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INFLUEN E DI NAMICE N

TRANSMISIILE CARDANICE

DYNAMIC INFLUENCES IN
CARDAN TRANSMISSIONS

Radu S ULES CU*, Livia HUID AN*, Nicolae BERCAN**


*

"Transilvania" University of Brasov, Romania


"Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu, Romana

**

Rezumat. Lu crarea are ca obi ectiv princip al an aliza


influen elor unor parametri reprezentativi asupra
comportrii cinematice i dinamice a transmisiilor
policardanice; pentru aceasta s-a realizat un program n
mediul Excel, care p ermite identi ficarea efectelor
urmrite pe baza simulrilor numerice. Rezultatele
obinute sunt utile n proiectarea acestor transmisii.

Abstract. The main objective of the paper is the analysis


of some repres entative parameters on the kinematic and
dynamic behaviour o f ncardan transmissions; with this
purpose a p rogram, using the so ft Excel, was el aborat ed.
The obtained results are useful in the design o f these
transmissions.

Cuvinte cheie: transmisii cardanice, efecte elastice,


efecte ineriale, abatere de la homocinetism

Key words: cardan transmission, elastic effects, inertial


effects, homokinetical deviation

1. Introducere

1. Introduction

Conform obiectivului formulat, n lucrare se


modeleaz, prin simulare asistat, influena
momentelor mecanice de inerie ale arborilor i a
elasticitilor
arborilor intermediari, asupra
comportrii cinematice i dinamice a unei transmisii
bicardanice, n condiii uzuale de exploatare
(prevzute n prospectele de firm [6]).
n simulrile efectuate, rigiditatea (i implicit
elasticitatea) arborilor intermediari este descris
prin coeficientul de rigiditate c:
c = , n premiza arborilor intermediari rigizi;
c = 9526,896 [Nm/rad], n premiza arborilor
intermediari elastici.
Pe baza modelelor teoretice stabilite n [5] i
[6], s-a elaborat un program, n mediul Excel.
Diagramele obinute n urma simulrilor numerice
permit decelarea de concluzii utile pentru cercetare
i proiectare.

According to the formulated objective, in the


paper, the influence of the mechanical moments of
inertia of the shafts and that of the elasticities of the
secondary shafts on the kinematic and dynamic
behaviour of a 2-cardan transmission, are modeled
through computer-aided simulation, for usual plant
conditions (provided in firm leaflets [6]).
In the performed simulations, the rigidity (and,
implicitly, the elasticity) of the secondary shafts is
described by the rigidity factor c:
c = , considering the secondary shafts rigid;
c = 9526,896 [Nm/rad], considering the
secondary shafts elastic.
Basing on the theoretical models established in
[5] and [6], a computational program, using the soft
Excel, was elaborated. The obtained diagrams after
the numerical simulations allow formulating
conclusions of use in research and design.

c12

M22

M11

Figura 1. Transmisie bicardanic determinat static, cu arbore intermediar elastic


Figure 1. Statically determined 2-cardan transmission, with elastic secondary shaft

2. Premise, algoritm i program de analiz

2. Assumptions, algorithm and analysis program

n modelarea transmisiei cardanice (izolat din


main) se consider c:

In the modeling of a cardan transmission


(isolated from the machine), it is considered that:

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Influene dinamice n transmisiile cardanice


 Forele exterioare ale transmisiei constau ntr-un
moment motor (de intrare) M1 i un moment
rezistent (de ieire) M2 ;
 Pierderile prin frecare, datorate micrilor relative
de rotaie din cuple sunt considerate neglijabile;
 Se neglijeaz momentele i forele de inerie ale
crucilor cardanice, n raport cu cele ale arborilor
cardanici;
 Transmisia este static determinat;
 Se consider independent momentul de ieire M2 ;
 Se neglijeaz deformaiile elastice ale arborilor
extremali i crucilor cardanice; n lucrare se
studiaz numai influena elasticitii arborelui
cardanic intermediar, deoarece acesta are o
rigiditate net mai mica fata de ceilali arbori.
inndu-se seama de aceste premise s-a
conceput urmtorul algoritm de modelare:
1. Se determin numeric i se traseaz grafic:
 variaia diferenelor unghiulare
jk ij = ij = ij ( 11 ) ;
 variaia vitezelor i a acceleraiilor unghiulare
ij = ij (11 ) , respectiv ij = ij ( 11) ;
 variaia momentelor de torsiune intermediare
T12 = T12 (M 2 , 11 ) , T21 = T21 (M 2 ,11 ) ;
 variaia momentul de torsiune de la intrare
M 1 = M1( M 2 , 11 ) .
2. Determinarea i trasarea diagramelor s-au realizat
cu ajutorul parametrilor de stare prezentai deasupra
figurilor, n cele dou situaii: cu arbori rigizi
(figura 2), respectiv elastici (figura 3).
Pe baza acestui algoritm s-a elaborat un program
n Excel, cu ajutorul cruia s-au efectuat simulri
numerice conform urmtorului program de testare:
 Arbore intermediar rigid i momente mecanice de
inerie nule (fig. 2,a ,..., e);
 Arbore intermediar rigid i momente mecanice de
inerie (fig. 2,a1 , ...,e1) conform cataloagelor de
specialitate [6];
 Arbore intermediar elastic i momente mecanice
de inerie nule (fig. 3,a,..., e);
 Arbore intermediar elastic i moment mecanice de
inerie (fig. 3, a1 , ..., e1 ) conform cataloagelor de
specialitate [6].

