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The Big Five Inventory

Frequently Asked Questions

The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report inventory designed to measure the Big Five dimensions. It is
quite brief for a multidimensional personality inventory (44 items total), and consists of short phrases
with relatively accessible vocabulary.
Big Five stocuri (BFI) este un inventar de auto-raport conceput pentru a msura dimensiunile Big Five. Este
destul de scurt pentru un inventar de personalitate multidimensionale (44 obiecte in total), i este format din fraze
scurte, cu vocabular relativ accesibil

Is the Big Five Inventory (BFI) in the public domain and available for use?
I hold the copyright to the BFI and it is not in the public domain per se. However, it is freely available for
researchers to use for non-commercial research purposes. Please keep us posted on your findings.
Este Big Five stocuri (BFI), n domeniul public i sunt disponibile pentru utilizare?
Eu dein drepturile de autor pentru a BFI i nu este n domeniul public n sine. Cu toate acestea, este disponibil
gratuit pentru cercetatori, pentru utilizarea n scopuri de cercetare non-comerciale. V rugm s ne postat pe
rezultatele tale

Where do I get the Big Five Inventory (BFI)?

If you are interested in taking the BFI yourself, please visit this website, where you can take an online
version of the scale that gives you instant feedback.
Dac suntei interesat n a lua BFI, v rugm s vizitai acest site, unde putei lua o versiune on-line de scara,
care v ofer feedback instantaneu.

If you are interested in using the BFI for commercial purposes, please submit a request to At this time, the BFI is for non-commercial uses only.
Dac suntei interesat n utilizarea BFI n scopuri comerciale, v rugm s trimitei o cerere de n acest moment, BFI este pentru scopuri non-comerciale numai

If you are interested in using the BFI for research purposes, please click [here], which will direct you to
the BFI download page. We are trying to create a database for BFI users of publications, relevant
findings, and translations of the BFI in an effort to make the scale more useful for users. Thus, before
downloading a copy of the BFI and the scoring instructions, please complete a short survey to let us know
a little more about who you are and why you want to use the measure. All information will be kept
strictly confidential.
Dac suntei interesat n utilizarea BFI pentru scopuri de cercetare, v rugm s facei clic pe [aici], care va
conduce la pagina de descrcare BFI. Suntem ncearc s creeze o baz de date pentru utilizatorii BFI de
publicaii, rezultatele relevante, precum i traduceri ale BFI ntr-un efort de a face scara mult mai utile pentru
utilizatori. Astfel, nainte de a descrca o copie a BFI i instruciunile de notare, v rugm s completai un scurt
studiu pentru a ne cunoate un pic mai mult despre cine eti i de ce dorii s utilizai msurii. Toate informaiile
vor fi pstrate strict confideniale.

How should I reference the BFI?

You should reference these article in manuscripts using the BFI:
(1) John, O. P., Naumann, L. P., & Soto, C. J. (2008). Paradigm Shift to the Integrative Big-Five Trait
Taxonomy: History, Measurement, and Conceptual Issues. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin
(Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 114-158). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

(2) John, O. P., Donahue, E. M., & Kentle, R. L. (1991). The Big Five Inventory--Versions 4a and 54.
Berkeley, CA: University of California,Berkeley, Institute of Personality and Social Research.

(3) Benet-Martinez, V., & John, O. P. (1998). Los Cinco Grandes across cultures and ethnic groups:
Multitrait multimethod analyses of the Big Five in Spanish and English. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 75, 729-750.

How do I score the BFI?

Scoring instructions and SPSS syntax are downloadable from this website after completing the survey.
Instruciuni de notare i de sintax SPSS sunt descrcate de pe acest website, dup finalizarea anchetei

Are there norms for the BFI?

There is no official BFI manual with published norms. However, the following paper contains means from
age 20 to age 60. You might want to look at it (download here) for an American sample; scores were
converted to POMP (percentage of maximum possible) metric and graphed by gender and age for each
Big Five dimension.
Srivastava, S., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2003). Development of personality in early and
middle adulthood: Set like plaster or persistent change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84,
Nu este nici un manual oficial BFI cu normele publicate. Cu toate acestea, hrtia conine urmtoarele mijloace
de la vrsta de la 20 la 60 de ani. S-ar putea dori s se uite la ea (descarca aici), pentru un eantion american,
scorurile au fost convertite la Pomp (procent de maximum posibil) metrice i grafic de sex i vrst, pentru
fiecare dimensiune Big Five.

Is there a shorter version of the BFI available?

