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# BL

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ANNACIVIL BLOG

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SURVEY&\$035(3257
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SPOT LEVELLING
LOCATION: BEHIND GOONIPALAYAM P.U.P.SCHOOL, GOONIPALAYAM.

## To determine the R.L. of the particular plot by spot levelling.

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GENERAL:

AIM:

Spot levelling is one of the method of survey to determine the R.L. of the particular plot.
There are many methods in usage to find out the R.L. This spot levelling is particularly adopted
when there are undulations on the ground. As reducing the interval, we get accurate topography
of the ground that can be levelled as per our requirement the requirement.

1. Dumpy level

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INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED:

2. Chain(20m or 30m)
3. Levelling staff

4. Tape

5. Ranging rods

6. Pegs or arrows

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7. Tripod

FIELD PROCEDURE:
1. Mark the area of the plot 30x16 with the help of chain & tape.
2. Fix the ranging rods at the ends and see that the plot is perfectly a rectangle.

## 3. Make grids of size 5m x 3.2m.

4. Place the instrument & fix it at the place, which covers the maximum points
on the plot.

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## 5. Take the benchmark and note it down in back sight.

6. Using levelling staff take all the readings, which are marked at 3.2m & 5m
intervals and note it down in the intermediate sight.

7. Repeat the process and take all the readings on all points.

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RISE

0.220
0.080
0.200
0.010
0.110
0.060

0.270
0.020
0.080
0.060
0.070
0.040

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B.S
1.940

100.000
100.220
100.300
100.500
100.510
100.620
100.680
100.410
100.390
100.470
100.530
100.600
100.640
100.440
100.500
100.600
100.640
100.290
100.640
100.440
100.510
100.590
100.620
100.200
100.310
100.360
100.470
100.480
100.510
100.330
100.390

0.200

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0.060
0.100
0.040

0.350

0.350

0.200

0.070
0.080
0.030

0.420

0.110
0.050
0.110
0.010
0.030
0.180
0.070

1.550
F.S
1.550

RISE
2.020

B.M
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6

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1.940
1.720
1.640
1.440
1.430
1.320
1.260
1.530
1.550
1.470
1.410
1.340
1.300
1.500
1.440
1.340
1.300
1.650
1.300
1.500
1.430
1.350
1.320
1.740
1.630
1.580
1.470
1.460
1.430
1.610
1.540

R.L

FALL

F.S

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16
.17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

I.S

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

B.S

NO.

STATION

0.010
FALL
1.630

CHECK

## LAST R.L - FIRST R.L

100.390 - 100.00
0.390

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HENCE O.K.

BS - FS
1.940 - 1.550
0.390

RESULT:
The R.L. of the particular plot is found out by Spot levelling method.

## LOCATION: BEHIND P.U.P.SCHOOL, KALAKALODAI

AIM:

GENERAL:

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To determine the area of the plot ( ABCDEFA ) by traversing method using plane table.

Plane table is the graphical method of surveying in which the field observations and the plotting
proceeds simultaneously.

INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED:

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## 3. Plumbing fork and plumb bob

4. Sprit level

5. Trough Compass

THEORY:

6. Drawing sheet

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## Methods of plane tabling can be divided into four distinct heads

2. Intersection
3. Traversing
4. Resection

The first two methods are generally employed for locating the details while the other two
methods are used for locating the plane table station

TRAVERSING:

This method is widely used to lay down survey lines between the instrument stations of a
closed (or) unclosed traverse.

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PROCEDURE:

a) Consider a fairly level ground and mark the points A, B, C, D, E&F to form closed
traverse.

b) Set the table at A and do initial adjustments. Use plumbing fork for traversing A with the
help of trough compass.

c) With the alidade pivoted about A, sight it to B and draw the ray. Measure AB and scale
off ab to suitable scale. Similarly, draw a ray towards F, measure AF and plot F.

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d) Shift the table to the B and do initial adjustment Orient the table accurately by back
sighting A. clamp the table.

e) Pivoting the alidade about b, sights to C. measure BC and plot it on the drawn ray to the

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same scale. Similarly, the table can set at other stations and traverse is completed

CALCULATION:

S (S-a)(S-b)(S-c)
a+b+c

17+ 18 + 15
=

25.2 m

A1

25.2

A1

606.159 m2

A2

837.43m2

A3

1002.83 m2

SIMILARLY

2446.4 m2

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A1 + A2 + A3

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TOTAL AREA A

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Area A 1

RESULT:

## CROSS STAFF SURVEY OF THE POLYGON

AIM:

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To determine the area of the polygon using a chain and a cross staff.