3. Simulri numerice i analiz comparativ


n urma rulrii programului elaborat n mediul
Excel, cu datele anterior precizate, s-a obinut o
bogat familie de diagrame; n figurile 2 i 3 s-au
ilustrat succint cele mai semnificative dintre acestea.
Pe baza figurilor 2 i 3 se analizeaz influena
158

 T he external forces of the transmission consist of


a (input) drive moment M1 and a (output) moment
of inertia M2 ;
 The losses due to friction, caused by the relative
rotating motions in couplings, are considered
neglectable;
 The inertial torques and forces of the crossheads
in relation to those of the cardan shafts are
neglected;
 The transmission is statically determined;
 The output moment M2 is considered independent;
 The elastic deformations of the extreme shafts and
crossheads are neglected; the paper presents only
the influence of the secondary shaft elasticity
because this has a pointedly smaller rigidity than
the other shafts.
Considering these conditions, the following
modeling algorithm was elaborated:
1. Numerical determination and layout of:
 the variation of angular differences
jk ij = ij = ij ( 11 )
 the variation of angular speeds and accelerations
ij = ij (11 ) , respectively ij = ij (11 ) ;
 the variation of intermediate torques
T12 = T12 ( M 2 , 11 ) , T21 = T21 (M 2 ,11 ) ;
 the variation of the input torque
M 1 = M 1( M 2 , 11 )
2. The determination and diagrams layout were
realized by means of the condition parameters
presented above the figures, for both of the cases: with
rigid shafts (figure 2) and with elastic shafts (figure 3).
Basing on this algorithm, a computational
program, by means of the soft Excel, was
elaborated, for numerical simulations according to
the following testing program:
 Rigid secondary shaft and zero mechanical
moments of inertia (figures 2, a,, e);
 Rigid secondary shaft and mechanical moments
of inertia (figures 2, a1 ,, e1 ), according to the
professional catalogues [6];
 Elastic secondary shaft and zero mechanical
moments of inertia (figures 3, a,, e);
 Elastic secondary shaft and mechanical moments
of inertia (figures 3, a1 , , e1), according to the
professional catalogues [6].

3. Numerical simulations and comparative analysis


After running the program elaborated by means
of the soft Excel, with the previously specified data,
a large set of diagrams was obtained; the most
representative are presented in figures 2 and 3.
Basing on figures 2 and 3, the influence of the