Yes, there is an abbreviated 11-item version available here. However, given that the entire BFI consists
of only 44 very short phrases and takes only 5 minutes to complete, we do not recommend using the
short 11-item version unless there are exceptional circumstances.
Da, exist o prescurtat 11-element versiune disponibila aici. Cu toate acestea, avnd n vedere c ntreaga BFI
format din doar 44 fraze foarte scurte si dureaza doar 5 minute pentru a finaliza, nu recomandm utilizarea pe
termen scurt 11-element versiune cu excepia cazului n care exist circumstane excepionale

Is there a version with language appropriate for children?

Yes, there is a version of the BFI where items with wording difficult for children have been modified.
This version has also been adapted so that parents may fill it out for their children. Both versions are
available after completing the survey.
Da, exist o versiune a BFI n cazul n care un produs cu o formulare de dificil pentru copii au fost modificate.
Aceast versiune a fost, de asemenea, a fost adaptat astfel nct prinii s-l completai pentru copiii lor. Ambele
versiuni sunt disponibile dup finalizarea anchetei.

Is the BFI available in other languages?

Yes, the BFI has been translated into the following languages:

German (BFI-10 only)

Can I translate the BFI so that I may use it for research purposes?
If you translate the BFI, an expert bilingual (someone who is American or has lived in the
U.S.A.) should perform back-translation procedures with your newly-translated version. In
other words, after you have translated the BFI into the new language, an expert bilingual
should translate it back into English. Next, you should compare that back-translated English
version to the original English version of the BFI. Please send us a copy of the version that
you are going to use so that we may add it to our collection.
Dac traduce BFI, un expert bilingv (cineva care este american sau a trit n Statele Unite ale Americii), trebuie
s efectueze proceduri de back-traducere cu versiunea dvs. de nou-traduse. Cu alte cuvinte, dup ce au tradus
BFI n noua limb, un expert bilingv ar trebui s-l traduc din nou n englez. Apoi, ar trebui s comparai

aceast versiune de back-tradus din englez n versiunea n limba englez original a BFI. Va rugam sa ne
trimiteti o copie a versiunii pe care o vom folosi, astfel nct s putem aduga la colecia noastr.

Finally, it's much more important to capture the *total meaning* of the item than to translate any of its
parts literally. For example, the translation of "calm" into German often comes out as "ruhig" but that
could be N- as well as E- (as in still, quiet--even in English, "calm waters" are still and quiet, too!). So, an
N item that has calm as a part is better translated into German using the negation "nicht nervoes" than
the more literal translation "ruhig".
n cele din urm, este mult mai important pentru a captura total sensul * * a elementului dect s traduc
oricare dintre piesele sale literalmente. De exemplu, traducerea de "calm" n limba german de multe ori vine ca
"ruhig", dar care ar putea fi N-precum i E-(ca n continuare, linitit - chiar i n limba englez, "apele calme" sunt
nc i linitit, de asemenea).! Deci, un element care are N, calm ca o parte este mai bine tradus n limba
german utiliznd negaie "nervoes nicht" dect mai traducere literal "ruhig".

Why are there multiple descriptors for some BFI items?

For several items, such as "being relaxed, handles stress well, the typical understanding would be that
the second phrase provides an elaboration of the first concept, so its understood as "being relaxed, in
the sense of being good at handling stress". Specifically, "relaxed" is typically a low-Neuroticism item and
means "not anxious, not easily upset or stressed out." But some people might misunderstand "relaxed" to
mean "easy-going, having fun" which would be an high-Extraversion item. Thus, to rule out this
misinterpretation, we use "handles stress well" to elaborate what we mean by "being relaxed".
Pentru mai multe articole, cum ar fi "s fie relaxat, se ocup de stres bine, intelegerea tipic ar fi ca a doua fraz
ofer o elaborarea de primul concept, astfel nct ei neleas ca" a fi relaxat, n sensul de a fi bun la stresul
cauzat de manipulare ". Concret, "relaxat", este de obicei un element de low-nevroza i mijloace, ci "nu nelinitit,
care nu este uor suprat sau stresat.", unii oameni s-ar putea nelege greit "relaxat" cu sensul de "uor-va,
distractie", care ar fi o mare- element extraversiune. Astfel, pentru a exclude aceast interpretare, vom folosi ", se
ocup de stresul de bine" de a elabora ceea ce nelegem noi prin "a fi relaxat".

How do you handle missing items?