## LOCATION: BEHIND IHH INSTITUTE, POONDI

GENERAL:

This survey is done to locate the boundaries of a field and to determine its area. A chain
line is run through the middle of the area which is divided into number of triangles and

trapezoids. The offsets to the boundary are taken in order of their chainages. The distance

measured right or left of the chain line to locate the details like boundaries, culverts, buildings,

APPARATUS:
1. A 20m chain
2. Tape

3. Arrows

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PROCEDURE:

## 1. Pegs are fixed at the end station A, B, C, D, E,F,G of the Polygon.

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2. A chain line is run through A and D which is the middle of the area.
3. The cross staff is fixed on the chain line such that A and G are perpendicular to each
other.

## 4. The chainages and offsets are taken and tabulated.

5. Similarly the chainages and offsets of j, k, m, n, p are taken and tabulated such that
jG , kB , mF, nC and pE perpendicular to the chain line AD.
6. The sum of the area of triangles and trapezoids of AjG, jGFm , mFEP, pED, ABk
,BknC ,CnD is the required area of the polygon.

RESULTS OF OFFSETS AND AREAS:
CHAINAGE
(m)

BASE
(m)

OFFSETS
(m)

1
2
3
4
5

AjG
JGFm
MFEp
Ped
ABk

0&10
10&44
44&60
0&24
24&60

10
34
16
24
36

0&20
20&30
0&30
0&14
0&14

MEAN
(m)

10
25
15
7
7
Total

AREA
(m2)

100
850
240
168
252
1,610

FIGURE

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RESULT:

## (SINGLE PLANE METHOD USING THEODOLITE)

LOCATION: BEHIND GOONIPALAYAM P.U.P.SCHOOL, GOONIPALAYAM.

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AIM:

To find the heights and distance of the object using single plane method the foot of the
object being inaccessible.

GENERAL:

In the trigonometrical leveling the observation for heights and distances method is very

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important. It is the process of determining the differences of the elevations of stations from
observed vertical angle and distance. In order to get the difference in elevation between the
instrument station and the object under observation, this method shall be considered. In this
method the base of the object is inaccessible.

INSTRUMENT REQUIRED:
1. Theodolite
2. Tripod

3. Levelling Staff

PROCEDURE:

1. Set up the Theodolite at O level it accurately with respect to the altitude bubble.

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2. Direct the telescope towards the top of the object Q and bisect it accurately. Clamp both
the plates. Read the vertical angle ( 1 ).

3. Transit the telescope so that the line of sight is reversed. Mark the second instrument
station R on the ground. Measure the distance the distance OR accurately. Repeat steps 2
and 3 for both face observations. The mean values should be adopted. Station R should
be almost at the level as station O.
4. With the vertical set to zero reading in the staff kept at the near by B.M.

5. Shift the instrument to R and set up the Theodolite. Measure the vertical angle 2 to Q
with both face observations.
6. With the vertical vernier set to zero reading and the altitude bubble in the centre of its

run, take the reading on the staff kept at the near by B.M.

H = D tan 1

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MODEL CALCULATION:

Where h = vertical distance between top of the object and the line of sight
D = Horizontal distance between O & Q

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tan 1 tan 2

## Where b = distance between the two instrument station Q and R.

1 = Angle of elevation from A to Q.
2 = Angle of elevation from B to Q.

RL of Q 2 = R.L of B.M + S + h

Where S = Staff reading on B.M. taken from both A and B, the reading being the same in both

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the cases.

CALCULATION:

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## H=D tan 1 = 680tan 43320 =54.18 m

20 tan 43320
=680 m
D = ___b tan 2 ___ =
tan 1 tan 2
tan 43320 - tan42520

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RESULT:

## The heights of the object is measured to be 54.18m

The distance between the object and the instrument is measured to be 680 m

LOCATION: INFRONT OF GOONIPALAYAM P.U.P.SCHOOL,

GOONIPALAYAM.

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GENERAL:

Contour is an imaginary line on the ground joining the points of equal elevation. It is a
line in which the surface of the ground is intersected by a level surface.

