 3 and 5).
2) actiuni viitoare in desfasurare (paralele) when, while
Ex: While Im watching TV you will be sleeping.
! atentie, nu pot avea viitor in ambele (when si while nu permit viitor)
Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul viitor shall / will
Viitorul de intentie
Forma: to be going to + V infinitiv scurt
(se conjuga doar verbul to be)
1) desemneaza intentia (am de gand sa, intentionez sa), o actiune viitoare ce urmeaza sa aiba loc intr-un moment
viitor apropiat
Ex: I think its going to rain.
! nu se poate folosi cu verbul to go si to come, ci cu to leave si to return
Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul to be

Viitorul apropiat
Desemneaza o actiune viitoare ce se va desfasura datorita unei porunci, ordin, rugaminte, sau intr-un moment
imediat urmator.
Are 2 forme:

a) to be to + V infinitiv scurt (folosit pt ordine, comenzi)


Ex: You are to read the book before midnight.
b) to be about to + V infinitiv scurt (= a fi pe punctul de a)
Ex: He is about to cry.
Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul to be
Viitorul in trecut
Forma: should / would + V infinitiv scurt
Este un timp sintetic care nu poate sa apara in propozitia principala, ci in secundara atunci cand in propozitia
principala am un verb la timpul trecut si vreau sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara acelui moment trecut.
Ex:
I-am spus ca ma voi duce la film.
(trecut)
viitor (in rom)
I told her that I should go to the movie.
! daca actiunea ce urmeaza sa se desfasoare in propozitia secundara are durata, voi folosi forma continua => should /
would + be + V-ing
Ex: I told him that I should be waiting for him.

Celelalte forme de viitor in trecut (viitor de intentie in trecut / viitor apropiat in trecut) apar cand am un verb la
trecut in principala, iar in secundara trebuie sa sugerez o actiune ulterioara. In acest caz verbul to be apare la
trecut.
Ex:
I-am spus ca am de gand sa cumpar masina.
I told him that I was going to buy the car.
Viitorul perfect
Forma: shall / will + have + verb III
Este o actiune viitoare desfasurata intr-un moment viitor anterior inceput.
Ex:
Pana la sfarsitul anului voi fi invatat toate verbele. (incep sa invat mai de mult si pana la momentul viitor
de reper, actiunea va fi terminata).
I shall have learned all the verbs by the end of the year.
! daca exista actiune cu desfasurare necontenita, folosesc o forma continua
shall / will + have + been + V-ing
Ex:
Te voi fi asteptat 2 ore pana la sfarsitul zilei.
I shall have been waiting for you 2 hours by the end of the day.
Viitorul perfect si viitorul perfect continuu nu se folosesc decat in vorbire (nu le intalnim in TOEFL decat la
listening !!!)
Interogativul si negativul cu auxiliarul
CONDITIONALUL
Are 3 forme:
1) viitor (conditie reala, posibil de realizat in viitor)
In principala
In secundara

conditional viitor (shall / will + V inf scurt)


prezent simplu (daca depinde de un program)
Ex: I shall come if the plane lands on time.
prezent continuu (daca actiunea depinde de mine)
Ex: I shall come if I am desiring this.
prezent perfect (daca actiunea este anterioara)
Ex: I shall come if I have done my homework.

Acest conditional corespunde regulii de la viitor (viitor in principala prezent in secundara), diferenta constand in
faptul ca am conjunctia if.
2) prezent (actiune ireala, dar posibil de realizat in prezent sau viitor)
In principala
In secundara

conditional prezent (should / would + V inf scurt)


subjonctiv trecut / trecut simplu
(diferenta subj trecut este ca to be are la subj. forma identica were)
As veni daca as avea timp.
I should come if I had time.

Ex:

Daca as fi in locul tau as citi cartea.