RECENT, Vol. 8, nr. 2 (20), Iulie, 2007

Dynamic Influences in Cardan T ransmissions


elasticitii arborelui cardanic intermediar asupra
comportrii cinematice i dinamice a transmisiei
(arborii extremali fiind de obicei mai scuri, se
consider rigizi).
Din analiza comparativ a diagramelor din
figurile 2 i 3 reiese c:
 Diferena 21 12 i abaterea 22 11 sunt nule
(fig. 2a), dac arborele cardanic intermediar este
rigid; n aceast situaie transmisia este evident
homocinetic (vezi fig. 2b, c);
 Din figura 3a reiese c diferena unghiular, care
reprezint deformaia elastic a arborelui
intermediar, induce o abatere 22 11
asemntoare diferenei 21 12 , dar cu o
amplitudine mai mare. n aceste condiii
transmisia devine cvasihomocinetic cu o abatere
maxim 22 11 max < 0,20 ; evident aceast
abatere scade cu scderea momentului de
ncrcare M2.
Aadar, n cazurile uzuale, influena elasticitii
arborelui intermediar poate fi practic neglijat; n
cazurile speciale (cu arbori lungi i momente mari de
ncrcare) se impune compensarea abaterii de la
homocinetism prin proiectarea transmisiei astfel c n
stare deformat (ncrcat) abaterea de la
homocinetism s devin nul sau neglijabil.
 Momentele arborelui intermediar T12 , T21 au o
variaie cosinusoidal, a crei amplitudine descrie
ncrcarea dinamic a arborelui intermediar i nu
este influenat nici de elasticitatea arborelui
cardanic intermediar i nici de momentele
mecanice de inerie;
 La scara de reprezentare utilizat, n figurile 2d,
d1 i 3d, d1 momentele arborelui de intrare i
ieire sunt aproape identice; aceasta arat c
ncrcarea dinamic, datorat momentelor
mecanice de inerie ale arborilor, este practic
nesemnificativ; pentru a se scoate totui n
eviden ordinul de mrime al ncrcrii dinamice,
cauzat de momentele mecanice de inerie ale
arborilor, n figurile 2e, e1 i 3e, e1 s-au ilustrat, la
scar mrit, variaiile momentului de intrare, n
premisa c momentul rezistent rmne constant
M2 = 150 Nm. Conform diagramelor obinute,
momentul M1 = T11 are o variaie sinusoidal n
condiii dinamice (figurile 2d1 i 3d1 ) i este egal
cu momentul de la intrare n condiii statice
(figurile 2d i 3d).
Momentul arborelui de intrare este practic
identic cu momentul arborelui de la ieire (v. figurile
2d, d1 i 3d, d1); aceasta arat c ncrcarea dinamic,
datorat elasticitii i momentelor mecanice de
inerie, este practic nesemnificativ.

secondary cardan shafts elasticity on the kinematic


and dynamic behaviour of the transmission is
analyzed (because usually the extreme shafts are
shorter, they are considered rigid).
The outcomes of the comparative analysis from
figures 2 and 3 are:
 The difference 21 12 and the deviation
12 21 are zero (figure 2a), if the secondary
cardan shaft is rigid; in this case, the transmission
is obviously homokinetic (see figures 2b, c);
 From figure 3a it derives that the angular
difference, representing the elastic deformation of
the secondary shaft, induces a deviation 22 - 11 ,
similar to the difference 21 - 12 , but with a greater
amplitude. Under these circumstances, the
transmission becomes quasi-homokinetic, with a
maximum deviation 22 11 max < 0.2 0 ;
obviously, this deviation becomes lower with the
decrease of the loading moment M2.
Thus, for usual conditions, the influence of the
secondary shafts elasticity can be practically
neglected; in special cases (with long shafts and
great loading moments), the adjustment of the
homokinetic deviation is assessed, so that, in a
deformed (loaded) state, the homokinetic deviations
should become zero or negligible.
 The torques of the secondary shaft T12, T 21 have a
cosine variation, whose amplitude describes the
dynamic loading of the secondary shaft and is
not influenced by the elasticity of the secondary
cardan shaft, nor by the mechanical moments of
inertia;
 At the used scale, the torques of the input and
output shaft are in figures 2d, d1 and 3d, d1
almost equal; this shows that the dynamic
loading caused by the mechanical moments of
inertia of the shafts is practically insignificant, to
point out the size grade of the dynamic loading,
caused by the mechanical moments of inertia of
the shafts, in figures 2e, e1 and 3e, e1 , the
variations of the input moment, considering a
constant moment of resistance M2 = 150 Nm,
were represented at a larger scale. According to
the obtained diagrams, the torque M1 = T11 has
a sinusoidal variation under dynamic conditions
(figures 2d1 and 3d1 ) and is equal to the input
moment under static conditions (figures 2d and
3d).
The input shafts torque is practically equal to
the output shafts torque (see figures 2d, d1 and 3d,
d1 ); this shows that the dynamic loading caused by
elasticity and mechanical moments of inertia is
practically insignificant.

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Influene dinamice n transmisiile cardanice


0
1 = 2 = 27,99, 11
= 0, 12 = 0, 12 = 180, 11 = 1 [rad/s], 11 = 0 [rad/s 2 ], M 2 = 150 [N m]

c12 = [N m/rad], J1 = J12 = J 3 = 0 [kg m 2 ]

c12 = [N m/rad], J1 = J12 = J 3 = 3 .4110 4[kg m 2 ]

a1

d1

c1

d1

e1
Figura 2 Diagramele variaiilor cinematice i dinamice, cu arbore intermedi ar rigid
Figure 2. Diagrams of kinematic and dynamic variations, with rigid secondary shaft

160

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Dynamic Influences in Cardan T ransmissions


0
1 = 2 = 27.99 , 11
= 0 , 12 = 0 , 12 = 180, 11 = 1 [rad/s],11 = 0[rad/s2 ], M 2 = 150[N m]

c12 = 9526,89599[N m/rad], J1 = J12 = J3 = 0 [kg m 2 ] c12 = 9526 . 89 [N m/rad], J 1 = J12 = J 3 = 3. 41 10 4 [kg m 2

a1

b1

c1

d1

e1
Figura 3 Diagramele variaiilor cinematice i dinamice, cu arbore intermedi ar elastic
Figure 3. Diagrams of kinematic and dynamic variations, with elastic secondary shaft

