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GRAMMAR

THE

OF

LANGUAGE,

ENGLISH

BY

S.

SAMUEL
AUTHOR

OF

"

INTRODUCTION

Quern

TO

penes

THE

STUDY

arbitrium

A.M.

GREENE,
OF

est

GRAMMAR,"

et

jus

"

Si

volet

et

norma

OF

ANALYSIS

SENTENCES,"

usus

loquendi.
HOBACK.

PHILADELPHIA

"

COWPERTHWAIT
1870.

CO.

ETC.

DEPT"

EDUCATION

Entered,

according

of

Act

to

SAMUEL

in

the

Clerk's

BLECTEOXTPED

Office

S.

of

BY

the

MACKELLAR,

PHILADELPHIA.

In

Congress,

District

the

year

1867,

GREENE,

Court

SMITHS

Ehode

of

JOEDA^

Lsland.

by

PREFACE.

is

Language

dependent

development

in

its

and

thoughts

to

answer

unconscious

an

The

objects,and

made

matters

not

to what

nation

English, French, German,


speech

which

tongue,

and

all others

him

Place
knows

not

the

contrary,

as

readily and

he

pure

child

the

by

which

belong

it is all

childhood

becomes

the

be he

The

same.

his

It

vernacular

and

refined,and
fall

him

let

of

employs, he

guardians and

his

the

among

surely accepts

as

he

for

and

rude

and

his native

incorrect

guage,
lan-

modes

expression.

does

not

the

till after

come

of

language,
his

of

be done

should
must

be

now

It is not

own.

practicaluse

of

into

grown

He

good.

the

planting

done

establish

to

abstract

child

the

and
a

of

nurturing
of

knowledge

correct

and

but

These

expressions.

English.
what

rule, or
teacher
enters

He

learns

consequence,

by

direct

the

speak good
use

then,

of

new

is it hew

dictation from
this process

to commence

school.

to

of

teacher?

cultivation

them,

use

rather

he will

using

The
is the

whether

"

time

for

by
the

day the pupil

"

700944

foreign

English by speaking good


expressions by using them.

he obtains

the

new.

refined

principles that he wants,

good, well-authorized

learns

The

styleof speaking.

child's

adopt, not by repeating rules,but by discarding the faultyand


the

vital

requiring the uprootdoubly difficult,


ing
give to

to

have

which

in the

expressions and

old

what

Just

good

become

has

of correction

task

is

all that

with

union

teacher,the period for direct cultivation


and
instinct
habit have
given a degree of

malformations

to these

permanency

Of

means

symbols

may

Chinese,

tongue, their perverted words

Unfortunately for

vocal

polished speech

On

his mother
of

and

the

and
illiterate,

form

by

representativesof thought.

cultivated

why,

associates.

is stimulated

foreign.

are

the

among

his

in

hears

he

or

its

the soul to express

its actual

the

imitate

people

or

of

primarily

origin and

its

speech

takes

the conventional

to be

of

power

ability to

chance

desire

instinctive

an

is

growth,

It has

vital energy.

feelings.

of external

the presence
of

inward

an

upon

other

like every

growth, and,

PREFACE.

prevailingimpressionthat the cultivation


of language and
the study of grammar,
as
a
science,must begin
together! There is no period from the time the child begins to
during which his language may noi
speak,through his whole life,
the technical
be improved. On the contrary,there is a time when
of grammar
of little or no use.
and scientific statements
are
They
such
the child has reached
become
valuable when
a
degree of
development as shall enable him to comprehend their application.
Shall all the earlier period of his school life be passed without
the language
to use
a
systematic effort to cultivate his power
How

unfortunate

is the

?
correctly
For

of the

some

for the

methods

of this earlier

of transition

processes

the

to

Not

few

teachers

labor

under

technical

more

the reader is referred


teaching grammar,
Study of English Grammar, Part I.

culture,and

to the

mistaken

especially

methods

Introduction

of

to the

idea of the proper

veterate
incorrect
an
grammatical rules. Mere rules cannot
habit ; the pupil may
racy
repeat them with entire verbal accuagain and again,and as often violate them in his very next
him of a given analogy of the
The rule merely informs
utterances.
language. His habit is stronger than his rule,and can be overcome
only by that resolute effort and determined purpose which might
at an earlier period,guided merely by the
have given him
success
be this
difference would
The
dictation of the teacher.
then, he
of

function

have received his law from

would

He

himself.
it is

But

insures
he

can

has

only

the

of

means

the teacher

; now,

correction

at

persistentobedience

law, in

command.

own

either

case,

that

the criteria by which


of grammar
are
language ; but it depends upon himself whether

The

success.

to

his

he is a law unto

test his own

rules

appliedand enforced. The advantage which he


is,that
enjoysover those who are ignorant of the rules of grammar
he may
always know whether he is rightor wrong, while they are
of their own
in doubt as to the correctness
expressions.
ever
of
the principles
of
discussion
The
following work contains a
the subject
rule by which
The fundamental
English Grammar.
these tests shall be

has

been

is true
or
theory of grammar
to
thfe
be abundantly verified by direct appeals
of a language should
The
authors.
grammar

developed is, that

reliable that cannot


usage

of

standard

language itself. It is not the provinceof the


of language, but to classify
in matters
to legislate
its forms and principles
by a careful study of its

be derived from

grammarian
and

arrange

analogiesas

no

seen

the

in the

usage

of the

best

writers.

He

does

not

1"EEFACE.

the rules and

make
had

definitions which

alreadyexisted,and

these

analogies: they
obeyed,"unconsciously,it is true,

were

express

"

"

Nor
long before he formed them into words and publishedthem.
are
they authoritative because he has uttered them, but simply
of the already
because they are just and faithful interpretations
existinglaws which underlie and pervade the language itself. He
is a discoverer, not an
inventor,not a dictator, but is true to his
task justso far as he investigates
and reinvestigates
originalsources
found in the language itself,not, of course,
rejectingthe light
which cotemporary or previouslabor has shed upon his pathway.
In the following classification of the principlesof Grammar,
and ideas in their relation
great prominence has been given to thoughts
to forms. The
complete sentence is at first regarded as a unitj
an
expressionof a singlethought, and that,too,whatever may be
the number
of propositions
in it,or whatever
combined
may be the
characteristic of the thought,as a statement,a command, an inquiry^
exclamation.
The
The
or
an
thought determines the sentence.
of
the
its
classification
sentence depends upon
specific
peculiarities.
Again, in separatingthe sentence into its parts, the element is
taken as the unit,an expressionof a singleidea of the full thought,
and that,too, whether
it be a singleword
of words, or
or
a group
be its form, structure,rank, or office. Here, again,
whatever
may
the idea determines
the element, while the classification depends
of the element
itself. Again, an element of
some
peculiarity
upon
"

"

"

"

"

the

sentence
one

express

like manner,
element
form

itself contain

may
of the

ideas of the

determined

*are

is itself

chief

elements

word, or

and
may

be

which

whole

may

all unite

to

These, in
classified. Finally,each single
separated into the words which
sentence.

it.

Thus, it will be seen that the sentence is not treated at


first as an
assemblage of words (which is the usual way), but as an
assemblageof elements variouslyexpressed; and in the final analysis
is
this
these elements
It
that
reduced to words.
are
peculiarity
bringsthe learner into sympathy with the thought itself,the vi|;al
all the forms of the sentence.
It gives
which
determines
power
"

him

interior view

an

growth
The
the

same

in the

and

to sit in

Grammar

of

of its

structure,and

enables him

judgment with the writer in


the English Language will

classifications of sentences

elements

its

his choice of forms.


be found
that

are

to contain

embodied

cation,
modifipertainsto the classification,
of words, it is believed,
and construction
is sufficiently
full.
It is intended
the Introduction,and
to follow
to precede the
which is adaptedto advanced
pupils.
Analysis,

Analysis,and

in all that

and

to witness

PREFACE.

book

each

Although

the order in which


I. The

be used

may

they

independentlyof

the

others,

stand is :

"

Introduction.

II. The

of the

Grammar

English Language.

Analysis of Sentences.

III. The

perusal of the book, it is believed,will justifythe


of its peculiarities
:
followingstatement
A

careful

"

recognizesthe sentence as a growth from the subjectand


each accumuand proceeds,step by step,to examine
the predicate,
lation
Models
in Syntax.)
around
these as a centre.
(See
effect of whole expressions
2. It gives the relation and
; that is,
it teaches how
to parse
these,as well as to parse singlewords," an
advantage lost sightof in most treatises.
well as
3. It teaches how to parse every kind of word, in its rare
as
1. It

in its usual

relations.

4. It discriminates

and

useful matter

5. The

stated

to be

studied,

read.

to be

several

important matter

clearlybetween

and, it is believed,
subjectsare developed logically

clearly.

6. The

author

has

stated,those

not

evaded, or

left without

perplexing points which

an

often

tinctly
opinion disannoy

the

teacher.
7. It will

be

found

to

contain

great variety of models

for

parsingand analysis.
8. So far

as

text-book

can

do

it,the pupil
he acquiresit,by

is made

to

use

and

of exercises
means
apply his knowledge as fast as
which compel him to think,write,and invent for himself.
9. A
copious index will enable the teacher to turn readily to
any topic.
mechanical
10. The
execution,both as it respectsprinting and

binding,is superior.
friends for a
acknowledges his indebtedness to many
in
great varietyof suggestionswhich he has noted,and embodied
A few changes have been made
form or other in these pages.
some
in the arrangement of the matter, and
slightmodifications will be
itself. As a whole, it is hoped, the work will
found in the matter
as
a text-book of English
be found both complete and convenient
The

author

Grammar.

S. S. GREENE.
Providence,

July, 1867.

INDEX.

[The Section-numbers

A, peculiar
Abridged

of.

use

expressions

are

I Alphabet,

133,

Alternative

16

"167,

clauses

99,

tenses

noun,

Accent,

defined

defined

of.

marks

4, 5,
191,

nominative
Abstract

Active

defined

Analysis

12

87,

Adjective,

Amphibrach,

36,

83,

verb

voice

clauses

5,

3,

18,

"when

Antithesis

qualifying

63,

Aphajresis

pronominal

Apocope

numeral

61

Apostrophe

63,

participial

3; 305,

34,

defined

Adverb,

classes

unusual

rules

11

As,

comparison

Aspirates

position of.
Adverbial

idea, how

expressed

phrases
Adversative

conjunctions

clauses

Affirm, how

employed

After, peculiar
Agreement
of

verbs

of

verb

of

use

Asterisk

133,

Attribute,

pronouns

and

pronoun

verse

All, peculiar

use

Allegory, defined

of

1,

168,

of

Avords

309,

346,

301,

6, 7, 8; 313,

rule

abridged

175,

for

propositions

Auxiliaries, signification of.

165,

Auxiliary

object

175,

conjugation

177,

uses

64,

179,

115

238,9

Ballad, the

313,

Between

317,

Blank

as

80,

verb
an

auxiliary
and

verse

113

of.

of.

pure

Ill

1,
113

of.

names

1, 6

187,

verb

313,

341,

335,4

in

Be,

6,'/

of.

143,

nate
coordi-

181,

Attributive

3, 4

57

195

nouns

Alexandrine

with

183,

199,

80,

of

2
4

3, 6

1,

5
14

elements

of.

use

classes

of

for

189,

154,

elements

10

omitted, inserted, repeated.... 181,

189

335,
in

noun

improper,

135
of

1,

346,

of.

137

for

177,

315,

conjunctive

rule

noun

317,

Arrangement

134,

68,

Article, defined

134,

modal

independent

343

315,

134

of.

170
171

the

Apposition,

181,

position of

10

10

words

mark

2, a

339,
147,

317,

59

64

in...

collective

56,

181

169,

verse

Antecedent,

limiting

of.

339,

Anapaestic

Antiquated

for

143,

for
exercise

general

comparison

5;

Anapsest

55,

rule

the

directions

335,

conjunctions

21,

8,

the

figures.]

by bold

}il3,

propositions

Absolute

indicated

betwixt

197,

337,
7

113,

10

INDEX.

Both, peculiar

of.

313,

Brace, the

335,

Brackets

335,1

But,

use

preposition

as

peculiar use
Caesural

199,

of.

113,

Capitals,defined

10

9,
of.

use

formed

how

used

of

1^3

177,

10

coordinate

195

in

308

sentences

Coordinate

connectives

1
15

pronouns

errors

conjunctions, rule

50

possessive,how

301,

166

elements

235,
nouns

143

of

Contracted

11

Caret

Case, of

Consonants, union
Construction,rules
of

345,

pause

of.

rule for subordinate

313

Can

rules for

Connectives,classes

for

constructions, rules

50,

Copula, defined

73, 2; 185,

Copulative conjunctions

143,

153,

193,

for

195

80, 5
143, 4, 5

Cautions, special

309

Correlatives

Classes

134

Couplet

340,5

Dactyl

339,

adverbs

of

of connectives

Clause
as

used

as

subject

173

175,

1, a

Dactylic

Dash, when

substantive

163,

Declarative

sentences

classes of.

165,

Declension

of

Defective

Climax

317,15
defined

as

antecedent

as

subject of

Colon,

of

use

Common

36,

verb

of verb

Comparative, when

rules

179,

1, a

109,

metre

Comparison

1, a

337,

form

of

used

10

figure of.

181,

IG
64

sentence

element

150,
156,

subject,how formed... 160, 4; 163,


how formed, 160,5;
163,4
predicate,
sentence, how

contracted

words

personal
relative

poetry

Different

kinds

70,

76, 1

element

156,

sentences

346,

verse

340,

14, 1

338,

Elegy, defined

238,

table

of.
of

syntax

sentence

of

117

simple, complex, compound


equivalent

of

131

arrangement

34,
143,

4, 5

punctuation

153,

156
16

of.

8, 1

168,

of.

330,

333,

334

309,

Ellipsis,defined

143,

rule for coordinate

193,

when

189,

marks

135,

147,

Ellipses,improper

adversative

Conjunctiveadverbs

5
3

sounds

Elementary

119

copulative

170
163

poem

of Bg.....

Conjunction,defined

1
2

an

of the verb

Love

163,
187,

principal,subordinate, coordinate,153

113

auxiliaries

of

as

Elements

165

epithets

113,

313,

pronouns

338,

auxiliary

Do,

Dramatic

poetry

Directions
for analysis
Discourse, direct and indirect

33,

of

object

pronouns

Conjugation of

2
12

238,

discourse

Direct

2
15

315,

Didactic

167,

word

335,

Diphthong
2

84,

33,
of

65
137

1
4

31,

words

Derivative

73,
139,

Derivation, defined

341,

for

Compound

51

nouns

verb,
verbs, list of.

Diseresis,mark

adjectives

339

149,

defined

5, 6

of adverbs

Complex

used

of pronouns

177,

344

150,

noun

301,4

verse

defined

Collective

193,6;

14:3

attribute

Clauses

143,5;

it occurs

of.

316,

316,

335,

INDEX.

form

Emphatic

of verb

109,

Epic

7, 8; 13^
338,

poem

defined

Epigram,

Epitaph, defined

nominative

participle

11

338,

12

Epithets, compound

346,

Equivalent elements

168,

30

in construction

Errors

317,

12

mode

308

syntax

17

303,

303,

of.

315

form

of

syntax

316

sentences

31T

conjugation

pause

34:5,

Foot,

in

poetry

339,

idioms

346,

Foreign
Forms

of the verb

for each

division

110,

of time

of the elements

Italics,use

105

of

methods

Have,

as

Heroic

auxiliary

an

verse

figure of.

Hyperbaton,

Hyperbole, figure of.


Hyphen,
Iambic

113,

341,

316,

317,

11

335,

of.

use

48

distinguishing

343

137,

of.

70, 4
175,

of.

11,

10

used

as

used

as

an

8,

List of

140

prepositions

Logical subject
predicate
Long

poem

as

the

Idea-words

313,

Metonymy,

311,

Metre,

213,

Misapplications

311,

Idioms

346,

foreign
Illative

conjunction

193,

arrangement
Incorrect

use

of

of words
words

auxiliary

9, 10

113,

317,

figure of.

different

kinds
to be

miscellaneous, in

317,
341,

of.
avoided
use

of words

6
1ft

309,

310

Mixed

sentences

149,

adverbs

134,

Mode,

defined

149,

ellipses

10

Modal

sentences

Improper

an

89, 8, 15

verb

8, 3

4, 5

Imperative mode
Impersonal

8,

15

338,

Metaphor,

phrases

15

341,

metre

Lyric

137,

irregular verbs

May, used

of words

346

use

175,

attribute

License, poetic
of

173

subject

339,

Idiomatic

subject

Iambus, defined

verse

84, 3

Letter,defined

1
"4'?',

Gender, defined

317,

list ""f.

155

133

verbs, defined

as

106

149,

Irony, figure of.

It,uses

perfecttense

133

of verb

136

1
78

Interrogative pronouns

109

tense

Future

point

Irregular

13

333,

etymology

Final

1
10

317,

Interrogation, figure of.

of

of rhetoric

15

137,

1, 5
314:, 1

Figures,

31,
34,

Interjections

339,

303,
137,

weak, of verbs

strong and

defined

Feet, poetic

89, 9, 16,

list of.
False

5, 10

187,2

Inflection,defined

163,

subject of.
uses

14:9, 4

sentences

89,

discourse

rule for

333f

point of.

335,

object

315

Exclamation, figure of

336

of.
mode

Infinitive

33,

defined

figures of.

Exclamatory

Indicative
Indirect

210

miscellaneous

Etymology,

Index,

mark

305,2,/

expressions, punctuation of.

309

by cautions

corrected

11; 189,
191

338,

134,

adverb

Independent

316,

Enallage, figure of.

89, \

Modifier,defined

84, 6; 130,

Must, used

309,

309,

307

as

an

147,
auxiliary

Negative conjugation
Neuter

verb

113,

133

83, 5, e

10

INDEX.

No, peculiar use

/81/8

of.

Nominative, the, defined

50,
191

independent
defined

34,

declension

of.

116

70,

pronouns

to inanimate

Perversions

47,

objects

309,

as

subject

1'3'3,1

as

attribute

175,

used

as

subject

173

181,

used

as

attribute

175

183,

adverbial

185,

S05,

how
in

restricted

apposition

in the

possessive

participial
Now, peculiar use
Number

of

of.

/81JJ
41

noun

of verb

Phrase,

Object of

Pleona.sm
Plural

of

rule

for

attributive

173,

187,

direct and

indirect

pauses

defined

Position

303,

of the

50, 11

of the

199,

of the

303,

of the

subject

173,

Orthography

173,

pronoun

177,

adjective

181,

object

187,

adverb

189,

of

subject

Possessive

case,

315,

Paragraph, mark
Parenthesis, when
Parenthetic

335,

of.

different

kinds

of.

uses

adjective

objective

305,

305,

verb~

voice

2, 3, 4

tense

perfect tense
poem

for

303,

163

160,

31,

12
37

applj'ing

Prepositions,defined

34

34, 7
140

83, 5, 6

list of

87, 4, 7

complex

140,

rule

197,

109,

form

Prefixes, defined
rules

181

158,

logical

95

83, 7

94,

8, 4
147,

Predicate, defined

93,
181,1;

8, 9, 10

89, 6, 11, 12

305,

speech, defined

of

Pastoral

of.

185,

letter

63, 3; 305,
91,

for

nominative

Participle,defined
rules

185

mode

of

12

183,

for

rule

Power

53

noun

used

apposition

Potential
336

Participialadjective

in

6, 7, 8
73, 2

50,

of.

formation

constructions

expressions,punctuation

Parsing, defined

Passive

11

339,4

used

of

Parts

50,

defined

Possessives,how
Paragoge, figure of.

3 1 8

199,

Omitted

338,

99, 2

of

predicate

of.

337,

of time

Points, punctuation

as

Point

rule for

44

346

license

Poetry,

187,

as

345

187,

the infinitive

316,

339,

position of.

Objective, the, defined

313,
.346,

43,

feet

preposition,rule for

4
2

43

different kinds

187,1,9

199,

nouns

formed

how

83,

transitivef verb

160,1

155,2;

antiquated

116

subject

as

139,3;

Phrases, idiomatic

Poetic

Past

317,

avoided

to be

73, 1

of.

Personification,figure of.
applied

51

1
1

39,

declension

50

of.

331,

defined

Personal

4:7

genders.of.
cases

Person,

41

of.

numbers

99, 3

time

of.

of verb

39

of.

of

311

words

of

use

use

36

classes ofl
persons

2
2

345

Pauses, poetic
Peculiar
Period

191,

absolute

Noun,

11

for

103

object of.

104

when

338,

Present

omitted
tense

199,
199,

1,
101

I
a

11

INDEX.

Principal parts of verb


elements

109,

of verb

Short

Significationof auxiliaries

personal

declension

of.

73

74,

relative

agreement with coordinate


Proposition, defined
of

kinds

different

7, 8

177,

position of.

150,

337,

Prosthesis

315,

Provincialisms

309,

Punctuation, defined

318,

1
6

as

339,

10

in

prosody

Quotation-marks
Quotations, direct and

position of.

173,

of infinitive

303,

Reflexive

pronouns

Regular
Relative

11

301,
15

99,

tenses

abridged

Subsequent, the

6
15

3,

167,

139,

3, 5

classes

70,

Suffix,defined

84,

rules

of.

for

31,

13

38

applying

Superlative,when

4, 5, 6

12

143,

Subvocals

173

of words

use

143,

connectives

elements

130,

verb

89, 7, 13, 14

Siibjunctivemode

classes of.

313

verb

Redundant

omitted

rule for

31,

8, 2; 160,

173,

when

of.

80, 7; 147,
15

173

clause,how
Rather, peculiar use

for

Radical, or root

logical

10

340,

163

335,
163

38

clause

337,
indirect

37,
339,

or

Subordinate

Quantity,

36,

the

rule

318,

Pyrrhic foot

35

rules for

complex

Prosody, defined

of

10

309

Subject, defined

167

abridged

marks

338,

Spondee, the
Stanza,

150,

15
313

195

nouns,

Spelling, defined

1, 10

177,

156,

Special cautions

78

of.

construction

of.

So,peculiar use
Sonnet, defined

75

interrogative

317,

sentences
6

TO,

10

113

element

Simple

70

compound

metre

Simile, defined

68

6, 7, 8

341,

personal

113,

of.

for use

153,
9; 134:

113,

Will, auxiliaries

and

rules

117,

defined

Pronoun,

33,

word

Progressive form

Shall

10/8

perfect tenso

Present
Primitive

181,

used

17
30

Syllabication

18

when

restrictive

177,

12

Syllables

when

explanatory

177,

12

Synjeresis,figure of.

315,

Syncope, figure of

315,

Synecdoche, figure of.

317,

75

Relatives,simple

76,

compound

177,

of.

uses

309,

Repetitions, unnecessary

Root,
Rules

337,

defined

31,

defined
of

338,

Satire,defined
use

340,

Semicolon,

use

335,

of.
of

Sentence, defined
kinds

of,149,

transformation

Sentenee-making

150,
of

158,

Synopsis

147,

Syntax, defined
of.

of sentences

149

of elements

153

of words

173

false

308

figuresof.

Synthesis,defined

147

11

316

18, 5; 147,

10

339,

12

10

337,

147,

165,

134

preliminary, development

313

of.

Scanning
Section, mark

173

syntax

Save, peculiar

14

317

Rhetoric, figures of.


Rhyme,

Table

of poetic feet
Tense, defined

present

98, 1
101

166

present perfect.

103

168

past

103

147

past perfect

104

12

INDEX.

future

perfect

in

Than,

before

Whom

comparison

showing
That,

modes

the

all

Tenses

T5,

of.

uses

There,

Thou,

forms

list

of

99,

list

of

99,

of

1,

sentences

the

rhyme

130,

and

parts

principal

10

117

with
with

of.

subject
coordinate

179,

195

nouns,

337

of.....3405

kinds

different

343,

341,

344

343,

339,

337,

309,

Versification,
figure

Vision,

defined

337,

of.

317,

4.

of.
14

of

union

consonants

of

and

16

consonants

of
of

words

309,

346,

307,

the

of

dash

of.

113

Shall

and

and

Words,

339

parenthesis

of

semicolon

of

interrogation

31

defined

classes

%%

of.

331

period
and

colon

syntax
and

30

of.

formation

337

173

of.

exclamation

309,
333

unnecessary

335

complex

points
marks

defined

80,

Worth,

peculiar

313

antiquated

Vsrlj,

5;

189,

comma

the

other

7;

319

of

of

75,

313
Will

of

uses

311

303,

infinitive

309,

different

What,
173,

words
the

Vulgarisms

of

arrangement

309,

7
12

335,

Vowel-mark*..:

repetitions

words
Unusual

Voice

vowels

Unnecessary

3,

defined

classes
14

vowels

117,

defined

Verse,

116

of.

person
of.

15

of

Uses

redundant

conjugation

Vocals,expressions

of

2,

343

Union

4,

irregular

agreement

339,

Unbecoming

84,
130,

109

verse

Trochee,

2,

137,

agreement

14,

Trochaic

6;

84,

of.

83,

defined

Triphthong

Use

auxiliar}'
84,

number

10

168

the

Tribrach,

and

impersonal

303,

verb,

Transitive

defective
2

70,

irregular

and

regular

83

neuter

passive,

active,

g^

intransitive

19;

315,

omitted

sformation

True

o.

of.

figure

To, when
Ti-an

of

period

Tmesis,

199,

of.

point

Time,

gjj

301,

of.

uses

80,6

transitive

ll^,

of.

use

erroneous

^^

313,

9;

134,

expletive

an

They,

106

301,8

181,10;

"

107

1T7,

8;

80,

attributive

Verb,

105

future

Tense,

use

of.

346,

313,

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

1. Definitions
1.

is the

Crraminar

Divisions.

and

which

science

of

treats

the

ral
gene-

principlesof language.
2.

Orainiuav

"ngliisli

usages

of the
it

correctly.

3.

It

relates,
sounds

the

elementary

(".) To

the

classification

(c.) To

the

structure

(d.) To

the

laws

pliy.
5.

which

and

Syntax

8.

Prosody

of

them,

and

"

of

the

and

speak

to

us

language.;

its words

of

and

Hence,

into
and

treats

"

four

parts,
"

Orthogra-

Prosody.

elementary sounds,

the

combination

of

the

letters

letters

into

words.

treats

of

the

pronunciation

proper

treats

Etymology

7.

its sentences,

ISyntax,

represent

letters

modification

is divided

Orthograpliy

various

and

its versification.

Etymology,

Orthoepy

and

of

of

Orammar

syllablesand

6.

principlesand

"

(a.) To

4.

the

it teaches

English language;

write

of

treats

of

modifications

treats

treats

of
of

the

of
the
the

of

words.

classification,derivation,

words.

construction
laws
2

of

of

sentences.

versification.
13

14

ENGLISH

GEAMMAR.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
2. Definition.
treats of

Ortbograpliy

which

elementarysounds,the

representthem, and the combination

and
syllables

SOUNDS.

3. Number

and

sound

elementary

Classes.

is the

language.
Ex.

Tke

"

2. The

of letters into

words.

ELEMENTAEY

1. An

letters

simplestsound

of the

sound

of a, e; h

or

k.

Englishlanguagecontains

about

fortyelementary

sounds.
sounds

3. These

and

subToeals,
4. The
They

formed

Examples.

into three

consist of pure
by

The

"

divided

classes,vocals,
"

aspirates.

vocals

are

are

an

of vocalized

interruptedflow

sounds

of a, e,

only.

tone

i, o,

u, ou;

li-a-t,
p-i-n,g-o-ld,
m-e, m-e-t, f-i-ne,
m-o-ve,

breath.

as, in

b-a-11,
a-le,f-a-r,

n-o-t,m-w-te, p-w-11,
c-w-p,

f-ow-nd.
Remark.

The

"

5. The
They
Ex.

"

are

letters

by

sounds

The

6-at,d-og,g-o,

but

imperfectguides to

consist of tone

subTocals
formed

are

an

interruptedflow

of

6,cf,
g,j,I,m,
j-oj,lot, w-an, n-o,

these sounds.

united with

of breath

breath.

vocalized.
partially

th,v, w, z, z (zh),y; as, in


ba-r,th-ia,
r-at,w-in,2-one,

n, ng, r,

eo-ng,

a-2-ure, y-es.

6. The
They
Ex.

"

are

The

aspirates
formed

by

sounds

an

consist of pure
interruptedflow

of/,h,k,p,

s,

only.

breath

of breath

without

t, th,sh,ch,wh;

as, in

wh-eu.
ir-t,p-ine,s-un, t-ake,th-ink,sh-one,cA-ur-Z,

vocality.

A-ome,
/-aith,

ORTHOGRAPHY

Remark.
here

When

"

closelyexamined,

represented
found

me),

ou

may

be resolved

in

ELEMENTARY

"

elementary,

as

(a

in all and

into

it will be found

as, for

in

oo

15

SOUNDS.

i in

example,

fool),J

in

that

of the

some

isle

(a

joy (dzh),ch

in far

sounds

and

in church

simpler sounds; yet, for practicalpurposes,

they

in

(tsh),
be

may

regarded as elementary.

4. Classes of Tocals.
1. Vocals
2. The

divided

are

sound

long

of the
in

The

"

Thus,

organs.

hate; while

short

sound

of

The

in note.

in met

"

ee

in

in hat

seen.

sound

in not

short

sound

into

manner,
2. The

and

of

short
in

and

with

the

sound

of

hate.

in

is the
of

short

and

The

sound

fur, not

are
aspirates

continuous

continuous

formed

are

properly the

short

The

in but is the

vocals

is

is the

subvoeals

at
protracted

ee.

5. Classes of Subvoeals
1. The

be

can

that is uttered with

is one

short

and

that

one

short.

an

plosive
ex-

pin,pen, hat,sit.

in

long

and

ay, hee

sound

short

as
effort;

Remark.

is

in may

pleasure;as
3. The

into long

of

same
a

in

i in
o

position

far, not
pin

in nor,

is the
not

explosive

Aspirates.
divided,in

similar

explosive.

capableof prolongation.

are

are

vocals in
5. The
The

as

of prolongation.
incapable

They are the sounds of (subvoeals)


b, d, g, j; as
j-ob; (aspirates),
pi-^,
k-in,lur-cA.
p, t,k,ch,in ti-p,
4. The

in 7nutc.

/,m, n, ng, r, th,v, w, y, z=r zh;


They are tlie sounds of (subvoeals)
in ba-^^,
la-v-e,
BO-ng, ca-r, ba-iA-e,
w-o, y-es, ma-z-e, a-z-ure
ca-m-e, rai-w,
thi-s,
A-eat,
hea-th,lea-sA,
h, s, th,sh,wh, in lea-/,
wh-j.
(aspirates),/,
3. The

in

do-^,
ca-6,be-c?,

subvoeals,representedby w and y, are nearly allied to the


and m-ee-t.
oo-ze
They may be called semi-vocals.
aspirates
representedby wh

sound

wh, with the

of h is formed

with

an

open

lipscontracted nearly as

and

are

properlybreathings.

positionof

in the sound

of

the organs ; that of


w.

16

ENGLISH

Of

6.

called

the

GRAMMAR.

subvocals

and

cognatefs,

and

remaining

correlatives

or

sixteen
aspirates,
be

may

are

arranged

in

eight pairs.
Thus, h-p, d-t, g-k, j-ch, th-th,v-f, z-s,
the

position

same

the

of

The

first four

8.

The

correlatives

pairs are

are

organs

more

flow

Remark

readily into
the

All

1."

with

liquids

other

because,

and

n, ng,

r, have

cause
be-

liquids,

sounds.

subvocals,

are

tinuous.
con-

less closed.

called

are

are

mutes,

or

subvocals, represented by I,m,

they

formed

others

called

corresponding aspirates. They

no

pair is

explosive,the

sometimes

are

the

formation,

The

9.

Each

organs.

7.

in their

zh-sh.

while

"

half

of

the

mutes

are

aspirates.
The

liquids

A
or

smooth,

mute

liquid,

may

in

as

combine
the

Thus,
that

of

does

the

any

or

sound

p,

2.

arise

"

(=

nearly
These

as

the

affinities

in derivation.

in

that

from

mutes

explosive.

are

sound

that

does

the

the

liquids

sound

strength, length;

in

the

of

stems,

explain

the

elf, melt,

in

the

(See 37, 28.)

may

in

as

that

liquid

any

with

I seldom

any

of

carja,
will

mute.

unites
that

with

unite

with

aspirate,

combine
of

in

position

the

hams/

with

k;

nor

for

organs
with

unites

sound

of

each

other,

with

which

the

sound

unites

most

end, tens, fence, tenth; also,

sen",

vreld,

the

of

readily

most

sounds

euphonic

afiBnities

certain

have

aspirate tli,as

as

sound

subvocal,

unite

p.

liquids

hemjp, lamp,
or

will

readily

not

or

however,

; the

with

liquid

subvocal

liquid

any

subvocal

2.)

understood,

similarity

Thus,
in

of

be

either

mute

and

it must

coalesce

not

of

mutes

mutes,
will

will

with

t, d, s, c,

th,
all

z), as

the

of

rough, buzzing

(See 15,

be

not

sound

The

mainly

readily with
rtg with

"

liquid, or

mn

produced.

are

or

of

with

must

The

n.

Remark

of

of

hut

mute,

or

other

sounds

which

It

half

has

mute

aspirate.

an

barn/

arm,

with

with

with

har^, hare?.

czrd,

they

unite

while

"

sound.

flowing

aspirate

an

subvocal

continuous

Every
have

all continuous,

are

of

I and

readily

helch, orb, hearth,

changes

which

so

often

unite

with

ark, large.
take

place

18

ENGLISH

which

ous, and
sounds
and

; tellwhich

SHORT

which

GRAMMAK.

of tht suhvocals

and

are
aspirates
CONTlKiyhaving two aspirate

Select three words

explosive.

united; two having two subvocal mutes; five having a liquid


subvocal mute; five having a liquidand an aspirate;and two

having two liquids.

-^

LETTEES.
8. The
1. A

is

letter

Alphabet.

character used to

representan

ary
element-

sound.

English alphabetcontains twenty-sixletters: A, a; B, b;


C, c; D, d; E, e; F, f; G, g; H, h; I, i; J,j; K, k; L, 1; M, m;
N,n; 0,o; P,p; Q, q; R, r; S, s; T, t; U, u; V, v; W, w;
X, x; Y, y; Z, z.
3. The name
of a letter is the term or appellationby which it is
2. The

known.
Ex."

^e, De,

4. Th-Q power

Ex.

Remark.

sound

Letters

"

sounds.

The
is

of

sound

The

"

Aitch.
a

be

too

carefully distinguished

arbitrary mark

an

which

it represents.

h-a-nd.
h-a-il,

cannot

letter is

always

in

elementary sound

letter is the

to the

addressed

addressed

to the

eye;

from
an

elementary
elementary

ear.

9. Classes of Letters.
1. Letters

divided,

are

"

and small letter's.


forms,into capitals
sounds they represent,into voivels and consonants.

(a.)In respectto

their

(6.)In respectto

the

Let it be remembered
Tocals

and

that

represent vocals; consonants,

both

sub-

aspirates.

(c.)In respect to
and
variable,

their

applicationto

these

sounds,into perraanent,

silent.

2. Capitals

constitute the
3. The

vowels

are

used

for the

principalpart

sake

of every

various styles of letters

Sngl(js!),and^^"^^.

are

distinction;small letters
composition. (See u.)
(f^ltl
the Eoman, the Italic,
of

ORTHOGRArHY

KULES

"

FOR

19

CAPITALS.

10. Exercise.
and
vowels,

1. Tell which lettersare


words:

which

are

consonants,in the following

"

good,live,old,sad,young,
Name, war, come, peace, tree,fish,
day.
"said,
yet,win, new, gay,

wine,

lettersrepresentvocals,
which subvocals,
and
of the following
aspirates:

2. Tell which
which

"

a,

3.

f,g,

k, d, p,

c,

m,

of the letters)
; tell how
what letters are silent:
has; also,

each

h, y, t,r, v,

x,

1,e, j.

in order,
the elementary
sounds
by giving,

words
Analyzethe following

{not the

o, w, s,

many

names

sounds

and

hoiv many

letters

"

Mete, laugh, bought, fought,believe,phthisic,balm, rough, piece,


beauty,thought,blight.
Model.
final

of i

in

gun;

"

"

mete:

"

three

sounds

and

four

letters.