If I were you I should read the book.
3) trecut (actiune ireala si imposibil de realizat, tine de un moment trecut)
In principala
In secundara

conditional perfect (should / would + have + V III)


subjonctiv trecut perfect / trecut perfect
Ex:
M-as fi dus acolo daca as fi stiut adresa.
I should have gone there if I had known the address.
! if poate fi omis pentru cazurile 2 si 3. Omisiunea se face prin aducerea propozitiei secundare in fata si inversia
subiectului cu predicatul.
Pentru conditionalul 2:
I should go there if I had time.

devine
Had I time should I go there.
Pentru conditionalul 3:
I should have gone there if I had known the address.
devine
Had I known the address I should have gone there.
! daca in conditionalul 2 nu am un verb auxiliar sau modal care sa poata face inversia cu subiectul, ma voi folosi de
should.
Ex:
I should go there if I knew the address.
devine
Should I know the address, I should go there.
! (este singura data cand avem 2 de should)
If poate fi inlocuit prin alte expresii ca:
unless
but for
in case
so long as
providing that
provided that
supposing that
suppose that
unless (=daca nu) - se foloseste pt propozitii negative
Ex:
I shouldnt go there if I didnt know the address.
I shouldnt go there unless I knew the address.
but for se foloseste atunci cand in propozitia secundara am verbul to be cu valoare de predicat verbal la sensul
negativ (il y a). But for nu se poate folosi decat pentru conditionalul 2 si 3.
Ex condit. 2:
I should go for a walk if it werent for the rain.
pred verbal neg
But for the rain, I should go for a walk.
Ex condit. 3:
I should have invited them if it hadnt been their choice.
pred verbal neg
But for their chioce, I should have invited them.
in case se foloseste numai cu conditional viitor
Ex:
I shall return if I find the ticket.
In case I find the ticket I shall return.

so / as long as se foloseste cand sugerez ideea de restrictionare


Ex:
I shall give you the book if you take care of it.
So /as long as you take care of the book, I shall give it to you.
providing that / provided that tot pentru restrictie
supposing that / suppose that (presupunand ca)

SUBJONCTIVUL
Subjonctivul are 2 forme: - sintetic (1)

a) prezent
b) trecut (simplu si perfect)
- analitic (2)

1.a) Subjonctivul sintetic prezent


Identic ca forma cu infinitivul scurt; foarte folosit in engleza americana
1) se foloseste in urari
Ex:
May all your dreams come true.
Long live the Queen.
2) la injuraturi
Ex:
Damn you!
Curse this rain!
God bless you!
3) in propozitii secundare introduse prin that daca in principala am o dorinta, o obligatie, o necesitate:
to suggest
to recommend
to order
to demand
to urge
Ex: I urged that she sit down.
4) in propozitii care contin urmatoare;e expresii impersonale:
it is necessary
it is essential
it is important
Ex: It is impossible that he arrive in time.
1.b) Subjonctivul sintetic trecut
Simplu
Este forma a II-a a verbului, numai ca verbul to be are mereu forma were.
Utilizare:
1) in propozitiile conditionalului 2
Ex: I should take it if I were you.
2) dupa verbul wish
Ex: I wish you were here.
3) dupa constructiile
its time
its high time
as if
as though
even if
even though
would rather
would sooner
suppose that
Ex:
Its time you went there.
I would rather didnt go there.
I talk as if I didnt know you.
Perfect
Identic ca forma cu trecutul perfect (had + verb III)
Utilizare:
1) in conditionalul 3
Ex: You would have invited them if you had found enough space.
2) dupa verbul wish atunci cand actiunea este trecuta si regretata (sensul propozitiei trebuie se fie negativ)
Ex: I wish I hadnt said that.