CONTOUR INTERVAL:

The vertical distance between any two consecutive contours is called contour intervals. In

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contour plan the contour intervals should be kept constant, so, the general appearance of the map
is not misleaded. The horizontal distance between two points on two consecutive contours is
known as the horizontal equivalent.

## METHODS OF LOCATING CONTOUR:

This depends upon the instruments used. In general the field method may be
classified into

a. Direct method.

Indirect method.

b.

DIRECT METHOD:

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The contour to be plotted in actually traced on the ground. Only those points are surveyed

## The fieldwork is two-fold

1) Vertical method: Location of on the contour
2) Horizontal contour: Survey of those points

INDIRECT METHOD:

## their elevations are found.

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In this method some guide points are selected along a system of straight lines and

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The points are then plotted and contours are drawn by interpolation.

AIM:
To draw the contour map of the given area.

INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED:
1. Theodolite

3. Levelling staff.
4. Ranging rods

5.

## Pegs (or) arrows

PROCEDURE:

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2. Tape(or) chain

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## 2. The Instrument is fixed and the preliminary adjustments are made.

3. The telescope is kept at 0-0 in the horizontal scale and focusing the ranging rod at
the point A.

4. Then the staff is kept at a point OA1 , the top, middle and bottom readings and

vertical angles are noted. Readings are taken at any number of possible intervals.
5. When the staff reading of the line OA is over than the telescope is moved at an
angle of 35- 45 to focus the ranging rod at B.

## 6. Similarly the staff reading on the line OB is taken.

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This is repeated up to 360 and the calculations are made to find the elevation.

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ANGLE
ANGLE
A1
000000
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
00000
B1
450000
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
00000
C1
900000
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
00000
D1
1350000
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9

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TOP
TOP
TOP
1.770
1.750
1.720
2.250
2.190
2.150
2.470
2.220
2.190
2.700
2.590
2.400
2.700
2.620
2.610
2.780
2.690
2.580
2.930
2.850
2.680
3.000
2.880
2.740
3.100
2.920
2.800
3.250
2.980
2.920
1.550
1.530
1.510
1.540
1.490
1.440
1.550
1.480
1.400
1.410
1.300
1.210
1.130
1.010
0.880
1.620
1.460
1.300
1.380
1.190
1.000
1.200
0.990
0.780
1.180
0.910
0.760
1.220
0.850
0.660
1.400
1.220
1.200
1.380
1.350
1.320
1.390
1.350
1.310
1.410
1.360
1.300
1.560
1.480
1.400
1.610
1.500
1.400
1.760
1.620
1.510
1.800
1.610
1.510
1.850
1.640
1.600
1.920
1.700
1.650
1.800
1.750
1.720
1.660
1.610
1.540
1.450
1.370
1.290
1.260
1.150
1.050
1.080
0.940
0.810
0.450
0.290
0.120
0.700
0.650
0.620
0.450
0.550
0.590
0.420
0.510
0.540

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STATION
POINT
A

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00000

D10
E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10
G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
G7
G8
G9
G10
H1
H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10

1800000

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0.250
1.760
1.450
1.310
1.130
0.960
0.820
0.660
0.520
0.490
0.410
1.690
1.520
1.360
1.170
1.070
0.930
0.800
0.620
0.550
0.350
1.630
1.520
1.590
1.450
1.460
1.390
1.110
0.750
0.680
0.560
1.750
1.480
1.390
1.250
1.190
1.100
0.900
0.720
0.670
0.580

00000

2250000

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0.430
1.780
1.500
1.370
1.210
1.040
0.920
0.780
0.660
0.580
0.450
1.710
1.560
1.420
1.250
1.170
1.640
0.920
0.750
0.710
0.580
1.640
1.680
1.760
1.650
1.520
1.490
1.240
0.800
0.750
0.640
1.770
1.520
1.490
1.380
1.280
1.120
1.100
0.850
0.750
0.640

00000

2700000

0.350
1.810
1.550
1.420
1.280
1.130
1.020
0.900
0.790
0.710
0.650
1.740
1.600
1.480
1.330
1.260
1.140
1.040
0.850
0.790
0.650
1.690
1.720
1.840
1.720
1.680
1.580
1.460
0.990
0.880
0.760
1.790
1.650
1.590
1.490
1.380
1.200
1.110
0.900
0.880
0.760

