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Georgeta erban Medicamente antiprotozoarice

CHIMIOTERAPICE ANTIINFECIOASE CU SPECIFICITATE LIMITAT


III. ANTIPROTOZOARICE
III.1. MEDICAMENTE ANTIMALARICE
- malaria agentul patogen: genul Plasmodium: P. vivax, P. ovalae
P. malariae, P. falciparum

Schema ciclului evolutiv al agentului patogen


organismul
tntarului

stomac
multiplicare sexuat
macrogameti masculini
macrogameti feminini
(sporozoit)

saliv
sporozoit inactiv

organismul 1. faza exoeritrocitar


transformare n merozoit
uman
(snge)
2. faza eritrocitar
multiplicare asexuat
a merozoitilor

diferentiere n
microgameti masculini
microgameti feminini

ANTIMALARICE
SCHIZONTOCIDE

ANTIMALARICE
GAMETOCIDE

III.1.1. ANTIMALARICE SCHIZONTOCIDE


A. SCHIZONTOCIDE NATURALE
CHININA

CHINIDINA

B. SCHIZONTOCIDE DE SINTEZ
1. Derivai de 4-aminochinolin
NH R

Cl

R = CH(CH2)3
CH3

N(C2H5)2

Clorochina

Georgeta erban Medicamente antiprotozoarice


C2H5
N

CH(CH3)2

Hidroxiclorochina
CH2CH2OH

CH3
OH
CH2

Amodiachina
N(C2H5)2

2. Mepacrina clorhidrat

3. (RS, SR) Mefloquina

CH3
NH

Cl

CH(CH2)3 N(C2H5)2
OCH3

4. Halofantrina

5. Lumefantrina

6. Artemeter

III.1.2. ANTIMALARICE GAMETOCIDE


Derivai de 8-aminochinolin

H3CO

R = CH(CH2)3
N
NHR

N(C2H5)2

Plasmochina
(Pamachina)

CH3
(CH2)3 N(C2H5)2
2

Plasmocid

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CH(CH2)3 NH CH(CH3)2 Izopentachina
CH3
Primachina

CH(CH2)3 NH2
CH3

III.1.3. ANTIMALARICE SCHIZONTOCIDE I INHIBITOARE ALE FORMRII


I MATURRII GAMEILOR
Proguanil

Cicloguanil

H2N
N
Cl

NH2

N
H3C CH3

Pirimetamina

III.2. MEDICAMENTE ANTIAMIBIENE


- amibiaza agentul patogen: Entamoeba histolytica

Clasificare antiamibiene
1. Amoebicide de contact sau lumenale active n amibiaza intestinal produs de
Entamoeba dysenterica sau E. hystolitica
- derivai halogenai de 8-hidroxichinolin: clorchinaldol, Iodochinol (diiodhidroxichinolina), Vioform (iod-clor-hidroxichinolin, Cliochinol), broxichinolina
- haloacetamide: teclozan, diloxanid
- compui organici ai arsenului: carbarsona, glicobiarsol
- antibiotice: paromomicine, eritromicina, tetracicline
2. Amoebicide active n amibiaza extraintestinal (tisular)
- derivai de 4-aminochinolin: Clorochina
- derivai de acridin: Mepacrina
3. Amoedicide active n amibiaza intestinal i extraintestinal
- Emetina, Dehidroemetina
- derivai de 5-nitroimidazol: metronidazol, tinidazol, ornidazol, secnidazol,
nimorazol
3

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1. AMOEBICIDE DE CONTACT SAU LUMENALE
1.1. Derivai halogenai de 8-hidroxichinolin
Clorchinaldol

Broxichinolina

1.2. Haloacetamide
Teclozan

Diloxanid furoat

1.3. Compui organici ai arsenului


Carbarsona
O

As

Glicobiarsol

OH
OH

NHCONH2

1.4. Antibiotice
Paromomicina

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2.

AMOEBICIDE

ACTIVE

AMIBIAZA

INTESTINAL

EXTRAINTESTINAL
Emetina

Dehidroemetina

III.3. MEDICAMENTE ANTITRICOMONAZICE

- trichomoniaza agentul patogen Trichomonas vaginalis


Medicamente antitrichomonazice derivai de 5-nitroimidazol
Metronidazol

Ornidazol

N
O2N

N
CH3

Tinidazol

O2 N

CH2CH2OH

CH3

CH2CHCH2Cl

N
O2N

CH2CH2SO2CH2CH3

OH
Nimorazol

Secnidazol

N
O2N

CH3

CH2CH2

O2N

CH3

CH2CHCH3
OH

III.4. MEDICAMENTE ANTILAMBLIAZICE


- lambliaza (giardioza) agentul patogen Giardia lambliae
Medicamente antilambliazice = medicamente antiprotozoarice
-

Clorochina, Hidroxiclorochina

Amodiachina, Mepacrina

Metronidazol, Tinidazol, Ornidazol


5

CH3