The

is silent.

4. In
name;

"

the

following
examples,tellwhat words contain equivalents
of a in
in
in
in
ball;of a
of a
fare; of e
mete; of e in end; of i in iron;
in
in
ink; of o
dot; of u in music; of u in pull;of u in
go; of o

of oil

in

plough,and of oi

in toil:
"

Grain, air,awl, see, bread, symbol, floor,


what, new, could,son, now,
deign,lair,nor, defraud,brought, awed, key, deaf,been, owed, blue,
should, rough, boy, feign,bear, sea, women,
tough,
coat, lieutenant,
hay, there,lief,buy, beaux, pay, perceive,guile,bouquet, league,rain,
sought,nay, brief,
bee,deceive,instead.
5. Tell what

of c,f

g, X, z,

words

sh,and

in

ch :

the

to any
followinglist contain equivalents

sounds

"

Kent, phlegm, tacks,chagrin,righteous,


rifice,
phonography,physician,sacchampagne, single,exist,ferocious,
partition,
nation,phonetics,
physics,sit,stand,chamois,quarrel,
join,Xenophon, passion,phosphorus,
beaux.
just,oceanic,jump,

11. Rules

for the Use

1. EULE

I.

The

"

of

titles

Capitalsand
of

and

books,

their parts, chapters,


and
sections,

other

Letters.

the heads

are
divisions,

usually

printedin capitals.
Ex."

History

Relatives.

of

Philosophy;

Classes

of

Nouns;

of

Compound

20

ENGLISH

When

the titlesof books

words
Ex."

should

Watts

on

the Mind.

signsand

on

monuments

2. Rule

II.

The

"

first

of every entire

word

of

every independentexpressionor
beginwith a capital.
Ex.

subjectto

are

rule.

same

and

onlytheir principal

quoted,

are

beginwith capitals.

Inscriptionis
the

GEAMMAR.

Evil communications

"

corrupt good

sentence,

phrase,should
The

manners.

words

of the

prophet.
3. EuLE

of

III.

(1.)When,
line

The

should

sentence

"

firstword

beginwith

of any
a

dependent

capital,
"

give prominence, that^art is made


paragraph

or

Ex.

"

to

Nouns

are

divided

Proper,which
Common, which

(2.)When

into

distinct

into,
"

denote individuals.
denote

classes.

quotation is introduced

direct

part

as

so

to form

tence
sen-

of itself.
Ex.

"

He

saith unto

(3.)When
such

words

Ex.

"

him,

the words
as

of

my

sheep.

resolution

or

an

enactment

follow

it enacted.

be
resolved,

Eesolved,That

Feed

committee

of

three,"c.

Be

it enacted, That,

"c.

4. Rule
from

TV.

proper

Ex.

"

Proper

names,

become

names,

should

America, American

(a.)When
has

"

and

begin with

derived
adjectives
capital.

Boston,Bostonian.

of a person, a place,
the proper name
a river,
or a mountain^
consolidated compound word, only one
capitalshould be

used.
Ex.

"

When

Northampton, Southbridge,Newcastle.
the parts remain

separate,each should begin with

capital.

York, Old Saybrook, In many compound


of about
names
Thus, Newcastle, used as the name
usage is not uniform.
British
and
America, is conthirtydifferent placesin England, Ireland,
Ex.

"

South

Berwick,New

ORTHOGRAPHY"

RULES

polidated ; while in the United


thus:
the parts are
separated,
New

-t.5.

Y.

Rule

in
States,

of

Chief

"

Justice

same

office,

YI.

6. Rule

capital.

Washington.

beginwith

refer to the

capital. This

YII.

should

Deity

they
with

uniform.

nor

firstword

of every

in

line

poetry

capital.

YIII.

8. Rule

Almighty.

"

"

The

"

begin with

should

the

when
he,his,him,thou,thy,and thee,
when
especially
emphatic begin

is neither universal

usage

7. Rule

Eternal,The

The

personalpronouns,
Deity,sometimes

(a.)The

of

capital.

God, Jehovah,

Ex."

for the purpose

prophet Daniel.

; The

All appellations

"

and

respect,

Marshall,His Majesty,General

apostlePeter

The

"

be said of

may

with a proper
a title is used
name
merely
(a.)When
should
with
small
letter.
it
a
explanation,
begin
Ex.

instances,

others.

distinction, usuallybeginwith
Ex.

The

Titles of lionor,

"

21

CAPITALS.

about twenty different

New-Castle.

"

Market, and

New

Haven,

FOR

words

The

"

and

should

be

capitals.
IX.

9. Rule

Any

"

personified,

object

common

or

an

emphatic,should beginwith
Ex.

In the Creed the

of

Italics

"

are

to

an

an

specially

"

"

direct attention

(1.)To

made

gratefulsmell,old Ocean smiles.


distinction is properlyobserved.

same

X.

Rule

10.

objectto be
a capital.

to denote

with the

Cheered

"

used

noun

Milton.
Harrison,

used,
"

emphatic word, phrase,or

clause

sentence.

Ex.

This

was
tenuity

interview.

the

BoswcWs

"

only hard

"

^The

res

dura

In

the

word

know

not.

that I heard

"

Junius.

him

use

duringthis

Johnson.

(2.)To distinguishwords
Ex.

nothingsI

he got all these

Where

"

et

borrowed

regninovitas

from

foreignlanguages.

is the great apology of Cromwell.

"

3facaulay.
Remark.
translators

"

to

explain

Bible, the
the

sense

words
of

the

in

italics

original.

are

those

suppliedby

the

22

ENGLISH

(3.)The
Ex.

"

small

"

rear

my

I will write
Note.

and

(atthe

Remark.
I will

speech will be found in to-day'sTribune.


highest
pitchof his voice), Order !"
"

specialemphasis
structure

history."

In

"

and parenships,newspapers, and periodicals,


thetical
phrases,are frequently
printedin italics.

full report of his

Chairman

*'

of

names

words

GKAMMAR.

of better
Walter

"

Full-faced

materials

the

than

use

of small

painted

capitals;

cards

; in

as,

word,

shown

by

singleline drawn

under

the word

lines.

two

type

by

Scott.

writing,italics are

capitals,by

is indicated

is also used

for distinction.

12. Exercise.
1.

Explain by rule
relates

Dr. Kane

the

use

in
of each capital

"

facts

respectingthe Esquimaux.
of the Kevolution"
account
Lossing'sField-Book
gives an interesting
of the surrender
of the British army
under General Burgoyne,
He
to General
commander.
Gates,the American
inquired, For
what
is this waste ?" and I could make
no
reply. The eye
purpose
of the Omniscient
is ever
our
guard,and the hand of the Almighty
deliverer thus uttered her divine instruction
our
support. My beauteous
of the moment
is Eeligion." In the agony
:
My name
lost."
The Austrians
defeated in the
he exclaimed, 0, I am
were
Law."
battle of Magenta.
President
Woolsey's "International
he
Michael
Angelo had nearly reached the years of Dryden when
American
To
the "Last Judgment" to the world.
an
eye,
gave
European life presentsstrange contrasts.
In colleges
in ancient days,
There dwelt a sage called Discipline.
With eyes upraised,as one
inspired.
many

curious

the following
examples:

"

"

"

"

Pale

Melancholy

sat retired.

correct
By the precedingrules,
followingexamples,and insert them

2.

"

the

erroneous

where

Collins.
use

theyshould

in
of capitals
be used:

the

"

cities, and i heard,but i


largestof all american
understood
not ; then said i, o my
lord,what shall be the end of
which
these things?"
huss,the reformer,w^as a martyr to the cause
he espoused, have you visited the falls of niagara? the auditor
differs from ours.
\ias sent in his report, the englishcustom
They

york

new

is the

"

Met

on

the

Twenty-Fifth of novetnber,in paris,to

form

New

ORTHOGRAPHY

Map

of europe.

Dear

sir,your

UNION

"

OF

23

VOWELS.

I am. My
Hail, holy light,offspringof heaven.
Obedient
Servant,
Jacob trusty.
the

lightningsflash along the sky,


The thunder
bursts and rolls on high ;
Jehovah'svoice methinks I hear
amid

the

storm,

ridingon the clouds of even


he^Sprcads]iis glory o'er the heaven,
as

'

but wisdom

is justified
of(her children.

13. Combination
1. "When
of

two

Ou, oi,hi,on,

"

2. Sometimes

yu;

letters unite,
to

more

elementarysounds,theyform
Ex.

by

or

of Letters.

in

one

of letters.

combinaUon

thrusts.
breadth,
no, not, breath,

combination

singleletter ;

representa union

as,

ae

elementary sounds
{a in far, and e in me) ;
of

is represented
in union

wu.

3. Sometimes

combination

of letters represents a

mentary
single ele-

sound.
Ex.

Th in this; ti,
ci,si,ce, in

"

tt,in
aa, gg, zz, bb,ff,II,

martial,mission,
official,
ocean;
butt.
Isaac,egg, buzz,ebb,off,
door,feet,
call,

14. Union
1. A

is the

diphthong

oo, ee,

of Towels.
union

of two

vowels

in

one

syllable.
Ex.

Ou

"

2. A
are

in

sound,oi

in

voice,
oy

in

diphthong is

proper

joy,ay
one

in say.

in which

both

vowels

sounded.
Ex.

Ou

"

3. An

vowels
Ex.

"

in

thou,oi in

improper

toil.

diphthongis one

is silent.
The

in

heat,oi

in

un
hail,

in fruit.

in which

one

of the

24

ENGLISH

4. A

GEAMMAR.

is the union

triplitliong

of three vowels

in

one

syllable.
Ex.

Eau

"

6. A

"

sounded.

Uoy

in

Ea

"

in

view,ieu

are

sounds
Ex.

in which

one

or

two

adieu*

more

of Consonants.

consonants

are

said to unite when

their

Bl-Q-nd,thr-ee.

2. If

they representtwo mutes,these


Bubvocals or both aspirates.
"

three

coalesce.

"

Ex.

the

silent.

heaviy,ie in

or

which

in

one

triphthongis one

15. Union
1. Two

in lieu.

biLoy.

improper

of the vowels

in

triphthongis

are

6. An

Ex.

beauty,iew

proper

vowels
Ex.

in

Apt, adze,hats.

3. If two

must

be similar ; that

is,both

(See 5, Eem.)

dissimilar mutes
representing
the sound
of one, usually the latter,
is changed to
though the letter remains the same
(s,6).
consonants

together,
correlative,

come

its

Bag, bags,pad, pads, bags,pads,placed plac'c? -plact.In


oath,bath,and others,th aspiratebecomes th subvocal in the plural,and
Not so with th in truths,
s follows the rule.
youths.
Ex.

"

they represent two liquids,


they are always similar
(5,8,9),and their sounds,with some
exceptions,readilycoalesce.
4. When

Ex.-rr-Arm,elm, ham,
and after I,as in kiln.

^becomes

marl,

5. When

they represent,the one


their sounds
though dissimilar,

even

Ex.

"

whether
than

Ex.

"

two

identical

"Egg,hutt,ebb,whi/=

mute, and the other

in

hymn,

liquid,

readilyunite.

come
together,
(double letters)
they seldom represent more
liquids,

letters

standing for mutes or


singlesound (i3,3).

as

(See 5, Eem.)

Spend!,speni, halt,hart.

6. When

silent after m,

eg,

hut,e6, whi/.

26

ENGLISH

5. The
sis, and

GRAMMAE.

of

combining elementaryparts is called


separatinga combination into its elements

process
that of

Synthe.
is called

Analysis.
In analyzing

let the learner tell, (1.)the essential part,


syllable,
that is,the vowel
or
diphthong; (2.)the consonant, or combination
(13) of
of conconsonants, which is prefixedto it; (3.)the consonant, or combination
sonants,
which is affixed
to it.

Note.

"

"

19. Exercise.
MODELS

An
-4

is

syllableconsistingof
the essential element,

is

...

...

"

consonant,

which
Break
ea

is a

essential
is

is a union
h and

is

it is

vowel.

it is

"

(Give its sound.)

silent, a
"

r, which

two

; it is affixed to a,

(Give its sound.)

consonants, both representingsub vocals,

prefixedto

are

diphthong (why?), improper

only is sounded.

(Give their

ea.

sounds

rately,
sepa-

together.)
and is affixed
aspirate,

representingan
(Giveits sound.)

...

"

representsa subvocal

part,

(is)of

then
^

elements:

"

two

(Give its sound.)


syllableconsistingof three parts :

(why?) ;
^y

and

SYLLABLES.

it modifies.

is the
.

ANALYZING

.i^2i

FOR

consonant

to

ea.

and describe each element:


Analyze the followingsyllables,
Kite,dog, numb, boat,friend,truth,day, wax, bat,view,sound,
aid,meet, suit,rude,the,think,sit,leave,three,bursts,threats.
consonant
to a, ay, ey, ou, ieu,
2. Form
one
by prefixing
syllables
to e, oo, oe, i,ou, oi,ee, ea, ay, ey ; by
consonants
more
or
y ; TWO
consonants
to any fiveof the above vowels
affixingONE, TWO, or three
1.

or

"

diphthongs.
in
3. Form
ten syllables

to
and affixed
prefixed

which

any vowel

one,
or

two, or

more

1. Syllabication

is the proper

shall be

of vowels.

union

for the Division of Words

20. Eules

consonants

into Syllables.

division of words

into

syllables.
2. Rule
are

I.

"

Every

distinct vowel

of it.

word

has

as

sounds heard in

there
as
syllables
correct pronunciation

many
a

ORTHOGRAPHY

27

SYLLABLES.

"

two vowels come


(a.)When
together,
they unite (14)in one syllable,
if in the pronunciatioii
(14,2,
only one vowel sound,singleor combined
3),is heard.

Ex.

Feast,poorly.

"

Otherwise,they separate into


Ex.

syllables.

two

Li-on,pit-crile,
cooperate.

"

the two vowels


(6.)When
by a diaeresis ( )"

the

the same,

are

is often
separation

cated
indi-

"

Ex.

Preemption,coordinate.

"

II.

2. EuLE

consonants, singlyor combined

The

"

affixed to the vowels

either

are

or
prefixed
theymodify.

which

Words.
(a.)Primitive
is joined to the latter when
Ex.

Otherwise,it should

as

joinedto

(13, 3), since they represent only


separatedwhen thus used.

never

are

when

Ex.

either of the

and

three

consonant"

either of the
"

the

or

Words.

except

peo-ple,
a-cre, tri-Jle.
between

be

must

"

vowels,the

two

they are

last
and

mute,

the latter vowel.

joinedto

as

The

"

in Eule

prefixshould be separatedfrom
II. (1); and the suffix always when

the
it

hut pref-ace,
not pre-face;
good-ness,
tru-ly.
suf-fix;
Pre-fix,

"

Words.

"

derivative words

or
primitive

Compound
which

compose

words

separatedinto

are

them, and

these

are

the

divided

precedingrules.

Caution.
end of
Note."

Reader.

separated,except
follow a long vowel.

syllable.

(c.)Compound
the

come

elementary sound,

one

Emp-ty,am-ple,strug-gle.

in all cases,

Ex.

be regarded

are

consonants, when

last two

{b.)Derivative
forms

liquidsI or

consonants

liquidsI or

vowels

two

am-ber
Cas-ter,
dam-per,ap-ple,

(3.)When

root

between

consonants

mute

"

Ex.

vowels

the former.

th,ch, tcTi,
pTi,gh, ah, ng, tch,should

combinations

The

"

(2.)Two

by

be

singleconsonants

and

two

ech-o.
Lep-er,ep-ic,

"

Note.

between

(1.)A singleconsonant
the former is long (4).

"

Pa-per,la-dy,ci-pher.

"

Ex.

(l5),
(l8,3, 6, c, d)

"

In

writing,never

divide

at
syllable

the

line.
Let

the

pupil

take

as

an

exercise

the

words

of any

page

in

the

28

ENGLISH

GKAMMAE.

WORDS.
21, Formation
1. A

word

Classification of Words,

in reference to its sounds

consists of

one

or

ideas.

As

syllables.

more

Remark.
the

and

Written

"

words

are

used

representatives of sounds, they

syllablesthey

2. A
Ex.

Ex.

word

4. A

word

5. A

word

the

number

of

is called
syllable

one

monosyllable.

tree.

of two

is called
syllables

dissyllable.

of three

is called
syllables

trisyllable.

of four

or

is
syllables

more

called

syllable.
poly-

Un-nat-u-ral,
un-faith-ful-ness.

"

6.

accordingto

Nat-u-ral,
faith-ful-ness.

"

Ex.

are

and

Na-ture,
faith-ful.

"

Ex.

of

Boy, pen,

3. A

represent Loth sounds

classified

contain.

word

"

to

is

stress of the

voice

placed upon a particular


it from other syllables.
to distinguish
syllable,
7. Every word of more
than one syllable
has one
of its
accented.
syllables
Accent

8. The

middle
Ex.

accented

syllablemay

be

either tlie

the last,
or
first,

syllable.
Du^ty, be-long^,
pre-par^ing.

"

9. Some
Ex.

words

have

primary and

secondaryaccent.

in/ ^ comprehend
sihle.
In^^defat^igable,

"

Similar

is the

to accent

emphasis

on

one

words

more

or

in

sentence.
Ex.

"

I go, but I return."

"

Note.

by
analyzed

10.

contain

In

"

analyzing

(21, 1),the
as

in

word

accented

according

to its

syllablepointed

it
syllables,

out, and

should

then

each

be separated

syllable

(19).

word
a

in reference to its significant

root,and may

contain

prefixor

parts

suffix.

must

ORTHOGRAPHY

11. A root,
a

Ex.

is modified

which

word

12. A

13. A

part of

suffix.

word

which

is

placed

its meaning.

part of

is that

after
word which is placed

modify its meaning.

child-hood,
good-ness.
Heart-Zess,

"

Note.

In

"

analyzing

the root, then

the

changein

according

word

the

prefixor

Words

14.

Ex.

modify

to

suffix

to

Ex.

that

22e-turn,
pre-jjay, wn-fit.

"

root

prefixor

part of

is that

prefix

before the root

by

word, or

un-/air-ness.
Fair,un-fair,

"

Ex.

is either

radical,

or

29

SYLLABLES.

"

sufiix,and

varied

are

to

its

show

significantparts,point

how

it modifies

the root.

or
suffixes,
by prefixes,
by

some

the root.

Bond, bond-s,dear,dear-es^,
she-goat,
man,

"

out

15. The

variation is

write,wrote.

called,
"

it affects neither the

when

Inflection,

men,

part of speech,

the essential

nor

meaning of the word, but merely exhibits


grammatical property,such as comparison,number,

some

tense,"c.
Ex.

Fair,fair-est,
church,church-es,
bond,bownd.

"

when

Derivation,

meaning, or
Ex.

to

it givesrise to

change in

the

root, and
Remark.

AVords

"

properly

are

Thus, farm-er-s

inflection.

the other

and

called

6e-neath

we

declinable
are

though related,
speech.

new,

part of

ww-fair-wess. Here
Fair,un-Mr-ly,
three different parts of speech.

"

both

have

the

only

as

negativeof
they

derivatives,the

indeclinable.

22. Exercise.
MODELS

(L)

In

reference

Faithfulness
.

Faith

Jul and

ness

is

FOR
to

tbeir

ANALYZING

WORDS.

sonnds.

trisyllable
4.)
; repeat (21,
is the accented
syllable;repeat (21,6.)
unaccented syllables.
are
a

3*

admit
one

the

of
clinable,
de-

30

ENGLISH

the accent

Change

GEAMMAR.

first Uiful,then to ness;

restore it to its true

place.
Analyze each syllable
(i9).
1.

Analyze and describe

the followingwords:

"

social,
Beat,said,tree ; friendship,
himself,
stately
; complaining,
i
ndolence;
incessantly,
mesticate;
dointerpret,
condemnation,interdicting,
consanguinity, confederation,
impenetrable; mispronunciation,
incomprehensible,indefatigable;
comprehen
inimpenetrability;

2. Correct the accent

in the followingwords:

"

LocaF, indo^lence,memo^rable,
ig^noble,
frequent^ly,
lament^able,
indispu^table,
actu^al,
immuta^ble,retro^spect,
com^pletion,late^ral.
3.

Changethe

accent in the followingwords

givetheir meaning :

to the second

and
syllable^

"

en^trance,min^ute, pres^ent,proj^ect,
Au^gust,con^jure,dessert,
in^valid.
4.

the followingwords

Write

syllables,
marking

the accented

upon

your,

and divide
slate,

them

into

syllable:
"

indubitable,
inability,
commotion,laborious,
Conscience,detecting,
exemplary.
infesting,
detestation,
relate,
Model.

(2.)In

Con^science.

"

to

reference

their

significant

parts.

parts.
significant

Impenitent

has

Penitent

repenting.
signifies
Eem.
not.
is the prefix[in,
2),and signifies,
see
5,

Im

two

is the root,and

Hence, Impenitent, not repenting.


Point

out the

in
and suffixes
prefixes,
roots,

the followingwords:

"

learning,goodness,insight,unfair,deface,
Impenitent,shapeless,
begging.

23.
1. A

Primitive,Deriyative,and Compound
word

in

word.
Ex.

"

Form,

harm.

no

way

derived from

root

Words.

is a primitiTO

31

SPELLING.

formed

word

by joining to a root
to modify its meaning, is a derivative
suffix,
2. A

Ex.

"

formed

word

Ex.

"

word.

by unitingtwo

or

entire words

more

word.

eompound

liarm-/!e8s.
jRe-form,

3. A
is

prefixor

Inkstand,schoolhouse.

4. The

parts of

compounds

those

which

have

been

long in

use

generallyunited closely.

are

Ex.
In
Ex.

"

sunrise.
Nevertheless,

others,the hyphen (-)is used


"

separatethe parts.

to

Labor-saving.

24. Exercise.
1. Tell which
and

EIVATIVE,

of

the

followingwords

lohich compound,

ayid

are

PRIMITIVE,

point out

their

which

DE-

parts :

"

Bright,fair,told,meek, some, playful,joyless,


income,bookstore,
play-mate,cloud-capped,ink,housetop,fearful,
reform,dismember,
dreary.
derivative

2. Form
line under

the added

and draiu
luordsfrom the followingprimitives,

or
syllable

letter:

"

Hope, fear,harm, love,care, know, peer, ape, weed, cloud,form,


grade,place,joy,truth,poet, fade,weep, laugh.
Model.

"

HovEless.

3. Form

of

the

compound
:
folloiving

luords

byJoiningsome

appropriateivord

to each

"

Air,chest,alms, bank, birth,bill,


fire,
wood, foot,
eye, weed, toll,
breeze.
work, play,land,busy, tree,
Model.

"

Aiv-jmmp.

SPELLING.
25.
is the
Spelling
letters.

SpellingDefined.

art of

words
representing

by their

proper

32

ENGLISH

It may
and

be treated of under

GEAMMAR.

the three classes of words, primitive,


derivative,

compound.

WORDS.

PRIMITIVE

26. Rules
Note.
the

The

"

spelling of primitive

by

words

spelling-book.The

should

be

learned

following are

from

mainly

the

obvious

most

"

1. Rule
a

I.

"

miss.
Stuff,
bell,
exceptions.

If,of,as,

"

2. Rule
than

II.

burr,purr,

ending in

double

sound

the

to the

following rules

applying Prefixes.

for
Cb-existent,

II.

2. Rule

final letter of
harmonize

in

changes

for
ant-arciic,

the

with

anti-arctic.

Letter.

Final

"

The
will

which

one

the

the initial letter of

root.

/m-pious,for in-pious.

"

(a.)The

final letter of the

becomes
prefixgenerally

the

same

firstletter of the root.

iV-radiate,
illimitable,
ac-cept,op-pose.

"

prefixeswhich
(6.)The principal
Ad

The

"

2.)

(5,Rem.

Ex.

made

omitted.

prefixis often changed to


sound

place,

are

Letter.

Final

the

coii-existent;

Changing

"

These

take

often

"

prefixis sometimes

2.)

changes

Dropping

"

final letter of

Ex.

for

agreeable.(5, Rem.

more

I.

1. Rule

"

the final letter.

In applying prefixesto radicals, certain

"

according

consonant

WORDS-PREFIXES.

27. Rules

to render

other

any

on,

rap,

DERIVATIVE

Note.

has,yes, is,his,this,
us, ihv^,

gas, was,

trim,brag,star. Add, odd,ebb,egg, inn,bunn, err,


butt,buzz,
fuzz,are exceptions.

Put,

"

Words

"

s, do not

/, I,or

Ex.

Ex.

s, preceded

Monosyllables
endingin/,?,or
singlevowel, double the final consonant.

Ex.
are

the

dictionary or

rules

for Primitives.

ac,

af,ag, al,an,

undergo

ap, ar, as, at;

this

change

are^
"

as

the

34

ENGLISH

Ex.

loved.
Jjore-ing,
loving;love-ed,

"

It is also
Ex.

"

dropped

the

Ex.

words

some

y and

ending in

generalrule,the

the soft sound

g, to preserve

c or

in

i,

deism.
elicity
-ate,
felicitate
; dei-zsm,

(a.)Contrary to

by

GRAMMAR.

final e is retained when

preceded

of these letters.

'Pea.ce-able,
peaceable;change-able,
changeable.So,also,we have
them from singing,
to distinguish
singeingand swingeing,
swinging.
"

{b.)The
Ex.

final letters le,when

So, also,t or

te before ce or

Vagrant-c^/,
vagrancy

"

(c.)Words

ending

in

syllablebeginning with
Ex."

by ly,are dropped.

Noble-/?/,
nobly.

"

Ex.

followed

cy.

prelate-ci/,
prelacy.

usuallydrop

one

"

Skill-/w/,
skilful.

The

vowel, it is dropped

it is retained.

Sometimes
"

True,truly;awe, aufid.

"

Ex.

additional

consonant.

the final e is precededby


when
(d.)Sometimes
before a suffix beginning with a consonant.
Ex.

taking an

on

Hue, rueful;shoe,shoeless.
final

precededby

consonant

consonant, in the

is

dropped

before

suffix

ning
begin-

words

whole,wholly;judge,judgment;
acknowledgment.
abridge,
abridgment;acknowledge,
with

III.

3. Rule

The

by

final i/ of
a

Ex.

consonant
"

"

Changing

the

Letter.

Final

"

changed to iyif preceded


generally
otherwise it usuallyremains unchanged.

root

is

duties; day-s,days.
Happy-es^,happiest;duty-es,

words, as shy,dry,do
(a.)Before the terminations ly and ness, some
not
change the final y. To prevent doubling i,the y is not changed
the suffix begins with i.
when
Ex.

"

the

For

i is

vie,the
Ex.

Marry-in^f,
marrying.

"

same

reason,

changed

the

being dropped by

Eule

tie,
II.,in die,lie,

to y.

vying.
Dying,lying,tying,

(b,)The/, in words ending inforfe, is often changed to


suffix begins with a vowel.

v, when

the

ORTHOGRAPHY

Ex.

COMPOUND

"

35

WORDS.

lives.
Life,by (S8,2,)Uf, pluralliv-es,
"

"

(c.)From lay,pay, say, and stay,though y is preceded by a vowel, we


have laid,
paid,said,and staid. So from day,we have daily;and from
better written gaylyand gayety.
gay, gailyand gaiety;though

29. Exercise.
to temporary,
to arctic;CON
Change by rule,and prefixANTi
relative;
laborer,extensive, location,mend, mix, mingle, nomen,
to scribe,credit,
AD
firm,fluent,legation,rest,point,ply, tempt ;
to religious,
IN
liberal,
pertinent,
legal,legible,
mature, noble,perfect,
penitent,potent, prove, relevant; en to body, broil; OB to
to cession,fix,fumigation,fusion,
position,press, cur, fend; sub
flux ;
to pathetic,logistic
to centric,
gest, press, render ; syn
; ex
to fuse,late.
Dis

1.

Apply the precedingrides by adding

beg, sit,
dig,dim, bed, dog, let,bet, prefer,transfer,
dispel,propel,
forget,
control,travel,level,counsel; love,compile, receive,leave,
befit,
to peace,
grieve,confine,define. Add able
change, sale; ly to
to skill,
will;
able, disagreeable,conformable, idle,noble; ful
to
duty, lily,
glory,story,history,
beauty,beautify,
ES, ED, or ING,
amplify,rectify.
2.

and
3. Correct the folloiving,

ING, ED,

explainyour

or

ER,

corrections

to

"

Beding, beting,wifes,debared, abliorent,alkalioid,gloryous,


fanciful,
citys,
tarriing,
carriing,dutyful,bountyful,handsomeest,
bloting,fameous,agreeabley,incompatibley.

COMPOUND

30. Formation

Compound

1.

words

the 'primitive words


2. In

drop

compounds

of

WOEDS.

of

Compound

Words.

usuallyfollow the orthographyof


which they are composed.

which

are

closelyunited (23,4),full and

all

the final I.

Ex.

idthal.
Handful,careful,
fidfil,
always,although,

"

But

in

those

compounds

which

retained.
Ex.

"

all-wise.
FiUlfaced,chock-full,

are

merely temporary,

the

II is

36

ENGLISH

3. When

drop

the

Ex.
4.

with other

possessivesare compounded
helmsman

(185,11,a).

Chilblain,welcome, welfare,smdfuljil,drop

wherever, and
assume

words,they often

apostrophe.
Herdsman,

"

GRAMMAR.

an

whosoever, drop

an

e;

and

one

I; shepherd,

wherefore and

therefore

e.

31. Exercise.
1.

Correct the

which

each

in the

errors

is made

correction

followingexamples,and give the


:

rule

by

"

Wil, kniting,frized,clif,peacable,bur, stil,


manumited, buieth,
begg, knel, bels,mobb, bigotted,
whigism, gass,
occuring,differring,
coquetish,swiming, cryeth, spyed, shily,shuned, veryest, maiest,
interruptting,spoonful, al-powerful,allways, somthing, stilyards,
defering,prevailling.

Questions.
does

How

How

they

are

What

Grammar?

how

Into

treat?
sound?

is

What

"

it relate

many

Syntax?
Etymology?
elementary sounds

many
divided

Of

what

is

do

vocals

there
consist

Of

What

Prosody?
are

To

English Grammar?

parts is it divided
in
?

what
is

does
an

what
graphy
Ortho-

elementary

the

English language?
?
Subvocals
Aspirates ?

short ?
How
long sound ? The
are
the continuous; the explosive; the semidivided?
Describe
subvocals
the
?
is said
formed
of
What
Which
vocals.
breathings ? How
aspirates are
and
the remaining subvocals
aspirates? Give the pairs called correlatives or
the first four
What
Why are
are
pairs? The
remaining ones?
cognates.
called?
Give the liquids. Why
so
Pronounce, in order,
they called mutes?
in Italics.
of the element
What
the words
in the table, then
give the sound
What
is a letter?
letters are
there in the English alphabet?
How
many
letters divided, in respect
How
is the name
The
of a letter?
are
power?
What
letters are
to form,
How
are
capitals used?
sound, application f
of capitals.Italics.
? Consonants
called vowels
? Repeat the rules for the use
A proper
is a diphthong ?
have
What
When
of letters ?
we
a combination
A
diphthong ? An improper diphthong ? A triphthong ?
proper triphthong ?
What
said
to unite?
An
consonants
two
improper triphthong? When
are
How
unite with
What
?
sound
is a syllable?
syllables
a vowel
many
may
has
How
the
word?
consonants
Repeat the Caxition.
are
applied?
every
Divide
the words
in the first part of Exercise
12 into
syllables. Of what
What
is a
consist?
does a word, when
in reference
to its sound,
considered
three
word
Of
of one
Of
two
syllables? Of
syllable called?
syllables?
accent?
have
words
four
What
is accent?
an
or
more
syllables? What
Which
the
of
Give
accented
a
primary and a
an
example
syllable be ?
may
is a root?
What
word.
Mention
the
of
accent.
a
secondary
significantparts
A
A prefix ?
derivative.
A suffix ?
Define
A
word.
compound.
a primitive
Define spelling. Give the rules for spelling primitive words.
Give the rules

How

"

for

divided

vocals

are

What

is the

"

applying prefixes, Vox

suflaxes.

For

compound

words.

ETYMOLOGY

"

PARTS

37

SPEECH.

OF

ETYMOLOGY.
32. Definitions.

the various modifications

and

word

2. A

the derivation,
classification,

treats of the

1. Etymology

sign of

is the

of words.

idea,and

an

is either

spoken

written.

or

33. Classes of Words.

Accordingto their meaning and use, words


called Farts of Speech,
eightclasses,

1.
into

Remarks.

to

of

Words

are

divided,accordingto

and
trisyllables,
dissyllables,
vionosyllahles,

into

far

"

their
as

significant
parts,

the treatment

into

their

sounds

sufiixes

elements

2. Words

pertainsto the

"

Etymology

when

the

modifying

(23).

simple

It becomes,

influence

So

union

of the

ever,
how-

nificant
sig-

is considered.

which

Those
Ex.

of

department

pronunciation,

compound

syllablesinto complete words, it belongs to Orthography.


a

in

divided

(21); according
polysyllables

primitive,derivative,and

of roots,prefixes,
and

are

vary

which

their forms

do not

vary

in construction

them

are

are

called declinable.

indeclinable,

Friend,friend-s;love,lov-ecZ(declinable)
clinable)
; but,as, upon (inde-

PARTS

OF

SPEECH.

34. Parts of Speech defined.


1. In

English,there are eight parts of speech, the


the Pronoun, the Verb, the Adverb,
Nowij the Adjeciivey
the Preposition,
the Conjunction,
and the Interjection,
is the name
2. A noun
of an object.
Ex.

"

"

Fruil,Henry,Boston.

38

ENGLISH

The
which

word
are
are

nouns.

3. An
Ex.

is derived

noun

the

word

is a
adjective

applying to

their

Ex.

the

Latin

"nomen,"

vame.

All

words

or

terial,
imma-

places, or things,material

used to limit

a noun.
qualify

or

some.
Good,faithful,
this,

"

term

from

of 2i"r8on8, animals,

names

Adjective (derivedfrom
is

GRAMMAR.

the

qualitiesor

define

to

citizens ;
Woi^thy

"

Those
Whatf

words

which

Wliat kindf

4. A

class

large

How

"adjeetus," added

of words

which

are

to, i.e. to

added

to

noun)

to

nouns

press
ex-

them.

this book.
united

are

manyf

is

pronoun

Latin

answering
adjectives.

to nouns

are

word

which

takes

such

the

questionsas

place of

noun.

Ex.

I,he,you,

"

/KJieword

who.

(derived

pronoun

name) applies

to

represented by

small

a
a

the

of
2^"'opertie8

5. A

an

the

verb is

third

word

Latin

the

noun,

first is the

object; the

the

of different

The

pronoun.

intimately connected

from

number

words; yet

may

which

the

object; the

an

take

the

noun

any

adjective,and

of

name

^^^1 "nomen,"
"pro/'/'^'*"

of the

^Zace

be

may

pronoun

second

are

expresses

first.

being,action,or

expresses

state.
Ex.

is
Be, read,sleep,

"

Nothing
Latin

be

can

loved.

affirmed

*'verbum,"' the

without

i.e. the

word,

verb.

The

important

is derived

term

word:

it

from

designates

the

large

class of words.

6. An
a

(from the

to those

denote

between

This

"

used

word

words

Latin

"ad"

and

which

are

to

modify

the

meaning

of

advei^b.

added

prepositionis
a

noun

From,

upon,

or

"verbum,"
to

added

to

verh) is

verbs, adjectives,or

other

the

narao

adverbs,

"q.

time,place, manner,

7. A

Ex.

Quickly,
first,
far.

"

Adverb

given

is

another
a participle,
or
adjective,

verb,an
Ex.

to

adverb

word

pronoun

used
and

to

some

show

the relation

other word.

on, with.

part of speech includes

small

list of words

which

are

used

to denote

ETYMOLOGY

the
a

of

relations

place, time, cause,


the

preposition (from

the

parts of

Ex.

join

39

pro^ierty,quality,"Q.