There are different approaches in the literature, varying in complexity. If a lot of item responses are
missing, you may not want to use that person's scores. With only a few responses missing (6 or less), I try
to use either the response to the closest synonym (similar) item or I compute the scale score (as an
average item response) without the missing item(s) and then use that score (rounded to an integer) as
the substitute item score (when you do that, be careful not to get confused with reverse items).
Exist abordri diferite n literatura de specialitate, care variaz n complexitate. n cazul n care o mulime de
rspunsuri de elemente lipsesc, este posibil s nu dorii s utilizai rezultatele acelei persoane. Cu doar cteva
rspunsuri cteva lips (6 sau mai puin), am ncerca s foloseasc, fie ca rspuns la cel mai apropiat sinonim
(similar), articol sau am calcula scorul scala (ca un rspuns element medie), fr elementul lips (e) i apoi
utilizai c scorul (rotunjit la un ntreg), ca scorul element nlocuitor (atunci cnd faci asta, s fie atent s nu se
confunda cu elemente inverse).

Given the fact that it is a five pt Likert scale, there are bound to be some
middle (3) responses given, especially if participants become fatigued. How do
you handle these 3 responses? Are they discarded? Or are they counted toward
the total score?

I almost always permit middle responses (3)--when research participants are reasonably motivated, they
use "3" when appropriate--on some items, people are just "in the middle." These scores get simply added
into the overall score. Remember, this is truly a dimensional response scale, not a "true or false"
questionnaire! In fact, on some items, responding "3" is actually very diagnostic; for example, responding
"3" the reverse Agreeableness item "Starts quarrels with others" means the participant is admitting to
considerable disagreeableness (the majority of individuals answer 2 or even 1). So, unless there are lots
of 3 responses, I would not worry about it.
Avnd n vedere faptul c aceasta este o perioad de cinci PT scara Likert, nu sunt obligai s fie un mijloc (3)
rspunsurile date, n special n cazul n care participanii obosesc. Cum se ocupe de aceste 3 rspunsuri? Sunt
aruncate? Sau sunt luate n considerare pentru scorul total?
Am aproape ntotdeauna rspunsuri permite Mijlociu (3) - atunci cnd participanii la cercetare sunt suficient de
motivai, ei folosesc "3" atunci cnd este cazul - pe unele elemente, oamenii sunt doar "n mijloc." Aceste scoruri
se adaug pur i simplu n scorul total. Amintii-v, aceasta este cu adevrat o scar de rspuns dimensiuni, nu,
un "adevrat sau fals" chestionar! De fapt, la unele articole, rspunde "3" este de fapt foarte de diagnostic, de
exemplu, rspunde "3" elementul agreabil invers ", ncepe certuri cu alii" nseamn participantul este admiterea
la disagreeableness considerabil (majoritatea persoanelor de rspuns 2 sau chiar 1). Deci, dac nu exist o
mulime de 3 rspunsuri, nu a face griji.

Has anyone used the scale without response 3 (neither agree or disagree)? i.e.
use only the remaining 4 item scale to force respondents to choose an answer?
Have there been any psychometrics done on this?
You are implying that you will give the BFI in an interview format--will you? If so, you could give an
instruction that says "first, consider whether you agree with this item, or disagree--choose one way.
Then have them rate *how much* they agree (strongly or a little) or disagree (strongly or a little). And
tell them that they should/can respond "neither agree nor disagree, right in the middle" only in those
rare instances when they are really right in the middle.
Are cineva a folosit scara fr rspuns 3 (nici nu sunt de acord sau nu sunt de acord)? adic folosesc numai
restul de 4 scara element pentru a fora respondenilor s aleag un rspuns? Au existat psihometrie efectuate
pe aceasta?
Suntei ceea ce nseamn c v va da BFI ntr-un format de interviu - se va tine? Dac da, ai putea da o
instruciune care spune c "n primul rnd, ia n considerare dac suntei de acord cu acest element, sau nu sunt
de acord -. Alege o modalitate de" Apoi le-au * Rata de cat de mult sunt de acord * (puternic sau un pic) sau nu
sunt de acord (puternic sau un pic). i s le spui c ar trebui s / pot raspunde ", nici acord, nici dezacord, chiar
n mijloc", numai n acele cazuri rare atunci cnd acestea sunt ntr-adevr chiar n mijloc