00000

3150000

00000

1.800
1.720
1.550
1.430
1.320
1.280
1.190
0.510
0.630
0.700
0.500

## OBSERVATIONS & FORMULAES:

= 1.032m

00000

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HEIGHT OF INSTRUMENT H1

3600000

R.L. OF B.M

= 100.000m

## = R.L. OF B.M. + D tan S

DISTANCE (D)

= KSCOS2 + CCOS

= MULTIPLE CONSTANT
= 100

WHERE

I1
I2
I3
I4
I5
I6
I7
I8
I9
I10

1.830
1.740
1.570
1.450
1.360
1.320
1.250
0.710
0.640
0.150
0.510

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1.860
1.760
1.590
1.480
1.350
1.240
1.110
0.910
0.650
0.190
0.530

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CALCULATION OF REDUCED LEVELS:
DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10

0.030
0.060
0.090
0.115
0.150
0.180
0.210
0.240
0.275
0.300

2.98
5.95
8.93
11.41
14.88
17.86
20.84
23.81
27.28
29.76

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DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

R.L. OF
CORRESPONDING OB
LINE

0.020
0.060
0.085
0.110
0.145
0.180
0.200
0.240
0.265
0.295

1.98
5.95
8.43
10.91
14.38
17.85
19.83
23.80
26.28
29.25

99.151
99.517
99.746
99.975
100.295
100.615
100.798
101.164
101.393
101.390

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B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10

99.233
99.497
99.762
99.983
100.291
100.557
100.822
101.086
101.395
101.615

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

STAFF
AT

R.L. OF
CORRESPONDING OA
LINE

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

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STAFF
AT

DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10

0.030
0.045
0.100
0.110
0.140
0.175
0.200
0.235
0.265
0.295

2.98
4.48
9.95
10.94
13.93
17.41
19.89
23.38
26.36
29.35

R.L. OF
CORRESPONDING
OC LINE

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

99.182
99.289
99.681
99.752
99.967
100.216
100.394
100.644
100.858
101.072

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STAFF
AT

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

R.L. OF
CORRESPONDING OD
LINE

D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10

0.030
0.060
0.085
0.120
0.145
0.180
0.210
0.240
0.270
0.300

2.99
5.99
8.48
11.97
14.47
17.96
20.96
23.95
26.94
29.94

99.105
99.242
99.356
99.515
99.629
99.789
99.926
100.063
100.199
100.336

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STAFF
AT

STAFF
AT

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

E1
E2
E3
E4
E5
E6
E7
E8
E9
E10

0.025
0.060
0.090
0.115
0.150
0.175
0.210
0.240
0.265
0.300

2.50
6.00
9.00
11.49
14.99
17.49
20.99
23.99
26.49
29.99

STAFF
AT

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

R.L. OF
CORRESPONDING OF
LINE

F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10

0.030
0.065
0.090
0.120
0.150
0.175
0.230
0.240
0.270
0.300

3.00
6.50
9.00
12.00
15.00
17.50
23.00
24.00
27.00
30.00

99.001
99.040
99.067
99.101
99.134
99.161
99.222
99.233
99.266
99.300

G
99.021
99.096
99.160
99.213
99.288
99.341
99.416
99.480
99.533
99.608

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R.L. OF
CORRESPONDING OE
LINE

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
G7
G8
G9
G10

0.030
0.060
0.090
0.115
0.150
0.180
0.200
0.240
0.265
0.300

3.00
5.99
8.99
11.48
14.98
17.97
19.97
23.96
26.46
29.95

STAFF
AT

STAFF
INTERCEPT
S

DISTANCE
D=(KSCOS2 +
CCOS )

R.L. OF CORRESPONDING
OH LINE

H1
H2
H3
H4
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9
H10

0.030
0.060
0.085
0.120
0.145
0.180
0.215
0.240
0.260
0.300

2.99
5.98
8.47
11.96
14.45
17.94
21.43
23.92
25.91
29.99

99.144
99.320
99.466
99.672
99.818
100.023
100.230
100.375
100.492
100.732

99.086
99.203
99.321
99.419
99.557
99.674
99.753
99.909
100.008
100.145

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R.L. OF CORRESPONDING
OG LINE

STAFF
AT

RESULT:
The contour map is drawn for the given grid points using Radial contouring .