It is called

"

before,and

"positio," a placing;

being commonly

of its

placed

before

always associated.

used to connect

word

sentences^or

sentences.

And, hut,or.

"

The

manner,

"pras,"

is a
conjunction

8. A

NOUNS.

SPEECH

OF

circumstance

it is

which

object with

Latin

the

before)from

placing
the

PARTS

"

but

conjunction includes

the

parts of

small

of words, which

number

it is derived

sentence:

the

from

Latin

used

are

to

conjunctus,"

"

joined together.

9. An

sudden

is used
interjection
emotion

Ex."

0/

The

few words

are

in at

The

10.

or

of the mind.

interjection(from

thrown

strong

some

express

ala^f

term

applied to

to

the adverb

the

that do not

Latin

ihroton between) is
"interjectus,"

into the

enter

structure

of

sentence, but

pleasure.

the pronoun,
the
declinable;the rest

noun,

the verb,and
adjective,

are

are

indeclinable.

NOUNS.
35. Definition
1. A
Ex.

the

The

"

word

verb.

It

immaterial, which

an

derived

may

inherent

or

the

word

spoken
Ex.

"

object.

in

used, should

Syntax
every

to

be

denote

carefull3^
distinguished
the

species of

existence, material

independently or alone;
always represents something dependent
when
object. An attribute,
regarded as
and

abstracted

from

of such

name

denoting

the

an

that

which

to

attribute is

of the

complement

it

is

or

opposed

upon,
an

longing
be-

object

belongs,becomes
and

noun,

is

usually

attribute.

Good, (jood-ness;
bright,
hriglit-ness.

2. AVlienever
is

here

denotes

in,an
The

itself.

from
"

an

be considered

mind, that is,when

object of

Ex.

here

attribute,which

term

to,
to the

as
object,

employed

term

same

transitive

to the

of

name

Distinctions,

House, tree,Boston,goodness.

"

Remark.
i'rom

is the

noun

and

of

as

We. is

a
an

a letter,
or
word, a syllable,
object,it is a noun.

personal

4- is the si'^n of addition.


,

prononn.

is a

comma.

Un

is

symbol

prefix.

of any

Ji is

kind

vowel.

40

ENGLISH

GEAMMAE.

So, when a phrase,or


a noun.
object,it becomes

8.
an

Ex.

To

"

see

the

is

sun

clause of

pleasant.

sentence,is used

That you have

urongedme

to denot"

dotli appear

in this.
Remark.
when

The

"

used

as

is often

noun

and

nouns,

even

called

divided

are

substantive.

pronouns,

36. Proper and


1. Nouns

called

are

All

phrases

or

clauses,

substantives.

Common

Nouns.

into two

classes,"
proper

and

common.

2. A proper
Ex.

"

Such

is the

noun

of

name

individual

an

object.

James, Erie.

plural names
proper

Romans, Alps,Azores,are

as

because

nouns,

whole

is

group

sidered
commonly conregarded as an

individual.

3. A

Gommon

individual
Ex.

"

of

becomes

Ex.-""

to

simply an
individual

each

the

to each

individual

ever
whenby itself,
it
belonging to a class,

as

noun.

is the Cicero of his

He

been

represent an

common

when
Still,

same

Thomas, happens

as

name,

orator.
age,"i.e. a distinguished

it
by itself,
individually

given

5. Common

to

one

nouns,

is

as

to

be given to several

trulya

proper

name

as

sons,
per-

though

alone.

become

the contrary,may

on

or
by personification
specialuse,

an

appliesto

objects.

denotes

noun

proper

it is made

it had

class of

which

name

3fan,boy,house.

4. As

but

is

noun

the

objectnamed

when,
regarded as

proper,
is

individual.
Ex."

thou
Justice,

The

reason.

6. Under

Common.

The

the

of

head

and
collective,
abstract,
7. A
than

one

Ex.

"

art fled to brutish

collective

noun

men

have lost their

Park.
nouns

common

verbal
is

and
beasts,

one

object.
Army, family,flock.

are

commonly reckoned

nouns.

denotes
which, in the singular,

more

42

ENGLISH

6.
nouns

Write

the

from

page

in

7. Fill the blanks


selection :

Select all the


of fifteenobjectsin this room.
[Let the teacher assignthe page. )
your Reader.

names
"

in the

followingexampleswith

will decay.
destroyed.
is the king of beasts.
was

were

rise at six o'clock.

Eed

country.

was

Sea.

tyrant.

IS

will

the father

shine at

in the

night.

Propertiesof Nouns.
persoUj number

gerv-

case.

is that

Person

which

own

"

overthrown

for Absalom.

of Nouns.

39. Person
1.

were

of
belongthe properties

nouns

der,and

mourned

38.
To

have fallen.

strong.

are

quadruped.

of his

of your

nou7is

"

isshort.
a

GRAMMAR.

the

shows

property of

relation of

the

noun

or

speaker to

pronoun
the object

("5,Rem.) spoken of.


objectspoken of may be (1)the speakerhimself (2)the
spoken to,
spoken to, or (3) a party neither speaking nor
person
but merely spokenof. Hence,
2. The

"

"

3. There

three persons,

are

and
the second,
thefirsty

"

the

third,
4. ThQ
Ex.

"

first
person

I,John, saw

Remark.

these

denotes

speaker.

things.

Observe, here,that

"

the

"

P' denotes

the

one

spoken of,as

well

as

the

speaking.

one

5. The
Ex.

"

second

Children,
obey

Here^^e or
also that

and

person

6. The

you

denotes

the person

parents.

your

denotes
understood, meaning cliildren,

spoken

spoken to.
the

party spoken to,

of.

denotes

third person

the person

or

thingspoken

of.
Ex.
Here

"

Thomas
Thomas

did not
and

come.

harvest

The

harvest is abundant.

represent merely the party spoken of.

ETYMOLOGY

The

Remark."
in any
a

third

It

becomes

the

sentence.

only

him

as

presupposes

mere

name

the

both

as

speaking

or

the

when

that

reason

speaker

It

or

the

the

and

spoken of

or

would

in

sent
repre/or

word

the

the

place

spoken

or

pression.
ex-

first

it claims
hearer

requires, therefore,

and

sented
repre-

second,
a
first,

expressed. Hence,
of

never

rightfullydemands

only which

party spoken of.

the

represent him

to

you

the

be

such, alone, is

as

third, it is for that

the

also
But

these

of

viust

person

person

43

NOUNS.

OF

sentence

every
last

i^ the

third

The

second

the

or

Yet

sentence.

person.

second

first

PERSON

"

the

at

to

time.

same

7. A

in the first

noun

subjector

the

objectof

either,for

the

purpose

person

is

be put in

may

used

never

the

as

appositionwith

explanation.
salutation

The

you.

of me,

Paul.

objects are in the second person


objects to which they apply are spoken to. Objects thus
actual
and are treated as though they were
are
personified,

8. The

when

verb, but

of

I, Paul, beseech

Ex."

second

the

addressed

inanimate

of

names

hearers.
Ex.

And

"

loved thee, Ocean.

I have

40.
1,

Tell the person

Nero
art

all
my

the

tyrant.

Delays

in the

nouns

following sentences:

Children, obey

Philip,thou

parents.

your

"

dangerous. His praise,ye brooks, attune.


the river.
ferryman took us safelyacross
Keep thy heart with
Let
diligence. King Philip was the last of the Wampanoags.
gent
diliSeest thou a man
country be thine,"said his preserver.
a

The

was

of

Exercise.

man.

"

business ? he

in his

fallen !

thou

art

or

in the

the pronoun

lost

and

purse

has
The

father

The

duke

stand

before

grieved in

my

spirit.
of

person

the

"

for murder.
all

art the

contents.

strangelyended.

called

kings. Babylon, how

followingexpressions;tell the

inserted:

executed

was

shall

I, Daniel, was

2. Fill the blanks


noun

are

sons

and

The

man.
are

lady

willing to

main.
re-

delightin surf bathing.


daughters around
.

beloved

was

esteemed

kindness.

for
wast

for

wrong

to urge

me

uprightness, and
Art
so.

the

spiritof earth

duchess
or

air ?

44

ElfGLISH

GRAMMAK.

4:1.Number
1.

is that

Nnmber

of Nouns.

property of

one
objectfrom
distinguishes
2. Nouns
have
two
numbers,
plural,
3. The singularnumber
denotes

which

the

4. The

plural denotes

than

more

1. The

pluralof

unite

can

is

es

only

coalesces with

sound

with

sound

s,

the

when

added, s

ends
singular

s.

has

the sound

of

added, it has the sound

is

z.

of

it unites

when

or

vowel.

the

it follows

rule

(i5,3)

consonant

for

; that

the

combination

is,it is

"

of

aspiratewhen

consonants

it unites

aspirate.

an

Hat, hats; cap,

"

It is
Ex.

with

Folio,folios
; flea,fieas.

"

It follows

Ex.

singularends

Fox,foxes; branch,branches.

"

When

with

of the Plural.

Box, boxes; church,churches.

"

2. When

when

object.

one

"

coalesce with

or

coalesce with

that cannot

Ex.

object.

one

regularlyformed,

the

when

(b.)By adding es,

Ex.

the

trees.
Book, books; tree.,

"

Ex.

is

nouns

(a.)By adding s,
Ex.

singular and

nations.
Horses,rivers,

"

42. Regular Formation

that

but

one.

Horse,river,nation.

"

Ex.

than

more

"

Ex.

(ora pronoun)

noun

"

subvocal

caps;

(orz) when

clocks.
surf,surfs;clock,
it follows

subvocal.

Lad, lads; log,logs; ball,balls;farm, farms ; fan,fans ;

war,

ETYMOLOGY

3. The
final

or

the

syllableof

Ex.

Church, church-es;race,

"

The

or

does not add

es

it does

syllablewhen
singular.

adds

es

not

coalesce with the

cage, cag-es.

rac-es;

it coalesces with the final

when
syllable

45

NUMBER.

"

syllable.
Ex.

Work, ivorks;echo,echoes.

"

the

1. When

final s,

contrary

to

(42,2), is subvocal,
be changed (i5,3) into

rule

the

aspiratesounds /,/(?,the /must

after the

its correlative
Ex.

of the Plural.

IrregularFormation

43.

v.

thieves.
sheaves;thief,
lives;sheaf,
Loaf,loaves;life,

"

in the pluralof dwarf, brief,


scarf,reef,
as
aspirate,
handkerchief,
gulf surf turf,serf,proof,hoof,
kerchief,
grief,
chief,
when
the / is not changed. Staff,
meaning a
strife,
fife,
roof,safe,
it
meaning a set of officers,
stick,has staves for its plural; when
has staffs.The
pluralof wharf, in the United States,is wharves ;
When

in

is

England, wharfs.

aspirateis also subvocal (except in tricth.


a similar
youth,and, it may be,a few other words),and would cause
the correlative
not
change in the orthography of the plural,were
by th.
(6) also represented
2. The

Ex.

added

Oath,oaths; bath,baths.

"

8. Most

ending

nouns
s

Ex.

th

to

in

preceded by

alone w^ould coalesce with

consonant, add

withstandin
es, not-

(42,1).

Cargo,cargoes.

"

Zero, canto,grotto,quarto,junto, duodecimo, octavo,solo,portico,


writers es is
tyro, halo,piano, memento, add only s. Yet by some
added.

ending

Nouns
Ex.

"

in

Folio,
folios
;

4. Nouns

ending

precededby
cameo,

in y

vowel,follow the generalrule.

cameos.

preceded by

consonant

(28,3),change

y into ies.
Ex.

"

Glory,glories;mercy,

Formerly
were

then
Ex.

"

these

formed

words

mercies.

in the

regularly.

Glorie,tnercie.

singularended

in ie.

Their

plurals

46

ENGLISH

Nouns
Ex.

endingin

GRAMMAR.

preceded by

vowel,form the pluralregularly.

Day, days; key,keys.

"

5. The

Man,

followingpluralsare

men;

woman,

women;

lice;mouse,
feet;louse,
6. Some

ox, oxen;

mice;

have

very

cow,

both

:
irregular
"

goose, geese;

child,children;foot,

teeth.
formerly kine; tooth,

regularand an irregularplural;
forms have usuallydifferent significations.

the two

nouns

but

Brother,brothers (of the same


family); brethren (of the same
society)
geniuses
; die,dies (stamps)
; dice (cubesused in gaming) ; genius,
of
of
indexes
genius); genii (spirits)
(men
(tables reference);
; index,
Ex.

"

(signsin algebra); pea, peas (distinct


seeds); pease
pennies(coins)
; pence (a sum, or value).

indices
penny,

7. Names

have

substances,and

most

abstract

commonly

nouns,

pluralform.

no

Ex.

of

(quantity)
;

darkness.
Gold,cider,
flax,milk,tar, goodness,

"

different kinds of the substances

When

are

referred to,the

plural

is used.

form

Ex.

Waters,wines,teas.

"

compound words, if the word denoting the principalidea


it is changed to form the plural.
is placedfirst,
8. In

Ex.

"

;
Court-martial,courts-martial; cousin-german,cousins-german

hangers-on.
hanger-on,
But
Ex.

if the
"

word
principal

the final word


is placedlast,

is changed.

Handful,hand-fuls.

equallyprominent,are changed in
parts,being (apparently)
man-servant,woman-servant, and knight-templar.
Both

Ex.
9.

"

Men-servants,women-servants, knights-templars.

and signsare
Letters,marks, figures,

Ex."

The

10. When
are

formed
Ex."

The

by adding
pluralized

s's; the I's; the *'s; the 9's; the +


other parts of

speech are

used

as

's.

's.

nouns,

their

plurals

regularly.
ifs and

buts.

The

whys

and

wherefores.At

sixes and

sevens.

Many
plurals.
11.

nouns

from

foreign languages retain

their

original

ETYMOLOGY

NOUNS

"

47

NUMBER.

"

ton,
automaAntithesis,antitheses; arcanum,
arcana;
bandit, banditti; basis,bases; beau,
automata;
axis,axes;
crises ; datum,
criteria ; crisis,
cherubim
beaux
; criterion,
; cherub,
data; desideratum, desiderata; encomium, encomia; effluvium,
ellipses;focus,foci; form.ula,
effluvia;erratum, errata; ellipsis,
hypothesis,hypotheses; madame, mesformulae; genus, genera;
dames
magi ; memorandum, memoranda
; medium, media
;
; magus,
sieurs;
mesminutia,minutiae; metamorphosis,metamorphoses; monsieur,
nebula, nebulae; phenomenon, phenomena; radius,radii;
mina
Beraph,seraphim ; stimulus,stimuli ; stratum, strata ; stamen, staExamples.

"

vortex, vortices.

of

44. Plural
Names.

1. Single

has

several of the

together,the
Ex.

The

"

name

So, also,the
plural.

Ex.

Names.

"

names

and

nations,

Bomans.

formed,

are

common

When

as

general rule,

names.

appliedto the
each
a sort of appositionto
other,they
one
complex name, and are made plural

stand
in
individual,
are
generallyconsidered as
by varying the last only.
The

in every

two

or

GeorgeWashingtons.May

science ?

6. A

Title

"

and

more

been

uniform

sometimes
title,
The

7. In
for
title,

be Sir Isaac JSfewtons

Watts.
a

Name."

When

in the formation

the name,

Misses

names,

there not

as
title,

Messrs.,Gen., Capt.,or Dr.,is prefixedto

"

spoken of

are

of races, communities

Jesuits;The

same

"

family

or

Canada, Canadas; Jew,Jews; Ptolemy,Ptolemies.

"

5. Complex

Ex.

object

Cccsars.

names

pluralsof proper
accordingto the analogy of

not

individual

an

pluralform.

twelve

4. The

Ex.

name

same

the

proper

Indians; The

The

"

takes

Tudors; The

3.

Ex.

of

name

proper

plural.

no

2. When

are

The

"

Names.

Proper

Brown;

sometimes

The

Miss

cases, the

the most

part,determines

proper

name,

usage

has

the
plural. Sometimes
both,have been varied.

of the

and

all these

Miss, Mrs., Mr.,

Thompsons ;

The

Misses

Winthrops.

relative

prominence of the name


the pluralform.
Thus,
"

and

48

ENGLISH

(a.)When the name


takes the plural form.

is made

prominent,that alone,and not the title,


In speaking of three persons
of
by the name
should say (44,2), The three Browns
;" thus distinguishing
the Smiths,or those of any other name.
Now, with this idea
"

Brown,

we

from

them

if

uppermost,

wished

we

also to

should

the
add, incidentally,

So, the

Dr. Smiths.

(b.)When
varied.

same

way

we

names

would

if the

different^the three

were

and

name

"

Miss

; as,

were

gentlemen;

If now,

with the

should

say,

Misses

Brown,
so
Brown," and especially

"the three Misses


the Misses Brown."

In the former
"

Miss

out
with-

of these eases,

equallyprominent,they are

say,

(1)

nam;"
Put-

Atwood, and

titlesare

Lords

The

Baronets

Brown,

Miss

Atwood^

made

Bishopsof

and

Durham

St. David's

both varied.

; The

Knights

(43,8).
so

it would

made

Misses

say, the three

many

we

be

Putnam."

Ex.

are

and

should

two

And

the name,

should

alone

prominent,we

(c.)When
"

add
incidentally

ladies,we

young

the three 3Iiss Brovms."

prominent, that

"

(2) if the same,


the numeral

"

as

speak of three persons,


from so
them, as ladies,
distinguish
say, the two Drs.,the three Generals.

title prominent,we
if the

made

title,

"

should

we

should

them
distinguish

distinctive

the title is to be

Thus, if

Misses,we
in the

GRAMMAR.

by

seem,

the

equally emphatic, they

Winthrop, in

law,that,when

same

should

distinction from

both

titleand

name

be varied.

the Messrs.

Thus,
Winthrop; and

the
the

3Iisses

Yet usage
Winthrops,in distinction from the 3Iessrs. Mortons.
in placing the plural name
after 3frs, as,
to be nearly uniform
seems
the 3frs. Whites," and the pluraltitlebefore the names, when
persons
mentioned
of different names
are
together; as, the Misses Wilson and
"

"

"

"

Everett ; 3Iessrs. Little and

45. Remarks
1. Nouns

2, 3),and
sorts

Ex.

are

"

without

Brown."

on
a

Plural.

"

denoting substance
expressed,have no plural.
nouns

Gold,grass,

of Nouns.

the Number

Proper nouns, except


(43,7),except when

as

in

(44,

different

urine.

have
followingnouns
no
singular: scissors,
billiards,
ides,vitals,
vespers, ashes,clothes,
and some
"c.
Lungs, boiuels,
bellows,
drawers,nippers,tongs,shears,
others,have a singulardenoting a part of the whole.
Embers, oats,
in
the
seldom
used
are
intestines,
antipodes,
singular.
literati,
2. Nouns

without

the

Singular.

"

The

60

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

47, Gender
1.

is

Gender

2. There

and

are

of Nouns,

distinction of

three

in

regardto sex.
masculine,
the/emmme,

nouns

genders, the
"

the neuter.

3. Nouns

which

denote

males

denote

females

are

of

the

masculine

gender.
Ex.

"

Man, king,hero.

4. Nouns

which

are

of the

feminine

gender.
Ex.

"

which

5. Nouns

of the neuter
Ex.

"

"

denote

neither

males

nor

females

are

gender.

Tree,rock,paper.

6. Some
Ex.

queen, mother.

Woman,

nouns

denote

either males

females.

or

Parent,child,
cousin,
friend,neighbor.

These

sometimes

said to be of the

gender ; but,as the


generallybe determined by the connection,
gender of such nouns
may
to be no
there seems
necessityfor the distinction. In case the
be called masculine.
gender is not so determined,such nouns
may
the masculine
7. By a figureof speech,called Personification,
or
of
feminine gender is appliedto inanimate
a
objects: thus,we say
rises
in
She
sails
He
The use
the east."
well ;" of the sun,
ship,
animation
of this figureimparts peculiarbeauty and
to language.
sails pant to be on their
Her flagstreams
wildly,and her fluttering
flight." The meek-eyed morn
appears, mother of dews."
of
8. In speaking of the inferior animals,and sometimes
even
the distinction of sex
is not observed.
infants,
are

^^

common

^^

"

"

Ex.

child

And

"

was

But
any
the

it became

lyingin

serpent,and

Moses

fled from

before it.

The

its cradle.

in

speaking of animals distinguishedfor boldness,size,or


other marked
qualitypeculiarto the male, we attribute to them
masculine
is not known.
when
the sex
gender,even

Ex.

"

The

eagleis the king of

9. Collective nouns,

])kiralform, are

neuter.

if

birds.

they convey

the idea of

unity,or take the

t
'

ETYMOLOGY

Ex.

The

"

army,

on

they convey the


they take the gender of
Ex.

The

"

jurycould
the

10. When

"

the

pluralform,

compose

lection.
the col-

their verdict.

not agree upon

conferred

Jenner

48. Methods
1.

individuals which

the

are

shout of defiance.

without
plurality

by different
distinguished

is used to include both

the masculine
Ex.

sexes

idea of

51

GENDER.

"

itsapproach,raised

if

But

NOUNS

"

words

(48,1),

sexes.

greatbenefit on

man.

the Sexes.
of distinguishing

By usingdifferentwords

"

maid ; beau,belle;boar,:"sow;
boy,girl;
Bachelor,
duck
hen
sister
doe
cow
; drake,
; earl,
brother,
; cock,
; bull;
; buck,
husband,
horse^
mother; gander,goose;
mare;
countess; father,
female; man,
lass;
male,
lord,lady;
lad,
wife; king, queen;
nephew, niece; ram, ewe; son, daughter; stag,hind;
woman;
uncle,aunt; wizard,witch; dog, bitch; monk, nun; hart,roe;
sir,
master,mistress ; Mister,Mistress (Mr.,Mrs.); papa, mamma;
damsel
slut ; steer,
heifer ; youth,
madam
; swain,nymph.
; sloven,
Examples.

masculine

(a.)Some
Ex.

"

While
Ex.
2.

"

By

"

nouns

have

no

feminines.
corresponding

Baker,brewer,
porter,carrier.
some

feminine

nouns

have

masculines.
corresponding

no

seamstress.
Laundress,
a

difference of termination

"

nistratrix
admiadministrator,
; author,
factress;
beneauthoress;baron,baroness; bridegroom,bride;benefactor,
count, countess; czar, czarina; dauphin, dauphiness;
directress ; don, donna ; duke,duchess ;
deacon,deaconess ; director,
emperor, empress ; executor,executrix ; governor, governess ; heir,
heiress;hero,heroine ; hunter,huntress;host,hostess;instructor,
instructress;
Jew, Jewess; landgrave,landgravine;lion,lioness;
marchioness
monitress ; patron,patroness; poet,
marquis,
; monitor,
priestess;
prince,princess;prophet,prophetess;
poetess; priest,
testatrix;
tailoress;testator,
shepherd,shepherdess;tailor,
tiger,
widow;
tigress;tutor,tutoress; viscount,viscountess;widower,
god,goddess; giant,giantess
songstress
;
; negro, negress ; songster,
sultana.
sorcerer, sorceress
; sultan,
Examples.

"

Abbot, abbess

actor,actress

ambassadress
adulteress ; ambassador,
; adulterer,

52

ENGLISH

"

3.

By joiningsome

Examples.

GRAMMAR.

word
distinguishing

"

luamdlord,
landlady; gentleman,gentlewoman ; pea.
cock,-pesihen; he-goat,she-goat;man-servant, maid-ser\ant ; malt
child,
female child ; coc/?;-sparrow,
Aew-sparrow; grandfather,grandmother; English?/za?i,
EnglishwomaTi/ memian,
meimaid; school"

master,schoohnistress.

4:9. Exercise.
1. Tell which

and which

of

neuter:

the followingnouns

are

which feminine,
masculine,

"

Picture,walnut, duchess,Spaniard, letter,


sailor,queen, priest,
curtain,lioness,nun, captain,widow, wizard, deacon, hospital,
banner,brother,countess.
2.

Give the femininegenderof the followingnouns:

"

Man, abbot, horse,hero, tiger,heir,prophet, Jew, male, lord)


widower, husband, beau, uncle, host,poet, gander,sultan,master,
king,bridegroom,prince,nephew, duke.
3. Give the masculine

the

genderof

following:

"

marchioness,woman,
Empress, mother, sister,
witch,doe.
4. Fill the blanJcs in the
in the masculine

nouns

is

followingexamples; the first


fivewith
gender:
loves his sister.

exposes

mon
com-

"

patient.

of beasts.

she-goat,electress,

his

reigns king

for sale.

wares

should

rate
vene-

in the
nouns
five with proper w' common
tained
enterwas
Queen of England.
feminine gender:
her guestswith grace.
a distinguished
was
poetess.
her
loves
the nightingaleof Sweden.
offspring.
was
met
at
The next fivewith collective nouns, and tellthe gender:
the house of a friend.
were
brought in a verdict.
must
obey its leaders.
appointed by the chair.
listened with delight.

the

old.

The

next

"

5. Select the

number

and
J

nouns

in the

genderof
Thou

each

followingexample;
noun:

too sail on, 0

Sail on, O

tell the

"

Ship of State I

Union, strong and great !


Humanity, with all its fears,
With all the hopes of future years.

class,
person,

ETYMOLOGY

Is

NOUNS

"

thy fate !
laid thy keel,
Master
wrought thy ribs of steel. Longjellow.

hanging breathless

We

what

know

What

53

CASE.

"

workmen

on

"

50. Case of Nouns.


1.

denotes the relation of

Case

noun

or

pronoun

to

tjtherwords.
2. There

and

the

"

nominative

case

is commonly used

Ex.

Georgespeaks.

"

the possessive,
nominativej

objective.

3. The

and

the

three cases,

are

as

The

is the
the
door

form of the noun,


simplest
of a proposition.
subject
shut.

was

the nominative
proposition,
be used
case
1st,as the attribute of a proposition;2d, to
may
identifythe subjector the attribute ; 3d, it may be independent of
4. Besides

being the subjectof

"

any

other
Ex.

"

word.

apostle.The stars
blind.
It was
John, the beloved
studies. Mary, are you ready ?

Peter
(1st.)

the poet, was


attend to your

an

was

5. The
or

case
possessive
possession.

Ex.

"

David's

6. The

"

suns.

the relation of

property

harp.

of
singular
possessive

by adding an
Ex.

denotes

(2d.)Milton,
disciple.(3d.)Henry,

are

'

( ) and
apostrophe

nouns

formed
is regularly

the letter "" to the nominative.

Man's, David's.

7. When

the

in s, the

pluralends

apostropheonly is

added.
Ex.

"

But

Boys',ladies'.
the

(^)and

any other letter than


Ex.

"

are

added

when

the

pluralends

in

s.

Men's,women's,brethren's.

in the singularis evidentlya


('s)
possessivetermination
contraction of the Anglo-Saxon or Old English genitivees or /d.
8. The

5*

54

ENGLISH

'

The

( ) in the plural
In

possessive case.
written

in the

century,
"

The

Lord

letters

expressions:""

the

the

having

sound

Peleus' son,

"

of

and

s, and

of

the

Wales,

seal;"

pryve

ground."

letter

combination

or

addition

prose- writers

some

Prince

the first of the thirteenth

Erles

in

or

the

denote

to

liege Lordes

The

in s,

used

the

to

or

Our
"

;"

singular ends

harsh, the poets


Ex.

invention

Grey's letter

Kynges commaundement

9. When

be

modern

latter part of the twelfth


these

are

is

GRAMMAR.

of

add

of

syllablewould

a
'

the

( ) only.

goodness'sake, conscience' sake, Moses'

seat, cockatrice^

den.
Remarks.
the

form

in favor

difference

and

( ) only,

Exjjress;
of

if

In

Ex.

whose

For

"

The

The
Who

13.
forms
must

have

"I

stands

upon

his

plural

of

will

authority

admit

Bates's

as,

some

Kvpj-ess,

is

cially
espe-

Sermons,

alike

are

(45, 4), the

singular,and follow

the

nominative

be determined

and

with

the

s, and

apostrophe

it in the

increase

to mark

of

bles,
sylla-

the

plural

or

of

case.

transitive verb

bird sat

knife. The

the

you?"

"I

position,
pre-

have

my

Whom?

captain."
"

the free.
Whof

alarms

the

answers

question

the

on

question
What

case
possessive

"On

him

what

"

?"

question

brother's
or

WJmt?

or

Whose

book."

What?

The
f

The

as, "Whom

he

does

stand?"

decTc.'^

possessive case

of the

the

connection

writes."""

the
see

apostrophic

answers

John

ThQ

answers

see?"

The

"

?"

book

no

case

him."

Whose

He

word;

in s,

Adams'

weight

euphony

respecting

ends

case.
objective

nominative

alarms

you

and

follows

opened

writes

of

use

noun

Thomas

"

objectivecase
do

have

wo

The

of

the

in the

the

of

has

it is in the

as,

laws

pronouncing

singular

the sound

signs (43, 9)

When

11.

^^

singular

Thus,

s.

Otis' s Letters.
the

precede the

(42, 2, 3.)

see

storm

in

and

the

Deer's,deers';sheep's,
sheeps*.

"

letters and

"

writers

among

"

nouns

Remarks.

as,

'

s, whenever

is added

apostrophe should
plural.

12.

the (

some

where

cases

Notes.

10.

Ex.

opinion prevails

Otis' Letters,or

additional

syllable

Barnes's

the

of

in other

possessive

'

the

Adams's

or

the

of

adding

Some

"

be

may
and

the

known

by

objective are

by their relation

to

other

its form.
alike

words.

But

hence

the

they

ETYMOLOGY

51. Declension
The

of

declension

and

number

OF

DECL.ENSION

"

of Nouns.
is its variation

noun

55

NOUNS.

to denote

case.

52. Exercise.
the

1. Put
each

followingnouns
be ivritten on
expression
The

Abraham
Webster

David

Dictionary.

2. Give

your

thus
slates,

The

carpenteraxe.

son.

sheep. The lion


was
destroyedby

in Italics into the

roar

his

the rule

The

coachman

aroused

the

the

Id

"

law.

Adams

Arithmetic.

at the herdsman
dog barked
shepherddog. The farmer corn

neighborcow.

for forming

and

axe.
carpenter's

3foses

harp.

possessive
case,

case.
possessive

56

ENGLISH

3.

Write

GRAMMAR.

the followingnomis

appropriatenoun

in the

afterthem,thus

The

possessive
plural and placesome

"

tailors^ shears.

The

men^s

apartment.

Tailor,seaman,
captain,doctor,brother,valley,folly,
alley,
ally,
president,sheep.
hero,arch,child,director,

53.
1.

Parsing.

Parsing consists,
"

the part of speech.


(1.)In telling
its properties
accidents,
or
(2.)In telling
(3.)In pointingout its relation to other words, and
givingthe rule for its construction.
"
parsing a noun,
(1.)Say it is a noun, and why.
and why.
or proper,
(2.)Common
the third person, and why.
the second,
or
(3.)Of the first,
(4.)Of the singularor tho, pluralnumber, and why.
(5.)Of the masculine,the feminine,or the neuter gender,and why.
or the objective
(6.)Of the nominative,the possessive,
case, and why.
(7.)The rule for construction.

2. In

Note.

"

"

The

may

be able

The

Kules

teacher

can

pupil

of

who

Syntax

omit

or

use

has

been

this third

introduce

to

will
the

of

drilled

thoroughly
element
be

course

he

rules,as

of

in

the

parsing, if the

Introduction

teacher

choose.

anticipated,if applied here.

may

The

best.

think

54. Exercise.
NOUNS.

PARSING

FOR

MODELS

vjas
general,
Washington,the successful

Wasbing^n

also

true

patriot.

it is
object; proper,
notes
it dethe name
of an individual object; third person,"
notes
the person
spoken of; singularnumber," it debut one
gender, it denotes a male ;
; masculine
of the proposition
nominative
case, it is the subject
a
patriot,"according to Rule I. :
Washington was
used
the subjectof a pro"A
as
noun
or
position,
pronoun,
is

noun,

"

it is the

name

of

an

"

"

"

"

must

be in the nominative

case."

68

ENGLISH

advancingvirtue
the

short.

run

their

have

seasons

been

cut

enjoyed,and all our


One

GEAMMAR.

usual

; all their

course

from

term,

blessingshave
for. Cooper.

cared

preciousthings are

I looked

moment

year is drawing to its natural

The

"

the hill's

gentleslope,
the billow's commotion,
All hushed
was
And
methought that the light-houselooked lovelyas Hope,
That

star

Land

life's tremulous

on

of the beautiful

The

ocean.

and

"

Moore.

brave.

freeman's

home, the martyr'sgrave.


of giant men,
nursery
Whose
deeds are linked with every glen !
!
Whittier.
My own
green land for ever
The

"

Attention

makes

the

genius;

all

pend
learning,fancy,and science de-

it." Wilmott.

upon

4. Let the whole

class parse

these

other words

or

the

on

thus
slate,

"

R. I.
Washington is N. p. 3d, s. m. nom.
Fanny's is N. p. 3d, s. f. pos. R. VII.
Desk is N. c. 3d, s. n. obj. R. XIV.

ADJECTIVES.
55. Definitions.
1. An

is

adjective

word

used

limit

to

qualifya

or

noun.

Ex.

"

good school

All words

which

the head

under

; it has

noun

same

construction

is
Every adjective
noun
or
belong to some
2.

3. When

word,
Ex.

An

the

noun

"

will

give

kingdom of
it by force.

pronoun
the

one,
you

heaven

adjectivebelonging

of the latter,and

pronoun

in

some

as, person,

dependent

or

previouslyused

been

take

here

considered

adjective,belongs

adjective,and

is hence

to

the

jilaced

adjectives.

among

The

the

as

; the box.

men

adjectiveare

article,like the

The

adjectives.

the

of the

the construction

have

of

; this table ; ten

boy
diligent

or

same
some

as

to

or

subordinate

word, and

must

its

principal.
which the adjective
belongs has

sentence,

thing,it

may

is

or

some

indefinite

be omitted.

book, if yoii will give nie that [book].


(and the violent [persons]
suffereth violence,
this

to

is said to be

noun
a.n-

understood

need
adjective

or
as

omitted, takes
noun.

the

place

ETYMOLOGY

ADJECTIVES

"

of Adjectives.

56. Classes
divided

are
Adjectives
qualifying.

1.

2. A

limiting

of

meaning
Ex.

noun,

and
limiting

classes.

into two

"

i^estrictthe
is used to define
or
adjective
without expressingany of its qualities.

house ; fivebooks

The

"

5y

ARTICLES.

"

; this pen

men.

; many

divided into three classes,


are
Limiting adjectives
and numeral
adjectives,
articles,
pronominaladjectives,
3.

"

57. Articles.
1. The
called

are

out

is called the

3. A

or

does not

because
article,

definite

it

points

pen

sun.

is called the

an

pointout

"

4.

desk ; the

The

"

Ex.

an,

particular
thing.

some

Ex.

or

articles.

The

2.

and

the,
limitingadjectives,
particular

it

particular
thing.

any

orchard.

an

is used before

An

because
article,

indefinite

sound,and

vowel

before

sonant
con-

sound.
Ex.

An

"

apple ;

it is to be
word.

one

says,

regarded

is

particular

man

the

as

The

"

an

in

thinks
show

what

but

class

Ex.

noun

Man

"

from
==

or

an,

being

used

the

whole

limitation

gives
of the

notice

be

may

in its widest
race;

He

of

is.

or

noun

but

said to limit

to

some

again, is

an,

show

kind,

same

be limited

may

not

that

point out, by

the

objectsof

The

limiting

hearer
will

of nouns,

itself

as

to the

speaker.

multitude

however,

limitation

than

particular man

that

human

the

with

descriptionof objects is meant,

individual.

honor.

an

specificor particularone.

no

or

the

mind

speaker, in regarding

the

of one,

union

sign of

man,"
the

limiting or individualizing,who
siyn that

hour ;

intimately connected

rather

regarded

When

pin ;

article is

the

Although

any

whenever

to

ticular
par-

it prevents

sense.

man

one

man,

but

no

cular
parti-

one.

be said to extend

The, again, may


when
"

The

it is used

dog,"

""i.

in

such

examples

the
as

meaning
these

"

of
The

noun

horse"

in the
==

singular,

all

horses.

