Sunteți pe pagina 1din 59

Fish and Wildlife Habitat Restorations

Milwaukee Estuary AOC

2015 Clean Rivers, Clean Lake Conference


Andrew T. Struck, Director
Ozaukee County Planning and Parks Department
Beth Wentzel, PE
Inter-Fluve

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Ecological Division Fish Passage & Habitat Program


Planning and
Parks
Department

Golf Division

Tourism
Division

Fragmentation
& Impediment
Remediation

Planning
Division

Ecological
Division

Trails Division

Bird
Conservation

Fish Passage
Program

Invasive
Species

Monitoring

Habitat
Restoration

Education and
Outreach

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Parks,
Recreation, and
Culture Division

Reporting

Watershed-Wide Conservation Approach


ADAPTIVE
MANAGEMENT
Planning

PROJECT

PROGRAM

Example

Landowner / Measurable
Impediment Outcomes

Metrics Socioeconomic
/ Biological

Research / Design Immediate


Needs

Permitting /
Design &
Engineering
Criteria

Long term /
Watershed
Scale

Level of Effort
/ Priority
Inventories /
GIS modeling

Implementation / Objectives
Program Delivery

Construct
Fish Passage
/ Remove
Impediment

Multiple
Objectives
to Achieve
Goal

Dams and
Other Barriers
(Public Works /
Cons. Corps)

Monitoring /
Evaluation

Opportunity

Example

Demonstrate Target
Success
Species

Identify Next Beneficial Use


Steps
Impairments

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Theme Making Connections


Renewing Old Connections
Lake Michigan
Milwaukee River
Milwaukee Estuary AOC
Tributary Streams
Spawning and Rearing Habitat

Ozaukee County
Elected Officials
Municipalities
Businesses
Schools
NGOs
Citizens/Landowners
Volunteers

Forming New Connections


With Non-Traditional
Stakeholders Through
Collaborative Partnerships
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Fish Passage Program Summary


$10 Million in EcologicallyFocused Funding
Impediments inventories and
remediations
51 tributary streams

666 impediments inventoried


250 impediments removed or
remediated

4 main-stem dams
Habitat Restoration

Fish and Wildlife GIS Based


Decision Support Tool for Prioritizing
Habitat and Restoration Activities
Ongoing large scale habitat
restoration activities (Mole and Ulao
Creeks)

Environmental Monitoring

Water Quality Monitoring


Sediment Sampling
Fisheries Monitoring

Education and Outreach


Reporting

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Fish Passage Program Ecological Impacts


250 Impediments Removed
49 Culverts Replaced or Removed
8 Dams Removed or Remediated
193 Other Impediments Removed

M-T Fishway Monitoring


36 Fish Species, Multiple Wildlife Species
Several Citizen Reports

Water Quality Monitoring

131 Stream Miles Reconnected


84,169 Continuous Monitoring Samples
8,043 Acres of Wetlands Reconnected 150 Grab Samples
Increased abundance of target species Sediment Contamination Monitoring
Documented fish reproduction after
impediment removals and presence of
target species at monitoring sites

411 Samples Analyzed


135 PCB Locations Identified

Impact on status of listed species or


species of concern
7 rare and/or imperiled species
documented

Changes in recreational angling


Creel pre-survey completed (post-survey
anticipated)
County-wide tourism increase
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Aquatic Connectivity Linear and Lateral


Much of SE Wisconsins desirable
aquatic habitat has been lost or
significantly altered

Quality natural aquatic habitat remain


and are protected, but are ecologically
isolated
Creating aquatic habitat is expensive
and typically inferior
Linear Impediments and Connectivity
Passability within rivers and streams

Lateral Impediments and Connectivity


Connections from rivers and streams
to adjacent wetlands, floodplains,
and associated habitat
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Northern Pike Life Cycle & Habitat Fragmentation

Eggs

Develop in
wetlands and
streams

Spawning

Larvae
Critical
passage
barrier

Migrate up from
Lake Michigan

Critical
passage
barrier

Adults

Drift downstream
to Lake Michigan

Fry
Juveniles

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Native Fish Swimming Performance


Northern Pike Target
Species
Good for short distance
bursts < 15 sec.
Fair for sustained
movements in velocities
< 2 ft/s
Poor for prolonged
swimming
Very Poor jumpers
Require Low velocity
< 2 - 3 ft/s)

Short jumps < 8 inches


Frequent rest areas

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Impediment Inventory and Remediation


Fragmentation &
Impediment
Remediation

Linear
Connectivity

Dams and LargeScale


Impediments

Small-Scale
Impediments

GIS Habitat Tool

Design,
Engineering and
Permitting

Conservation
Corps or
Volunteers

Landowner
Coordination

Local Force or
Publicly Bid
Construction

Dam Removals or
Fishways (Large
and Small)

Lateral
Connectivity

Culverts/Bridges

Log Jams and


Debris Deposits

Engineering,
Design &
Permitting

Invasive
Vegetation

Local Force or
Publicly Bid
Construction

Ford Crossings

Wetland
Restoration

Stream and
Floodplain
Restoration

Monitoring and
Management

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Large Dams on the Milwaukee River


