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Electrochemical Series

Electrochemical Series is an arrangement of metals


according to the tendency of their atoms to donate electrons. The
higher the position of a metal in the EC Series, the greater the
tendency of the metal atoms to donate electrons. Thus the more
electropositive is the metal. OR

ECS is an arrangement of metals in the decreasing order of


electropositivity (ability to release electrons)

K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Sn, Pb, H, Cu,


Ag (Hydrogen is between lead and copper, though
not a metal. But added in as a reference point)

Reactivity Series
Reactivity Series of metals is a list of metals arranged
according to their descending order of reactivity with oxygen /
decreasing order of reactivity towards oxygen.

(Hydrogen is between zinc and iron)


K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, C, Zn, H, Fe, Sn, Pb,
Cu, Hg, Ag, Au
NOTE : There is no carbon in EC Series but carbon is
present in the Reactivity Series.

Electrochemical Series
Kalau Nak Cantik, Mesti Ambil Zat Besi Sama
Panadol Hingga Cukup Angin
Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium,
Zinc, Iron, Stanum, Lead, Hydrogen, Copper, Silver

Kalau Nak Cari Mat Ali, Ziarahi Flat Sekolah


Pada Hari Cuti Ahad
Pop Star Can Make All Zebras In Town Like His Car

Electrochemical Series

Potassium
Sodium
Calcium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Zinc
Iron
Stanum
Lead
Hydrogen
Copper
Silver

Kalau
Nak
Cantik
Mesti
Ambil
Zat
Besi

Sama
Panadol
Hingga
Cukup
Angin

Kalau
Nak
Cari
Mat
Ali
Ziarahi
Flat
Sekolah
Pada
Hari
Cuti
Ahad

Electrochemical Series
(Cation)

Potassium, K+
Kalau
Sodium, Na+
Nak
Calcium, Ca2+
Cantik
Magnesium, Mg2+ Mesti
Aluminium, Al3+ Ambil
Zinc, Zn2+
Zat
Iron, Fe2+
Besi
Stanum, Sn2+
Sama
Lead, Pb2+
Panadol
Hydrogen, H+
Hingga
Copper, Cu2+
Cukup
Silver, Ag+
Angin

Kalau
Nak
Cari
Mat
Ali
Ziarahi
Flat
Sekolah
Pada
Hari
Cuti
Ahad

Electrochemical Series
(Anion)

Floride, F
2Sulphate, SO4
Nitrate, NO3
Chloride, Cl
Bromide, Br
Iodide, I
Hydroxide, OH

Finally
SOme
NOisy
Clown
Broke
Into
Our House

Acrostic method to remember


Historical development of atomic models
Discovered

Dont

John Dalton

Atom as a very
tiny ball

Throw

J.J. Thomson

Electron

Rubbish Ernest
Rutherford

Proton

Below

Neils Bohr

Atomic shells

Carpet

James

Neutrons

Chadwick

Elements in the Periodic Table


Period 2
Lithium

Beryllium Boron

Carbon

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Florine

Neon

Li

Be

Ne

Let

Bell

Boy

Carry

Nine

Oranges

For

Nenek

Silicon

Phosphor
us

Sulphur

Chlorin
e

Argon

P
Pergi

S
Cl
Supermar Cari
ket

Period 3
Sodium

Magnesiu
m

Alumi
nium

Na
Nak

Mg
Makan

Al
Si
Appl Sila
e

Ar
Apple

Transition Elements
Scandi Titani
um
um

Vanadi Cromi
um
um

Sc
Send

V
Very

Ti
The

Manga Ferum Cobalt Nickel


nese

Cr
Mn
Fe
Crazy Monk For
ey

Co
Ni
Chec Near
kout

Copp Zinc
er
Cu
Zn
Coun Zoo
try

How to remember positive ions / negative


ions
Positive Ions
Single charge positive ions ( 1 +ve charge)

H+

Li+

Na+

He

Likes

K+

Ag+

NapKin

NH+

Arranged

Nightly

Al3+ is the only triple positive charged ion in Form 4, 5.


The rest of the metal ions are mostly double charged

Negative Ions
a) Single charge negative ions (anions)
All of them have a vertical line l in their formula, except
PO43- (phosphate ion) &
N3- (nitride ion)
OH-

Cl-

Br-

I-

F-

H-

NO3-

b) Double charge negative ions


SO42-

CO32-

O2-

Solubility Of Salts
1. All ANaK ( Ammonium , Sodium & Potassium ) salts are soluble
2. All sulphate salts are soluble except PemBaCa (Lead, Pb ;
Barium, Ba ; Calcium, Ca)
3. All chloride salts are soluble except PengHArga (Lead, Pb ;

Mercury, Hg ; Silver , Ag)

Electrochemical Series
Potassium,
Sodium,
Calcium,
Magnesium,
Aluminium,
Zinc,
Iron,
Stanum,
Lead,
Hydrogen,
Copper,
Silver

Kalau
Nak
Cantik,
Mesti

Ambil
Zat
Besi
Sama
Panadol
Hingga
Cukup
Angin

Kalau

Nak
Cari
Mat
Ali,
Ziarahi
Flat
Sekolah
Pada
Hari
Cuti
Ahad