60

ENGLISH

5. The
is to be
A

or

GRAMMAR.

article has the construction

of the

and
limitingadjective,

parsed like it.


an

is used

before

in

nouns

the

singular;the,before

nouns

in the

singularor plural.
6. Usually no
article is needed
used in the whole
before nouns
Client of their signification,
whether
or nouns
denoting an individual,
belonging to a class or not (36,4).
"

Ex.

"

'

is mortal.

Man

Gold is

precious.

58. Exercise.
Point

and
definite
The

the articles in

out

which

orchard, an
a

huge

followingexamples;
:
indefinite

are

hat, a book,

knife,a box,

of the

use

an

man,

stone,the

enemy,

"

That

heir,an

plough, an
a good citizen,
a hill,
man,
the ewe, a university.
the union
an

ox,

Adjectives.

which
without
the
limitingadjectives
may,
called
are
article,
understood,
representa noun
adjectives.

pronominal
Ex.

are

honest

59. Pronominal
1. Those

tell which

"

industrious

round

the

(book)is his; this is yours.

2. The

are
pronominaladjectives
iliiSy
that,
these,
principal
which,what,each,every, either,
those,
former,latter,
neither,
another,all,whole,such,much,
some, one, none, any, other,
less,least,many,
both,few, fewer,fewest,
last,little,
first,
divers,
enough,
sundry,certain,
more, most,own, same, several,

3. When

such

adjectives
representa

noun

more
generally called pronouns.
They may
used
limiting
adjectives
[pronominaladjectives)

Ex.

"

The
4.

This is my

Ex.

representa

Qualifyingadjectives
may

"

The

article must

nouns.

be

understood.

noun

also

representa

noun

when

stood
under-

prefixed.

good are happy.

5. All is sometimes

Ex."

of my

He

as

book.

articles never

; but the

understood,they are
properly be called

robbed

me

noun.

house,my

goods,my

home,

my

all.

ETYMOLOGY

Both
Ex.

is

61

ADJECTIVES.

frequentlya conjunction.

I both

"

PRONOMINAL

"

and

saw

heard

him.

be distinguished,"
Among the pronominal adjectives
may
or those which
(1.)Distributives,
point out objectstaken singly.

6.

They

neither.
each,every, either,

are

(2.)Demonstratives,
fehowingwhich is meant.
They

(3.)Indefinites,

(4.)

are

each
The

"

which

which

those

or

point out objectsindefinitely.

another.
such,other,
all,
any, whole,

some, one, none,

are

Remark.

those

or

Reciprocals,

They

pointout objectsdefinitely,

same.
this,
that,these,
those,
former,latter,

are

They

those which

or

related.
reciprocally

are

another.

one
other,

possessivesof

the

personal pronouns

are

by

reckoned

some

as
pronominal adjectives; namely, my, mine, our, ours, thy,thine,your, yours,
his,her, hers,its,their,theirs. It is better to regard them as the possessive

of the pronouns.

case

These,those,
all,many, both,few,fewer,fewest,several,
sundry
the
in
usuallyrequirea noun
plural.
7.

Ex.

These

"

and

8. Either
When

days ;

neither

than

more

those

plants.

are

used

with

to two

referred to,any

objectsare

two

reference

and

thingsonly.
none

should

be used.
Ex.

Any

you.

either road ; both

Take

"

of the four

plans will

9. This refers to the


remote

more

10.

One

and

other

One,
One's,
One;

Pos.

Obj.

meet

or

; and

enough

neither will suit

with favor.

last-mentioned

to
object; that,

the

first-mentioned.

or

Sing.

Norn.

nearer

bad

are

are

declined thus

"

Plur.

Sing.

Ones,
Ones',

Norn.

Ones.

Obj.

Pos.

Other,
Other's,
Other;

Plur.

Others,
Others',
Others.

60. Exercise.
1. Point
This
than

out

in
thepronominaladjectives

rule is

the followingsentences:

"

These scholars are more


to that.
studious
preferable
those. The former plan has yieldedto the latter. Eacli exer0

"

62

ENGLISH

cise

well written.

was

method
Few

is better

men

these

are

points. Our

others.

More

entertained
course

from

Every accused one


the last. Many

than

of the

mind.

same

Much

wishes

own

present

were

GRAMMAR.

of his recovery.

blasted.

are

to be said upon

al]

yielded to those of
expected. Little hope was
remark
was
just. The same

Neither

pursued by several of the


Unto
imprudence.
me, who

hopes

our

first

often be

were

was

of

remains

must

than

acquitted.The

was

members.

"

Much

less than

am

harm

arises

the least of all

saints."

61. Numeral
1.

Nnmeral

adjectives

as, onCy

are
adjectives

which

Cardinal,
"

"

which

"

Ex.

denote

show

"

how

which

many,

series,

of a

one

show

which

is used

numeral

adjective,takes
prefixed.
"

divided into,

repetition.

"c.
or
threefold,
Twice,or twofold,
thrice,

3. When

article

ber;
num-

First,second,third.

Multiplicative,
Ex.

express

"c.
Owe, two,three,

Ordinal,
Ex.

those which

are

two, three,
stysecond,"c.
fir

2. Numeral

Ex.

Adjectives.

Two

only were

no

as

the

noun,

like the procardinal,


nominal
the

article; while

present. The

third

was

ordinal

has

the

lost.

62. Exercise.

Apply cardinal numhei's


the plural,if necessary:
1.

to the

followingnouns;

change them

to

"

goose,
Peach, berry, box, match, cork, shoe, penny, mouse,
court-martial,
tooth, brother-in-law,handfuls, stratum,
woman,
index,stamen, cherub,phenomenon.
2. Correct the

greaterthan

one

followingplurals,and
or first:

apply

to each

any

numeral

"

Oxes, calfs,
sheeps,deers,geeses, 9s,7s,fs,cherubims, seraphims,
swines, vallies,loafs,chimnies,journies,studys,commander-inchiefs,
heros,soloes,
grottoes,ladys,spoonsful,trouts,dozens.

ETYMOLOGY

63.
1. A
of
Ex.

"

virtuous

of
3. When

Ex.

placed after the noun,


parsed as a participle.

it is

Ex.

The

"

4. When

The

good,and

risingin

sun

either definite
Ex."

the east.

qualifyingadjectiverepresentsan
the article the must
or
indefinite,

wise

by other

the

[persons];

benevolent

objectunderstood,
be placed before it.
the

[ones];

tlie
beautiful,

is changed
the adjective
qualityis used abstractly,

abstract

Wise, y^hdom; beautiful,


beaui?/.

64.

different
variation

degreesof
take

the

place in

rttther,too, somewhat, quitegenerous

2. There

as

Adjectires.

is the variation

may

fortn;

of

Comparison

/ 1".^
Comparison

meiiningand

to

noun.

\/

The

is itself limited

and

the true.

When

"

fies,
it modi-

which

noun

risingsun.

words, it is

Ex.

running horse.

is placed before the


participle
called a participial
adjective,

When

an

property or quality,

the

The

"

ing
mean-

adjectives
belong the participles,
the signification
and the conof the verb
struction
the adjective.

have

it is

man

limits the

this class of

2. To

which

which

is one
adjective

by denotingsome

noun,

63

COMPARISON.

"

ing Adjectiyes.
Qualifj

qualifying
a

ADJECTIVES

"

of tbe

to
adjective

qualitywhich

the

meaning only;

more

generous,

most

press
ex-

it denotes.
in generous;

as

generous

or

very,
iu both

in clear, clearer,clearest

degreesof comparison, the positive,


and the superlative.
the comparative^
3. The positive
denotes a quality
without comparison.
Ex.

"

Atlantic

are

three

"

Righteous,
pleasant. The
is
cable
lo7ig.

Had

pen,

should

have

stret-f,and
liad

Atlantic

pen

cable

long,longer,longest.

been

is

long. The

compared

street

is

long. The

in respect to

we
length,

64

ENGLISH

4. The

eomparatiTe

than

gree
Ex.

"

the

The

5. The

"

esteemed

largerthan
by day.

6. In

the

The
of

is

siuperlatiTe

degreeof

higheror

expresses

lower

de-.

positive.

sun

bj night than

Ex.

GEAMMAR.

the

The

moon.

the

expresses

march

lesa difficuli

was

the lowest

highestor

quality.

dog

is the most

of
faithful

animals.

The

miser is the least

show

equalor unequal

men.

respect to

comparison may

intensity,

degrees.
Ex.
than

"

Monday

fiction.

7. In

will be

The

ivildestland
sweetest,

respect to the

(1.)That

convenient

as

on

conditions

is

"

more

tivo

Georgeis older
than

prosperous

nightthan by day.
(2.)That
or

in

Of

"

Snow

is

white

as

is the tallest of all

(3.)That, in
to the same

Ex.

"

Our

Asiatic

than

possess

may

loool.

or

show,
"

contrasted

are

in
others,

all

in the

the superlative.

is the older of the two.


animals

are

is the most
the

active

more

He

by

precious.
qualityin equal

same

"

different

as

was

is

was

as

in

than

hemp.

This

tree

qualitymay

same

long
be-

unequal degrees.

in danger
self-possessed

prevalent in

more

prevalentin

aid

the

circumstances,

objectin equal or

cholera

The

is whiter

Wool

(thetrees).

autumn

in

safety.
winter,and

as

than

in

same

objectin equal

summer,

qualities
(4.)That different
in unequal degrees.
Ex.

may

belong to

The
timelyas acceptable.

the

servant

was

more

skillful

willing.

(5.)That
but

as

commander

usuallymost

or

than his brother,


or

objects

is stranger

unequal degrees.

Ex.

The

more,

scrupulous.Many
all jewels,
the diamond

diflTerent

Truth

earth.

compared,it may

terms

or
objects,qualities,
comparativedegree, and one, with two

Ex.

Tuesday.

as

different

rarely,if
Ex.

"

He

He
propriety.

8. In

qualities

ever, in

was
was

as

may

in equal,
objects
belong to different

unequal,degrees.

his opponentwas
Scarcely,with
as
offensive.
agreeable
more
agreeablethan his opponent was offensive.

respectto

form,

comparison

may

take

place,
"

66

ENGLISH

exeeedmghj,"c.
such

Avords

Ex."

the

comparative and the superlative,


by
much,far, vastly,
altogether,
byfar, "c.

as

Bather

6. Several

; that of

GRAMMAR.

Aveak tea.

Eclipseis much

in
adjectives

the better horse.

the

superlativedegree are formed byadding


upper, nether,in,inner,hind, hinder,out (contracted
to ut),outer,further,hither,top,bottom;
as, upmost, uppermost,
"c.
nethermost,
most

to up,

7.

Adjectivesderived from proper names, numerals,


those referring
and form, and those
to position,
material,
are
havingan absolute signification,
pared.
seldom,if ever, comEx.

German, Spanish,seven, sixth,


level,
perpendicular,
square,

"

len,
wool-

icy.
With

the

most, the

8.

exception

of

much, few, first,


less,least,many,
last,little,

pronominal adjectivesare

not

compared.

adjectives
denoting place or

Many

more,

situation

are

deficient in

of the

degrees: thus,further,furthermostor furthest,hither,


hithermost,
nether,nethermost,under, undermost,want the positive.
parative.
Northern,northernmost; rear, rearmost,and others,want the comsome

Inferior,
superior,
junior,major, anterior,
posterior,
prior,
ulterior,
senior,
minor, are directlyfrom the Latin,and have neither
the positive
the superlative.
nor
66. Exercise.
1. Telliohich

of

the followingwords

are

adjectives:
"

gent,
Ice,cold,soft,water, this,little,
chair,knob, arise,brave, diliinkstand,lamp, many, former,light,white,match, rough.
2. Tell which

of

the followingadjectives
are

and
limiting,

which

are

:
qualifying
"

Strong,twenty, faithful,
first,
green, this,
an, old,former,yellow,
those,pure,
the,soft,
every, such,wonderful,timid,sweet, any, fifth,
ripe,tough.
3. Tell which

of

the

which
are
of the followingadjectives
of the positive,
and which of the superlative
degree:
comparative,
"

acceptable,eldest,less useful,worst, better,most


Braver, more
plentiful,least worthy, last,
honorable, strongest, sadder, more
good.

ETYxMOLOGY

4.

Compare

"

ADJECTIVES

67

PARSING.

the followingadjectives:
"

Bright,active,handsome, wise,sad,able,jiLst,
diligent,
beautiful,
dutiful,
little,
good, excellent,
large,warm, lovely.
serene, fruitful,
to five common
jectives
Apply limitingadjectives
qualifyingadnouns;
in the positivedegreeto five common
nouns
of the masculine
in the comparativedegreeto fivecommon
gender; qualifying
adjectives
in the superlative
nouns
of the feminine gender; qualifyingadjectives
of the neuter gender,pluralnumber^
degreeto fivenouns

5.

67. Models
1. In

for Parsing.

adjective,

parsing an

"

speech it is. Why?


(2.)Tell what kind of adjective.Why?
(3.)Compare it,and give the degree (ifa qualifying
adjective).
it belongs.
(4.)Tell to what noun
(1.)Tell

what

(5.)Give
2. The

part

the rule.

faithfulman
is

of

will be rewarded.

adjective;it is used to limit or qualifya noun


; qualifying,
it denotes quality;compared, positive,
faithful,
most faithful; in
comparative,more
faithful,superlative,
the positive
degree; and belongs to man, accordingto Eule
An
V. :
adjectiveor a participlemust belong to some
noun
or
pronoun."

Faithful

an

"

"

"

house

3. Her
Larger

4. She

is

largerthan mine.

isan

adjective
(why?) ; qualifying
(why?) ; compared, positive,
in
large,comparative,larger,superlative,
largest; the
comparativedegree; it shows that one of two objectshas
the other ; and belongs
a higher degree of the qualitythan
to house,according to Rule
V.
is

worthy of

"

the

highestpraise.

adjective(why?) ; qualifying(why?) ; compared,


worthiest;
positive,worthy, comparative,worthier,superlative,
in t\iQ positive
degree,and belongs to she. Eule V.

Worthy

is

Highest

isan

an

"

adjective
(why?) ; qualifying
(why?) ; compared, positive,
high,comparative,higher,superlative,
highest;in the
degree; it shows the highestdegree of the quasuperlative
lity
and
Rule
V.
belongs to praise,accordingto
;
"

68

ENGLISH

is

The

article (why?), and as a limitingadjective


it
definite
belongs to praise,according to Eule V.

...

birds

Three

5.

is

Three

6. Give

adjective
(why?) ; limiting(why?) ; it belongs
birds,accordingto Rule V.

I will

apple,understood

noun

instead of

field of combat

The

solemn

7ioun,

the

verb

give,

bold;
"

Pope.

accordingto

and parse
in the followingexamples,

ADJECTIVES

the above

forms :
like

passionateare
thingsthe wrong way.
two

are

is to have

them

"

The

There

persons,

VIII.

Point out the

one

object of

and

as

to

sitigular
7iumber,neuter

the old.

council best becomes

adjective;it belongs to

an

Rule

all

fillsthe young

is used

understood; or it is
used as a noun, of the third person, pluralnumber, masculine
accordingto
gender,objective
case, and is the objectof fills,
is

"

is the

it is used

or

apple,of the third person,

gender,objective
case, and
accordingto Rule VIII.
7. The

(59,6,2),and

pronominal adjective,
singularnumber, and

limit the

Toungr

give you that

pronominal adjective,
singularnumber
limits apple,accordingto Rule V.

is

That

apple,and

this

me

is
.

killed.

were

numeral

to

This

GRAMMAR.

of

ways

standing on

men

their heads ;

they

see^

arrivingat the highest personal liberty;


the other is to have

few wants, and

abundant

means

of

them.
satisfying
Shining characters are not always the most agreeable.
Mental
pleasuresnever
cloy; unlike those of the body, they are
increased by repetition.
The beautiful strikes us as much
by its novelty as the deformed
itself. Burke.
"

Stone

walls do not

Nor
Minds
That
9. Parse

the nouns

and

iron bars

prisonmake,

cage.

quiettake
hermitage.

innocent
for

and

the adjectives

in the followingexamples:

still a public
he (Rufus Choate) was
public office,
The old honored
in the largest
man
sense
proud of him.
; all were
him, the young loved him, and both old and young admired him.

Rarely

in

ETYMOLOGY

How

69

PRONOUNS.

"

the

sweetlycome

holy psalms
saints and martyrs down,
From
The waving of triumphal palms
the thorny crown
Above
!
the chanted prayers
The choral praise,
From
harps by angelsstrung.
The hunted
Cameron's
mountain
airs,
The hymns that Luther sung !
Whittier.
"

"

A
PKONOUNS.
68. Definitions

is

pronoun

Ex.

farmel

The

"

word

and

which

ploughs his

Distinctions.
takes the

field ; he reaps

placeof

noun.

wheat, and gathersit

his

into his barn.


1. The
substitute

for

it in

with

it is used

its

and
noun

the

as

we

restrict the

relation

this

spoken to,

the

or

spoken

one

(39, 8), and

the

be

object may
of.

of

the

third

son,
per-

sentence; sometimes
when

when

the first

or

by

of

means

sometimes

to represent

used.

interrogativesare

represent are,

the

troduce
to in-

sometimes

"

speaker.
speaker himself,

the

the^rs^,

the

second, and

he, she,it; and

/, thou,and

pronouns

noun;

the

either

Hence

may

of to the

as

noun,

when

the pronoun

object
spoken
the

the

meaning

subject o^ inquiry,as

of the

ambiguity, as

or

in

noun

object spoken o/ (39, 8, Rem.);

relations which

(a.)That

2)er8on

the

frequently in

occur

misapjirehemion

becomes

its clause

2. The

In

-when
as
repetition,

expression to modify
adjective

an

the

to avoid

to avoid

person

relative

place of the noun, not merely to be a


but to reprea disagreeable
repetition,
sent

modifications, would

employed

second

the

it,or to avoid
important relation.

some

Sometimes

it is

takes

pronoun

the

the

one

third

hence, too, tho

j^ersonal.

name

(6.)That
Ex.

"

Here
but
renders

of the

modifyingcircumstances.

some

fortress which stands

employ

we

to
object

the

pronoun

on

hill is

to join to it the circumstance


chiefly
conspicuous. Hence the pronouns

(o.)That

of

name

an

conspicuousobject.

which, incidentallyto denote

it

hence, too, the

of

its

position as

who, which, that,and

relative.
as
objectto the r^peaker

the

an

inquirer.

ress,
object fortthat

which

what;

and

70

'

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

Here, again,the objectis incidentally


represented by the
being unknown), and that for the specialpurpose of making
Hence

we

(d.)That
mentioned
The

have

of the

Which?

of the

personal pronouns

object is

the

3. The

the

neither

is known

object

subject of

quiry.
in-

interrogative.

na^mQ

unknown,

or

relative

pronouns,
but

only known,
of the first and

been

to

the

have

second

has

not

used

are

mentioned.
pjreviously

substantive

or

noun

pression
ex-

stands.

pronoun

in which

world

has

nor

all the

not

(by its presence) but


interrogative
pronouns

The

is the
a

be

to

personal pronouns

antecedent

The

"

supposed

known

for which
Ex.

a,ndii\iQ

and

person,

mentioned.
previously

been
(necessarily)
when

The

when

used

are

person

What?

speaker,as something known


third

is

object

an

previouslymentioned.

been

the

to
object

and

it

not mentioned.

or

employed when

are

Who?

(itsnam"

pronoun

with

placed,opens

they are

all its wonders

their eyes.

upon

4. The
Ex.

antecedent

ofTensive to
which

the

which
and
of

case

no

proposition.
desire,would be
opened the window,

you

servant

relative

and

which

is

it is

more

employed

to

show

following

some

leading

of

relation

the
tion,
rela-

especiallyused
The

circumstance.

than

more

term

in the

between

its

personal pronoun

to its antecedent.

syntacticalrelation

such

the

Hence

subsequent term.

pronoun,

noun

something

means

represents; it denotes

pronoun

implies a

antecedent
bears

thing

The

men.

antecedent,however, usually

term

noun

noblest of

of the

one

is the

entire

an

forbidden.
strictly

was

The

phrase ot

believe the report,which

To

"

he

may

objectrepresentedby tlie personalpronouns of the first


sequently,
and the second person is ahvays supposed to be present,and, conis seldom given ; that of the third
the antecedent noun
person is usuallyexpressed. Sometimes, however, a personalor an
an
is employed without
antecedent,and so
interrogative
pronoun
5. The

limited
effect of
Ex.

"

"exerts

by
"He

who

the

highest human
the

is included

theywho.
7. The
its

to

give

to

the whole

the

Who
"

i.e.the orator,
by his eloquence,"
power." "Who, that marks the firestill

the minds

sways

each eye, but

6. Sometimes

Ex.""

as

singlename.

sparklingin

or

its clause

and

relative

of men

deem

would

antecedent

their bosoms

burned

in such

pronoun,

anew?"

cases, is

omitted,

in the relative.
would

Who

pronoun

be

free,themselves

steals my

purse

stands

and
syntactical
relation,

not

steals trash

merely

also

as

for

;" that is,

strike the blow

must

;" that is,he


a

noun,

but

who.

for

noun

restrictedby modifying words.

in

ETYMOLOGY

"

Ex.

"

We

saw

tlie little deformed

pitiedhim ;" i.e. the

71

PRONOUNS.

PERSONAL

"

boy

watched

who

at the

watehed

littledeformedhoy who

at the

gate,and

gate.

is something going before;


antecedent,as the term indicates,
inquiresfor an objectas yet
but, as an interrogative
pronoun
The
be a preceding noun.
noun,
prounknown, the antecedent cannot
and
in
must
gender, not
number,
therefore,
person,
agree
^the subsequent, but with
in the answer,
with the noun
necessarily
of the object
the speaker conceived to be the name
which
a
noun
he uttered the
his thought might be) when
(however erroneous
8. The

"

"

question.
Ex.

tohat

Here

Aus.

is there?

What

"

evidently

thing. It would have


object inquiredfor.

refers

been

the character

of the

of Pronouns.

divided

are

speaker known

the

had

69. Classes
1. Pronouns

animal, being equivalentto lohai

thing or

to

who,

friend.

into three

classes,-personaly
"

and interrogative.
relative^
2. To

these

classes

grammarians add adjective


pronouns.
It is true that certain limitingadjectives
take
the
place of
may
nouns
that,these,those,each,all,"c. So, any qualifying
; as, this,
in the same
stand for a noun
preceded by an article,
adjective,
may
way ; as, The good,the wise,the prudent; but a noun, in both cases,
is properly understood;
Hence
they should be disposed of alike,
that is,as adjectives
used as nouns.
some

"

3. To

pronouns,

and
Ge^ider,

like nouns,

personal

and

noun,

Case,

70. Personal
1. A

belong Person, Number

to show

is used

pronoun

whether

Pronouns.
both

it is of the

to

representa

the second,or
first,

the third person.


thou
(plural,
we) is of thej^rs^
(plural,
ye
person;
or
you) is of the second person ; he, she, and it (plural,
they) are of the third person, masculine,feminine,and
neuter, respectively.

2.

3. The

personal pronouns

of

the

first and

the

second

person

72

GRAMMAR.

ENGLISH

represent the speaker or

known,
of the
4.

and

person

is

used

is often

It

hearer.

The

indicated

is not

third

the

by the form
representedby one
in

vague
"

of the weather

; as,

sense,

It rains."

gender

is

supposed

to be

; while

that

of the pronoun
of the forms
as
"

the

he,she,or it.
scriptive
subjectof verbs de-

It thunders."

It is used

"

and tripit
expletive, (1) as the objectof a verb ; as, Come
whose
as
go;" (2) to introduce a sentence
subjectis placed
you
after the predicate, "/^fis pleasant to see the sun."
"/j5 has been
ascertained that water is composed of oxygen
and hydrogen." It is
used as subjectto represent a noun
of any
or a pronoun
as
attribute,
"It is they." "It is
number, gender, or person;
as, "It is /."
as

an

"

"

James."

It is she."

used in addressing a singleindividual,


was
Formerly, thou
used ; as,
Thou
and a correspondingform of the verb was
singest;"
take
its
the
of thou,
to
but graduallyyou has come
use
place,till
wholly discontinued.
except in the solemn or poetic style,is now
in its application,
but
You, therefore,is both singularand -plural
the verb does not change its form ; it invariablytakes the plural
form; as, "You
(meaning one) write,"not ivritest.
5.

"

firstperson,
are,
compound personal
pronouns
second person, thyself,
yourself
myself (plural,
ourselves)
;
himself,
nine)
(femi(plural,
yourselves)
; third person, (masculine)
themselves).
itself
(plural,
(neuter)
herself
6. The

"

are
sometimes, but seldom,
compound personalpronouns
though they are often used in
used as the subjectof a proposition,
appositionwith it.

7. The

knows
hiTnself

He

Ex."

used

8. When

because
reflexive,
Ex.

"

The

boy

as

not

the

the act
struck

whereof

he affirms.

objectof a transitive verb,they are called


himself.
of the agent falls back upon

himself.

71. Exercise.
1. Substitute the

and

nouns

in the followingsentences:
At

this

time, the

their

modifying words for tliepronouns

"

commander

of the

forces

and

his

sought to ascertain the state of


teered
volunHale
Captain Nathan
in disguise. On his
British army

took post at Harlem


; he now
army
his enemy's forces on Long Island.
his services ; h^ entered the

American

74

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

the

2. Of

used when
are
possessives,
my, thy,her,our, your, their,
is expressed; mine, thine,
the noun
hers,ours, yours, and theirs (in
it is understood, and
modern
the latter must
be
style),when
is supplied.
That book
changed to the former whenever the noun
"That
this is mine."
book is your book; this is my
is yours;
"

book."
mine, thine,"c.

3. When

perform

words,
as

when

arithmetic

by

force."

above

words

it

," that

"Mine
is

understood, which
case,

that
not

used

this,that,or
in its

the

above

understood, to represent

example, they

as

adjective(69, 2). Thus,

an

"

The

noun.

first three

follows them,
to

limit

the

in

and

as

its

adjective,be parsed as that

noun,

last

it is

noun,

adjective

possessive,governed by

some

to

seem

parsinga

pronoun,

say,

violent

[persons] take

to limit

of the

of

the

in the

word

the

noun

sessive
pos-

to say

mine,

It is then, strictly,
a pronoun

understood, but

in the nominative

[book]

If it is proper

equally so

not

noun,

"This

personal pronoun

office.

noun

for that

Properly, neither

or

73. Exercise.
1. In

we

adjectives used

are

the

The

taah,understood.

noun

violent is used
but

stand

or

[book] is a geography."
an
[my task] was
easy task."

pronominal,

in the

in

is

noun

does, but

an

is

office

the

pronoun

as

first,to represent the speaker, the hearer,or the person


and, secondly, like other limiting or qualifying
possessor;

double

spoken of,as

used

are

"

(1.)Tell what part of speech it is. Why?

the

may,

like an

objectivecase.

ETYMOLOGY

kind

what

(2.)Tell

PEESONAL

"

75

PRONOUNS.

of pronoun.

Why?
is. Why?

(3.)Tell what its antecedent


(4.)Decline it.
(5.)Give the person, number, gender. Why?
(6.)Rule for person, number, gender. Why?
(7.)Case and construction.
(8.)Rule for construction.
Note.

In

"

without

any

like the

noun.

2.

Study

David
His

the

parsing, let
question

from

pupil follow this order,and, as

the

teacher.

the followingmodels

brought

laid it

book, and

it takes the

and

both to representa noun,


the

parsed

possible,
much

very

"

; personal; it is used

noun

to show

third

as

the table.

on

placeof

is

pronoun

for parsing:

his

is ^pronoun

The

soon

whether

it is of the

it refers to

first,

second, or
person;
nominative
antecedent ; (singular,
he,possessive
his,objective
nominative
their ox theirs,
him; plural,
they,possessive
tive
objecthem;) it is of the third person, singularnumber, masmiits antecedent
is (Rule III. :
line gender,because
A pronoun
its
antecedent
in
must
with
gender,number, and
agree
by denoting
person^^)
; possessive
case, and is used to limit tool:,
Rule
VII.
it.
to
according
possession,
(Repeat )
the

David

for its

"

It

is

...

The

(why?) ; personal (why?) ; it has book for its


antecedent; (declineit;)it is of the third persoii, singular
booh is (Rule
number, neuter gender,because its antecedent
III.),objective
case, and is the object of laid: Rule VIII.
(Repeat the rule.)
a

pronoim

himselfrevealed the treachery.

messenger

is apronoun

(why ?); compound, composed

of him

and

self;
it has messenger
for its antecedent; third person, singular
number, masculine gender,because its antecedent is (Rule
or
III.),nominative case, and used to identify
senger,
explain mesaccordingto Rule VI.

Himself

3. Parse

the personal

in the followingsentences:

pronouns

America, under

"

such

circumstances,can betray
the
herself? that she is to be added to the catalogueof republics,
inscriptionupon whose ruins is, They were, but they are not !"
Forbid
! Story.
it,my countrymen ! forbid it.Heaven
Can

it be

that

"

"

It is

noble

facultyof

our

nature

which

enables

us

to

connect

76

ENGLISH

thonghts,our

our

in

tant

what

is dis^

Webster.

"

took

soft

the

up

loud ; and

or

wave

glassof Time,

Not

theirs the blame

But

ours

tops,ye pines. Milton.

your

and

Every moment, lightly


shaken,ran

4.

with
happiness,

our

praise,ye winds that from five quartersblow,

Breathe
Love

sympathies,and

place or time.

His

GEAMMAR.

"

turned

itself in

it in his

glowing hands,
Tennyson.

golden ssLnds."

who

furnish forth the treat.


throng the board and grosslyesit."Sprague.

who

Give the

the person, the number, the gender {when it can


class,
determined by the form), and the case of the following
:
pronouns

be

"

self,
I,he, his,hers,mine, you, thou, they,them, us, w^e, myself,himthey,herself,
me, themselves,ourselves,
my, thee,your, thine,
herself,
yourselves.

74. Relative Pronouns.


1. A

relative
noun

with
Ex.

Those

"

Kelative
we

or

it a

ought
2. The

antecedent

and
antecedent,

to

ceding
prenect
con-

instead
conjunctive

"

and
limitingadjective

adverbs.
conjunctive

By analogy,

of relative pronouns.

used

when

that I have

All

assist others.

called

commonly

are

relative pronoun,
; as,

representa

dependentproposition.

who wish for favors must

have

both to

called the

pronoun,

adverbs
to

is used

pronoun

is yours
it

pronoun,

only
;"

always

as

such, follows the

when

used

both

precedesit ; as,

"

as

I will

I have."
give you ivhat money
3. The followingdistinctions will show the difference between
relative and a personalpronoun
:

"

(a.)The

relative refers to

objectalways known,

an

and

either previously

sonal
clearlyimpliedas to need no mention ; the perthird
in
the
refer always to an objectknown,
person
pronouns
to an objectpreviouslymentioned,but in the first and the second person
to an objectnot previouslymentioned.
have a distinct form for each grammatical
(b.)The personalpronouns
thou or you for the second,and he,she,or it for the
person ; I for the first,

mentioned,or

so

"

third.

The

relative pronouns

do

not

change

their form

to

reprasent

person.

(c.)The essential difference is seen in the


(see68, 2),and in their use in construction.

relations which
The

they denote

personalpronoun

may

RELATIVE

ETYMOLOGY"

representthe subjectof

thought; the relative


is
present." "Which
the second

needs

independentsentence, tliatis,one expressing


He
relation ; as,
is
shows a dependent adjective
first is a complete sentence;
The
irai3ortant."
which
on
word, as measure
(whichis important),
an

some

"

"

depend.

it may

75.
1. The

2.

and

is used to

Relatives.

who, which,that,and

are

represent^erso^i^;

and what,

whicli

representboth persons

to

that,

tchcit.

things,
is not only the word
relative pronoun
stands,but is the leadingor antecedent term

antecedent

3. The

which
a

relatives

simple

Who

Simple

representthings;and

to

77

PRONOUNS.

the pronoun
of which
relation,

of

the

introduced

clause

by

and

which,

relative

the

subsequent term ; it is that on which the relative


and is either a definite
or an
indefinite
object.
4. Who,

for

to

is the

depends,

clause

usuallyrefer

that

of

definite

antecedent.
Ex.
In

The

"

the

indefinite

came.

The

died.

liorsewhich

steals my

sentence, "Who

steals

purse

tree that fell.

The

trash," who

refers

to

an

antecedent.

What

5.

who

man

refer either to

may

or
definite

indefinite

an

antecedent.
Ex.

I gave him

"

he wanted

him

I gave
(definite).

what

(indefinite).

he wanted
When

what money

the

is indefinite,the

antecedent

relative stands

alone,some

nite
indefi-

word, like thingor things,being understood.


6.

is both

What

relative pronoun

and

and
limitingadjective,
relative to which,and,
as
those,
a

to that or
equivalentas adjective
has a double construction.
consequently,

is

Note.
two

words

When

"

In
not

disposing of lohat,we
given,
"

but

the antecedent

adjective
; (2)as
wanted."
pronoun

Here

should

tohat itself,
callingit

is definite,
what

relative pronoun

what

as

relates to

not

parse
a

that and

relative jironoiin.

should be
"

; as,

He

then

gave

which,
"

(77, 6.)

parsed (1)as
"

me

tvhat books

an

tive
belongsto boots, a^ relalimitingadjective
is indefinite,
the antecedent
When
books.
"

7*

78

ENGLISH

the

GEAMMAR.

"thing" or "things" may

be

supplied,making this case


be taken
same
as
above;
(1) as an adjectivein the
of
that or those,
but used as a noun
sense
then
(69,2) ; it practically
both antecedent and relative ; (2)as a relative in the sense
becomes
of which,relatingto itself
in the sense
of thingor things; as, "He
what I wanted," that is, He
me
what (ant. that)
gave
gave me
what (rel. which) I wanted."
The two methods
are
practically
the same.
The former,from its perfectidentitywith the case
of a
definite antecedent,will be the more
easilyunderstood.
(77,5, 6.)
noun

the

or, it may

"

"

7.

is,

Wbat

"

(a.)A

(1)when

relative
"

it

be

can

changed

into that

which; as,

"It is

what

{thatwhich) I wanted;" (2)when it both limits and relates to a


noun
ore
was
found, was very poor," That ore which was
; as, "What
found,"c.
when
used alone (belonging
definite
to an in(6.)An interrogative
pronoun
object)to ask a question; as, What [things]do you want ?"
adjectivewhen used to limit a noun
(a definite
(c.)An interrogative
=

"

"

and also to ask a question


object),
; as,
when
it
denotes
An
interjection
{d.)

have you

adverb when

had

used

taken

so

as,

"What!

the

equivalentio 'partly
year before,
; as, "The
what
vjhat by policy,he had
by force,
matter, that,
above

thirtycastles."

is,

8. That

"

relative only when

(a.)A
"

exclamation;

an

it is

the Christians

from

does he render ?"

excuse

?"

come

(e.)An
he

What

loho

or

ivhich

be

can

substituted for
"

it; as,
private

What
loveth his own
soul."
[who)gettethwisdom
griefthey have, alas ! I know not, that (which)made them do it."
stood
when it limits a noun, expressedor under(6.)A pronominaladjective
He

that

"

(c.)A
part of

book."

That

; as,

subordinate

principal;

always placed at
Ex.

or

"

which
It

as,

the end

whenever
James

was

As, by

10.