Newburg Dam Removal (2012)

Bridge Street Dam Passive


Fishway (Designed 2009-2011)

Lime Kiln Dam Removal (2010)

Mequon-Thiensville Dam Passive


Nature-like Fishway (2010)

Dam removed or modified by others


Approximate AOC Boundaries

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Milwaukee River Mainstem Miles Reconnected


Lake Michigan to Mequon-Thiensville Fishway

20 miles

Mequon-Thiensville Fishway to Lime Kiln Dam

10 miles

Lime Kiln Dam to Bridge Street Dam

2 miles

32 miles
Bridge Street Dam to Newburg Dam

24.5 miles

Newburg Dam to Barton Dam (West Bend)

13 miles

37.5 miles
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Large-Scale Structural Impediments


Stream Crossings
Culverts traditionally designed
to pass water, not fish

Perched
Excessive velocities
Diffuse/low depth
Aggraded
Blocked with debris

Perched Culvert

Stone ford crossings


Channel constricting bridge
abutments
Other creative crossings

Dams

Excessive Velocities

Large scale
Low-head
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Stream Crossing Design Considerations


Design should consider:
Preference given to:
Clear span bridges
Buried or bottomless single barrel
designs
Structures in-filled with appropriate
material
Stone ford crossings

Bankfull width (1.2 x bf width ideal)


No impact to the upstream
floodplain
H&H modeling
Accommodate a variety of flood flows,
climate change, etc.

Fish swimming criteria (< 2% slope


preferred)
FishXing Software
USFS road and stream crossing design
methodology
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Stream Crossing Design Considerations

Utilities
Stream alignment
Landowner and usage needs
Remediation vs full replacement
Cross vanes, baffles, culvert isolation

Structure size and type

Available equipment
Road fill/cover depth/ROW width
Side slopes
Headwalls/wingwalls
Depth of structure/substrate
Culvert slope (match stream grade)

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Small Scale Non-Structural Impediments


Impediments Include

Log Jams/Debris Jams


Sediment Aggradations
Invasive Vegetation
Pervious Fill Deposits
Railroad Ballast Deposits

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

GIS-Based Fish and Wildlife Decision Support Tool


Program staff and partners are
developing and refining GIS Tools
to:
Identify native fish and
wildlife Species of Local
Conservation Interest (SLCI)
Identify critical habitats
important to ensuring the
survival of native fish and
wildlife, especially SLCIs

Guide habitat enhancement


projects for maximum
economic and ecological
value
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Species Checklists
Table 3: Comparisons of Ozaukee County Species Rankings
Total #
Species

# State #
#
# State Listed
# SLCI that are
Listed SGCN SLCI that are not SLCI not State Listed

Mammals
Breeding Birds
Reptiles
Amphibians
Fish
Primary Burrowing
Crayfish

54
72
16
18
104
3

13
36
4
2
14
2

7
52
4
5
13
1

23
65
10
4
34
2

Mussels
Total

22
289

6
77

2
84

7
1
145 13

Group

4
1
2
1
4
0

14
29
8
3
24
0
2
80

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Species Data Mapped


Vetted occurrence records were
georeferenced:
a) Assigned coordinates with
precision estimates
b) Assigned year, vetting, and status
ranks
c) GIS layers delivered
d) Training provided on use

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Mapping Critical Habitat Over PRWs


Example Matrix: Herp association scored 0-3

Aquatic Bed/Deep Marsh

Shallow Marsh <5 ac

Shallow Marsh 5 ac or
larger

Wetland Meadow

Wetland Forest broad lvd


deciduous

Wetland Forest
coniferous

Wetland Forest mixed

Wetland Shrub

Reed canarygrass
monoculture

Blanding's Turtle

Open Water

Wood Frog

Shrub

HERPS

Forest

Chorus Frog

Grassland

Species

Forage crops

Land CoverType*

Open Wetlands near


Grassland

Wetlands near
Woodlands

Wetland/Upland
Complex

Wetland Habitat Context

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Wildlife Matrix Habitat


Milwaukee River Basin
Cedar Creek
Watershed

Predicted
Species
Distribution
Potentia l Wood Frog Wetland Ha bitat
Potentia l Wood Frog Forest H abitat
Surfa ce Water
Watershed Boundary

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Wildlife Matrix Habitat


Milwaukee River Basin
Cedar Creek
Watershed

Add
PRWs
Suitable Wood Frog Wetland Habitat
Suitable Wood Frog Forest Habitat
Restorable Wood Frog Wetlands
Surface Water
Watershed Boundary

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

GIS-Based Fish and Wildlife Decision Support Tool

Mole Creek Habitat


Enhancement Project

Ulao Creek Habitat


Enhancement Project

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Using the Tool: Ulao Creek Project


Examine:
- existing conditions

- potentially restorable wetlands


- vetted species data

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Using the Tool: Ulao Creek Project