If the BFI is self-administered, in that participants read the items by themselves and record their
answers in writing (the way we usually administer the BFI), then yes, you could simply give the scale as
ranging from 1 to 4, with the middle-response option omitted. If you have strong reasons to do that, it's
ok with me, but you will end up sacrificing the opportunity to compare your means and SDs to other
research, all of which has used the standard 5-point scale. If the problem is fatigue-related, I would
rather have them take a little break!
Dac BFI este auto-administrat, n care participanii citi elementele de ctre ei nii i s nregistreze
rspunsurile acestora n scris (modul n care ne administra, de obicei, BFI), atunci da, ai putea da pur i simplu
scar, variind de la 1 la 4, cu mijloc de rspuns opiune omise. Dac avei motive puternice pentru a face asta, e
ok cu mine, dar va termina sacrifica posibilitatea de a compara mijloacele voastre si SDS la alte cercetri, toate
din care a folosit standard de 5-punct de scara. Dac problema este legat de oboseala, mi-ar trebui mai
degrab s le ia o mica pauza!

Should I use the 54-item version?

You seem to be using a very early version of the BFI; 10 items are not scored on any of the scales. The
following materials refer to the 44-item version, all of which are included in the 54-item version. Just

select those items and follow the scoring for those 44. Ignore the other 10 items. If the BFI is
administered routinely at your institution, you may want to update the questionnaire and use the 44item final version.

Se pare s fie utiliznd o versiune foarte timpurie a BFI, 10 elemente nu sunt marcate pe oricare dintre scale.
Urmtoarele materiale se refer la versiunea 44-element, toate care sunt incluse n versiunea 54-element.
Selecta doar acele elemente i urmai de scoring pentru cele 44. Ignorai alte 10 elemente. n cazul n care BFI
este administrat de rutina la instituia dumneavoastr, poate dorii s actualizai chestionar i de a folosi
versiunea 44-element final.

I cannot locate the John & Donahue, 1998, The Big Five Inventory: Studies of
reliability and validity article referenced in Benet-Martinez & John 1998. Was it
No, it was not published. Please refer to Rammstedt & John 2007, Measuring personality in one minute
or less: A 10-item short version of the Big Five Inventory in English and German. Journal of Research in
Personality, 41, 203-212. This article focuses on a shorter 10-item version that includes information on
external validity via peer ratings for the full, 44-item BFI as well. Note that we do not recommend using
the short 10-item version unless there are exceptional circumstances.
Eu nu pot localiza si John Donahue, 1998, Big Five Inventar: Studii de fiabilitate i valabilitate menionat la
articolul Benet-Martinez & John 1998. A fost publicat?
Nu, nu a fost publicat. V rugm s consultai Rammstedt & John 2007, personalitate de msurare ntr-un minut
sau mai puin: O versiune de 10-element scurt a Big Five Inventarul n limba englez i german. Jurnalul de
Cercetare n Personalitate, 41, 203-212. Acest articol se concentreaza pe un timp mai scurt de 10 element
versiune, care include informaii cu privire la validitatea extern prin evaluri la egal la egal pentru complet, 44element BFI, de asemenea. Reinei c noi nu recomandm utilizarea pe termen scurt 10-element versiune cu
excepia cazului n care exist circumstane excepionale.

Where can I learn more about the Big Five dimensions of Personality?
For an introduction to the conceptual and measurement issues surrounding the Big Five personality
factors, a good place to start is the recent John, Naumann, & Soto (2008) Handbook of Personality
Unde pot afla mai multe despre Big cinci dimensiuni ale personalitatii?
Pentru o introducere la aspectele conceptuale i de msurare din jurul Big Cinci factori de personalitate, un loc
bun pentru a ncepe este Ioan recent, Naumann, si Soto (2008) Manual de capitolul personalitate

The chapter covers a number of important issues including the scientific origins and history of the Big
Five, theoretical accounts of the Big Five, and comparisons of different measurement instruments. The
chapter also includes a conceptual and empirical comparison of three measurement instruments: the Big
Five Inventory (BFI), Costa and McCrae's NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Goldberg's set of 100
trait-descriptive adjectives. There is no one-size-fits-all measure, but the chapter includes our
recommendations on which instrument(s) you should use for different applications.
Capitol se refer la o serie de aspecte importante, inclusiv originile i istoria tiinifice ale Big Five, conturile
teoretice ale Big Five, i comparaii de instrumente de msurare diferite. Capitolul include, de asemenea, o
comparaie conceptual i empiric a instrumentelor de msurare trei: Big Five Inventarul set (BFI), Costa i
McCrae neo Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), i a lui Goldberg a 100 de trasatura-descriptive adjective. Nu
exist nici o-size-fits-all msur, dar capitol include recomandrile noastre pe care instrumentul (e) ar trebui s
utilizai pentru aplicaii diferite.

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