"

that is used

9. When

whom

when
conjunction
I know

of
ellipsis
its place,and
to take
seems
properlyspeaking,it is never
Ex.

should

"

The

Lord

be saved.

added

that my

dependentclause

Kedeemer

to

some

liveth."

the latter is
preposition,
be changed to
of a clause ; and that must
the preposition
precedes.

as

that I

an

it joinsa

the

objectof

depended
the
may
a

upon,

whom

upon

depended.

after such,ma7iy, or same,


relative,
be regarded as a relative,
though,

relative.

to the church

daily such

as

[were

those

who]

ETYMOLOGY

ever

2. These
ever, so, and

What,

formed

are

regarded as

and

he,person,
Ex.

any

Whoever

"

erroneously

been

(75, 6),has

construction

pronoun.

refer to

whosoever

one, and

hopes a

indefinite

some

equivalentto

are

faultless pieceto

any

antecedent,

who.

one

see.

whom.
respectsthey are parsedlike who, ivhose,

In all other

and

4. Whichever

which

simplerelatives by adding the adverbs

from the

of its double

compound

8. \%lioevei'
as,

whosoichoever,
tuhoso,
and ivhcdsoever,
whatever^
are

so-ever.

account

on

79

PEONOUNS.

VE

Relatives.

relatives

compound

whichsoever
whiGhever,

ATI

Compound

76.
1. The

EEL

"

refer to

whichsoever

definite

object,to

they belong as adjectives.

Ex.

Whichever

"

They

equivalentto

are

and

5. 'ivhatever
definite

an

or

you

way

take will lead to the


any

"

which.

whatsoever

indefinite

city.

object,and

belong,as
as
relate,

either
adjectives,
to the

pronouns,

to

same

(75,5).
Ex.

We

"

are

than these cometh

is more

They

interested in whatever

are

6. The

equivalentto

relative and

Who

is
.

man

"

or
ivhich,

any

interrogative
pronouns

Models

ivho is faithfiilly
attached

relative pronoun.

follow.

ever
Whatso-

of evil.

that

11, Exercise"
1. The

occupation
you

thing
"

are

ivhich.

thus

declined

"

for Parsing.
to

religionwill be upright.

(Why?)

(1.) As a pronoun, it has man for itsantecedent ; nominative


who, possessiveto hose,objectiveto horn; plural the same;
third person, singularnumber, masculine
gender, because

80

ENGLISH

its antecedent

GRAMMAR.

is

(Rule III.: Repeat it),nominative case,


and
is used
the subject of the proposition,"who
as
is
attached."
I.
(Rule : Repeat it. See 172.)
As
relative
a
or
(2.)
connective,it joins the subordinate
who
is
attached
proposition,
to religion,"
faithfully
to the
"

antecedent
used to
2. Cherish

Rule

man.

Subordinate connectives

are

join dissimilar elements."

true

whose
patriotism,

is a relative pronoun.

Wbose

"

XV.

(1.)As

root

is benevolence.

(Why?)
it hsi^

patriotismfor its antecedent;


nominative
which, "c. ; third person, singular number,
neuter
gender (Rule III. : Repeat it),possessivecase, and
is used to limit root,by denotingpossession. (Rule VII. :
Repeat it.)
the subordinate
(2.)As a relative or connective,it connects
proposition, whose root is benevolence,"to the 2ia\jQcedent patriotism. (Rule XV.
: Repeat it.)
a

pronoun,

"

8.

Compassion

is

emotion

an

of

which

we

should

never

be

ashamed.
is

Wbicta

relative pronoun.
(1.)As a pronoun,

(Why ?)

it

representsemotion

as

its antecedent

objective
give person, number, gender: Rule III.),
of,
case, and is used as the objectof the preposition
(Rule XIII. : Repeat it: 197.)
(2.)As a relative or connective,it joins the subordinate
be ashamed," to
proposition,"of which we should never
the antecedent emotion.
(Rule XV.)
and
(decline,

4. Here
That

is
.

is the sofa that he sat upon.


relative pronoun.
(1.)As a pronoun,

(Why ?)

sofafor its antecedent (decline,


and give person,
number, gender: Rule III.),objective
(Rule
case, and used as the objectof the preposition
upon.
XIV.
See 75, 8.)
nate
(2.)As a relative or connective,it connects the subordiproposition, that he sat upon," to the antecedent sofa.
(Rule XV.)
it has

"

5. I have
T"hat

is
.

ascertained what
relative pronoun,

lesson

we

learn.

adjective. (1.)As an
accordingto Rule V. (i72.)
lesson,

used also

it belongs to
adjective,

must
as

an

82

ENGLISH

10. Tell what

That

"

part of speech

that breathe

Thoughts

is the

I do not

same

He

yesterdaywas
flow.

right.

not

from

asked

for.

that stole that purse

boy
"

before.

that"

that that

will be

boy, that sat

and

Ex.

What

shall this

are
who^ used
interrogatives
and things;
; which,for persons
things.

Ex.

Who

"

What

have

to

thee that

gave

represent

question.

thou,Lord

art

both to

is used

pronoun

2. The

for

day

InterrogativePronouns.

to ask

Who

"

this

"/

interrogatiTe

noun,

on

lipsthat that strain of eloquenceis

my

78.
1. An

punished.
that seat,parsed

pronoun.

Webster.

"

be

may

that burn.

met

we

the articles that you

said that that

It is not

that" is in the following


examples(75"8):
words

that

man

that that

hope

and

that you

deny

I will send
I

GRAMMAR.

to

inquirefor

and

Which

?
authority

do ?

man

what

sons
per-

(usually)

does he live in ?

house

I to do with thee ?

3. When

and

definite
object is inquiredfor,what

used
interrogativeadjectives

to

limit

the

of the

name

which

are

quired
objectin-

for.
Ex.

When

an

its place,or
Ex.
The
in the

Ex.

for the

what

into another

we

take ?

want?

who

asks

as

will
interrogatives

for the jiame,

which

appear

for the individual,

occupation.
? Mr.

an

Jones

TTHcA

Jones.

sentence
interrogative

is

clause
person

therefore,be
Who

much

sentence,it loses

interrogative
pronoun

Ex."

road shall

? John

Jones.

What

printer.

4. When

some

you

in which

TTAo did that work

"

Which

who, which, and xohat

between

following example,

is he ?

the

(thing)do

difference

and

want

takes
objectis inquiredfor,the interrogative
indefinite
belongs to it,understood (59,3).

What

"

do you

books

What

"

or

an

unanswered

thing

called

an

becomes

both

is

quoted,and incorporated

character ;
interrogative
porated
a connective,
and, as the incorrefers to
question,the pronoun
of its

unknown

and

unmentioned.

interrogative
indefinite
pronoun.

is concealed

in the

garden?

It may,

ETYMOLOGY

The

has

name

friend, yet, as the concealed

be,

"

I do

tcho

know

not

one,

interrogative
pronoun,
indefinite
masculine
gender, nominative
verb),
the

in the

concealed
him

having

singular

person,

"c.; and

case,

Here

tcho should

(1) an

(shown by the
subordinate

(2) a

in

relative

nective,
con-

the

Aim

know

not

parsed as

be

is here

Who

number

do

familiar

therefore, must

is concealed

"I

this with

Compare

be

may

answer,

garden."

proposition,"who

subordinate

(Rule XV.)
garden."

to knoio.

the

in

is concealed
third

joining

The

is unknown.

he

he

although

and

mentioned;

been

not

83

PRONOUNS.

INTERROGATIVE

"

den,"
gar-

who

is

pronoun

for its antecedent.

5. Besides

various

pronouns,

asking questions(134,7) ;

as,

interrogativeadverbs

used

in

How?

When?

Where?

Why?

are

79. Exercise.
out the

1. Point

have

learned his lesson ?

has

Who

found

you

in the followingexamples:

interrogative
pronouns
in

the

"

Which

what

For

garden?

2.

3.

of the above examplesare


adjectives.(See 78, 3.)
Tell which of the followingpronouns
Tell which

and

do

Whom

you

pronouns,

are

prefer? What
punished?
you

which

and
relative,

rogative
inter-

which

terrogati
in-

"

image

whose

He

are

with

went
school do you attend ? Who
follow ?
Which
way has she gone ?

Whose
you

do you

seat

light? What
wings. What

thou

title dost

bear?

thou

found

readiest way would


he whom
the flower?
I am

which

I sent

him.

Of

whom

what

From

art.

Whose

bring

me

ye seek.

do you

speak ?

their

flowed

fountain

genius had angelic


Who
to the place?
He

found

That

the book

which

for
lost

was

is found.
4. Models

:
for parsing interrogatives
"

Who
Wlio

separate us

from

the love of Christ ?

(why?); interrogative(why?); its antecedent


who, pos(subsequent)is not expressed(68,8) ; nominative
sessive
the same
third
lohom; plural,
whose,objective
;
person,

is
.

shall

2i

pronoun

its antecedent
gender,because
nominative
7io one
implied)is (Rule III. : Repeat it),
(subsequent,
of the proposition, who
case, and used as the sub^'ect
shall separate." (Rule I. : Repeat it.)

singularnumber,

masculine

"

Whose
Whose

books

have

you

found ?

nominative
tvho, "c. [person,
interrogative
pronoun;
number, and genderdepending upon the objectconceived of
is

an

84

ENGLISH

the

as

boohs

GEAMMAR.

(es,8),possessive
case, and
by denotingpossession. (Rule VII.

to limit

Repeat it.)

seek ye ?

What

indeclinable;third person {numinterrogative


ber
pronoun;
the object conceived of as
and gender depending upon
the answer),objective
case, and used as the objectof the veyb
seek
(Rule YIII. : Repeat it.)
is 2J1

Wbat.

lesson shall

What
is

What

we

learn ?

used interrogatively,
rogative
interan
or
pronomhial adjective,
and belongs to lesson,
for which it inquires.
adjective,
(RuleV.)
a

I know
is

Who

is used

answer

is there.

not who

(1) indefinite
having properly
interrogative
pronoun,
unknown
no
antecedent,but referringto some
person previously
inquired for,third person, singidarnumber (shown
ordinate
6),"c. ; and (2) a subby the verb), masculine gender.{4ni,
connective,joining the subordinate proposition,
"%ho is there,"to know.
(Rule XV.)

5. Parse

an

the nouns,

and

the adjectives,

followingexamples:
A great mistake,which

in the

the pronouns,

"

who

have

is too

experiencedmany

happinessis

be

to

that

found

trials

in

is most

man

those
especiallyamong
and
difficulties in life,
is,that
marked,
But, as has been pointedlyre-

common,

rest.
restless

is most

who

at

rest.
"

Buck-

minster.
An

ill book

forever ; a man
may
world lasts. He is
those who

are

poisoning a fountain that runs


do mischief this way, it may
be, as long as the
for
to fiiture ages, and lays a snare
a nuisance

well written

is like

yet unbofei. Jeremy

Collier.

"

and that that ruined me.


mjf-fall,
Cromwell, 1 charge tliee,
flingaway ambition
By that sin fellthe angels. Shakspeare.

Mark

but

"

Motionless

torrents

Who

you

made

Beneath
Clothe

Ay

with

! Heaven

gloriousas the gates of

the keen
you

! silent cataracts

ftillmoon

rainbows?
had

?
"

set one

Who

heaven

bade

the

sun

Coleridge.
livingman

Beyond the pedant'stether ;


His virtues,
He will scan
frailties.
Who
weighs them all together!
"

Holmes.

ETYMOLOGY

85

VERBS.

"

VERBS.
Distinctions.

80. Definitions and

^1. A

word

which

action or
expresses being
y
j
is
loved,
state; as, be,read,sleep,
2. It is the characteristic property of the verb to affirm

what

is

Terb

it expresses.

Thus,
copula
the

-when

of the

action

is used
when

proposition,is

of the verb

either

is,is

subject,and

to the

joined

from

it is separated
abstractly,

its person

the

to be

it is said

number,

or

is said

the construction

assumed, it takes

is

that
adjectively,

by

and
predicatively,

ubq^l

be

state may

run.

affirmationis made, the verb, being

an

it is used

To

George running.

George runs.

"

or
being,action,
abstractly,

used

affirmed,
assumed,or
Ex.

the

Yet

the predicateor

to hQ

finite;when
the adjective,
or

of

is called

o.

participle
;

subject,and, being

limited
un-

infinitive
[unlimited)^.

declaration;as,
"Mary learns;" a conditional statement; "If Mary learns;"
"Does
an
a" petition;"May
interrogation;
Mary learn?"
Mary
learn ?"
learn."
a command;
Mary,
3. Affirm,

used, includes

here

as

absolute

an

"

"

"

"

"

4. If
the

word

definingit

only by

5. The

the

from

When

The

of

name

and

6. A

affirmsbeing, action, or state,neither

verb.

These

the

verb

and

other

no

They

partaking

substantive

or

can

of its

be included

pure

value

than

or

participles,

meaning.

verb is the

power

in the verb

reallyboth

are

verb
to

Be, called
assert

some

expresses

usedj

blend

with

rising."

verb, and

as, "Lead

"

the

The

undergoes

is

verb

sun

qualityor class,this
heavy;"

he, and

rises."

then

The

inflections

is called

verb

verb

when

or

the

both

become

combined

form

equivalent

an

attribute

is

word

one

then

an

; as,

takes

the

ber,
represent voice,mode, tense, num-

to

in all other cases, the verb

person/

but

to

when
attributive,

he

undergoes these
the pure

to

variations.

it

verb

joins

attribute.
The
There

followed
no

is

sun

it

noun.

be

action, it may

when

expressingaction,"c.

the attribute

always

only

infinitive is

as

copula,having

must

"

verb

abstract

attribute of

an

the

participlenor

being derived

"

is

other

verb
xoas

by

to
a

he is attributive

man

its

purpose

sent

from

subject,and
than

to

whenever

God."

When

preceded by

introduce

it is used

the

thus

assert

used, the verb

expletive "there,"

the sentence

of the verb.

to

and

indicate

existence
is

which

this

; as,

commonly
serves

peculiarity

86

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

7.

Every finite verb represents some


person or thingas
presents
actingor existingin a certain state ; and that which rethis person or thingis called the subject,
Ex.

Frank

"

She

plays.

sleeps.

81. Exercise.
out the verbs and

1. Point

clouds

The
die.

vanish.

Children

their

The

in
subjects

the followingexamples:
"

rises. The

vapor

sing. They stand.

Can

you

plant lives. Flowers


Here they are
see ?

ice melts.

The

appropriateverbs for

Write

2.

the followingnouns

Samuel, the pen, the book, flowers,


we,
the
Victoria.
forests, king,
Write

3.

appropriatenouns

oceans,

subjects
for

as

the verbs

out

on

page

in

"

"

the

moon,

earth,

the followingverbs:

Rules, is,thinks,hopes, learns,shine, grow,


blossom,arise,sink.
fears,
4. Point

subjects:

as

your

"

dig, revolve,sits,

Reader, and

tell the

subjects.
Note.

Let

"

the

assign this

teacher

classified

82. Terbs
1. Verbs

lesson.

by their Use.
their use^ into transitive

divided,accordingto

are

intransitive,

and
2. A

verb

transitiTe

receives

or

requiresan

objectto

completeits meaning.
Ex.
what

The

"

shades

3. An

hide

can

What

walls

guard

can

me,

or

"

neither receives

verb

intransitive

nor

requires

objectto complete its meaning.

an

Ex.

"

The

4. Verbs

the

of

opened the door.


[me] ? Pope.

servant

sun

The

rises.

be

may

horse

runs.

divided,on

account

of their relation to

Be, which

representsno

into,
subject,
"

(a.)The abstract or
the subjectwhatever

substantive

(80,5).

verb

attribute

ETYMOLOGY

(6.)Attributive
action

subjectis blended with


copula,and running the

being the

is

running;

attribute

an

the

of the

state

or

which

verbs,in

mixed

or

87

VEKBS.

"

denotingan

copula; as,

rum,

attribute.

verbs,including also the copula to be,have


reference to the subject,
into,

been

5. Attributive

divided,with

is

"

[a.)Active

verbs,

in
represent the subject

those which

or

active

an

ptate.

verbs, or those which


(6.)Passive
represent the subjectin a passive
state ; that is,in such a state as to receive or suffer an action.
those which
verbs,
or
represent the subjectin neither of
(c.)Xeuter
these states ; that is,a state in which it neither acts nor receives the effect
of

action.

an

Remark

1.

It is the

language.
renders

to

Thus,

intransitive.
active

very

state,
2.

Remark

adopted by
object

The

"

Remark

3.

The

"

is not
to

neuter

as

it is

that

stands

Ex.

but

retained

tionaries,
dic-

the

7i.

verb

neuter,

subject in

the

into

verbs

one

generally

of construction.
over"

passing

The

to

an

it may

son

to

have

active

and

ought

verb

or

jection.
ob-

no

transitive
active-in-

The

distinction

apply

as

well

his father,"

resembles

active

an

words

and

application.

; whereas
"

little

to

active-transitive

of universal

than

to
no

Yet

sleeps.

and

neuter-transitive

altogether,we

neuter

application.

the

eomplemeMt of
to the

"

liable

are

its

more
we

been

the purpose

to

above,

sentence,

the

have

have, possess, receive,acquire,and

as

is any

consistent,

answer

that
object,
in

consulting a dictionary,that

agent and

an

partialin

active

By omitting

an

suited

verbs

the

objector

as

in

is

intransitive

of verbs

resembles

to be

best

defined

as

practicaldivision,and

6. The

with

In

verbs.

-intransitive.

have

terms,

subdivision

transitive;and,

neuter

such

apply exclusivelyto

to active

as

and

originating in

only needless,

will maintain

one

the

the

succeeding term,

division

of

construction

n.

transitive

inapplicableto

seems

is made

v,

act

an

the

fly,walk, though they represent

run,

terms

of

with

verb, is equivalent to transitive,v.

grammarians,

recent

others,still

many

to

This

understand,

should

marked

are

the idea

Although

important.

active,after

verb

of the verb

relation

the learner

little to do

has

distinction

classification
and

17. a.

this

But

"

transitive

questionWhatf

or

"c.

The

verb

Whomf

the verb.
The

"

ox

{whatf)hay,grass, oats,corn,

eats

found

boy

(whomf) his father,his mother, "c.


To
use

whether

determine

this test:
as

ask

used

meaning

with

in the
a

verb

it the

example

is transitive

question
in

thing
different

What?

or

question,it has,
from

the

have

intransitive, we

or

Whom?
as

subject,or

and

answer,

if

one

only

to

if,in its

fication
signi-

noun

is

or

noun
pro-

obviously re-

88

GRAMMAK.

ENGLISH

quired

intended,

the meaning

complete

to

it is

transitive; otherwise

it Is

intransitive.

the

7. When

or

noun

thus

the pronoun

added

the

means

same

it is not the object,


but is a predicatething as the subject,
transitive in the
or
nominative,and the verb is either intransitive,
passivevoice. All such verbs perform the office of the copula,and
called copulative
hence
verbs.
These are be [thesimple copula),
are
motion,
become,seem, appear, stand,walk,and other verbs of position,
is
and condition; the passive verbs is called,
is named, is styled,
is
is elected,
is chosen,is made, is esteemed,
appointed,is constituted,
or

person

reckoned,and others.
8. A

terms,

"

Ex.

"

as,

Csesar

"

An

propositionnecessarilyimplies three
and an object.
a predicate,
subject,
a

requires but

verb

two

{obj.).

Kubicon

crossed {pred.)
the
(sub.)

intransitive

terms,

"

subject and

predicate;

tempest (sub.)rages" {j^red.).

The

verbs

Many

9.

in

transitive verb

transitive in

are

and
signification,

one

tive
intransi-

in another.
Ex.
AVhen
verbs

the

object is

necessarilyimplied, it

is better

not

transitive,because

object,in

verb, may

of the
signification

Ex.

but

they ran

kindred

train

(causedit to run) at
when

transitive

become

"

signification
; as,

He

of

at the rate

usuallyruns

train

verbs

Some

supplied :

as,

"

some

such

other

sible
pos-

sings beautifully"

She

become
verbs, usually intransitive,
causative signification.

The

"

be

an

consider

to

sings soprano" (transitive).

"

(intransitive). She

used with

breaks in the east.

not

intransitive, and

10. Some

Morning

chain.

It breaks my

"

ran

race."

miles
twenty-five

the rate

they

take
"

transitive when

an

of

hour ;

an

forty.

object

They played

after

them

of

game."

83. Exercise.
1. Tell which
:

Anna

of
her

silvers the distant

lamb

The

dies.
a

followingverbs

are

and
transitive,

which

transitiv
in-

"

loves

poetry.

the

snow

The

letter.

The
gates open.
motherj^^JIlie^olden
hills, ^aryhSfound her ring. Eleanor

meltsS-Thedl'v^tters
i"i"ak.
child
Does

The

moon

writes

innocent

She received
play^^.Th^rnigraut^fl":iwers^loom.
Paul

live thereT"'

90

ENGLISH

4. A

verb is

defective

in which

one

of the

some

parts

wanting.

are

Ex.

would (participle
May, might; shall,
should;will,
wanting).

"

5. An

Ex.

Have, in

"

verb

auxiliary

conjugationof
6. An

Ex."

is

which

one

is

employed

in the

other verbs.
have loved ;

It rains.

mil,in

verb

impersonal

state is asserted

GRAMxMAR.

will love ; may,

is

by

one

of
independently

It

It

snows.

which

love.

action

an

or

particular
subject.

any

lightens.It

in may

thunders.

85. Exercise.
1. Point

the verbs in the

followingexamples; tell whether they


transitive or intransitive. (See list of irregular
regular or irregular,
verbs.)

are

Where

out

pain and sickness ?


If thine enemy
hunger, feed him ; if he thirst,
give him
All that the Father
to me.
giveth me, shall come
shall

Canst

hind

thou

the bands

the sweet

of Orion

impeach
nation,whose
Far

go to avoid

man

him

Survey

Pleiades ?

or

loose

(Warren Hastings) in the

ancient honor
as

influences of the

drink.

the breeze
our

can

he has sullied.
"

bear,the

empire, and behold

of the

name

English

Burke.

billows
our

foam.
home.
Byron.
"

and fivecontaining
Jivesentences containingregulartransitive,
the verb and its
a line under
irregulartransitive verbs. Draw
object.

Write

2.

MODEL.

Mr. Brown

has incurred

same

way,

86.
To

great debt.

The

TRANSITIVE.

child led the blind

man.

tive,
fivesentences containingregularintransifivecontainingirregularintransitive vei^bs.

3. In the
and

IREEG.

TRANSITIVE.

REG.

verbs

write

Properties of

Terbs.

mode, tense,number, and


belongvoicey

jierson.

ETYMOLOGY

91

VERBS.

"

87. Yoice.
1.

whether

the

2. There
3. The
Ex.
Here

ads
subject

Johi

4. The

"

the active and

the

passive,

as
acting*
representsthe subject

voice

active

shows

is acted upon.

or

voices,

two

are

John

"

of the transitive verb which

is that form

Voice

struck William.

subject,and

is the

John

the

act.

acted

represents the subjectas

voice

passive

performs

upon,
Ex.

William

"

Here

William

is acted

or

the

struck

was

subject,but

is the
that

upon;

John.

by

he

does

is,is passive,which

verbs

Only

in

properlyhave

can

act

an
a

he

the act,

receives

only

sufferingor receivingan

means

subject or receiver, meanwhile, being


transitive

not

inactive

act,

state.

passive voice.

Any sentence,having for its predicatea transitive verb,may


be transformed
by changing the active to the passivevoice,or the
meaning, or nearly the same, will
passiveto the active. The same
5.

expressedin

be

Ex.

The

"

by
(passive)

either

receives
the

things

is said

the verb

6. The

in the

the

He

struck

same

grass

devoured

was

and

active

verb,

are

not

with

it:

the

active

one

passive, though manifesting

attributes
one

performs

is made

active voice; if the

of the

the

verb, but

the

subject of

passive

one

act, the
the

the

person

himself. She

Ex.

"

George

be
struck

ject,
sub-

passive voice.

all the

myself.

different persons

may

other

sentence,

is made

which

possiblecases
or

can

occur

"

represent both relations,

thing may

or

struck

herself. It destroyed itself. Yot%

(See Personal

thingsmay

Pronoun, 70, 7, 8.)


be

employed

to

represent

these relations.

(1.)One

of the

passive,

yourself. I struck

(6.)Tivo

of

is said to be in the

the active and


"

of the

If the

to be

the

Ex.

ideas

connected

and

struck

the

followingare

(a.) One
"

form

suffersit.

or

verb

The

grass.

the locusts.

in the
or

persons

the
(active)

locusts devoured

Strictlyspeaking,
themselves

case.

simply active,and
William,

:^:^

William

the other
was

simply passive.

struck

by George.

92

(2.)Each

may

Ex.

struck

They

"

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

the

time,both

be, at
each

same

They

other,
=

active and

struck, each

passive.
other.

[struck]the

(See

183, 8.)
different persons

(c.)Three
and

(1.)One

He

"

act, another

may

that to which
Ex.

the act is

(act.)gave

historywas

(2.)One
made

made

was

In this
third

active,

one

as

is acted

(pass.) He

told

his

his

me

history,

him.

historyby

thereby transformed

and

upon,

told

or

by

officer,

He

made

was

officer
by them,

an

An

them.

but two

different
persons

or

The

things.

second

and

individual.

of the

passivevoice

enables us,

"

conceal the agent.

(a.)To
The

"

hooh

an

are

same

use

third stands

the

(187,9).

him

of

the

7. The

me

him

there

case

denote

Ex.

made

suffers the act,while

(tendingto)a
I was
by him,

acts, another

They

"

officer

employed ;

tending.

me

told

into the third

Ex.

be

passive.

two

His

thingsmay

or

deed

performed, I

was

(6.)To giveprominenceto

must

not

tell

whom.

stcUe it when

to

event, or

an

by

the agent is

unknown.
Ex.

Letters

"

(c.)To

preserve

voice would
The

Ex.

introduced

were

the

at

unityof

early period.

an

which

sentence

the

of the

use

active

destroy.
ore

mined, shipped

was

to

England, and

smelted

in

less

than

six months.

Observe, here

8. We

use

are

at least three

diflFerent agents.

the active voice when

we

wish

to

make

the

agent prominent.
Moses

Ex."

9. Some

conducted the Israelites

intransitive

following,admit
Ex.

"

of

verb

takes

Egypt.

verbs,when accompanied by the preposition


a passiveform.

They laughedat him,

So, when

of

out

He

was

laughedat.

one
objects,

two

made

the latter is sometimes

direct and

subjectof

the

passivevoice (i87,12).
Ex."

I told him

story,
=

He

was

told

story.

the

direct,
the other in-

verb

in the

ETYMOLOGY

93

VOICE.

"

mit
"c., adarrive,
fall,rise,
intransitive
will
as
an
signification,
is the
agent or actor,not the object,

intransitive

10. Certain

VERBS

"

verbs,as

come,

passiveform, yet with


be seen
by observing that the
subjectof the sentence in either form.
of

Ex.

"

This

is fallen(hasfallen).

Babylon

is less

idiom

imitation

common

French

of the

than

now
or

the

German

formerly, and

bo

may

regarded as

an

of similar verbs.

form

88. Exercise.
of the followingverbs

1. Tell which
in the

in the active

are

and
voice,

ivhich

passive:
"

The

givesa pleasant light.

moon

The

father.

of the bird is heard

song

new

shining hour
glory of God.

The

book

was

in the grove.

written

by

my
covered
dis-

Leverrier

doth the little busy bee improve each


planet. How
The
heavens declare the
Knowledge gives power.

change the
sentences,

2. In the above

verbs in the active voice info the

passivevoice into the active.


regular
Write five sentences
containingregular,and fivecontainingirverbs in the passivevoice.

and
passive,
3.

the verbs in the

MODEL.

Charles

I.

voice
The

The

beheaded.

was

PASSIVE.

grass

was

mown.

followingexamples,tell whether theyare


transitive or intransitive,
of the active or the passive
irregular,

4. Select the verbs

regularor

IRREG.

PASSIVE.

EEG.

in the

"

of heaven

thunders
united

sometimes

are

heard

to roll in the

voice

people.
said to
four hundred
thousand men
In the battle of Solferino,
are
have been engaged.
mines
not what
I care
are
opened in the mountains of Siberia,or
the fountains of the golden
in the sierras of California ; wheresoever
cated
tide may
gush forth,the streams will flow to the regionswhere eduof

intellect has

ornamental

woven

boundless

of the

network

and

useful

Everett.

arts.

"

'Tis finished.

"

Culloden

the

is

Their thunders

lost,and

ray

are

hushed

on

the

moors

country deplores

is the iron-bound

But

where

For

the red eye of battle is

prisoner? Where ?
shut in despair. Campbell.
"

94

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

89. Mode.
1.

is the

Mode

action,the being,

the

the state is asserted.

or

2. Mode
of

in which

manner

does

that

It

the

of the

manner

be asserted

may
take

must

or

can,

may,

show

not

its assertion.

place,or

as

action

state, but the

or

reality,or

something ivmgined

as

something imagined

as

manner

or

vupposedvihiah.

The
of the
manner
something desired.
of
soldier
action
state is expressed by means
or
limitingwords j as, The
of
the
(manner
act); " The soldier may fight
fought (a reality)bravely"
(something imagined) bravely"(manner of the supposed act).
of the verb (80, 2) ; for, since it
infinitive is not properly a mode
3. The
is

under

placed

condition,

as

or

"

does

The

assertion.

at

all,it

may

be

action

assert

not

same

cannot

said

partaking of the
participle,
partakes
(so called)participle

(80, 4).

here

of

in

be called the infinitive,not

the

the

the

propertiesof

infinitive

and

noun

with

the

the

of

infinitive

verb,

adjectiveand

established

mode

or

manner

any

participle. In fact,the

conformity

the

"

said to have

propertiesof

It is inserted

of

be

usage,

as

is

the

the

verb

but

may

mode.

commonly reckoned five modes, the inand


the potentialj
the subjunctive,
the imperative^
dicativey
the infinitive,
mode
5. The
asserts a thing as
indicative
actually
existing.(See10, below.)
4. There

Ex.

are

James

"

6. The

"

loves.

William

was

or
mission,necessity,

he comef

Has

the power, liberty,


perof being in a certain
or
duty of acting,
mode

potential

struck.

asserts

state.
Ex.

We

"

obey the

If he leave

"

or

write.

he

Must

read?

They

should

do it ?

mode

abstract
"

me.

Though
mode

imperative

asserts

thingas

conditional

he

slayme.
asserts

command,

treaty,
en-

an

permission,

Write.

"

9. The

Ex.

may

subjnnetiTe

8. The

Ex.

you

You

doubtful,

as

Ex.

sing.

Can

law.

7. The
or

can

Go thou.

infinitive

Be

representsthe action

noun.

To write.

To be

admonished.

seen.

or

state

as

an

ETYMOLOGY

10. The

mode

indicative

VERBS

"

is used

95

MODE.

"

and
principalpropositions,
employed to represent what is actual,real,or absolute. It may
used in interrogative
or
exclamatory sentences.
Ex.

he arrived ?

Has

"

It is often
is actual

J as, "I

villain has fired the

The

that he

know

is
be

dwelling!

propositions,but always

in subordinate

used

in

represent what

to

the plot."
(actually)

discovered

potentialmode is also used in principalpropositions,


but that which, at the time of
not,however, to represent the actual,
is supposed to exist,
or
only in idea, that which
speaking,exists,
11. The

"

is

merely imagined or thoughtof.


Ex.

"

write ?
The

It

storm

How

can

ideal

act

become

can

is

be

reality; that
in the

It

is ideal

represent what
not

be

may

now)

storm.)

no

result

"

He
in

what

has

or

become

perhaps

Can

it will be

be assassinated."

subordinate
not

he

been

reality.
of its

way

"

it must

mode
; as,

the

May

propositions,but
realized; as,

is,permission

reality:
This

supplicatory sentences

or

to

the

reality; that

obligationexists.

an

may

used

relation

some

impossibilityin

no

it may

is,o. necessityor

cityin safety?"

!"

(I do

final

is

interrogative,exclamatory,

the

victorious

is,there

ability is wanting:

granted, or

in

he leave

may

state,however, is supposed to have

actual; that

used

is

there
{Actually

?
persist

you

or

realization;no
become

arise.

may

"He

may
"

Can

truth

always
says

bo
to

that I

school."

attend

by the auxiliaries,
potentialmay be known
may, can^
should.
(See lis.)
must, might,could,would,
is
in subordinate promode
used exclusively
13. The subjunctive
positions,
its name
and hence
("sub," under,and "jungo," I join).
nate
It is joined to the verb of the principalpropositionby the subordiif,though,although,lest,
conjunctions,
except,that,save that,
others; they impart the idea of
provided that,and some
unless,
doubt,contingency,or conditionality.
12. The

of

Whatever

to be
as

as,

realized

shall
"

or

Though

futuritymay
the fact that

from

for either

be implied in the subjunctive,is to be accounted

(ifever),or from

should, which
he

thing

any

the

that

is conditional

influence

of

contingent is yet
suppressed auxiliary,such
or

imparts (though understood) the

(should)slay me,

yet will I trust

idea

of

futurity;

in him."

ceived
subjunctiverepresents an ideal act, or a real act cononly as an idea,and placesit under a condition accompanied
less doubt.
As to a distinctive form of the subjuncor
more
tive,
said
be
in the
have
it
be
found
it can
unless
to
scarcely
any,

14. The

with

present tense,or

(with the

the

present and

past of

singleexceptionof were, in

to

be;

and

examples

in all such
like

"

If it

cases

werej^

96

ENGLISH

"If

GRAMMAR.

ellipsis,
they may be referred
indicative future or the past potential.

were"),by supplying an

forms of the
Ex.

leave, If it should rain,"c. Till one


restore)
regain)the blissful
{shall
us, and regain{shall

If it rain,we

"

greater

restore

man

to the

shall not

seat,sing,heavenly muse.
The

majority
as, "If

present;

regarded
Indeed,
is

writers,at present, employ the


he leaves."
it rains;" "If
Hence
of

borrowing its forms from the


a/orm of the language, it is now

evidently passing

will

become

soon

15. The

Read

The

force

of this

the

parties.

if

equal

an

If

to

in

direct

elegantly put

for

or

subjunctive
that

to suppose

reason

it

P. Marsh.

principalpropositions.It is
desire. It may usuallybe known

or

the

an

or

go

clause

; as,

"

Let

kiss dead

and

could

commons

entreaty;

imperative

Grod said.Let there

"

as,

inferior,it is

an

an

supplication. The

the relation

form, depends upon

same

exhortation

quotation ;

If the

"c., or,

commons,

under

they would

testament, and

The

vrrite.

conditional

potentialmode.

"

subject.

mode,

prayer

the

be

may

is used in
will

equal, it is
a

subjunctive

and

good

indicative

the

of

little used.

superiorspeaks imperatively to

an

superior,it is
only

of the

(thou);

is

"

expresses

bv the omission

there

; and

use

but

altogether." Geo.

obsolete

which

"

of

imperativemode

the mode

Ex.

out

the

indicative

as

as

forms

but

but

Caesar's

command

an

is made

commons

wounds,"

inferior to

light."

be

the

if

of

nate
subordiIt is often
hear

this

Could

the

hear, "c.

and hence is
abridged propositions,
of another
wholly dependent, being incorporatedas an element
proposition. It does not assert any thing ; it is not limited by the
its name
finitive,
and hence
number
and the person of a subject,
(so,2),inis applied to
which
in distinction from finite,
unlimited,
all verbs used in construction
with their subjects,and
thereby

infinitive is used in

16. The

limited

by

the number

associated with

goes;

for him

to go;

as

an

abstract

subjectfrom which

the

soldier

The

of the latter.

person

infinitive is used

17. The

Ex."

and

faints(finite)
; for

we

told him

it has

yet

it may

noun

been

abstracted.

the soldier to

be

faint(infin.).He

to go.

90. Exercise.

of each of

Tell the mode


the kind
Where

of

verb

wast

if thou

the verbs

in the followingexamples; also

"

thou
hast

when

I laid the foundations

understanding.

clare,
of the earth ? de-

98

ENGLISH

position before
the

its

latter,when

abridgment

it

GRAMMAR.

was

in the

was

in either

of the

present, the past,

perfect

the future

or

See

tenses.

tense-,

abridged

sitions
propo-

(167, 2).

3. There

three

however,

are,

forms, commonly

the present,the past, and


participles,

the

"

Ex.

Pres.

"

Active

4. The

time.

passiveparticipleloved does

Of

it
itself,

denotes

the

depends

upon

simply

incomplete. The

or

perfect

Past.