PROFILE LEVELLING
(L.S. & C.S.)
LOCATION: PLACEPALAYAM FOREST GUEST HOUSE SURROUNDING ROAD,

PLACEPALAYAM.

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GENERAL:

Profile levelling is the process of determining the elevation of points at short measured
intervals along a fixed line such as the centerline of a railway, highway, canal or sewer.

FIXED LINE:

The fixed line may be straight line or it may be composed of a succession of straight lines

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## or a series of lines connected by curves.

AIM:

To determine the elevation of points at short measured interval along the fixed line using

profile levelling.

INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED:

1. Dumpy level.
2. Tripod stand.

3. Tape.

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4. Levelling staff.

FIELD PROCEDURE:
a) Select the instrument station at the levelled ground, the instrument station so
selected should be in such a way that it covers maximum length of the path.
b) Initial adjustment of the instrument is done, using levelling screw and bubble.

c) Find the R.L. at some reference point and the point is taken as the
benchmark.(100.000m)

## these center points.

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d) Fix the center point in the carriageway. The carriageway is divided equally by

e) Select four points two on the left hand side L1, L2 (i.e. left point 1 & left point 2)
and the two points on the right hand side R1, R2.

f) The distance of the L1, L2 and R1, R2, and the reading corresponding to the
points are noted using cross hairs in the theodolite.

g) And the center point is marked at equal interval using the tape.

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IL

h) Levelling staff is placed at the points L1, L2 & R1, R2 and the reading
corresponding to the points are noted using cross hairs in the theodolite.
i) The first staff reading is noted in the backsight and the remaining reading is noted
down in the intermediate sight.

j) The last possible point that is visible through the theodolite is taken as foresight

## k) These points are known as change points.

l) The instrument is now shifted to the next instrument station and the last point in

instrument station (i.e. the change point, is viewed through the theodolite and the
staff reading is noted in the back sight.)

AN

m) And the above procedure is repeated till the last point is reached.

F.S

AN
0.015

BL
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1.185

0.180
0.200
0.225
0.205

R.L
DISTANCE REMARKS
100.000
B.M
99.718
@0m
CL
99.696
L1
99.716
L2
99.751
R1
99.756
R2
99.451
@ 15 m
CL
99.416
L1
99.406
L2
99.466
R1
99.506
R2
99.034
@ 30 m
CL
99.008
L1
99.966
L2
99.046
R1
99.042
R2
98.674
@ 45 m
CL
98.678
L1
98.672
L2
98.692
R1
98.714
R2
98.616
@ 60 m
CL
98.601
L1
98.571
L2
98.601
R1
98.636
R2
98.886
@ 75 m
CL
98.871
L1
98.811
L2
98.881
R1
98.861
R2
99.011
@ 90 m
CL
98.976
L1
98.931
L2
99.038
R1
99.051
R2,C.P-1
98.886
@ 105 m
CL
98.866
L1
98.841
L2
98.861
R1

IV
IL

0.518
0.540
0.520
0.485
0.480
0.785
0.820
0.830
0.770
0.730
1.202
1.228
1.270
1.190
1.194
1.562
1.558
1.564
1.544
1.522
1.620
1.635
1.665
1.635
1.600
1.350
1.365
1.425
1.355
1.375
1.225
1.260
1.305
1.198

H.C
100.625

I.S

B.S
1.625

99.066

4.000

0.926
0.892
0.900

DISTANCE
@ 120 m

@ 135 m

@ 150 m

IV
IL

AN
0.125

R.L
98.836
98.836
98.791
98.686
98.836
98.856
98.216
98.161
98.081
98.241
98.266
97.666
97.608
97.506
97.674
97.674
97.296
97.236
97.154
97.294
97.240
96.706
96.616
96.611
96.606
96.596
95.986
96.011
96.016
95.936
95.886
95.231
95.226
95.166
95.086
95.066
94.304
94.338
94.330

REMARKS
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2, C.P-2
CL
L1
L2

H.C

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F.S

I.S
0.230
0.230
0.275
0.380
0.230
0.210
0.850
0.905
0.985
0.825
0.800
1.400
1.458
1.560
1.392
1.392
1.770
1.830
1.912
1.772
1.826
2.360
2.450
2.455
2.460
2.470
3.080
3.055
3.050
3.130
3.180
3.835
3.840
3.900
3.980