2. Subjonctivul analitic
Se formeaza dintr-un verb modal (should / would / might / could) + V infinitiv scurt. El a luat oarecum locul
subjonctivului sintetic prezent; este intalnit atat in propozitia principala, cat si in cea secundara.
Forma
shall + V infinitiv scurt
- se foloseste in principala cu sensul de vrei?
Ex: Shall I help you? (sa te ajut?)
- se foloseste in secundara cu sensul de trebuie
Ex: I have decided that they shall help her.
Forma
should + V infinitiv scurt
- se foloseste in principala cu sensul de daca e necesar
Ex: Why should you come so early?
- se foloseste in secundara dupa:
a) expresiile impersonale:
it is important
it is necessary
it is essential
Ex: It is necessary that you should understand the problem.
b) in propozitiile care contin constructiile:
for fear that (de teama ca)
lest (ca sa nu)
in case
Ex: I got up early lest I should miss the train.
c) cu urmatoarele verbe:
to demand
to command
to suggest
to recommend
to request
to insist
Ex: I insisted that you should learn this lesson.
d) atunci cand sunt introduse de:
although
whatever
though
Ex: Whatever she should say dont interrupt her.
Forma
may / might + V infinitiv scurt
1) se foloseste cand se exprima o urare
Ex: May your dreams come true!
2) in subjonctive introduse prin:
it is likely
it is probable
it is possible
Ex: It is possible that they might invite us to dinner.
3) in propozitii introduse prin:
so that
that
in order that
Ex: I put the perfume in front of you so that you might smell it.
Forma
would + V infinitiv scurt
- se foloseste dupa wish
Ex: I wish you would call on you. (to call on = a vizita)
Forma

could + V infinitiv scurt

- se foloseste pentru a exprima o certitudine


Ex: We studied a lot so that we could pass TOEFL.
PASSIVE VOICE (DIATEZA PASIVA)
- in diateza activa, subiectul face actiunea
- in diateza pasiva, actiunea facuta de subiect se repercuteaza asupra acestuia
Subiectul din diateza activa devine complement de agent, iar CD din diateza activa devine subiect in pasiva.
Ex:
1) I write the letter.
S
CD
2) The letter is written by me.
S
C agent
Diateza pasiva presupune un verb to be, iar verbul de baza va fi la forma:
V III + by + C agent
! o propozitie care are atat CD cat si CI are 2 forme de pasiv, fiecare complement devenind pe rand subiect
Ex:
I give him my book.
CI
CD
devine
The book is given to him by me.
S
He is given the book by me.
S
Aspectul si timpul predicatului din activa se mentin in pasiva.
! complementul de agent poate sa lipseasca daca este un pronume
Ex:
I read the book.
The book is read (by me). poate sa lipseasca
! daca subiectul este impersonal (somebody / someone), el poate de asemenea sa lipseasca
DIATEZA ACTIVA

DIATEZA PASIVA

1) I eat an egg.
An egg is eaten.
2) I am eating an egg.
An egg is being eaten.
3) I have eaten an egg.
An egg has been eaten.
4) I have been eating an egg.
5) I ate an egg.
An egg was eaten.
6) I was eating an egg.
An egg was being eaten.
7) I had eaten an egg.
An egg had been eaten.
8) I had been eating an egg.
9) I shall eat an egg.
An egg will be eaten.
10) Im going to eat an egg.
An egg is going to be eaten.
11) I am to eat an egg.
An egg is to be eaten.
12) Im about to eat an egg.
An egg is about to be eaten.
13) I should eat an egg.
an egg would be eaten.
14) I shall have eaten an egg.
An egg will have been eaten.
! atentie la prepozitiile care se aseaza la final (vor rezulta 2 prepozitii una dupa alta)
Ex:
They sent for the doctor.
The doctor was sent for by them.
Everybody laughed at him.
He was laughed at by everybody.
! anumite verbe (to eat, to feel, to wear, to wash, to sell, to read, to perform) nu pot avea forma pasiva cand vrei sa
spui ca sunt de foarte buna calitate / se vand singure / se poarta singure, etc.

Ex:

These books sold quickly. (si nu have been sold)


The shoes wore comfortably. (si nu have been worn)