Examine models of potential species
habitat.
Species of Local Conservation Interest
identified as potentially enhanced:
Spotted Salamander
Central Newt
Butlers Gartersnake
Blandings Turtle
Prairie Crayfish
American Beaver
Numerous fishes including:
Star-nosed Mole
Northern Pike
Least Weasel
Iowa Darter
Silver-haired Bat
Least Darter
Eastern Red Bat
Little Brown Bat
Northern Long-eared Bat
American Woodcock
Blue-winged Teal
Common Gallinule
Great Blue Heron
Red-shouldered Hawk
Sedge Wren
Willow Flycatcher
Migratory Bird Habitat

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

AOC Fish & Wildlife Population and Habitat Restoration Projects

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Ulao and Kaul Creek Current Conditions


Channelized reaches (artificially straightened
for agricultural uses) provide poor habitat
Linear sinuosity
In-stream features are excessively wide and are
exclusively shallow runs with maximum water
depth
Overwinter pool cover and spawning quality
Hydrologic connection
riffles are absent and substrate is dominated
by fine materials
Canopy shade almost absent
Channel is incised, diffuse and /or
hydrologically disconnected from floodplain
Lack of recurring overbank flows prohibit
floodplain building and the former wetland
corridor lacks suitable overbank flood flows to
Hydrologic disconnection
sustain a diverse wetland plant and wildlife
community
Photo Credits: Will Wawrzyn, WDNR
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Habitat Enhancement Ulao and Kaul Creeks

Project Goal
Rehabilitate the function and values associated with a
cold and/or warm stream ecosystem and floodplain
wetlands

Project Objectives
Excavate a stable meandering stream plan form
Increase stream length and sinuosity
Decrease mean stream width, and increase effective
water depths and stream velocities (levees)
Increase in-stream and bank cover for fish and wildlife,
emphasizing coarse woody debris in pools and
boulder retards in pools and glides
Rehabilitate acres of wet deciduous forest and wet
meadow wetland currently in agricultural land use by
excavating connected wetlands and wetland scrapes
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Habitat Enhancement Ulao and Kaul Creeks

Project Objectives (cont)


Increase duration of suitable hydro-period for
northern pike spawning
Increase topographic diversity to improve
canopy shading - planting deciduous trees
and expanding shrub-carr areas
Creation of additional habitat for birds, herps,
and other wildlife
Increase the amount of pool and deep glide
and construct coarse substrate riffles for
lithophilic spawning fish and
macroinvertebrates

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Ulao Creek Habitat Enhancement Design


Beth Wentzel, PE
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Project reach

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Emerald Ash Borer

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Analog based approach


Reference reach
Empirical relationships

Analytical

a
Qc
c* ( s 1) D
nS 7/6

Stream Geometry Design Approaches

1
5/3 1b

Analogs
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

45.0
40.0

20.0

Radius of Curvature

Channel Width

18.0
16.0

35.0

14.0

30.0

12.0

25.0

10.0

20.0

8.0

15.0

6.0

10.0

4.0

5.0

y = 0.3737x + 4.228
R = 0.769

2.0

y = 0.914x + 5.2188
R = 0.806

0.0

0.0

0.0
0.0

10.0
20.0
30.0
Average Contributing Area (km2)

10.0

40.0

250.0

Average Contributing Area


2.0

Meander Wavelength

20.0

30.0

40.0

(km2)

Sinuosity

1.8

200.0

1.6
150.0

1.4
1.2

100.0

1.0
50.0

y = 5.5359x + 28.135
R = 0.7326

0.0
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

Average Contributing Area (km2)

35.0

40.0

0.8
0.6
0.0

10.0

20.0

Average Contributing Area (km2)

Analog analysis
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

30.0

40.0

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

What is your Design Flow?


Flood Flows - DNR/FEMA regulatory flows
Statistical Recurrence
Interval

Upper Reach Flow, cfs

Lower Reach Flow, cfs

500 yr

830

1288

100 yr

633

957

50 yr

521

780

25 yr

450

664

10 yr

346

511

5 yr

254

385

2 yr

171

252

Hydrology and Hydraulics

What is your Design Flow?


Typical High Flows - Translation of gage data from region

Hydrology and Hydraulics

Key Hydraulic Features:

Very flat slopes (0.03 0.11%)


Flood water elevations driven by culvert constrictions
Very low shear stresses

Hydrology and Hydraulics

Large Wood Habitat


Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Large Wood Design


Considerations:
Bouyancy
Type of wood
Type and depth of
soil balast
Cabling
Lift and Drag Forces
Flow velocity
Size of wood
Position of wood
Future Debris Collection

Large Wood Habitat

Riparian Enhancements

Construction

Construction
Making Connections Across Our Watersheds

Planting

Planting

Planting

Phase 3 Construction
(incl wetland scrapes
from Phase 1)
Phase 4 Design and
Construction

Next Steps

QUESTIONS?

Making Connections Across Our Watersheds