B.S

95.230

@ 165 m

@ 180 m

@ 195 m

@ 210 m

@ 225 m

0.640

3.980

92.060

AN

1.384
1.406
1.358
1.412
1.416
1.900
1.940
1.984
1.860
1.800
2.350
2.065
2.015
2.030
2.005
1.950
1.985
2.050
1.985

0.985

2.000
1.630
1.665

R.L
94.248
94.230
93.308
93.270
93.292
93.310
93.188
92.232
92.234
92.230
92.030
92.150
91.280
91.260
91.230
91.250
91.250
90.676
90.654
90.702
90.648
90.644
90.160
90.120
90.076
90.200
90.260
89.710
89.995
90.045
90.030
90.055
90.110
90.075
90.010
90.075
90.060
89.535
89.500

DISTANCE

@ 240 m

REMARKS
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2,C.P-3
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2,C.P-4
CL
L1

H.C

BL
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F.S

@ 255 m

@ 270 m

IV
IL

I.S
0.982
1.000
1.922
1.960
1.938
1.920
2.042
2.998
2.996
3.000
3.200
3.080
3.950
3.970
4.000
3.980

B.S

91.165

@ 285 m

@ 300 m

@ 315 m

@ 345 m

2.355

0.465

AN

1.985
2.010
1.900
2.040
2.035
1.630
1.635
1.625
1.630
1.635
1.450
1.505
1.530
1.460
1.465
1.365
1.470
1.430
1.365
1.250
1.520

R.L
89.450
89.520
89.605
89.915
89.935
89.985
89.965
89.910
90.355
90.315
90.345
90.345
90.365
90.780
90.785
90.805
90.710
90.700
91.490
91.465
91.575
91.435
91.440
91.845
91.840
91.850
91.845
91.840
92.025
91.970
91.945
92.015
92.010
92.110
92.005
92.045
92.110
92.225
91.955

DISTANCE

@ 360 m

REMARKS
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2,C.P-5
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL

H.C

BL
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F.S

@ 375 m

@ 390 m

IV
IL

I.S
1.715
1.645
1.560
1.250
1.230
1.180
1.200
1.255
0.810
0.850
0.820
0.820
0.800
0.385
0.380
0.360
0.455

93.475

B.S

@ 405 m

@ 420 m

@ 435 m

@ 450 m

@ 465 m

0.720

1.630

AN

1.410
1.435
1.380
1.420
1.375
1.495
1.475
1.450
1.515
1.545
1.670
1.640
1.524
1.642
1.690
1.366
1.380
1.344
1.380
1.278

R.L
91.900
91.940
91.930
91.975
91.895
91.825
91.885
91.895
91.890
91.935
91.845
91.995
91.955
92.005
91.735
91.655
91.735
91.875
91.845
91.375
91.350
91.405
91.365
91.410
91.290
91.310
91.335
91.270
91.240
91.115
91.145
91.261
91.143
91.095
91.419
91.45
91.441
91.405
91.507

DISTANCE

@ 480 m

REMARKS
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2,C.P-6
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2

H.C

BL
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F.S

@ 495 m

@ 510 m

IV
IL

I.S
1.575
1.535
1.545
1.500
1.580
1.650
1.590
1.580
1.585
1.540
1.630
1.480
1.520
1.470
1.740
1.820
1.740
1.600

92.785

B.S

@ 525 m

@ 540 m

@ 555 m

@ 570 m

0.730

2.100

AN

1.125
1.130
1.140
1.140
1.135
1.368
1.358
1.422
1.420
1.460
2.270
2.260
2.230
2.300
2.340
3.000
3.100
3.060
3.065
3.075
3.125
3.125
3.135
2.850

R.L
91.530
91.505
91.535
91.530
91.565
91.135
91.125
91.255
91.135
91.215
90.650
90.605
90.705
90.620
90.685
90.460
90.455
90.445
90.445
90.450
90.217
90.227
90.163
90.165
90.125
89.315
89.325
89.355
89.285
89.245
88.585
88.485
88.525
88.520
88.510
88.460
88.460
88.450
88.735

DISTANCE
@ 585 m

@ 600 m

REMARKS
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2,C.P-7
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1