! verbul to grow nu poate avea sens de diateza pasiva pentru ca este de la sine
CORESPONDENTA TIMPURILOR
1) daca in principala avem prezent, in secundara putem avea orice
Ex: I know she is / will be / was here.
2) daca in principala avem viitor, in secundara avem prezent
a) simplu daca depinde de un program
b) continuu daca depinde de subiect
c) perfect daca a inceput intr-un moment anterior
3) daca in principala avem trecut, in secundara avem 3 raporturi:
a) simultaneitate (actiuni paralele) => in secundara avem trecut
Ex: While I was dancing, he took my hand.
b) anterioritate => in secundara avem past perfect
Ex: I told him I had met her before.
c) posterioritate => in secundara avem future in the past
Ex: I told him I should go there.
! pt adevaruri universal valabile nu se respecta regula cu trecutul
Ex: He told me that the sun rises from East.
Verbe neregulate - Lista verbelor
Infinitiv
Trecut
Participiu trecut
to abide
abode
abode
to arise
arose
arisen
to awake
awoke
awoke
to be
was, were
been
to bear
bore
born
to beat
beat
beaten
to become
became
become
to begin
began
begun
to behold
beheld
beheld
to bend
bent
bent
to beseech
besought
besought
to bear
bore
born
to bet
bet
bet
to bid
bade
bidden
to bind
bound
bound
to bite
bit
bitten
to bleed
bled
bled
to bless
blest
blest
to blow
blew
blown
to break
broke
broken
to breed
bred
bred
to bring
brought
brought
to broadcast broadcast
broadcast
to burn
burnt (burned)
burnt (burned)
to burst
burst
burst
to buy
bought
bought
to can
could
been able to

Traducere
a astepta, a sta, a locui
a se ridica
a se trezi
a fi
a se naste
a bate
a deveni
a icepe
a zari, a vedea
a idoi
a implora
a se naste
a paria
a oferi, a licita
a lega
a musca
a sangera
a binecuvanta
a sufla
a sparge
a creste
a aduce
a transmite prin radio
a arde
a izbucni
a cumpara
a putea, a fi posibil

to cast
to catch
to choose
to cleave
to cling
to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to deal
to dig
to do
to draw
to dream
to drink
to drive
to dwell
to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight
to find
to fly
to forbid
to forecast
to foresee
to foretell
to forget
to forgive
to forgo
forsake
to freeze
to get
to give
to go
to grind
to grow
to hang
to have
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
to hurt
to keep
to kneel
to knit
to know
to lay
to lead
to lean

cast
cast
a arunca
caught
caught
a prinde
chose
chosen
a alege
cleft
cleft
a despica
clung
clung
a se lipi
came
come
a veni
cost
cost
a costa
crept
crept
a se tara
cut
cut
a taia
dealt
dealt
a se ocupa, a trata afaceri
dug
dug
a sapa
did
done
a face
drew
drawn
a desena
dreamt (dreamed) dreamt (dreamed) a visa
drank
drunk
a bea
drove
driven
a conduce masina
dwelt
dwelt
a locui, a ramane, a insista
ate
eaten
a manca
fell
fallen
a cadea
fed
fed
a hrani
felt
felt
a simti
fought
fought
a lupta
found
found
a gasi
flew
flown
a zbura
forbade
forbidden
a interzice
forecast
forecast
a prevedea
foresaw
foreseen
a prevedea
foretold
foretold
a prezice
forgot
forgotten
a uita
forgave
forgiven
a ierta
a
renunta
la,
forwent
forgone
a da uitarii
forsook
forsaken
a parasi
froze
frozen
a igheta
got
got
a primi
gave
given
a da
went
gone
a merge
ground
ground
a macina
grew
grown
a creste
hung (hanged)
hung (hanged)
a spanzura
had
had
a avea
heard
heard
a auzi
hid
hidden
a ascunde
hit
hit
a lovi
held
held
a tine
hurt
hurt
a rani
kept
kept
a pastra
knelt
knelt
a igenunchia
knit
knit
a tricota
knew
known
a sti, a cunoaste
laid
laid
a aseza
led
led
a conduce
leant
leant
a se sprijini de

to learn
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to light
to lose
to make
to mean
to meet
to misgive
to mislead
to mistake
to outdo
to overcome
to overdo
to pay
to put
to read
to rend
to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to sew

learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgave
misled
mistook
outdid
overcame
overdid
paid
put
read
rent
rode
rang
rose
ran
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed

learnt (learned)
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgiven
misled
mistaken
outdone
overcome
overdone
paid
put
read
rent
ridden
rung
risen
run
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn (sewed)

to shake

shook

shaken

to shave
to shed
to shine

shaved
shed
shone

shaven
shed
shone

to shoe

shod

shod

to shoot
to show
to shrink
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to slay
to sleep
to slide
to sling

shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slung

shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain
slept
slid
slung

to slit

slit

slit

to smell
to smite
to sow

smelt (smelled)
smote
sowed

smelt (smelled)
smitten
sown

a ivata
a lasa, a parasi
a mprumuta (cuiva)
a permite
a fi culcat
a aprinde
a pierde
a face
a isemna
a italni
a inspira neicredere
a induce i eroare
a itelege gresit
a itrece
a ivinge
a face exces
a plati
a pune
a citi
a sfasia, a rupe
a calari
a suna
a se ridica
a alerga
a spune
a vedea
a cauta
a vinde
a trimite
a fixa, a regla
a coase
a
scutura,
a clatina
a se barbieri
a varsa (lacrimi)
a straluci
a
icalta,
a potcovi
a mpusca
a arata
a se strange
a ichide
a canta
a se scufunda
a sta (pe scaun)
a ucide
a dormi
a aluneca
a azvarli
a
crapa,
a despica
a mirosi
a lovi
a semana

to speak

spoke

spoken

to speed

sped

sped

to spell

spelt (spelled)

spelt (spelled)

to spend

spent

spent

to spill

spilt

spilt

to spin

spun

spun

to spit
to split
to spoil
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal
to stick
to sting
to stink
to strike

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank
struck

spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprung
stodd
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
struck

to string

strung

strung

to strive
strove
to swear
swore
to sweep
swept
to swim
swam
to swing
swung
to take
took
to teach
taught
to tear
tore
to tell
told
to think
thought
to throw
threw
to thrust
thrust
to tread
trod
to underlie underlay
to understand understood
to upset
upset
to wake
woke
to wear
wore
to weave
wove
to wet
wet
to win
won
to wind
wound

striven
sworn
swept
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thrown
thrust
trodden
underlain
understood
upset
woken
worn
woven
wet
won
wound

to wring

wrung

wrung

to write

wrote

written

VERBE CU PREPOZIII
To accuse of-a acuza de
To agree with-a fi de acord cu
To agree on-a fi de acord asupra
To apologize for-a.i cere iertare pentru

a vorbi
a
accelera,
a goni
a pronunta litera cu litera
a
petrece,
a cheltui
a varsa
a
toarce,
a se roti
a scuipa
a despica
a strica
a itinde
a sari, a tasni
a sta i picioare
a fura
a ifige, a se lipi
a itepa
a mirosi urat
a lovi
a
isira,
a icorda
a se stradui
a jura
a matura
a inota
a se legana
a lua
a ivata, a preda
a rupe, a sfasia
a spune
a gandi, a crede
a arunca
a mbranci
a calca
a sustine
a itelge
a supara
a se trezi
a purta
a tese
a uda
a castiga
a se rasuci
a
frange,
a smulge
a scrie

To approve of something-a aproba ceva


To arrive at-a ajunge la
To ask for something-a cere ceva
To be accustomed to something-a fi familiar cu ceva
To be acquainted with-a cunoate,a fi obinuit cu
To be afreid of something-a se teme de ceva
To be afreid of somebody-a se teme de cineva
To be angry with somebody-a fi suprat pe cineva
To be anxious about something-a fi ngrijorat de ceva
To be astonished at-a fi uimit(uluit) de
To be aware of a-i da seama de,a fi contient de
To be characteristic of-a fi caracteristic pentru
To be close to-a fi aproape de,a fi alturi de
To be confident of-a fi ncreztor n
To be crauy about-a fi nebun dup
To be cruel to-a fi crud cu,a fi ru fa de,a fi crud fa de
To be dependent on / upon-a fi dependent de
To be deprived(dipraiv) of-a fi lipsit de,a fi deposedat de
To be different(difrent)from-a fi diferit de
To be fond of-a fi legat de
To be good at-a fi bun la,a se pricepe la
To be good(kind)to-a fi amabil cu
To be grateful to-a fi recunosctor fa de
To be indignant at-a fi indignat de
To be of opinia on that-a fi de prere c
To be bent on /upon-a fi hotrt s
To be on the move-a fi n micare
To be impressed by-a fi impresionat de
To be independent of-a fi independent de
To be indifferent to-a fi indiferent fa de
To be intent on-a fi absolvit de
To be interested in-a fi interesat de
Tu be jealous of-a fi gelos pe
To be patient with-a fi rbdtor cu
To be polite to-a fi politicos(civilizat)cu
To be preoccupied by-a fi preocupat de
To be proud of-a fi mndru() de
To be satisfied with-a fi mulumit cu(de)
To be sated with-a fi stul(dezgustat)de
To be seized with-a fi prins de
To be similar to-a fi asmntor cu
To be sorry for-a-I prea ru pentru,a-i cere scuze
To be superior to-a fi superior
To be surprised at-a fi surprins de
To be typical of-a fi caracteristic pentru
To beg for-a ceri,a implora
To begin by-a ncepe prin
To belong to-a aparine
To beware of-a se feri de,a se pzi
To boast of-a se luda cu,a se fli cu
To borrow from-a mprumuta de la
To call for-a cere,a necesita
To call on somebody-a vizita pe cineva
To call at a place-a trece printr-un loc
To care for-a ine la,a-I plcea
To compare with(to)-a compara cu
To complain of-a se plnge(vita)de