Perf.

Voice, Loving,
Loved,
Voice, (Being)loved, Loved,

Passive

time

not

called

Having loved.
Having been loved.
necessarilydenote

receptionof

past

act,complete

an

that of the verb with

which

it is associated.
Remark

1.

The

"

form

called
the

passive participle,
having

the past

If so, it has

form.

same

has

and, strictlyspeaking,
signification,
It
a

partakes

never

like

noun,

the

place

either
form

of

of

have
and

Remark
limited
well

is,where
of

complete
as, have

"

The

present

as

the copula, may

form

; it is

adjective;
used

never

the

proposition ; it is

loved,having

it is

been

always

as

depending
found

past, completed act, and

it has

to limit

structions,
participial con-

an

belongs

as

cate,
predi-

with

active

it,

upon

in the

is connected

loved ;

nal
origi-

participle.

used

never

in

the

once

lost its

wholly

alone
words

abridged propositions, and

some

cation,
signifi-

well

to

transitiv
in-

verbs.

passive participleof
verbs, has

past

the

now

hare

lost its character

participle,with

loved,had

denotes

transitive

to

or

to transitive

2.

the

subordinate

always
as

propertiesof

part of speech

that

"

takes

of the

that

participle may

time

always

the

passive

verb

form,

same

on

the

passive signification,
may

the

have

; it may

the

contrary, is
denote

as

participialconstruction, or, with

in all the

modes

and

tenses.

pendent
Participles,in their appropriate use, take the place of deand
consequently represent time in the same
propositions,
As the
which
the propositionsfrom
manner
as
they are derived.
the time
verb of the dependent clause dates from
expressedby the
principalverb,and not from that of the speaker,the participlemay
5.

be

present, with
Ex.

"

saw

man

past, a present, or
walking; I

see

future

act.

walking;

man

shall

see

man

walking.

So, again,the participlemay


of

Ume

Ex.
seed.

"

past, a present, or

denote
future

past act, completed

at the

act.

the farmer
Having ploughedhis field,

sowed,sows,

will sow, the

ETYMOLOGY

93. Present
1. The
a

state

the

99

PARTICIPLES.

"

Actiye

Participle.

denotes an
action or
participle
by
progress at the time represented

active

present

present and

in

verb.
principal

Ex.

y^Q

"

2. This

Ex.

saw

(6.)AS
Ex.

"

dependent

The

the progressive

used,it is called

The

"

(e.)As
Ex.

meadow, i.e.who

walking,"c.

was

placed before

the

noun.

adjective*
participial

of the verb.

to denote

of

noun,

man

(1)Wholly

"

is

eye

concomitant

act,

hoiv?

came

"

eatingand drinking.

came

so, with the preceding,and

of following.

the law.

readingof

The

"

form

the construction of the

(2.)In
Ex.

Son

The

"

cation,
signifi-

reading.

am

(d.)Oerundively,
Ex.

active

an

roaringbillows.

(c.)In
I

the

It is then

adjective.

an

thus

"

it has

proposition.

walkingin

man

When

Ex.

ing:

chair.

"

abridge

"

in
sitting

in

participlealways ends
be used,
may

and

(a.)To

shall findhim

find,
found, or

noun

with the modifications

satisfied with

never

of the verb.

beholdingthe stupendousworks

of the Creator.
is usuallyactive,it sometimes
has a
Though this participle
When
an
objectis undergoing a progressive
passivesignification.
receptionof
change, and we wish to express this as a continuous
the act, our
Good
language is deficient in appropriate forms.
writers have resorted to the use of the active participle,
giving it a
passivesignification.
3.

Ex.

The

"

of this trade.
Recent

building. New efforts are making for the extension


Webster.
This new
tragedy was acting. Everett.

house

is

"

"

writers

of

distinction have

some

heimjbuilt;" "Preparations
grammarian
whatever
these

by

the

to

as

good, national,

tests,it
best

must

be
as

and

they

language.

are

to

and

said

writers

grammarians,
the

dictate

adopted

of too

recent

the

to

sanctions.

forms, that they

good English, they


are

but

questions of usage,
reputable usage

forms,

It is not

made."
beirifj

of such

the

are

are

not

origin to

be

by

"

The

house

province

is

of the

admit

and

When

subjected to

no

adopted

means

sanctioned

regarded

explain

by
as

the
idioms

best
of

100

Ei^fGLISH

94. Present
1. The
of

present

Ex.

He

"

Passive

denotes the reception


participle
by the principalverb.
represented

loved by
will live,
lives,
lived,

participle
may be used
the passiveverb.

2. This
k" form
Ex.

"

in

"

95. Perfect
1. The
a

an

adjective,
or, with

one

be used

as

act, he

wrong

Active
Participles,
active

perfect

completedat

state

all.
the

copula,

is possessed
onlyby the caliivated.

taste
refined

By beinginvolved
of his friends.
ai)peals
Ex.

as

precededby being,it may

When

Participle.

passive

act at the time

an

GKAMMAK.

the

noun.

was

and

lost to all the

soon

Passive.

denotes
participle
time represented
by

an

the

action

or

principal

verb.
Ex.

his speech,he
Having finished

"

2. The

of

act

an

the

perfect

sat down.

denotes the reception


participle
by
completedat the time represented

passive

past and

verb.
principal

Ex.

Having been

"

driven

from

home,

he enlisted in the army.

3. The

used like the present,with


are
never
perfectparticiples
the copula,to form the predicate. They may
be used as verbal
nouns.

Ex.

He

"

was

accused

96. The
1. The
may
Ex.

be
"

having obtained goods on

false pretences.

Participlepredicated or assumed.

expressedby the participle


either predicated
assumed
or
(205,2).

The

through the
2. The

of

action

horse

or

is

the state

running through

the street.

The

horse

running

street.

with
when
the act is predicated,constitutes,
participle,
The
the copula, or auxiliaryhave,a form of the verb.
present
is
used
in the progressive
participle
form (i09,1) or imperfect

Y"

YMOLUG

ET

;Vi!:RB-7^PARTlCTpi.,Ji:S.

or
comj^leie
Jorm^

past,in the
the, passive
form.
tenses ; the

^
.','"

!!

"

Ex.

farmer

The

"

;,

^'

!";'
C',\\

ploughinghis field. The


ploughedby the farmer.

was

field was

his field. The

in
; the passive,
perfect

the

'

101

farmer

,' '.

had

ploughed

assumed, is equivalentto a
sails on
boat which
subordinate clause; as, "The
yonder lake is
pelled
propelledby steam," The boat sailuigon yonder lake is prosteam.
(See 205, 2.)
by
3. The

when
participle,

is

the act

97. Exercise.
the

1. Write

participles
of the followingverbs:

"

Find, obey, ride,grow, lie,lay,sit,set,lose,loose,load,steal,


arrive,suppose, happen, come, do,take,run.
2.

Use each

Models.

"

of

he restored the

kind

travellers returned home.

short sentence.
The

source

of the river

Having found

the owner,

ring.
in the

out the participles

each
of participle

derived:

in
participles

Finding his mistake,he left.

beingfound,the
3. Point

the above

is,and

one

followingexamples; tellwhat
the verb from which
it is
nanie

"

Let the last feeble and

lingeringglance of my dying eyes rather


known
and honored
behold the gorgeous ensignof the Eepublic,now
throughoutthe earth,stillfull high advanced, its arms and trophies
not a stripeerased or polluted,
streaming in their originallustre,
Webster.
a singlestar obscured.
nor
One
wave
rises,and, having reached its destined limit,falls
gentlyaway, and is succeeded by yet another. Story.
"

"

"

the

Then

shook

Then

rushed

And, louder
Far
The

with
hills,

thunder

riven ;

the steeds to battle driven ;


than

the bolts of

flashed the red

warriors

heaven,
artillery.Campbell,
"

the turrets

high,
Moving
evening sky,
forms of giantheight.
Seemed
the gloomy portalarch,
Above
to a march.
Timing his footsteps
The warder kept his guard,
Low
humming, as he paced along,
Some
ancient border-gathering
song.
on

athwart

the

9*

"

Scott.

102

-08. Tense;.-

"

'
-

1. Teiise

2. In reference
he

may

Ex.

4. An

or

action

or

in
event, complete
I love; I

"

"

loved;I

as

one

completion,

or

contemplatedin

when

the

as

completion.

or

shall he

its progress

wiiing.

attention

is directed to its end

to its commencement

or

progress.

I have written; I had written; I shall have written.

"

Perfect

prog^ressive,

the

and
completion,
I have been

"

Remark.
event

is

writing;I

was

without reference
completion,

Ex.

at the commencement

regard to its commencement


I

also the state

shall love.

completed,

or

denotes

reference to its progress

(i09,9) it

writing
;

am

Perfect

and

event

an

reference to its continuance,

(i09,5) it is viewed

without
itself,

going on, without

Ex.

or

is,*^^

event

an

when

Progressive,

or

speaking.
action

speaking,an

with

event

an

when

Indefinite,

Ex.

of

of the verb

tense-form

action

Ex.

time

of

or

I ride; I rode; I shall Hde.

"

an

to the

to the moment

action

an

present,past, or future.

3. The
of

the time of

primarilydenotes

event, in its relation

an

an

GRAMMAR.

ENGLISH

"

As

which

regard is had

when

to the

not

writing;I

be

both

had been

writing;I
tlie

shall have been

receptionof

of

act, it expresses

Time.

1. In each of the three divisions of time

the

an

writing.

progressive,or completed (110).


regarded as indefinite,

99. Divisions

present,and

the progress

commencement.

the passive voice denotes

may

to

future
"

a
distinguish

we

the

"

past the
,

point

and

period.
Remark.
but

"

By

portion

any

speaking

may

2. The

point

is not

"point"

taken

without

reallybe

whereas

moment;

the

regard

period.

period

of time

first and

the

meant

to

The

is referred

denotes

"

I have

written

is referred

point
to

possibledivision

its duration.

Thus,
to

by

the

time

of

long.

of speaking,as the
date in either of
specified

either the time


a

of time,

tchen,as, the

by while, during which, how

principalpoint of reference,or
the periods.
Ex.

least

since twelve d clock.


letter io-daij

ETYMOLOGY

the

Here, observe
of

moment

Here

have

tho

period,including

also the past

"

written

I shall have
Here

the

3. The

is

Last

"

as

to

the

in

the

completion

o'clock.

of

its

past event,

had

"

last

completion,
"

written;

month;

and

portionof time, either


indefinite

an

; this

last year

month,

leaves.

indefinite.

or
definite
future.

period

past,present,or
Ex.

time

the

noio;

letter before the mail

period is

future

as

jmst

"

the 15th.

specifieddate,

the

its

before the 15th.


"

the

event,
to

twelve

"

speaking,

of

time

present

specifieddate,

letter last month

written
we

but

"

the

now;

"

103

TENSE.

"

speaking,

written,

also

to-day;

present period,
I had

have

"

"

of

time

speaking,

VERBS

"

century, this age

week, next

; next

quarter.
indefinite

The

past

that

of

time

second

of

speaking,
date

to

the

relative tenses; while


the

limit.

It

speaking,

is

the

future

of

the

completion,

important

to

also the time

and

or

past
time

of

period excludes
and

the

usually

latter is referred.

those

which

point of reference are called


have only a single reference to

called aZ"so/^"^etenses.

speaker are

division

5. Each

the

the time

receive this second

which

4. Tenses

includes

but

the indefinite

portion of time; while

present without

includes

act; that the

an

which

assumed

the

present period

completion

of the

from

extends

future

or

observe

present is any

has

two

tenses,
"

and

absolute

an

relative.

six tenses, three absolute and three relative ;


therefore,
"I
as
(absolute),"I xorite^^
wrote^^ "I shall write;" (relative),
I have written" (some time to-day or this year), I had written"
(beforethe boat sailed), I shall have written" (atnoon).

There

are,

"

"

"

"

6. The

absolute

take their

tenses

from

names

the division of time

which

they belong. Thus, we have the present tense,the past


The relative tenses affix to the name
of the
tense,the futuretense.
which
refers not so much
tense the word perfect,
to the time as to
the completionof the act.
the
Thus, we have the present perfect,
and the futureperfect.
past perfect,
to

Strict

analogy would

writing,I shall

be

us, for the

progressiveforms, lam

writing,present, past, and

100.
The

give

Tenses

future

I
writing,

was

imperfecttenses.

in tlie Indicative

Mode.

of the indicative are,


the present the pre^
,
sent perfect;the past, the past perfect;the future the
,
tenses

"

futureperfect.
These
mode.

tenses

have

their

characteristic

significations
only

in tho

indicative

104

GRAMMAR.

ENGLISH

Tense.

101. Present
1. The

representswhat

tense

present

takes

placein

presenttime.
Ex.

I see;

"

seeing;I

am

By present, here, is
present of the hearer
the

is not

same

2. This

tense

present
that

as

same

seen.

am

of the

of the

or

the

speaker ; but

that

speaker

The

writer.

of the reader

that of the writer.

be used to denote

may

action

an

or

an

event,
"

of speaking; as,
precisemoment
see
it/' "I feelthe heat;'' I perceiveyour meaning ;" i.e.when
is instantly
event
Compare with (3),
perceivedand mentioned.

(1.)As
"

as

the

meant

is the

do see;

in itself

the

completeat

"

the

below.
of speaking; as, "I am
(2.)As incompleteat the precisemoment
meriting;""The boy is studying."
(3.)As a habit or a citstom in a lirnitedperiodassumed as present ;
He reads seven
languages;" but not at the time of speaking,
as,
"

forever.

nor

(4.)As

universal

"

truth

"God

producesmisery;"

during an
is just;" and

unlimited

period; as, "Vice


regardlessof the time

that

speaking,and forever.
(5.)As ii present,though reallyin the past or future, to
it present to another
to make
or
a thing more
vividly,

of

"

sent
reprefuture

event.

Ex.

Hark

"

I heard ye not

those

hoofs of dreadful

note?

Sounds

not

(as now seen


they
vision)
Byron. They rally,
ivill
him
We
when
and
he
for their kingdom
crown.
Campbell.
pay
the descent of Joseph;
traces {has traced)
comes
{shallcome). Matthew
that of Mary.
Luke
traces {hastraced)
the

clang

bleed

"

in

"

1. The
as

present

Tense.

Perfect

102. Present

tense

perfect

representsa past

event

completedin present time.


Ex.
In

I have seen;

"

I have beefn seeing


; I have been

this tense, present-perfect,

observe

that

seen.

period
"

this

day,

this year,

the time of finishivg


an
(hence the prefix^jre"en") embraces
and
also a subsequent time of speaking of it (hence a
(hence perfect),
present and a past loithin the period). (See 99, 2, 3.)
the

present age

"

act

Note.

meaning

"

Be

careful

the time

of

to

distinguishpresent meaning

speaking.

the

period, from

present

106

ENGLISH

Note."
wrote

letter

that

Observe

GKAMMAR.

the difference between

yesterday."

Here

the

the
is

act

past and

spoken

is, be(/un,continued, and Jiniahed (but without

in the
Here

period yesterday.
the act is

"

of

I had

spoken

as

written

completedat

letter

the past perfect. "1

of

yesterday

specifiedtime

complete

as

reference

to

in

either,98, 4),

at twelve

in the

itself,

o'clock."

period

?/e""er-

day.
2. This
is

is at

is used

tense

separatedfrom
before

or

"

Ex.

He

"

the present, or

period wholly
time in this period.
specified

past,and

had written his letter before

period)written

past

only when

the

time

of

time

of

ing,
speakan

act

;" that is,He had (ina


time in the
(specified

noon

(finishedthe act)beforenoon

period).

105. Future
1. The

representswhat

tense

future

Tense.
will take

placein

future time.
Ex.

I shall see; I shall be

"

2. In this

in the

tense,as

seeing;I

others,an

in itselfco7nplete,
or
incomplete,
Ex.

He

"

will write; He

before the dawn.

The

as

future

event

will write before

tense

perfect

be

may

They

noon.

like the

Perfect

Future

seen.

representedas

custom.

lion shall eat straw

106.
1. The

shall be

will be

marching

ox.

Tense.

representsan

event

as

pleted
com-

in future time.
Ex.

I shall have

"

Note.

that in all the perfect tenses

Observe

"

seen.

/our

different times

are,

or

period,past, present, or future (sometimes named,


oftener not) ; the time of completing
something in any one of the periods; the
in
the
time of speaking,
time, always in the
always
present period; a specified
be, distinguished:

may

a.

"

period as

same

the

event.

(time of completing)the bells to


be rung
6e/bre twelve (specifiedtime) to-day {present
period)." So, "I had
to-morrow."
caused, "q., yesterday." I shall have caused, "fcc.,
Ex.

"

I have

"

(time

of

speaking)caused

"

2. This

differs from
to

differs from

tense

the

past.

time
specified

Ex.

"

in

It

simple future

represents an
future

some

I shall have written

the

act

as

as

the

past perfect

and
completed,

period.

letter at twelve to-morrow.

refers

ETYMOLOGY

in all the Modes.

107. Tenses

mode
subjunctive

1. The

107

TENSES.

"

has

six tenses

the

"

same

as

the indicative.
mode
has four tenses, the present,the
potential
the past,and the past perfect.
presentperfect,
2. The

"

infinitive has

3. The

two

tenses, the present and

the

"

perfect.
in

5. Tense

with the

actual
Ex.

exactness

not

in the indicative.

as

usually mark
Thus,

time

"

if the thing spoken of denotes something


clauses,
actual,the tense-form usuallydenotes the true time.

as

If it rained,I did not

"

does

conditional

taken

or

"

subjunctivemode

the

same

(a.)In

tense, the present.

imperativehas onlyone

4. The

know

it.

or supposed,the past
something merely hypothetical
representspresent time,and the past pei^ectrepresents past time.

if it refers to

But
tense

I should ride. If I had had


(but I cannot),
goingnow
opportunityyesterday(but I had none),I should have spoken to him.

Ex.
an

If I

"

(6.)The
used

tense

Ex.

7erb

If it be true.

"

in

although in
It

"

this

other
were

which

(a.)The
We

may

for would

mv.^t

be,or

woidd

the past

Diogenes.

would

have

past act

was

"

been,

ivould be.

have.

dog, and bay the moon, than such a


if he had pursued the oppositecourse.
have

by

no

means

the

Eoraan.

cation
signifi-

denote.
or
permission,ability,
present possibility,

sometimes

presentand sometimes

(now)go (to-morrow).You can


(now,to-morrow, next week).

have

be

would

requisite
sum,

would,or

potentialmode

act

the

present perfectgenerallydenotes

"c. that
I

names

perform an

(b.)The

"

in the

their

(now) leave

Ex,

be

present denotes

to
necessity
"

rather

tenses

Alexander, I

stand

is used for

better for him

6. The

not

to raise
impossibility

an

I had

Ex.

for the present and

it may.

uses

Ex.

been

ivere

cannot

use

in like manner,

"

distinct form

If I

Had,
It had

must

to be has

and denoting present time (89,13).


hypothetically

(c.)Were
Ex.

were

future.

write (now).
(noiv)

He

sity,
necespossibility,
-present

performed.

written (= it is

now

undeniable

that I v}rote)
day).
(yester-

108

ENGLISH

(c.)The

past denotes,
"

"c.
(1.) A jpastpossibility,
Ex.

Can

"

(2.)A
Ex.

to

perforinan

I could write

write ?

you

act.

yesterday.

custom.

He

"

GRAMMAR.

and

WovM

often sit the entire

would

might are

denotes

(3.) It

evening without

seldom, if

now

ever,

to denote

used

"c. when
present possibility,

the

word.

utteringa

past time.

followed

by

ditional
con-

clause.
Ex.

"

if I would.

I should

would

or

go

I could.

(now) if

(4.)It
Ex.

(now)

could go

might or

denotes

a,

"c.
futurepossibility,
go ; but if I should go

I shall not

"

I could (hereafter)
(hereafter),

walk.

(5.)It
Ex.

denotes

Children

"

means

the

act.

it,

universal

duty

past completed
Thus

It

act.

I could have

but

infinitive has

They
a completed, state
To write; To be

"

two

mode

tense

or

the

of the

tenses,
"

desire
the

indefinite

an

or

it,and

present
a

had

you

I did

desired
not do it.

the

and

and
progressive,

fect.
per-

the

act.

writing.
the

did not

To have written; To have been


be

participle,
may

connected

writing.
with

any

principalverb.

present infinitive denotes

(6.)The

to that of the

reference

of the

like
infinitive,

(a.)The

to time.

if
(yesterday)

assisted you

denote,the former

Ex.

reference

usually a past possibility,


"c., but by no
usuallyimplies the non-performance of

able to assist you, but you

was

7. The

latter

without

obey their parents.

should

past perfectdenotes

(d.)The

time either present

principalverb, and

or

future with

necessarilypresent

not

with

speaker.
Ex.

"

intend

to write.

I intended

to write.

I had

intended

to write.

I shall begin to write.

perfectdenotes
principalverb.

(c.)The
the

Ex.

She

"

is said

will be known, to have


8. The

time

of

to

have

done

past

sung.

She

was

the

thoughtto

time

have

denoted

written.

by

She

it.

imperative has only

giving a command

completed at

act

the

present tense, which

; the time

of its

denotes

performance is

the

future.

ETYMOLOGY

VERBS

"

109

FORMS.

"

108. Exercise.
1. Tell the

Did
the

study interesting.It

I have

heard

Southern

Irish

the

Cross.

The

covered with

of

TEi!iSBS

book?

the

of the followingverbs ;

The

conies.

of the

notes

hills

act,and

which

an

also those ivhich


which

the PROGRESS,

of an act,which

RECEPTION
an

read

the

time

were

snow.

2. Tell the
the

Are

pleasant?

view

to go.

the

Sarah

when

work

my

by

to find

of the

constellation

his lesson

learned

finished

Anne

Had

nightingalesad?

the

saw

will have

the

Was

child cried.

We

orator.

I shall have

wish to leave.

we

rain.

will not

Richard

earnestly.I hope
Ralph had intended

listened

He

the lecture ?

hear

you

the followingverbs:"

of

tenses

in

act complete

the

denote

COMPLETION

itself:
"

Is he plantingthe seed ? Has


publishedin Boston.
line
I shall be allowed
When
will CaroFrank
been drawing ?
to go.
Have
they been to the concert?
My brother is
go to ride?
teaching. Happiness will be her portion. Sorrow is the common
Had
his wife heard the good
lot. Have
you been taught to sing?
I wish to go.
I will not be denied.
shall not forget
?
He
news
the penalty. Flowers
bloom.
Our friends will have gone when
has
What
shall I do ? William
Joseph tore the book.
you come.
been
to Europe?
gained the prize. Have
Fanny has been
you
never
learningto skate. The clock has struck. Washington was
had been promoted. You
known
do not think so.
to tell a lie. He
will learn to know
You
her better. It shall not be. The
general
The

paper

is deceived.
Louisa

is

Charles

has fallen from

the

He

tree.

broke

carryingthe package. He shall be immortal


till he be stoned by one
without fault.

1. The

modes

forms

and

its various

are

(98,1, 3)of

I love; I do love; I

3. The
and

liveth

an

changes to

in the several

act

tenses.

2. Transitive verbs may have four


the emphatic,
the progressive,
and the
"

arm.

Verb.

of the

of the verb

the time and state

express

Ex.

who

was

109. Forms

his

am

loving;I

am

forms, the
passive.
"

common^

loved.

cative,
emphatic form is confined to the present and past indithe present imperative. The
other forms are extended

through all

the modes

and

tenses.
10

110

ENGLISH

4. Intransitive verbs
and
emphatic,

moTfiy the
Ex.

I sit; I do sit; I

"

5. The
as

Ex.

are

as

terminations

eat

the

in

and

love;I

in the

forms

its progress.

have loved.

second

eth, belong to what

in
Scriptures,

7. The
Ex.

of

and

the

is called
in

prayer,

emphaticform Representsan

third

the solemn

seen

style.They

poetry, and

act with

in

various

emphasis.

form

Do

"

you

is used

in

Did

lorite ?

Ex.

"

10.

In

you

I do write.

write ?

Ex.

"

12.

The

I shall

writing;

loved; I

am

perfecttenses

completion of

a,

I have

"

been

have

heen

progressive

act.

meriting.

passiveform representsthe receptionof

11. The

unfinished act.

an

perfecttenses, it representsthe completion of

the

emphasis.

writing.

am

I have

"

without

interrogativeor negative sentences

form represents^(^progressof
9. Tho, progressive

act.

an

loved; I shall he loved.

was

of this form

are

used

when

wish

we

to

represent the

passive state.
heen

honored

I had

heen

honored

I shall have

heen

honored.

followingtable givesthe form for each division of time,with

The
a

as

person,

I do write; I did write.

"

8. This

Ex.

indefinitely,

act

books.

sacred

Ex.

cwn-

sitting.

am

of this form

variations

found

Ex.

"

I love; I loved; I shall

"

6. The
in the

or

may have three forms, the


the progressive,

form
(indefinite)
represents an
completed,without reference to

common

custom,

GRAMMAR.

of
description

the state of the act

110. Forms

for each

"

Division

of

Time.

I. Present.
Time.
1. Present.

Example.

Act.
He
Complete in itself.
Progressiveincomplete.He
He
Completed.
Progressivecompleted. He
He
Emphatic.

2.

"

3.

"

4.

"

5.

"

6.

"

Passive

7.

"

8.

"

Progressivereceived.
Passive completed.

or

received.

writes.
is

writing.

has written.
has heen

writing,

does write.

The

letter is written.

The

house

The

letter has heen toritien.

is

building.

ETYMOLOGY

VERBS

"

^111

AUXILIARIES.

"

II. Past.

Example.

Act.

Time.

Complete

He

in itself.

1.

Past.

2.

"

3.

"

4.

"

6.

"

Emphatic.

6.

"

Passive

7.

"

Progressivereceived.

8.

"

wrote.

incomplete. He
Progressive
He
Completed.
completed. He
Progressive

completed.

Passive

writing.

had

written.

had

been

writing,

did write.

He

received.

or

was

written.

The

letter

The

house

The

letter had

was

building.

was

been written.

"

III. FUTUEE.
will write.

He
Complete in itself.
Progressiveincomplete.He
He
Completed.
Progressivecompleted. He

1. Future.
2.

"

3.

"

4.

"

5.

"

Passive

6.

"

7.

"

Progressivereceived.
Passive completed.

received.

or

loillbe

writing.

ivillhave

written.

will have

been

wr-iting.

The

letter will be written.

The

house

The

letter will have been written.

will be

building.

111. Auxiliaries.
1. Auxiliary

verbs

other verbs.
Pres.

be,

Do,
Did,

Past.
2. The
still used

They

are,

used in

are

gating
conju-

"

have, shall, will, maxj,


can,
had, should, would, might, could,

was,

auxiliaries

those which

are

origxrxduWy
principalverbs;

were

and

mu^t.

of them

some

aro

such.

as

3. The

auxiliaryverbs are used to form the modes and tenses of


other verbs,and to give to the forms
in which
they are used the
shades of meaning peculiarto their originalsignification.
4. In
as

the early stages of the language, these

principal verbs

called

the

Possum

followed

principal verb;

scrihere,or

the

Finally,the

subordinate

and

which

that
6. The

used

to

relations

on

it

relations

of fima,

modified

as, may

go,

infinitive

should
of

by

the

read,

can

were

must

became

bo

time

came

to be

its

regarded

place, origin,caxiae,

mode,
manner,

is

now

Latin

like

the

Ich

kann

schreiben.

the

principalverb,

auxiliary.

regarded merely
and

of what

sing;

as

used

undoubtedly

infinitive

Je puis alter,or the German

French

depended

auxiliaries
show

and

verbs

as

the

as

relation-icords,or words

prepositionis

property, material.

used
"tc.

to

In

show

fact,

112

ENGLISH

all words
relative

used

progress
the

and

pronouns,
of

show

to

of the

acquaintance
language.

relation of whatever

conjunctiveadverbs

language,

inflection

these

auxiliaries

principalword

their various

with

GRAMMAR.

uses

are

"

have

has

nature

"

such

increased,and

diminished.

is essential

as

prepof^itiov^,

species of auxiliary.

An

to

correct

in the
exact

ratio

same

and

In the

familiar
of the

knowledge

(See 113, below.)

6. The

as
auxiliaries,
such,have

present and

They

the
may

112.

only two tenses,


"

past^ except 7nust,which


"

be thus

has

no

the

tion.
varia-

;
represented
"

Conjugation of

the Auxiliaries.

Present.

'

Past.

"Was

wast

was

were

were

w^ere

Did

didst

did

did

did

did

Had

hadst

had

had

had

had

wouldst

would

would

would

would

Should

shouldst

should

should

should

should

Might

mightst

might

might

might

might

Could

couldst

could

could

could

could

\ Would

Auxiliaries.

113. Signification
of the
1. The

auxiliaries,
deriving much

of their force from

shades
significations,
original
give their own
to the tense-form
into which they enter.

their

2. Be,

from

the

Saxon

"

beon,"

to

be

of

ing
mean-

fixed^to exist,denotes

existeriGe,
As
ai"xert

an

auxiliary,it

its existence

is the

copula, used

in, the subjectj

as,

"

(80, 6)
The

heat

attribute

to

join an

is

oppressive."

to, aJid

11-1

ENGLISH

8. Rule
action

III.
both

are

the action
when

the

wiU

be

(I,he, you,

it ?)

Will

or

"

When

as,

into

the

the

lives

from

9. May,

idea

primary
employed
10.

in

the

in

of may,

Note.

It will be

"

hence

the

they

retain

as,

12.

their

may

"He

firstperson)

of

but

and

can,

must

that

lectual
intel-

is,to be
out,
with-

agency
but

"

in the
of

source

3fay

from

idea of

the
sity,
neces-

idea

it.

of power,-^

As

auxiliaries,
general, per-

in

expresses,

country."
and
possibility,

denotes

can

the

agree

differ in the

they

the

is,an

ability.
"

Hence

without,

view, obligation.

original meaning.

visit

that

"

able,

of

case

things.

permission.

personal

any

in

within,as

of

of

be

to

fulfilled

inwrought

from

agency

idea

the

be

strong, expressed the

know,

to

from

shall

III.,

history."

the idea

motan,"

not

"

that may,

seen

sometimes

May

rainj"

of

You

be used

thoroughly

in

be

to

Hence

"

fitness of

"

much

should

part of Rule

prediction

personal

last

been

only

Hence

Saxon

point

his

cunnan,"

self.

nor

2}otential,

term

"

mission

moral

"

coming

nature, constitution,or

and,

provided

the

of

case

the

case,

any

will

the

to

known

implied

Saxon

one's

power

case

the

have

"magan,"

and

the

is from

impelled by

be

war

that

shall

gospel

shall

Saxon

within

Must

as

the

all hindrance.

remove

power
11.

the

is from

Can

implied pledge

of

of power,

to

and

discourse, contrary

then

men,

in

or

{exceptin

predictiona7id

persons.

an

precepts

of

the

person,
person;

the action

in animated

the speaker offers

same

when

promoted. (I predict it.) I shall teach, or be a


they, predict it.) Will he teach? (Do you predict
? (Do you think so ?) It will rain. (I think so.)

it rain

is used

be used

to the yiebt

to riTTEEENT

You

teacher.

when

attributed to the

predictionand

Ex."

Shall

should

be attributed

attributed

are

Shall

"

GRAMMAR.

may

have

written;"

and

could

also

sometimes

doubt

implies
petition;

as,

"J/ay

as,

"It
it

viay

please

you."
13.
in

Might

the present;
14.

might

in

clause

one

is

sing, if

he

write.''

ferred

to.

When

He

might

have

"

I may

I know

"

looidd."
is
In

omitted.
all these

past

time

could

in

the

would

"He

sing, if

might

examples
is referred

written, if he

would

he

write."

present
to,

we

use

might

or

conditional

in

other,

if he

general meaning

same

I knew

used

are

might sing,

Ho

"

go."

can

the

time

past

xooxdd

to

"He

as,

or

and

answering

implied;

clause
would

as,

in

express

Might, could, should,

inclination

cnuld

"

when

coxdd

power,
woidd."

or

Sometimes

could,"

coxdd

"He

coidd

past

(have written").

go."'

sentences,

ability,or
So,

"He

the

ditional
con-

write."

liberty,"c.
possihility,
the

as

perfect tense

"He
is
;

re,
as

ETYMOLOGY

VERBS

"

115

AUXILIARIES.

"

114. Exercise.
do
followingsentences,

1. In the

and

shall

or
resolve,

will

pre-

diet?"

sad

to

see

In

I shall go to

me.

the

wilt show

book.

path

of life. He

thereof,thou

I will fear

Shall I go

all your

I will
objections,

will strike.

Shall

of

and

SHALL

I will receive

time if

of the Lord

to endure

resolved

that

When
3.

Study
:

We

are

of

it?

In

do

will shine.

sun

When

The

will the

you.

brother

my

I will be

Mary will

I will

shall you

If

we

suffer from

go with

me

good

I will be

if it is dark.

with

happy
un-

Surely

What

sorrow

Will

will I have

I write ?

He

is

the

examine

poverty ;
Where

I will

me.

subject,we will
nobody shall help

will I leave you ?

for Analysis,and explain the

the followingModels

make

I will dwell in the house

and

give her light.

go.

they
have

we

purse.

afraid

punished.

be

shall

moon

Will

that he will return

I resolve
I will

If

comes.

shall find the

you

shall follow me,

error.

givingand explainingthe right

I will like them.

come.

mercy

The

perceivethe
me.

Perhaps

forever.

obligedto

The

house

"

think

not

do not

goodness and

in the

letter when

go ?

we

if you

be

will

changes,I do

the

to-morrow.

the earl do well ?

Will

2. Correct the followingexamplesby


use

him

Florence

the lecture?

to

go

you

dwell

Will

do it.

see

come

surelydie. Thou
elected. Perhaps I shall

I will

to ride?

will

shalt

will be

evil.

no

It will be

room.

Eugene

sister. I shall

my

eatest

forever.

time come?

see

I tell him.

as

thou

the

me

find my
my God
clock

that

day

spiteof

shall do

He

for him.

day

shall not leave the

party. You

I will go to the

aries
auxili-

"

marcbingr.

auxiliaryverb,denotes present
ing
time,and asserts a thing as actual ; marchis a present participle,
denoting a progressive
is
the
hence
act:
are
marching
presenttense,indicative mode, progressiva
Are

is

an

form.
I do

write

auxiliaiyverb,denotes the present


tense,asserts a thing as actual,and
impartsemphasis ; wH^e denotes the simple

Do

is

act

an

hence

do write is the

emphatic

form.

present

tive,
indica-

116

ENGLISH

Se

Will is

auxiliaryverb,denotes future
time (simplypredicts),
and asserts a thingas
actual; sing denotes the simple act:
hence will singis in the future tense,indicative

slngr*

will

GKAMMAR.

an

mode.
He

bas

I had

Mas

been

is

auxiliaryverb,denotes present
time, is a sign of completed action,and
asserts a thing as actual ; conqueredis the
of conquer, denotinga completed
past participle
or
perfectact : hence has conquered
is the present perfect,
indicative.
Had
is an
auxiliaryverb, denotes past
wrltin"p.
time, is a sign of completion,and with
been asserts a thing as actual ; been is the
of the auxiliaryto be,and
past participle
is used to denote completion; writingis
of write,formed by
the present participle
addinging(28,2) and denotes a progressive
hence had been writing is the past
act:
indicative.
progressive,
perfect
Will is an auxiliary
verb ; it denotes future
bave
fong^bt.
and asserts a thing
time (simplypredicts),
actual ; have is a sign of completion;
as
hence will have is the sign of future completion;
of
fought is the past participle
fight; it denotes completion: hence will
have fought is the future
perfecttense,

conquered.

an

wiU

Iliey

indicative.
I ma

read.

auxiliaryverb ; it denotes present


asserts
as
a thing
imagined or
time,
a
nd
of
givesper(not as actual),
thought
mission,
May

is

an

or

the
hence

simple
may

be

is detained.

act

read

doubt

now

is the

; read

denotes

contemplation:
present potential,

in

form.

common

If

expresses

auxiliaryverb, denotes present


time,and of itself asserts a thing as actual,
but, under the influence of if,asserts a
tained
thing as doubtful and conditional: deis a passiveparticiple,
denoting the
receptionof an act : hence w detained is
the present passive,
subjunctive.
Is is

an

ETYMOLOGY

4. In the

same

VERBS

"

117

TENBE-FORMS.