H.C

BL
O

F.S

91.585

@ 615 m

IV
IL

I.S
1.255
1.280
1.250
1.255
1.220
1.650
1.660
1.530
1.650
1.570
2.135
2.180
2.080
2.165

B.S

@ 630 m

@ 645 m

@ 660 m

@ 675 m

@ 690 m

H.C

1.050
FS = 19.145

2.660
2.570
2.485
2.685
2.720
1.705
1.710
1.600
1.890
1.950
1.520
1.500
1.500
1.560
1.590
BS = 9.480

92.055

BS ~ FS

@ 705 m

@ 720 m

@ 735 m

@ 750 m

CHECK
=

REMARKS
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2,C.P-8
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2
CL
L1
L2
R1
R2

## LAST R.L ~ FIRST R.L

9.480 -- 19.145

90.335 -- 100.000

9.665

9.665

AN

DISTANCE

BL
O

2.735

R.L
88.745
88.735
88.720
88.765
88.755
88.850
88.395
89.485
89.570
89.370
89.335
90.350
90.345
90.455
90.165
90.105
90.535
90.555
90.555
90.495
90.335

IV
IL

2.285

F.S

I.S
2.840
2.850
2.865
2.820
2.830

B.S

HENCE O.K.

AN

IV
IL

BL
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RESULT:

The undulations of the ground surface of a proposed alignment for road work is
determined.

## LOCATION: T.B.PURAM P.U.P.SCHOOL.

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GENERAL:

It is done to range a line AB across an obstacles such as a tall building or a thick wooded
forest. Here, the end stations A and B are not mutually intervisible or visible from an
intermediate station.

AIM:

## Chain (30m or 20m)

Ranging rods
Cross staff
Tape

PROCEDURE:

IV
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INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED:

AN

## Select any random line free from obstacle.

Locate the foot of the perpendicular (B1) from the point B on the random line
AB1.
Establish intermediate points C1, D1,etc, in line with AB1 by direct ranging.
Erect perpendiculars at C1,D1, etc, on the random line to meet the line AB.
Measure the lengths AC1 ,AD1,AB1, etc, and the perpendicular distance BB1.
Compute the perpendicular distances C1C, D1D, etc, from the similarity of
triangles.
Mark distances C1C and D1D etc, on the erected perpendiculars and locate the
points C,D, etc, on the line AB.
Now A,C,D and B are in a straight line

NOTE:

IV
IL

BL
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OBSTACLES IN CHAINING

The same procedure can be adopted for ranging across wooded area also.

T/5.78 = 8.82/CC1

CC1 = 2.5m

## CALCULATION BY SIMILAR TRIANGLE METHOD:

T/5.78 = 16.76/DD1

DD1 = 4.76m

AN

## AC1 = 8.82m; C1D1 = 7.94m ; D1B1 = 3.60m

LENGTH OF RANDOM LINE T=AC1+C1D1+D1B1
= 8.82+7.94+3.60
T =20.36m

RESULT:

## SETTING OUT OF A BUILDING

(FRAMED STRUCTURE)

## LOCATION: Shevaroy Hill Top , Yercaud.

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AIM:

To mark the centre line of a framed structure building plan on the ground.

INSTRUMENTS REQUIRED:

PROCEDURE:

IV
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## Chain (or) tape

Cross staff (or) theodolite
Rope
Arrows (or) pegs
Lime powder

AN

Erect a peg at the point 1 and tie one end of the thread.
Taking the remaining portion of the thread upto the peg 2 and tie the thread with
peg 2. Like that bring remaining portion of the thread through the points 3 and 4.
Now set 90 at q where the threads are intersected. (by the help of inner sketch.)
Make sure that the distance between P and Q is equal to the centre to centre
distance of outside shorter walls.Tie the thread with the peg 4.
By following the above steps set 90 at R,S and P. Make sure that the distance
QR=15m, RS=30m and SP=15m.
Mark the centre line CE & FH of the cross wall at 10m from PS.
Now mark the width of foundation along the centre line of the building as shown
in the sketch.

RESULT:

## Setting out of building is completed.

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FOUNDATION DETAILS

PLINTH LVL

IV
IL

## FLOOR FINISH WITH

CM 1:2 20mm THICK
FLOORING 130mm THICK
WITH C.C 1:4:6
EARTH FILLING 300mm THICK
BRICKWORK IN BASEMENT
AND FOOTING WITH CM 1:6
FOUNDATON CONCRETE
1:4:8 200mm THICK

AN