To conceal from-a se ascunde de


To congratulate on-a felicita pentru
To contribute to-a contribui la
To count /rely on upon-a se bizui /baza pe
To cure of-a vindeca de
To deal with-a se ocupa de (cu)
To defend from-a apra de
To depend on(upond)-a depinde de
To die of-a muri de
To differ from-a diferi de
To do withaut-a face fr,a se lipsi de
To doubt of a se ndoi de
To embark on a participa la,a o porni ntr-o direcie
To escape from-a scpa de
To feedon-a hrni cu
To fill with-a umple cu
To forgivefor-a ierta pentru
To glanceat-a arunca o privire la
To go to-a merge la,a se duce la
To go in for-a se prezenta la
To hope for-a spera la
To indulge in-a se deda la,a se complace n,a ndemna s
To insist on-a insista asupra
To interfere in a interveni(amesteca) n
To intrudeon-a deranja,atulbura
To knock at-a bate la
To laugh at-a rde de
To laughwith joy-a rde de bucurie
To leavefor-a pleca la
To lend to somebody-a da mprumut cuiva
To live on-a tri din,a tri cu
To long for-a tnji dup
To look at-a privi la
To look after-a avea grij de,a ngriji de
To look for-a cuta
To look into-a examina
To look like-a semna cu
To look on-a considera
To look to-a se ngriji de
To meet with-a ntmpina
To mistake for-a confunda cu,a lua drept
To move fromto-a se muta din.la.
To object to-a obiecta asupra(mpotriva)
To part with-a se despri de
To participate in-a participa la
To pass for-a trece drept
To peep at-a privi pe furi la
To pine for-a tnji dup
To play at-a se juca de-a
To prevent from-a mpiedica s,a opri s
To profit by something-a profita de ceva
To protect from-a proteja de,a apra de
To provide with-a nzestra cu
To pull at-a trage la
To put in practice-a pune n practic
To recover from a-i reveni dup,a se face bine dup
To refer to-a se referi la

To refrain from-a se abine de la


To remind somebody of something-a aminti cuiva de ceva
To resort to somebody-a se adresa cuiva,a apela la cineva
To retire from-a se retrage din
To reproach somebody of something-a reproa cuiva ceva
To rush at something-a se repezi la ceva
To see to-a se ngriji de,a se ocupa de
To send for-a trimite dup
To separate from-a separa de
To smell of-a mirosi a
To stand for a reprezenta,a lua aprarea
To stare at-a se uita fix la,a privi fix la
To start for-a porni ctre(spre)
To substract from-a scdea din
To succeed in in-a reui s
To supply with-a aproviziona cu
To take into account-a lua n seam
To take into consideration-a lua n consideraie
To taste of-a avea gust de
To tell from-a deosebi de
To think about(of)-a se gndi la
To transform(change) into-a transforma(schimba)n
To threaten with-a amenina cu
To translate frominto-a traduce din n
To wait for somebody-a atepta pe cineva
To worry about a-i face griji n privina