"

analyzethe followingexamples:

manner

"

rising. 1 shall be satisfied.


factory
The sailor would have been discharged,if he had not given a satisThe
Leslie hoped to
anxious
to go.
excuse.
boys were
The

tempest

prison. Write
should

was

sun

before

the

The

answer.

an

write

The

passed.

finished the work

have

you

has

approached.

storm

have

letter may

to

the

delayed. If

been

be commended.

lesson,you would

correct

Go

examplesof the emphatic indicative past; three of


the progressive
potential
past perfect
; four of the progressive
past perfect;
also any other which your teacher may
give.
Write

5.

three

verbs:

the

of each of the following

fokm

"

Shepherd,lead
works.

Truth, crushed

Sweet

on.

will be

He

far shalt thou

Thus

and

the tense,

6. Tell the mode,

is the breath
Silence

coming.

go.

earth,shall

These

morn.

filled the

leads them

He

of

forth

rise

courts

are

thy

of heaven.

through golden portals.

in secret pray.
thou
again.
If thy brother die,he shall live again. By that time he will have
been reaping his wheat.
He
has been
They must
go to rest.
will have
I reach home.
set when
studying his lesson. The sun
He

sunk

to repose

115. Uses
1. The

"

am

[b.)With
Ex.

"

"

the red heaths

blended.

are

Formation

combine

of Tenses.
the tenses,

to form

"

participles.

writing;He

was

infinitives

(ill,4).

have written.

loved; We

write; They shall read,


both united.

I may

have learned.

2. In the indicative mode

they combine
Do
Am

(a.)Abs.

Do

of the Auxiliaries.

I may

(c.)With
Ex.

where

auxiliaries may

(a.)With
Ex.

to

tenses.

-IPresent.

-|
Am

love,

emp.

loving,
""'" ^"" "^"'

loved,
is,art,

as

are.

follows

form,
"

prog,

"

inf. and

form,

"

do, dost,does.

pres.

part, and

"'*""

pas. form,

"

past part, and

am,

118

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

'

Did
Was

"

loTingr, prog, form,

pres. part, and

"

wast,

was,

Past.
Was

did, did"t.

inf. and

form,

love, emp.

were.

loved,

form,

pas.

past part, and

"

toa",

toast, were.

Abs. tenses.
(a.^
(Coniinued.)

Sball

love,

form,

com.

inf.and shall,shali,

"

loill,wilt.
Shall

Future.

be

and

loving:,

Sball

loved,

be

^Have

loved,

"

6c,

shall,shalt,will, wilt.
be,and

inf. of

form,

pas.

pas. part, with

inf. of

form,

prog,

pres. part, with

"

shall,shalt,will,wilt.
past part, and

form,

com.

"

have, hadst, has.


-^

loving*, prog, form,

been

Have

pen.

heen, and

Have

loved,

been

been, and

have, hast,has.
form,

pas.

have, hast,has.
past part, and

form,

com.

past part.

"

part, with

pas.

loved,

Had

part,with

pres.

past part.

"

"

had, hadst.

(6.)Bel.

perf.

tenses.

loved,

been

bave

Sball

bave

per"

mode
potential

can,

May
Present.

and

inf. of

"

have,

form,

prog,

"

pres.

loved,

form,

pas.

"

past part, been, and

inf.

pas. part.

wilt.
shall,shalt,xcill,

they combine
May

loving,

been

have, and

with

8. In the

form,

shall, shalt,will,wilt.

bave

Sball

had, hadst.

shall,shalt,will,wilt.

been

part, with

of

com.

past part.

"

have, past part, of been, and

inf. of

Fut.

loved,

past part, with

and

form,

pas.

pas. part, with

been, and
Sball

past part.
had, hadst.
"

pres. part, with

been, and
Had

form,

loving:, prog,

been

Had

Past

love,

follows

as

form,

com.

"

"

inf. and

may,

mayat,

canst, must.

loving-,

be

prog,

pres. part, with

form,
"

mayst,

may,

inf. of
can,

be,

canst,

must.

(a.)Abs.

May

be

pas. part with

Mlgbt
Past.

pas. form,

loved,

love,

may,

com.

mayst,

form,

"

"

inf. of
can,

be, and

canst, must.

inf. and

might,

mightst,could, eouldst, should, shouldst,


would,

wouldst.

-VERBS

ETYMOLOGY"

f Mig:ttt
{a.)Abs.

form,

lovingr, prog,

inf. of

"

he,

could,
might,mightst,

shouldat,
couldat,would, wouldst,shotild,

Past.

tenses.

be

pres. part, with

and

X19

TENSE-FORMS.

"

(Continued.)Continued.

be

Mjg'lit

pas. form,

loved,

inf. of

"

be,and

could,coiddat,
mightst,
pas. part, "withmight,
should,ehouldst.
tcoidd,looiddst,
loved,

have

May

inf. of have,

form,

com.

"

past part, with may,

and

maysi,

canst,

can,

must.

Pres.

have, past part, been,

of

perf.

with may,

have,

have,

canst,

can,

loved,

can,

and

canst,

loved,

have

Mig^ht

and

pas.

past part, been, and

mayst,

may,

tenses.

mayst,
been

have

May

(6.)ReL

loving:, prog,

been

bave

May

form,
"

pres.

inf.

part.

must.

inf. of

form,
"

pas.

part, with

must.

com.

past part, with

inf. of

form,

"

might,mightst,

could, coiddst, looidd, tcouldat,shotdd,


shouldst.
have

Mig-ht
inf. of

Past

perf.

with

been

loving-, prog,

have, past part, been,and

form,
"

pres. part.

might,mightst,
could,couldst,should,

shouldst,xoould,wouldst.
Might

been

have

have, past

of

loved,

pas. form," inf.

part, been, and

part.
with might,mightst,
could, couldst,should,
pas.

shotddst,would, tcouldst.

exceptionof the distinctive form in the present and


mode has the same
fchepast (i07,5, 6),the subjunctive
tense-forms as
the indicative or the potential,
with if,unless,
though,"c.,prefixed.
4. With

Ex.

the

If Hove;

"

if I

may

love.

imperativemode has but one tense,the present,which is


used generallywithout the subjectexpressed,and in all the four
5. The

forms
Ex.

of the verb.
"

Study;

6. The

be thou

studying;be

infinitive mode

The present is used

has two
in the

thou loved; do write.

tenses, the present and the


"

common,

the

and
progressive,
"

fect.
per-

the

passiveforms of the verb,and is formed by prefixing to" to tlie


form, to be" to the present participle
simple verb for the common
for
for the progressiveform, and "^o be" to the passiveparticiple
the passiveform.
"

Ex.

"

To torite;to be

writing
;

to

be uritten.

1^0

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

The

perfectis used in the common, the progressive,


and the passive
form of the verb, and is formed by
prefixingto have to the past
o
f
participle the verb for the common
form," to have been to the
for the progressiveform," and to have been to the
present participle
for the passiveform.
passiveparticiple
Ex.

To have

"

7. The
Ex.

have been

writing;to

have been written.

is formed by addingingto the simpleverb.


presentparticiple

^QdA-ing.

"

The past
the

written;to

is formed
participle

for

regular verbs by adding

ed to

simple verb (as,2).


Ex.

Honor-ec?;honored.

"

The

perfectparticipleis formed by prefixinghaving to the past


of the verb for the common
participle
form, having been to the
for the progressive
present participle
form, and having been to the
for the passiveform.
passiveparticiple
"

"

Ex.

Having written,;havingbeen turiting;


havingbeen

"

116. Number
1. The

which

and

nnmber

show

and

of the verb

its agreement with the

the verb

numbers

has two

of the Yerlb.

Person

person

vrritten.

are

properties

subject.Like

and

the subject,

three persons.

and the third


the second,
first,
in all verbs {am, are,
of the present tense indicative,
person plural,
The second person singularis like the
was, were, excepted)are alike.
it is formed by
when
first,
except in the solemn or ancient style,
The
third person
singularis
adding st,or est,to the first person.
formed
from the first,
by adding s or es; in ancient styleit ends

2.

the

and
The^rs^ person singular,

in eth.
Ex.

Thou

"

Verbs

lovestme

ending in

best
prayefA.

He

not.

precededby

who

loxeth best.

consonant, change y

into

i,and

singular; as, try,tries.


3. By a figureof enallage (216,7),the second person
plural of
in conversational,
the pronoun
and the verb is substituted,
common,
for the second person singular.
and familiar style,
add es, to form

Ex.

Hubert, you

"

Note.
as

the third person

"

The

are

tendency

obsolete,the

sad,

among

forms

Hubert, thou
some

art sad.

grammarians

of the second

person

to

omit

from

is
singular,

to be

their paradigms,

regretted.

122

ENGLISH

2.

Study the followingModels:


Thou

Hast

GRAMMAR.

gone

is a verb"
it does

"

hast

it expresses

form

not

thy

to

gone

rest.

being,action,or

its

past

and

tense

adding ed;" principalparts"


intransitive

part, gone;

object to

an

represents

act

as

present

Hast

form
is

gone

it asserts

it expresses

second

require

or

thing

action

an

it
its

actual

as

"

go,

"

went, gone, indicative

"

3. In

the

manner:

We
of

V.

ir. int. ind.

read

of that

but it is not

philosophy which

of

And

the

God

This

is he

Jesus

same

of

whom

its possessor

be

to extend

murderers

to his

of slander,

lacerations

c^?"

man

friend

true,

his'iend:
"

approves.
loves.

Pallas,just above

all the

lamplight
floor,
soul from

this

the destruction

"

Keble.

still is sitting,
still is sitting
flitting,

never

have

the

thee of

is he whom

the

my

told

This

pallidbust

his eyes

over

complacency

shall

for Christ

hath

Christ

And

the

in

verbs

thou. Christian,for thy

If his love

the raven,

enables

to bear

man

Lord, and what


Ask'st

And

the

is

sing.

per.

smile

can

religionwhich
forgiveness and

in the soul of
"

On

"

to

"

benign look

And

2d

perf.

pres.

"

following examples, explain

property, of that

the

to

subject thou.

mode, present perfecttense,2d person, sing,number,


thus :
Or, for the slate,
agree with its subject thou.
a

completed

singular number,

person,

irreg.intransitive yerb,

an

its

with

agree

Abbreviated

time

receive

"

mode"

present perfecttense"
in

past went, past

go,

not

meaning; common
form
completed without reference to

; indicative

progress

"

the

complete

an

irregular

past participleby-

^re^.

it does

"

state ;

out

seeming of

o'er him

that

Shall be lifted
"

my

chamber-door

demon's

streaming

shadow

that

nevermore

!
"

throws

lies

that

is

dreaming,

his shadow

floatingon

E. A. Poe.

the

on

the

floor,

ETYMOLOGY

119.

VERBS

"

Conjugation

of

the

INDICATIVE

Yerb

Plural.

Singular.

We

is ;

PERFECT

PRESENT

3. He

has

We

2. Thou

You

wast,

1. I had

been,

2. Thou

hadst

3. He

had

PERFECT

shalt

2. Thou
3. He

shall

or

or

wilt

We

will be ;

shall

or

or

wilt

PERFECT

been.
have been.

will have

been ;

PRESENT

2. Thou
3. He

be,
mayst be,

may

be ;

been.

will

or

shall

be,
will be,

o?-

shall

They

POTENTIAL

1. I may

had

shall

You

be.

will have

shalt

2. Thou
3. He

or

been,
been.

TENSE.

be.

FUTURE

1. I shall

had

They

will

were.

had

You

been,

been

or

were.

TENSE.

We

FUTURE

1. I shall

were.

They

PAST

been.

have

TENSE.

We

was

been.
been.

have

They

been ;

1. I was,

3. He

have

You

PAST

are,

TENSE.

been,
hast been,

2. Thou

are,

(Ye o)-)You
They are.

art,

1. I have

BE.

TENSE.

1. I am,

3. He

TO

MOOD.

PRESENT

2. Thou

123

CONGUGATION.

"

will be.

or

TENSE.

We

shall

You

shall

They

will have

or

shall

or

will have

or

MODE.
TENSE.

We

may

You

They

may
may

be,
be,
be.

will have

been,
been,
been.

124

ENGLISH

GKAMMAK.

PERFECT

PEESEXT

TENSE.
I'lural.

Singular.
have been,
1. I may
2. Thou
3. He

have

mayst

PAST

We

2.

You

might be,
Thou
mightst be.
He might be ;
PERFECT

We

might have been.


You
might have been.
They might have been.

been,
Thou
mightst have been.
He might have been ;
"v

SUBJUNCTIVE

MODE.

PRESENT

TENSE.

If

1. If I am,
2. If thou

we

If you

art.

If

3. If he is ;

are,

they

1. If I have

If

2. If thou

If you

been.
hast been.

are,

are.

TENSE.

PERFECT

PRESENT

we

have

been,
been,

have

If

they have

1. If I was.

If

we

2. If thou

If you

3. If he has

been

wast,

was

If

PAST

1. If I had
2. If thou

PERFECT

been

If

2. If thou

will

or

shalt

3. If he shall

or

or

If

be.

wilt

we

had
had

been,
been,

they had

been.

TENSE.

FUTURE

1. If I shall

were,

they were.

If you

were,

TENSE.

If

been.
hadst been.

3. If he had

been.

TENSE.

PAST

3. If he

been.

TENSE.

1. I.might have

3.

have

may

might be,
might be,
They might be.

PAST

2.

been,

TEJS^SE.

1. I

3.

been,

have

may

They

have

may

You

been.

been

have

may

We

be.

will be ;

we

If you
If

shall

shall

they

will

or

shall

or
or

will

be,
be,

will be.

ETYMOLOGY

VERBS

"

PERFECT

FUTURE

TENSE.
Plural.

Singular.

1. If I shall
2. If thou

shalt

3. If he shall

If

will have

or

been,
have been,

wilt

or

will have

or

If

been.

Besides

present and

the forms

the past,

will have

or

shall

been,
will have been,

or

they shall

will have

or

already given,the subjunctivehas another

peculiarto

itself.

PRESENT

TENSE.

Singular.

Plural.

1. If I

If

2. If

If you be.
If they be.

be,
thou be,

3. If he be ;
PAST

we

If

2. If thou

If you

wert,

were

Be,

thou

were,
were,

they were.

MODE.

PRESENT

Be

we

If

IMPERATIVE

or

be.

TENSE.

1. If I were,

3. If he

TENSE.

Be ye

INFINITIVE

or

you.

MODE.

Present

Tense.

To be.

Present

Perfect.

To have

been.

PARTICIPLES.

Present.

Past.
Being.
Perfect. Having been.

COMMON

Congugate

the verb

be

Been.

STYLE.
in the

INDICATIVE

common

style,thus

"

MODE.

PRESENT

TENSE.

Singular.
1. I am,

We

2. You

You

3. He

been.

{Subjunctive
form)

MODE.

"

shall

we

If you

P^SUBJUNCTIVE
NoVe.

125

CONJUGATION.

"

Plural.

are,
is:

are,

They
11*

are,
are.

in the

126

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

PEESENT

PERFECT

TEXSE.

Singular.

Plural.

1. I have

We

2. You

You

been,
have been,

3. He
In the

same

has been

Synopsis is
the modes

view

short

and tenses

Synopsisof

in

of

go

the

singlenumber

Pres.

Perf. I

Past.

Past

am.

been.

w^as.

If I

Pres.

Perf. If

Past.

If I

Pres.

Perf. I

been.

Here

Wiz

the

and
infinitive,

the

Perf.

I had

been.

Put.

I shall have

Perf.

been.

If I had

Perf

been.

Future.

If I shall be.

Fhit. Perf

If I shall have

Pa^t

been.

Perf.

it is well for the

ends; yet

first'person

person.

PomL

have

through

been.

MODE.

be.

may

modes.

its forms

I shall be.

Past

was.

I may

and

tenses

Future.

POTENTIAL

Present.

been.

MODE.

am.

I have

have

MODE.

SUBJUNCTIVE

Present.

and

been,
been,

firstperson, singularnumber.

the verb be, in the

have

all the

through

verb,showing

INDICATIVE

Present,

have

They

let the learner

manner,

have

might
might

be.
have

pupil to give

the

been.
tive,
impera-

participles.

IMPERATIVE

MODE.

Present.

Be

thou.

INFINITIVE.

Present.

To

Perfect.To have been.

be.
PARTICIPLES.

Present.

Perfect.Having been.

Being.

120. Exercise.
1. In vjhat mode
I

To

am.

He

have been.

has

and

tense

been.

They

were.

the followingverbs?

are

If I

were.

He

You

will have

can

be.

been.

"

He
You

might be.
might be.

ETYMOLOG

She had been.

been.

Thou

VERBS

To

will be.

You

If you

If he be.

"

They might

are.

have

been.

have

I must

We

been.

Thou

art.
I had

were.

is.

He

wast.

be.

1 27

JUGATION.

C02s

"

synopsisof to be, in the Ind.,second person singular,


third per. sing., third per. plur.
sec.
per. plur.,"first per. plur.,"
Pot., third per. sing.,"sec. per. plur.,"third per. plur. Sub., sec.
third per. plur., firstper. plur.
per. sing., sec. per. plur.,
2. Give

"

"

"

"

"

LOYE.

121. Conjugation of the Regular YerbTO


ACTIVE

VOICE.

INDICATIVE

MODE.

PRESENT

TEXSE.

Singular.

1. I

Plural.

We

love,
lovest,

love,
love,
They love.

2. Thou
3. He

You

loves ;
PRESENT

1. I have
2. Thou
3. He

PERFECT

loved,
hast loved,

has

We

They have loved.

loved ;
TENSE.

loved,
Thou
lovedst,
He loved;-

1. I

3.

We

loved,
You
loved,
They loved.

PAST

1. I had
2. Thou
3. He

PERFECT

We

1. I shall

loved ;

3. He

or

will

shalt

shall

or

or

2. Thou
3. He

or

shall

TENBE.

love.
wilt love.

will love ;

or

or

wilt

PERFECT

loved,
have loved,

will have

We

shall

loved ;

will

or

shall

You

love,
will love,

or

shall

They

will have

shalt

loved.

had

They

FUTURE

1. I shall

loved,
had loved,

had

You

FUTURE

2. Thou

TENSE.

loved.
hadsf loved,

had

loved,
have loved,

have

You

PAST

2.

TENSE.

or

will love.

TENSE.

We

shall

You

They

or

shall
shall

or
or

will have
will have

loved,
loved,

will have

loved.

128

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

POTENTIAL

MODE.

PRESENT

TENSE.

Singular.

1. I may
2. Thou

Plural.

love,

We

mayst love,

3. He

love ;

may

2. Thou
3. He

PERFECT

have

loved,
mayst have loved.
have

may

1. I

3. He

TENSE.

might have loved,


You
might have loved,
They might have loved.
We

mightst have loved.


might have loved ;

{Regularform.)

MODE.

TENSE.

PRESENT

1. If I

If

2. If

If you

love.
thou lovest.

If

3. If he loves ;

2. If thou

loved,
If you have loved,
If they have loved.

If

loved.

hast

loved,

3. If he has loved ;
PAST

1. If I

lovedst,

3. If he loved ;
PERFECT

we

TENSE.

1. If I had

If

2. If

If you

loved,
thou hadst loved.

3. If he had

loved ;

have

loved,
If you loved,
If they loved.
If

PAST

we

TENSE.

loved,

2. If thou

love,
love,
they love.
we

TENSE.

PERFECT

PRESENT

1. If I have

loved.

might love,
You
might love,
They might love.

PERFECT

SUBJUNCTIVE

have

We

might have loved.

2. Thou

may

loved,
have loved,

TENSE.

might love.
Thou mightst love.
He might love ;
PAST

have

may

They

1. I

3.

love.

may

may

You

loved ;

love,
love,

TENSE.

We

PAST

2.

may

They

PRESENT

1. I may

may

You

If

we

loved,
had loved,

had

they had loved.

130

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

PRESENT

TENSE.

PERFECT

Plural.

Singular.
1. I have

been
hast

2. Thou

2. Thou
3. He

We

1. I had

been

2. Thou

hadst

PERFECT

2. Thou

shalt
shall

3. He

or

or

loved,
wilt be loved.

will be loved ;

1. I

shall

have

will

or

been

or

wilt have

been

will have

or

been

3. He

be loved

have

been

mayst

have

may

will have

been

or

will have

been

or

will have

been

or

shall

You

They

shall

TENSE.

We

loved,
mayst be loved,

have

may

They

loved

may

loved,
be loved,

be

be loved.

TENSE.

PERFECT

loved.
been loved,

been

may

You

PRESENT

2. Thou

shall

We

MODE.

be

1. I may

will be loved.

or

loved.

PRESENT

may

will be

loved,

POTENTIAL

3. He

or

loved,
loved,

TENSE.

loved ;

1. I may
2. Thou

will be

or

loved,

shalt

shall

loved.

been

shall

They

loved,
3. He

had

shall

You

loved,
2. Thou

been

shall

We

PERFECT

FUTURE

loved,
loved,

TENSE.

will be

or

been

had

They
FUTURE

1. I shall

had

You

loved ;

loved.

were

TENSE.

We

loved.
been loved,

been

had

were

They
PAST

loved,
loved,

were

You

loved ;

was

3. He

TENSE.

loved,
wast
loved.

was

loved,
have been loved,

They have been loved.


PAST

1. I

been

have

You

loved ;

been

has

3. He

We

loved,
been loved,

We

may

You

They

may
may

have
have

have

been

loved,
been loved,
been

loved.

ETYMOLOGY

VERBS

"

PAST

"

TENSE.
Plural.

Singular.

might be loved,
You
might be loved,
They might be loved.

We

might be loved,
Thou
mightst be loved,
He might be loved ;

1. I
2.
3.

1 31

CONJUGATION.

TENSE.

PERFECT

PAST

We
might have been loved,
might have been loved.
Thou
mightst have been loved. You might have been loved,
He might have been loved ;
They might have been loved.

1. I
2.
3.

[Regularform,)

MODE.

SUBJUNCTIVE

TENSE.

PRESENT

1. If I

am

2. If thou

If

loved,
art loved,

If

was

2. If thou
3. If he

loved

been

1. If I had
2. If thou

2. If thou

shalt

3. If he shall

or

FUTURE

1. If I shall

or

will

we

If you

been

If

we

If you
If

had

loved,
loved,

been

had

been
been

shall

loved.

will be

or

shall

or

they shall

or

will

loved,
be loved,

will be loved.

TENSE.

PERFECT

have

been

If

wilt

have

If you

or

been

If

loved,

3. If he shall

loved ;

loved.

we

shall

or

will have

been

will have

been

will have

been

loved,
shalt

thou

were

they had

loved,
2. If

loved,
loved,

were

they were

If

loved,
wilt be loved,

will be loved ;

or

loved.

TENSE.

will be

or

we

If

FUTURE

1. If I shall

If

been

TENSE.

PERFECT

loved ;

been

3. If he had

been

have

they have

If

loved.
been loved.

hadst

loved,
loved,

been

have

If

If you

PAST

loved.

are

TENSE.

loved.
wast
loved,

was

we

If you

loved ;
PAST

1. If I

If

loved,
been loved.

been

3. If he has

loved,
loved,

TENSE.

been

hast

are

they

PERFECT

PRESENT

2. If thou

are

If you

3. If he is loved ;

1. If I have

we

or

will have

shall

loved,
they shall
loved.

or

or

132

ENGLISH

SUBJUNCTIVE

GRAMMAR.

form.)
(Subjunctive

MODE.
PRESENT

TENSE.

Singular.

Plural.

1. If I be

If

2. If

If

loved,
thou be loved,

3. If he be loved ;

PAST

1. If I
.

were

3. If he

loved,07' Be

thou

we

were
were

loved,
loved,
loved.

they were

MODE.

loved ;

Be

INFINITIVE

Present. To

If

If

IMPERATIVE

Be

If

loved,
you be loved,
they be loved.

If you

loved ;

were

be

TENSE.

loved.
thou wert loved.

2. If

we

Jpved,or

you

loved.

been

loved.

Be

MODE.

be loved.

Perfect.To have

PARTICIPLES.

Being loved.

Present.

Past
been

Perfect.Having

Interrogativeand

122.

Loved.
(passive).
loved.

Negative

Forms.

in the indicative
and
conjugatedinterrogatively
potentialmode, by placing the subjectafter it,or after the
auxiliary.
1. A

Ex."

I love ?

Ind.,Do
I love?

Shall

the

verb is

loved?

I have

Shall

I loved ?

Have

loved?

Did

Had

I love ?

Pot., Can

I love?

first

I loved ?

Can

I have

"c.

conjugated negativelyby placing the adverb not


should
after it,or after the first auxiliary
; but the negativeadverb
be placed before the infinitive and the participles.
2. A

Ex.

"

verb

Ind., I

not, or I did
have

is

not

loved.

3. A

verb

love

not, or I do

love.

I had

not

Part., Not loving.


is

not

love.

loved,"c.
Not

loved.

I have

not

loved.

Inf.,Not to love.
Not having loved.

and
conjugated interrogatively

I loved
Not

in
negatively,

to

the

ETYMOLOGY

VERBS

"

1 33

CONJUGATION.

"

and the
potentialmode, by placingthe subject,
adverb not,after the verb,or after the first auxiliary.

indicative and

Ex.

I not ?

Love

"

Had

love ?

the

Do

or

I not

love ?

Have

loved ?

I not

Did

I not

loved ? "c.

I not

128. Exercise.
the number, and
mode, the tense,the voice,
:
followingveebs

the person

1. Tell the
the

"

She

has

loved.

loved.

He

is loved.

love.

If

Thou

He

We

loved.

I have

loved.

We

had

loved.
You

Thou

She will have

been

She

loved.

have

If I

loved.

been

loved.

I had

art loved.

Thou

I love.

been

will love.

He

will love.

love. We
may
wilt have loved.

They

had

We

I love.

They shall
might have

loved.

of
repeata fullconjugation

or

loved.

If I be loved.

be loved.

may

they love.

Write

2.

might love.
loved.

hast loved.
was

I
have

may

shall have

He

of

the followingverbs:

"

Believe,defy,think.
the
Conjugate the firstof the above verbs interrogatively,
and the third interrogatively
and negatively.
negatively,
3.

4. Give

synopsisof either of the


the second,
the third person.
or
first,

above

124. Synopsis" Progressiye and


Terb
Note.

The

"

progressiveform

verbs in either

Emphatic

7iext

form, in

Forms

the

"

Read.

is

the

verb

be

joined

to

the

present

participle.
Ex.

"

^"^
the

reading^*

am

passive form

The
Ex.

"

The

pupil should

emphatic form,

present, and

did

the

reading:.

was

is the verb

pleased,

am

uras

joined to the passive

be

pleased.

be careful

auxiliary

for the past.

participle.

to mistake

not

do

is added

It is found

only

the
to

one

In

simple

verb

for

the

indicative

and

the

perative
im-

the

in the

for the other.

mode.

progressive.Ind.,I am reading,I have been reading,


I was
reading,I had been reading,I shall be reading,I shall have
been reading. Pot., I may be reading,I may have been reading,
I might be reading,T might have been
reading. Sttb.,If T am or
Verb read,

"

VI

134
be

ENGLISH

if I
reading,

GRAMMAR.

reading,if I was or were reading,if I had


been reading,if I shall be reading,if I shall have been readingImp.,Be thou reading. Inf.,To be reading,to have been reading.
Part., Reading, having been reading.
Verb

read,

have

been

emphatic. Ind., I do read, I did read.


"

Imp.^ Do

thou read.

125. Exercise.
1.

Write

or

repeat a fullconjugationof write,lend,play,in

the

form.
progressive
2.

Give

third person,

synopsisof either of the


singularand plural.

3. Tell the

between
difference
(See Note above.)

126. Forms

for each
THE

the

above

INDICATIVE
PRESENT

the

and the passiveform.


progressive

of Time

Diyision

VERB

verbs in the second and

TO

MAKE.
MODE.

TENSE.

combined!

ETYMOLOGY"

VERBS

TENSE.

FUTUEE
1st

1. Indef.

will

Sing.

2d

Tnou

make,

wilt

make,
be

will make,

making,

2.

Prog, incomp.

making,

3.

Compd.

will have

made,

wilt

have

made,

4.

Prog, compd.

will have

been

wilt

have

been

5.

Emphatic.
wilt

be made.

will

be

made.

will be

compd.

making, will have

been

made,

wilt

been

Ye

We

make,

making,

will

be

made.

will

have

been

-will have

will

make,

2.

Prog, incomp.

will

bo

Compd.

will have

Prog, compd.

will have

making,

making.

making,

will have

been

made.

Zd Hur.

You

or

will

1. Indef.

made.

2d Hur.

1st Plur.

8.

have

made.
been

will be made,
will be

will have

making,

will have

7. Pas. prog.
8. Pas.

Sing.

He, She, It,

wilt

6. Passive.

Zd

Sing.

will be

making,

135

COXJUGATIOX.

"

They
will make,
will be

making,

making,

made.

will have

made.

been

will have

been

making,

making.

Emphatic.
Passive.
Pas.

prog.

Pas.

compd.

will

be

will

made,

will

be

be made,

will be
will

have

been

made,

will

have

been

made.

making,

will have

beon

marlp.

136

127.

and

tense

irregularverbs

language

than

diminish

the

the

at

present.

not

regular the

weak

2. The

of

The

more

from

go.

are

derived

from
the

is

English

hence

call
Philologists

the

other

tho

constantly to
obsolete

numerous

Went

verbs.

comes

irregular the strung,

and

inflection.

irregular
also the regular
have
marked
which
R.
are
italicized are either obsolete or are becoming
are

followinglist contains

verbs.

Those

verbs

forms.

Those

which

so, and

should

not

in modern

irregular formations

early history of

in the

numerous

tendency

of the present forms

and

wend,

much

were

number

Some

forms.

written.
write,ivrote,

seen;

as, see, saw,


The

IiregularTerbs.

verb is one which does not form its past


irregular
by adding ed to the presenttense ;
past participle

1. All

from

GKAMMAR.

ENGLISH

be committed

the

parts of
principal

to memory.

the

When

and should
faced,the regularform is preferred,
r. in italics means
regularbut seldom used.

the

be

is dark-

repeatedfirst;

138

ENGLISH

GKAMMAK.

Past

Participle.

Frozen.

Fraught, r.
Got, gotten.
Gilt,R.
Girt,R.
Given.
Gone.

Graven,

r.

Ground.
Grown.

Hung.
Had.
Heard.

Hoven, R.
Hewn, R.
Hidden, hid.
Hit.

Held, holden.
Hurt.

Kept.
Knelt, r.
Knit, r.
Known.

Laden,

r.

Laid.
Led.

Leapt, R.
Learnt,R.
Left.
Lent.
Let.
Lain.

Lied,
Lit, R.
Lost.

Made.
Meant.
Met.

Mown,
Past, R.
Paid.

R.

ETYMOLOGY

"

VERBS

"

IRREGULAR.

139

140

EliTGLISH

GRAMMAJR.

141

Note.
ear.

of the

Many

"

The

preference is
alike;

difference

the

so,

found

following
pay,

is that of t and

the

in the

words

except in the

poets

ve7'i/rarely have

has

(obs.)betid;

sometimes

plead

has

its correlative

list,there
in the

or

are

older

regular past

few

to
are

the
nounced
pro-

Sometimes

dicelt,dioelled,
spelt,

"

which

forms

of the

usages

and

are

language.

past participle:
"

has

(improperly)plead;
has

show

reave

little
(itself

(obs.)sheio,shewn;

regular verb,
"

has

dom
selThe

Grind, lay,

used)

but

(obs.)crope

has
has

strow, strew,

stroiced,streioed,
(obs.) strawed, strawn, strewn;
a

rapped

others.

d,

(obs.)bided ; creep
(obs.)dove, diven; heat

bide

dive has

curst;

(obs.)shore;

as

rapt and

shake, slide,sioeep, string,strive,loind,wring.

Betide
has

the eye, not

irregularto

are

orthography. Thus,

of

one

list

also, drest,dressed,blest,blessed, and

in sound

spelled. Besides

in the

words

or

curse

heat;
(colloquial)
re/t,B. ; shear has
(obs.)straw, has

it may

now

be

regarded

strewed.
streio,streioed,

128. Exercise.
1. Give

the

past

and

the

of teach,sing,write,read,
past participle

"c. "c.
hurt,sit,arise,
take,beat,tell,
2. Give

Thrown,

the

present and

sworn,

3. Correct the
each:

of

The

haste,
and

s^vum,

the

pastfor

the followingpast participles


:-^

built,spoken, stolen,"c. "c.

followingexamples,and

givethe

number

and

person

"

blossoms

have

fell from
is wrote

parah's exercise

telted

falsehood

the wrong
bravely. She did
has took

about

course.

not

it.
The

git the

the trees.

Mary

The
badly.'A

thief stoled the money


Charles
is froze hard.

The

bell

lake

come

to school

in

ringed loud. The soldiers fit


premium. The exercise is wrote

142

ENGLISH

spoke the truth.


drawed
by
carriage was

badly. James
him.
I laid

the

strove

The

for several

aspect

teached

He

dinged

the

beads

leak.

to the

These

He

give me

mast.

The

smit

stone

vessel has
in the

him

Harrv

seen

has

129. Defectiye
1.

verbs

Defective

They

are

neither

/tie sit^down\

has

sky

The

the cloth

weaved

have

cars

beautifully.

grower! veiy fast.


Anna
stringcid
money.
in sight. She
s])ringeda

apples have
some

hove

overflown

river has

The

its

it.

Terbs.
of the

some

shall,and

cipal
prin-

have

will,which

and ought,which
participles
; must
quoth,which
a
participles;
past tense nor
nor
a present tense
participles.

3. When

no

refers to past time, it is used

7nust

in

the

the
have
has

fect
present-per-

tense.

Ex.

"

He

When

have

must

ought

left.

refers

to

past time, it

is followed

by

the

perfect

infinitive.
Ex.
4.

third
Ex.

He

"

Quoth
person
"

"

now

written.

seldom

used,and

only in

the past tense, first and

singular.
cheeks

may

blow.

formerly was written in two words :


is used chieflyin the imperative mood.
"

It

loare"

is

to have

Air, quoth he, thy

Beware

Ex.

ought

Beware

of

dogs.

a**cl(Mc[^'

wore

well.

song

he had

bee/stinged
NcUi^

The

those in which

can,

may,

past tense,but
neither

has^blowed

After
pasture./

to

too

wanting.

parts are
2.

are

wind

fell
be-

weary,

throwed

branches,

The

face.

he done

when

Being

was

The

singed the

grammar?

quickly.

The

banks.

him

ball

prize.

knife.

Grandmother

off the track.

Who

the

vShe

days.

The

drove

were

my

horses.

the

has

misfortune

four

come.

broke

winned

took

has

Edwin

badly.

cattle

times,he

many

they

trees, and

the

bank.

the

when

soldiers

from

refreshed.

ris much

the

see

fruit

upon

ran

The

sad

has not

down, and

high.

gra:"[mar.

"

Of

whom

bs thou

ETYMOLOGY

VEKBS

"

130. Redundant
1. A

Ex.

state
Ex.

"

than

more

or

thrived
throve,

verb

impersonal

is asserted
It rains.

It

is

or

one

independentlyof

by

which

any

They

an

action

or

subject.
particular

snows.

Methinks, methought, nieseems, meseemed,


impersonal, or rather unipersonal,verbs.
"

for its

thriven.

3.

Ex.

form

one

past participle.

Thrive,thrived

"

2. An
a

or

Yerbs.

Impersonal

has

verb

redundant

past tense

and

143

IMPERSONAJL.

"

My

father ! methinks

are

equivalentto

see

my

be

may

regarded aa

father.

think,I thought,It

seems, It seemed

to mc.