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Influen e dinamice n t ransmisiile cardanice

4. Concluzii

4. Conclusions

n final pot fi formulate urm t oarele concluzii:


1. De i t eoret ic nc rcarea dinamic a t ransmisiei
cre t e cu moment ul mecanic de iner ie, acest
efect poate fi neglijat n condiii uzuale de
exploatare.
2. Elast icit at ea arborelui int ermediar influen eaz
abat erea de la homocinet ism a t ransmisiei
ast fel: a) n cazurile uzuale, t ransmisia
bicardanic devine cvasihomocinetic i deci
abat erea de la homocinet ism poate fi pract ic
neglijat ; b) n cazurile speciale, cu arbori lungi
i moment e mecanice de iner ie mari, se impune
compensarea abat erii de la homocinetism prin
proiect area transmisiei ast fel ca n stare deformat
(ncrcat) abat erea de la homocinet ism s
devin nul, sau neglijabil. Din analiza
comparat iv a diagramelor prezent at e, reiese c,
n condiii uzuale, influen a elasticit ii arborelui
int ermediar asupra moment elor de torsiune poat e
fi pract ic neglijat ;
3. Efectele momentelor de iner ie i ale elasticitii
arborelui intermediar, asupra abaterii de la
homocinetism i a momentelor de torsiune, pot fi
neglijate n condiii uzuale de ut ilizare; n condiii
speciale, n care momentele mecanice de iner ie
sunt foarte mari sau arborii cardanici sunt foarte
zveli, neglijarea acest or efecte nu mai poat e fi
admis.

Finally, the following conclusions can be


formulat ed:
1. Alt hough the dynamic loading t heoret ically raises
wit h t he mechanical moment of inert ia, this effect
can be neglected under usual plant condit ions;
2. The secondary shaft s elast icity influences the
homokinet ic deviat ion of the t ransmission as
following: a) in usual cases, t he 2/cardan
t ransmission becomes quasi-homokinet ic and,
t hus, the homokinet ic deviat ion can be
pract ically neglected; b) in special cases, wit h
long shaft s and great mechanical moment s of
inert ia, t he adjust ment of t he homokinet ic
deviat ion is assessed, so t hat , in a deformed
(loaded) st at e, the homokinet ic deviat ion should
become zero or negligible. From t he comparat ive
analysis of t he present ed diagrams it result s that ,
under usual condit ions, the influence of the
secondary shaft s elast icit y on t he torques can be
pract ically neglect ed.
3. T he effect s of the moment s of inert ia and
secondary shafts elast icity on t he homokinet ic
deviat ion and torques can be neglect ed under
usual plant condit ions; under special condit ions,
when the mechanical moment s of inert ia are high
or t he cardan shaft s are very slim, t he omission
of these effect s cannot be admitt ed anymore.

Refe rences
1. D uditza, F.: Cardan transmissions and their applications . D sseldorf, VD IVerlag, G ermany, 1973 (in G erman)
2. Dudi, Fl., a.o.: On the modelling of homokinetical tricardanic transmissions . 2nd International Conference Research and
D evelopment in Mechanical Industry RaD MI 2002, p. 872-877, vol. II, ISBN 86-83803-03-1, Y ugoslavia
3. D udi , Fl., s.a.: Cardan Transmission. E d. Transilvania E xpres, ISBN 973-8196-20-5, Brasov, Romania, 2003 (in Romanian)
4. D iaconescu, D .V., Jaliu, C., S ulescu, R. Dynamic modeling of a 2-Cardan transmission in a modular variant. Part I: Modelling
of the representative modules . RECENT , Vol. 7, nr. 1 (16), 2006, p. 18-23, ISSN 1582-0246
5. S ulescu, R., D iaconescu, D .V., Borca, A .: Dynamic modeling of a 2-Cardan transmission in a modular variant. Part II: The
Dynamic Analysis of a Transmission . RECENT , Vol. 7, nr. 2 (17), 2006, p. 88-92, ISSN 1582-0246
6. ***: Joint shafts for industry applications. G elenkw ellenbau G mbH -E ssen, KG N Automotive, Cardantec Division (in G erman)

Lucrare primit n Mai, 2007


( i n form revizuit n Iunie, 2007)

162

Received in May, 2007


(and revised form in June, 2007)

RECENT , Vol. 8, nr. 2 (20), Iulie, 2007