131. Exercise.
1.

Study the followingmodels for parsing

the verb:

"

(Full form.)
(1.)Give the part of speech, and tell why.
and why.
(2.)Tell whether it is regular or irregular,
(3.)Give the principalparts.
and why.
(4.)Tell whether it is transitive or intransitive,
(5.)Tell the voice and form, and why.
(6.)Tell the mode, and why.
(7.)Tell the tense, and why.
(8.) Inflect the tense.
and person, and why.
(9.) Tell the number

(10.)Give

the rule.

(Abbreviated form.)
transitive
regular or irregular,
active or passive form.
(if transitive)

(1.)It

is

(2.)Principal parts.
(3.)Mode.
(4.)Tense.
and person.
(5.)Number
(6.)Construction and rule.

or

intransitive,
verb,

144

ENGLISH

GEAMMAE.

EXAMPLES.

2. Sarah
Has

has written

written

is

letter.

verb

(why?) ; principalparts (pres.


write,past
transitive
wrote,past part,written)
(why?) ; active
;
voice (why?); common
form (why?); indicative
mode
(why?) ; present-perfect
tense; it is formed
both denotes
by prefixinghave, which
present
time and is the sign of completion,to the past
denotes
participle written, which
completion
(I have written,thou hast written,he has written;
have written,
we
theyhave written)
you have written,
;
third person, singularnumber, and agrees with its
The verb
subjectSarah,accordingto Eule IV. :
must
and
agree with its subjectin number
son."
per-

...

"

"

3. She
Can

can

play.
is

verb

(why?) ; regular(why?) ; principal


parts;
intransitive (why?); common
form (why?); potential
mode
tense
(why?) ; present
(why?) ; (analyze
and
inflect it); third person,
singular number

play

(why?).
4. America
Was

Eule

discovered

was

is

discovered

IV.

by Columbus.

regulartransitive verb,
passivevoice, or simply
a regularpassive
verb, the subjectis represented
acted upon;
as
{discover,
discovered,
discovered),
indicativemode (why?) ; past tense (why?) ; (analyze
ber,
(ll4,3) and inflect it); third person, singularnumits
ing
accordand agrees with
subjectAmerica,
a

"

"

to Eule

5. I love to
To

the

see

is

see

sun

an

IV.

shine.

finitive
irregulartransitive verb,active voice,"c.,inmode
(why?) ; present tense,and limits love,

accordingto Eule
construction

XVI.

of the

"

The

infinitive has

the

noun," "c.

irregular intransitive verb {shine,shone,


mode, present tense,and limits
shone),infinitive

is

Shine

an

see.

6. If
Were

reading the book.

they were

reading

is
.

an

gressive
irregular transitive verb,active voice,promode
form (why?) ; subjunctive

(why?),"c.

146

ENGLISH

Yet

GEAMMAE.

metliought,
It lifted up its head, and did address
Itself to motion, like as ib would speak. Hamlet
once,

"

ADVERBS.
133. Definition.
1. An

verb,an

Ex."

is

adverb

word

He

quickly.Washington

leaves

Remark.

verb,

was

adverb.

The
trulygreat man.
beg your pardon, I spoke
a

prisoner.

an

upon

in the

an

expressed, is put
adverb,

degree,it is

or

manner,

relation

The

sentence.

is of the nature

pronoun

or

The

idea, however

an

or
adjective,a participle,

an

adverbial

noun

"

When

"

place, timef cause,

is

the

of

hastily.

very

an

modify the meaning

another
a participle^
or
adjective^

addressed
judge,risingslowly,

of

used to

of

as

to

represent

such

idea

same

He

adverbial idea may

be

placed

in

in relation to

who

uprightly

acts

star
in
rose
in
star
east;" "The
upright man;"
which
the
the
eagle
perched upon
cliff;" They S^aw
eagle as
the cliff."

2. An

to

circumstance
it is

placed
"

relation

some

adverbial, because

adjective," as,

an

"The

in

the

the

"

it

east/'

perched

expressed,
"

(1.)By a sing^ie word, an adverb,having its relation determined


by its termination,its position,or its meaning.

wise
greatly

'Tis

Ex."

(2.)By a noun
preposition.
affair

The

Ex."

gatheredaround
In
to be

or

past hours.
its relation

having

prononn,

managed

was

our

with

expressedby

prudence, prudently. They


=

it.
the

this case,

to talk with

phrase consisting of

the

prepositionand

the

is said

noun

adverbial.

(3.)By

propoisition,

having

its relation

expressedby

junctive
con-

adverb.
Ex.
Here

"

Speak
the

so

clause

Ex."

or

may

be understood

propositionis

distinctly.

adverbial.

taking the
usuallyabridgedexpressions
and a noun.
of a preposition
phrasesconsisting

3. Adverbs

placeof

that you

He

lived

are

there,
~

in that place. He

conducted wisely, in
"

wi^e

ETYMOLOGY

4. Sometimes

partake of
Ex.

"

"

I found

Far

crossed the

of

the nature
the

5. Sometimes

Ex.

adverb

an

"

qualifya
adjective.
to

seems
an

147

CLASSES.

and

noun,

thereby to

boy only.
modifies

adverb

an

from

ADVERBS

"

home.

phrase,or

accident

The

entire proposition.

an

happened directlyafter

we

bridge.
133. Exercise.

1. Point out the adverbs

i?i the followingsetitences:

"

sweetly. The wind moaned


mournfully over her grave.
shall
O, lightly,
lightlytread. The storm raged fearfully.When
I see you
agreeably
aguin? They lived very happily. They were
She is continually
?
disappointed. Do you expect them to-morrow
be true.
It cannot
Perhaps I shall go.
changing her mino.
Doubtless it U true.
George writes elegantly.
She sang

2. Insert the followingadverbs in sentences

Where,

of

your

t)wn:

"

rowfully,
hopefully,soon, bravely,yes, surely,undeniably, sorbriefly,quite,below, above, ever, constantly,so, yet,

although,no.

134. Classes of Adverbs.


1.

Adverbs

adverbs

of

may

place

of

2. Adverbs

of

place

be divided

timejof
answer

into four

cause, of
the

generalclasses,
"

maimer,

questions Whe7xf

Whither

Whence ?
Ex.

Here, there,where, herein,therein,wherein, hither,thither,


whither, hence, thence, whence, above, below, up, down, yonder, somewhere,
nowhere, everywhere, away, aside,aloof,back, forth,off,far,
aboard,ashore,aloft,
aground, forwards,backwards, outwards.
"

3. Adverbs
How

of

time

answer

the

questions Whe7i?

How

long?

often?

always,frequently,
Now, when, then,often,immediately,
to-day.
early,again,forever,
to-morrow, yesterday,
ever, never, sometimes,lately,
hereafter.
soon,
seldom,rarely,after,
hiiherto,
ago, anon,
Ex.

"

4. Aviverbs of
Ex."

cause

answer

the

questionsWhyf

then.
Why, wherefore, therefore,

Whereforef

148

GKAMMAK.

ENGLISH

Causal

relations

5. Adverbs

How

of

much?

expressed hy jihras

commonly

are

and

manner

They

decree

clauses.

questionsHow ?
adjectivesdenoting

the

answer

generallyderived

are

and

es

from

quality.
Faithfully,fairly,elegantly,so, thus,well, too, very, chiefly,
wise,
quite,partly,wholly, amiss, scarcely,nearly,asunder, however, othermuch, least,
enough, almost,asunder,headlong,
just,less,
together,
gracefully.
generally,somewhat, excellently,
Ex.

6.

"

adverbs,or those which

Modal

show

the

of the

manner

tion,
asser-

belong to this class.


Ex."

Yes, yea, verily,truly,surely,doubtless,


forsooth,
certainly,
no,
not, perhaps, perchance, indeed, really,haply,possibly,
probably,

nay,

nowise,peradventure.
7. The

adverbs

when, where,why, how, "c.,when


called interrogative
adverbs.

questions,are
Ex.

When

"

did he

8. Adverbs

from

of

manner

asking

?
are

of them

Most

numerous.

formed

are

adjectives
by adding ly.

Ex.

smooth, smooth-??/.
Bright,bright-^?//

"

"

Ex.

In

"

manner,"
lovely

9. 7fie7'eis used

as

verbs seem, appear,


There

"

decree
In

from
this

word

or

Ex.
11.

"

In

He

Ex."

sentence

sometimes

It is also

used

when

the

with

the

others.

of the

opinion.

same

Jjhere went

out

so

is often used

as

substitute for

some

preceding

of words.

is in

and
good business,

colloquialuse,
Well, I

introduce

meaning.

no

adverb

sentence, and

'^'

lovelily.

Augustus.

it has

group

instead of

go, and
men

many

Caesar

use

10. The

come,

are

ly,the phrase is commonly used.

expletiveto

an

existence.

verb to be denotes

Ex.

in

adjectiveends

the

But when

the

come

in

used

said

are

some

adverbs

to be used

let you

will

is

know,

likelyto

limit

no

remain

so.

particularword

or

words

in

independently.
if I decide

to go.

Wh^/,you

told

me

so

yourself.

135. Conjunctiye Adyerlbs.


1. Conjunctive

adverbs

are

those

which

express

the

ETYMOLOGY

ADVERBS

"

adyerbial

relation of

vrith the

verb, the

149

COMPARISON.

"

dependentclause,and
the adverb
or
adjective,
a

connect

it

which

it

"Modifies.
Ex.

I shall meet

"

They

2.

to
equivalent

are

that -placein which the


the

where,

placemodifies

the

words

time

same

used

are

and

not

and

the phrase in which


both.

two, modifies

fies
modi-

the

For

hence,whence, comequenthj, then, now,


loherefore,
therefore,
and

"

either

alone

subordinate

some

others, are

adverbs, and

associated with

when

or

join propositions. But, unlike

to

in

liliesgrow

The

(143, 18).

also, too, moreover,


besides,likeioise,

"

(/roios,

equivalent of the

conjunctiveadverbs, see
principal
3. The

ground is moist.

in that

phrase
hence

moist:

tive
containinga rela-

one

ground is moist,

luhere the

liliesgrow

The

Here

phrases,the

two

the other its antecedent.

pronoun,
Ex."

friend when the boat arrives.

my

other

conjunctive adverbs,they

at tho

connectives

connect

nate
coordi-

clauses.

136. Exercise.
1. Tell the class

of

the followingadverbs:"

below, to-morrow, when, there,


perhaps,therefore,
Very, greatly,
fully,
painyesterday,
why, sorrowfully,
always,continually,
purely,truly,
down, above,here,vainly,exceedingly.
2. Point out the

will be

He

whenever

his

adverbs
conjunctive

in the followingexamples:
"

prepared when

the time arrives.

country calls.

Whither

The

I go ye cannot

patriotanswers
It

come.

was

where
gypsiesoriginated.Newton,
long time
only by profound study,discovered why an apple falls to the ground.
how
to guide our
Bible teaches us
The
hay
steps aright. Make
is
it
is
man's
coat
while the sun shines, (^hen a
threadbare,
easy
for

to

uncertain

pick a

hole in

the

it.^
137. Comparison of Adverbs.

1.
admit
Ex.

those denoting manner,


Many adverbs, especially
of comparison.
"

2. When
'^ore

more
Brightly,

an

objectsare

most brightly;
brightly,
soon,

sooner, soonest.

adjectiveundergoes comparison, it usually shows

compared j

but

when

an

13"

adverb

undergoes

the

that
same

two

or

change,

150

ENGLISH

that

it shows

speaksmore

two

or

GRAMMAR.

actions

more

fluentlythan

or

qualitiesare

compared-,

as,

**

James

George [speahs']."

3. The

followingadverbs are compared irregularly


: III or
badly
less,least;far, farther,farthest;much, more,
worse, ivorst; little,
best
most; well,better,
^

138. Exercise.
1.

Study

To

parse

the followingoutline

for parsing adverbs:"

adverb,tell,

an

"

(1.)What part of speech it is,and why.


and tellwhat degree.
(2.)Compare it (where it admits of it),
(3.)Tell what it modifies,

(4.)Give
2. The

sun

the rule.

shines
is

Mary writes

More

adverb;

it modifies the

of the

verb;
it is compared
(positivebrightly,comparative
more
brightly,
superlativemost brightly)
; it is in
the positivedegree,and modifies the verb shines,
according to Eule IX.
(Eepeat it.)

Br%iitiy

3.

brightly,

it

adverb

is

it modifies the

meaning of the verb ;


is compared {elegantly,
most
gantly)
elemore
elegantly,
and modifies
; it is in the comparativedegree,
the verb writes,
accordingto Eule IX.
peat
(Eeit.)

an

4. I will go whenever
Whenever

you

wish.

conjunctiveadverb of

(1.)As

an

adverb

clause
the

"

and

you

(Why?)
both

will go and

IX.
it connects

the subordinate

wish" to will go.

Eule

XI.

in the followingexamples; also the adjectives,

adverbs

the VERBS,

whenever

time.

it modifies

wish,according to Eule
(2.)As a connective

5. Parse

meaning

than her brother.


elegantly

more

is

elegrantly

2iTL

the pronouns

"

"lore)stands unchangeably on the centre of


(Sir Thomas
eternal right; his head,,majestically
erect,gloriouslylifted up to
hea^'en,bends not before the shock, and his breast receives the
tempest only to shiver it. Giles..
He

"

ETYMOLOGY

151

PREPOSITIONS.

"

fancy can take in this mighty space in all itsgrandeur,


of such a
and in all its immensity ; can
sweep the outer boundaries
creation ; or lift itself up to the majesty of that great and invisible
which all is suspended. Chalmers.
on
arm,
human

No

"

thou

shalt

Hitherto

and

come,

further; and here shall thy

no

stayed.

proud waves

be

Where

I could

be

not

honest,I

yet

never

valiant.

was

ShaJs'

"

speare.
When

While

Yet

Who

much

than
lighter

feather

Sterne.

"

Music, heavenly maid, w as young,


yet in earlyGre.'ce f"hc sung.
Passionsoft,to hem lier shell,

When

The

how

in his hand

the heaviest metals

are

with man,

is at peace

man

hcpma^ ccTT^jCo llim.


Thronged^4iround
where to fincP"hfrniappiest
sp(y^l^elo^^vv
all

when
direct,

can

pretend to know

'^f-Goldsmith,

PREPOSITIONS.
139. Definition.
1. A

of

noun

Ex.
a

is

preposition
or

The

"

seen

word

to

pronoun

shipwas

from

used

to

show

the relation

other word.

some

the citadel.

He

sailed upon the

in

ocean

ship of war.

prepositionalways shows a relation between two terms,


antecedent and a subsequent.
The subsequent term is called the
an
the
preposition. The prepositionand the objectunited
objectof
form a dependent element
of the sentence,having the antecedent
its principalelement.
term
as
3. The
the
prepositionand its object form a phrase. When
antecedent term is a noun, the phrase is of the nature of an adjective.
it is a verb,a participle,
When
an
or
an
adjective,
adverb,the phrase
is of the nature
of an adverb (sometimes an indirect object).
2. The

"

Ex.

The

of the
skill, skilfully.
"

rays

sun,

solar rays.

The

case

was

conducted

with

4. The

be

may

Ex.

will

"

objectof the prepositionis


phrase or a clause.

The

depend

citywas
on

about

to

not

when
capitulate

the commissioners
wh(^

are.

always a singleword
Napoleon arrived.

Much

it

152

ENGLISH

5. The
Ex.

The

prepositionis sometimes
While

"

its song, sublime

prepositionand
they depend.

which
Ex.

GRAMMAR.

objectsometimes

110. List of

1. A
as

thunder,rolls

all patriots,
Washington

Of

"

the

as

placed after its object.

was

along.

precede the word

on

the noblest.

Prepositions.

prepositionconsists

complex

the woods

of two

words, and

is

parsed

singleword.

According to,as to,as far,out of,instead of,because of,offfrom,


from around,from
over
against,round about,from among, from between,
and the like.
before,
Ex.

"

The

first word

contrary, in the

phrase is sometimes parsedas


phrases accordingto, contrary to, are
of the

participlesor adjectivesmodifying
2. In such

combinations

as

through,pass by, climb up,


parsed as an adverb when it is
cut

Ex.

"

The

3. Some

used
Ex.

"

captainstood
words

as

some

the
and
not

an

adverb.

sometimes

According,
regarded

as

in the sentence.

noun

following,
put in,go up, go down,
others,the prepositionmay be
followed by an object.

in for the shore.

commonly employed

as

They

rode

hj in

haste.

ally
occasionare
prepositions

adverbs.

until,
above,beneath,for,on, in,"c.
till,
Before,afber,

164

ENGLISH

it is the

Yea,

cringerto

GRAMMAR.

his

equal,that

is

bold to hia

chieflyseen

God,
While

the

whom

martyr

child before
Of

him.

mU

the

Now

thoughts of God
unto

that

tell

if there any

me

as

are

souls afar

the Psalmist's music

Along

browbeat,is humble

cannot

Tapper.

"

inward

Borne

world

deep,

is

For

giftor grace surpassingthis


*'He givetli
His beloved sleep." Mrs. Browning.
"

"

CONJUNCTIONS.
142. "efinition.
1. A

conj

the parts of

or

Ex.

horse and
In

the

rider fell
first

the two

nects

2. A

into

3.

into

time

connect

Ex.
Here

"

the

sentence

different

is the

no

part of

its office is

escaped.

is

material

The

con^

largeclass

pencilwhich

materials

of words

and

(i52,1) or

the

unite

part of its substance


elements
or
parts.
as

the

at

which
same

I lost.

object of lost,and

at the

time

same

words

are

connects

called

the

pendent
de-

connectives,

words.
conjunctive

143. Classes
1. All connectives

words)are
and

of Connectives.

(whetherpure
divided

into

connectives

are

two

conjunctionsor

junctive
con-

classes, coordinate
"

subordinate.

2. Coordinate
or

the

simply to

clause, xchich I lost,to pencil. All such


or

the rider

rider.

and

sentence

This is the
ichich

sentences

sentences; in the second, and

two

singlestructure.
there
Besides pure conjunctions,

enter

to connect

precipice.

conjunctionforms
a

used

hui
precipice,

hxit connects

parts,horse

of

the

the

over

example,

pure

substance

word

sentences.

horse fell over

The

"

is

miction

homogeneous

elements.

those which

join similar

ETYMOLOGY

Ex.

John

"

Here

to the

as, "The

the

In

the

greedily

any

other

both

hence

"

coordinate

be divided

and

alternative.

connective

parts in

have

not

similar

pendence;
de-

by and, or

"

those which

and

friends

our

of the

parts

departed.
"

nected
generalcharacter,
placingthe conperfectequality,without modification or

relation of

add

each other.

with

each

greedily," leave*

are

copulativeconjunctions
are,

(a.)And,

precisely
with

be connected

cannot

are
conjunctions

day dawned,

5. The

has

or

is dependent

and
always conjunctions,
classes,copulative^
adversative,

into three

4. Copulative

The

coordinate, and

connectives

may

"

leaves

devoured, but they

on

but

mand
de-

relation
leaves

coordinate

are

the

lation
re-

conjunction.

3. Coordinate

Ex.

they

common

same

Here

only dependent,

devoured

consequently

in the

blossoms."

hence

insects

not

are

placed

are

and

not

leaves ;

as

The

dependent

they

harmony

they

leaves

have

coordinate, and

are

blossoms,also, is

dependence

are

in construction, and.

elements

devoured

sentence,

and

in

Two

insects

of

sort

same

other.

similar

conjunction, when

devoured;

on

disciples.

were

are

predicate.

coordinate

rank;

James

and

John

James

AND

155

CONJUNCTIONS.

"

most

emphasis.
(6.)So, also,likewise,
furthermore,now, hence,
too, besides,
moreover,
associated with and extherefore,
pressed
wherefore,
consequently,
even, connectives
additional idea.
or
or
some
understood,and used to give em,phasis
Ex.

"

Cromwell

and;

"

"

make

the second

well

as

first secondly:these
to

he
soldier;[awd] besides,

successful

the

was

of his age.

greatest statesman

(c.)Both

was

not

as;

"

connectives

are

part emphatic,but

only but; but also ; but likewise;


employed when we wish not only
to awaken
an
expectationof some
"

addition.
Ex.

"

Both

deny me at
learned,but
As

these

religionand
once

as

also the

parts

begin

condemn

reason

to

find

excused

people,heard

common

correspond

to

each

qToumight

excess.

onlythe
gladly.

Not

him

other, these

connectives

wise

as

and

well
the

called

are

correlatives.

6. Adversative

conjunctionsare

parts in oppositionto, or in
Ex.

"

again.

The

fish

was

brought to

contrast
the

those

w^hich

with, each

shore,6m/ plunged

unite

other.

into the water

156

ENGLISH

7. Adversative

(1.)"When
Ex.

"

"

Here,

"

It does not

The

8. The

"

snows.

part is placed in oppositionto

hut
victorious,

was

army

inference

should

the

slain.

generalwas

be that all was

the

prosperous,

second

adversative

conjunctions
are,
shows

simply

oppositionwithout emphasis.

I shall go, hut I shall not

walk.

others,which are associated with hut,either expressed or


and give emphasis or some
additional idea.
is

as

delinquenthas
negligentas ever.
"

9.

Ex.

and

and

some

understood,

admonished, {hut)still he
repeatedly

are
conjunctions
between two things.

choice
Obey

"

been

The

AlternatiTe

deny a

clause

"

nevertheless,
(6.)Yet, still,
notwithstanding,
however,now,

Ex.

suppose(t

hut is added.

(a.)But, which
Ex.

it

the first.

lest the

preceded by

rain,but

the second

inference from
Ex.

conjunctionsare employed,
second
part is placed in oppositionto the first

the

(2.)When

GRAMMAR.

those

die.

live,or disobey and

She

which

offer

neither

can

or

sing no/

play.
10. The

alternative

conjunctions
are,

which
and nor {notor),
(a.)Or, which offers,
associated with or for the
(6.)Else,otherwise,
correlatives of or and
(c.)Either and neither,
Ex."

(^Wemust

else would

the Turk

or

11. Parts

or our
fighty

give

standing in

12.

Ex."

south wind

The

choico.

sake of

emphasis.

nor.

lost. Thou

borrower

nor

desirest not
lender

be.

fice,
sacriEither

his forces.

relation

the other

denies

to

are, in

each

other

such

cases,

are

times
some-

two

nectives,
con-

understood.

there
blows, [and']
therefore

connectives

are

be rain.

must

those which

similar
join dis-

heterogeneouselements.

I shall go when

Here, ioh"7i joins


thall go.

usually there

ISnborctinate
or

causal

expressedand

one

"

but

Neither

shall withdraw

the Christian

coordinate;

Ex.

it.

liberties are

"

It is

the

part

of

the stage arrives.


subordinate
the

clause

clause when

the stage arrives,

itself,being equivalent

to

at

to the

verb

the time

at

ETYMOLOGY

which.

in

; but not

the clause

naming

so

with

conjunctions.

coordinate

the pure

be introduced

it should

Hence

157

CONJUNCTIONS.

"

ordinate,
proposition;it is subsubordinate
cause
and
a
connective,beconsequentlydemands
it becomes
merely a limitingexpressionof the antecedent
which
it depends. It is unlike the part with which it is
term
on
connected,in its form,in its relation or rank,and in its grammatical

connected

13. The

element

is

always

"

character.
14. A
of
a

connective, like

subordinate
But

dependence.

the second

preposition,always shows

is

term

propositioninstead

of

relation
noun

or

pronoun.

connectives

Subordinate

15.

divided

are

substantive

classes,those

which

which

and
clauses,
adjective

"

connect

connect

into

three

clauses,those

those which

connect

adverbial clauses.
nected
(l63,3) are concontaininga statement
and
that
sometimes
but
that.
but,
not,
conjunctionsthat,

clauses

16. Substantive

by
Ex.

the

would

acknowledgedthat he

Addison

"

rather inform

than divert

his readers.

containingan inqniry are connected by the


interrogatives
whither,whence,when, how
who, which, what, tvhere,
how.
why, wherefore,
long,how often,
Substantive

Ex.

I wish

"

clauses

to know

where

we

may

look for redress.

Adjective clauses are connected


by the relative pronouns
who, ivhich,what, that,whoever, whosoever,whichever,whichsoever^
and sometimes
the relative adverbs tvhy,when^
whatsoever,
ivhatever,
17

where.
Ex.

"

writer who

abuses the confidence

of friends should

be treated

with contempt.
18. Adverbial

(L'

clauses

Connectives

are

which

joined to the principalelement by,


"

denote

as far
whence,wherever,whithersoever,

Ex.
was

"

We

feel that

laid.
"

we

are

on

these are,

place:

as,

as

tvhere,
whither,
than.
longas, farther

the spot where the firstscene

of

our

tory
his-

Webster.

these are, when, while,


(2.)Connectives which denote time:
whilst,as, before,
after,ere, till,
until,
since,
whenever,as long as, as
soon
as frequeiiihi
r/x ofien os.
rw, the moment, fhr instant,
rr..*^,
11

168

ENGLISH

Ex.

He

"

had

scarce

Was

moving

(3.)Connectives

GRAMMAR.

ceased when
to the shore.

Milton.

"

denote

which

superiorfiend

the

relations

causal

these

are

the

junctions
con-

inasmuch
for,as, whereas,since,
(causal),
because,
if,unless,
that
(conditional),
though, lest,except,provided,provided
that,that
ever,
though, although,notwithstanding,
however, whatnot, lest (final),
nevertheless (adwhoever,while,with the correlatives yet, still,
versativ

Ex.

timid

"

shrinks

man

from

enterprisebecause

an

he fears

ger
dan-

be in the way.

may

which

(4.)Connectives

denote

these

manner:

are, as,

that,such

that

just as,
quence),
(conse-

so
(correspondence),
of
the
much
so
as
as
(comparison
equality),
the,the
the (proportionate
than,more
than,less than (comparison
equality),
of inequality).

so

same

as,

"

"

as

"

"

"

Ex.

True

"

requires
politeness
you

IM.

to act

as

kind

"

"

heart dictates.

Exercise.

1.

Study the followingoutline for parsing conjunctions.

In

parsing a conjunctionor connective,tell,


"

(1.)What
part of speech,and why.
(2.)To what class it belongs.
it connects.
elements
(3.)What
(4.)Give the rule.
2. Socrates
is

And

...

and

Plato

philosophers.
distinguished

were

conjunction;it

is used

to

connect

sentences, or

the

because
it connects
similar
parts of sentences ; coordinate,
Socrates
and
Plato, according to
elements; it connects
Eule

4. We
Eitlier

must

either

obey

or

be

punished.

used
(alternative),
conjunction
of an additional element,and also
with emphasis.

is
.

riches.

it connects
because
conjunction(why?); subordinate,
the propositionthan riches
dissimilar elements
; it connects
(Repeat it.)
accordingto Rule XVI.
[are)with better,

is
.

(Repeat it.)

is better than

3. Wisdom
Tlian

XI.

coordinate

to awaken
to introduce

pectation
ex-

it

ETYMOLOGY

is

Or

....

is used

either
with

punished
he

Though

5.

is

Tboug^b

slay

is

Yet

of

correlative
clause

Tell which

slay

subordDr

are

The
into

the

When

te:

have
which

He

7. Parse
the

the

with

its benefits.
In
the
to

you

that

he

tongues

in

trust

which

the

plunged

were

readiness.

in

work

harm

the

Take

lest ye

heed

the verbs,

and

adjectives,

fall.
in

"

we

proof of

and

disobeyed

you
That

instructions.

owe

its

safety at home, and

our

Every

utilityand
wider

its

and

further,they have

of

year

sideration
con-

duration

has

blessings ; and, although

wider

not

its

our

and

population

our

its

outrun

protection

or

Webster.

"

and

the

to

us

which

this

"

will

one

the rider

have

endured.

dignity abroad.

fresh

on

render

its

subordinate

and
coordinate,

are

and

horse

had

be

must

that

word, point

world

awaken

to

the

connect

principal

I shall

come,

cured

Union

spread farther

the

The

poor.

territoryhas /Stretchedout

our

to

connectives

conjunctions,

and

teemed

in him.

XVI.

following

following examples

It is to the

Repeat it.)

be

idea.

used

is

Rule

to

knew

be

cannot

applaud, seriously ask yourself what

million

done.

must

(Rule XI.

I trust

with

me,

are

If

water.

the

predicate

"

ink

and

pen

the

of

the

relative
cor-

conjunction (adversative), and, with

him, according
6.

connect

additional

an

though,

he

its

conjunction (adversative),used

subordinate

...

yet will

me,

expectation

to

obey.

must

subordinate

with

conjunction (alternative),and

coordinate

159

CONJUNCTIONS.

"

we

whole

loveliest
and

dwell,
"

earth, with

people, as happy

all

as

and

tell you

we

that

its nations

happier

nay,

"

happiest neighborhood
and
than

our

object is
and

kindreds
"

such

borhood.
neigh-

Way land.
Thy
Shall

Hector, wrapped
neither
'Twas

For

but

pity

hear

in

thee

kindred

melts

everlasting sleep.

cry,

nor

sound

the heart

see

to

thee

move

to love.

"

weep.
;

Druden.

"

in

Pope,

160

GRAMMAK

ENGLISH

INTERJECTIONS.
145. Definition.
1. An

strong or sudden
Ex.

is

interjection

2. As

interjectionis

the

have

of emotion, it cannot
;

it should

but,

it is of

as

be

not

chid away
the

not

in

to

some

express

of

definable

any

friend.

my

sign
in

frequent use

omitted

used

of the mind.

emotion

Alas ! I then have

"

word

idea, but merely

an

expression

grammatical

significationor
and
colloquial

an

struction
con-

impassioned discourse,

parsing.

"

"

is derived from the Latin word


ini "'"jectus,""
Interjection"
thrown
between,that is,between the parts of the sentence ; but it is
often placed at the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
4. The most
those expressing,
common
are
interjections
3.

"

hey,hurra,huzza.
aha, hah, ah.
Surprise,
hem.
A wisb
for
attention,
ho,lo,halloo,
or
Aversion
contempt,"
^e,pshaw, pugh, tush,foh.
Sorrow,
g-rief, or compassion,
alas,woe, alack,0,
A
for
wisli
silence,
hist,
hush,mum,
heigh-ho,heigh-ho-hum.
lian^uor,
ha, ha, he,he.
I^aug^liter,

Joy

exultation,

or

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

as

and
"

used

words

Some

in the

as

parsed
"

is

equivalent

well he bears

! how

be

sentence, "Strange! cried I,"

expression

the

Behold

interjectionsmay

perative,equivalentto

to

"It

misfortune's

behold

where

strange;"

is

frowns

verbs, nouns,

as

strange is an
and

!" behold

in

is

the

verb

or

jectives;
ad-

adjective,
sentence,
in the im,

ye.

146. Exercise.
1. Outline for parsing an
To

an

parse

2. Hark
Hark

is
.

3. Parse

Oh,

!
an

interjection:
"

tell,
interjection,
(1.)What
part of speech,and why?
(2.)Give the rule.
"

they whisper.
interjection
(why ?);

all the words

say, what

it is used

independently. Rule X.

in the followingexamples:

mystic spellis

"

that which

so

blinds

us

to the suffer-

162

ENGLISH

GKAMMAE.

FOR

QUESTIONS
"What
What

is

Etymology

is

word

What

declinable

are

words

How

Un

is

Define

proper
collective

noun

noun

verbal
Give

is

When

the

common

An

sentence

What

Why

is

abstract

noun

of

example

an

in

noun

noun

of each

noun

kind.
the

propertiesof

What

are

What

the

is Person

is
the

noun

each

Define

person

is

in the first or second

noun

What

Define

Number?

is

of

nouns.

How
as

Of

What

is

words

Of

names?

title and

Mention

name

three

either

are

that

in

feminine

objectsbecome
?

modes

How

you

each.

Define

Of

What

the

nominative

and

used

are

in asking
is a Verb ?

What

affirm?

When

is

verb

Transitive

the

What

do

Neuter

of

this

you
say
is the objectof

the

same

verb

be

ing
mean-

say of
attributive ? Define
can

you

verbs

are

Intransitive.

by
Verb

transitive

Active,

an

Wh

distinction
both

divided
Define

nse?

mean

you

Passive, and

is the

What

An

Verb.

pronouns

questions?

is the

the

sonal
per-

simple

Interrogative

besides

When

the

the

name

What

How
sicbject.
according to their

The

How

?
you
say of What
the compound
tives,
relathe rule for forming

give

Pronouns.

of

How

?
the

them.

What

case?

Pronoun

can

Name

and

3Ty

use

difi"erfrom

Name

What

That?

or

cases

objective?
?
is Declension
Parsing
is an
Adjective? Name

possessive?

What

relative

pound
com-

Decline

do you

Relative

the

pronouns.

Where

nouns.
Proof It.

uses

Name

pronoun?

Be
many
How

You.

the pronouns.
and Mine?
is

what

Personal

the different

personal

of

masculine

possessive regularly formed ?


is the apostrophe only added?
know

can

sexes.

is Case?

there ?

How

the three

Name

distinguishingthe
What

genders

many

the

name

and

the

Into

nouns?

and

Thou

lar
singu-

alike

are

each.

Define

inanimate

may
The

no

divided?
pronouns
have
in
pronouns

Name
Of

lations
re-

are

with

Define

four

represent?

properties

common

Define

How

is Gender?

there?

are

What

numbers.

What
are

that

nouns

What

classes

relatives.
have

than

more

the

three

Of

singular. Three that


or
plural. Three
both

Pronoun

pronoun
is the Antecedent?

What
the

of

What

does

for

are

definites?
In-

Mention

pluralof
complex names?

rule

is the

What

five adjectives
syllable.
compared irregularly. What
tives
adjecnot compared ?
are

pluralized?

nouns

What

single

parts of speech used

other

are

Adjective?

Demonstratives?

does

regularly.
How
do nouns
ending in/or/e form
the plural? Nouns
ending in o/ Nouns
have
What
nouns
a
ending in y?
?
very irregularplural
have no plural ?
What
nouns
pound
Crive the rule for the plural of com-

the
Reciprocals? Name
Adjectives.
What
is a
Qualifying Adjective?
A ParticipialAdjective ?
What
Define the
is Comparison?
three degrees.
What
spect
comparison show in remay
to intensitij?The
terms?
the rule for forming the comGive
parative
and
syllables.
superlative of mono-

each

nouns

of Numeral

number.

"**~Give the rule for forming the plural

used

principal ones.

son.
per-

fine
DeWhen

there

are

Pronominal

one

When

kinds of limiting

is each

article needed

no

What

classes

What

each.

"n,

prefix"?

there ?

parts of speech are

many
them.

three

Articles

many

each.

distributives?

part of speech is
"

How

clinable Name
Inde-

?
Name

The

adjectives.

divided

words

are

classes.

two

according to
and
use?
their meaning
According
?
to their sounds
According to their
significantparts?
How

EEYIEW.

at

verb ?

transitive

can

What
Can
and

ETYMOLOGY

How

intransitive?

Regular
What

belong

properties

What

Voice?

is

The

voice.
have

What

Passive.

passive

of

the

voice

is Mode

Define

modes

What

propositions
propositions?

What

there

the
Name

the

form

the

like?

"

the

Perfect

What

can

built,"

Define

and

idea.

is

of

time

is

How

it

used?

is

The
The

is

What

the
the

The
Past

is

office

many

signification of
mode?
Subjunctive

Potential?

"in

Imperative

?
are

and

classes

the

division

For

forms
of

Auxiliary
what

are

the

of

each.

Give

they

What

used

Name
?

Con-

Name

are

three

the
'

most

an

common.

the
many
are

junctions?
Con-

tive
Adversa-

they

are

Alternative

junctions
Con-

them.

Connectives

classes.

How

connected

Adverbial
is

Name

When

Subordinate

clauses
clauses?

form

do

sition
prepo-

How

them.

them.

the

What
the

Copulative

are

Name

What

time.

Verbs?

verbs
Adparison
com-

connectives

Conjunctions?

the

verb

the

verbs?
Ad-

of

connectives.

coordinate

the

In

admit

conjunctions

What

used?

tenses

In

Infinitive

Modal

are

a
phrase?
Preposition ?
What
is
Conjunction?

of

of

there?

Name

define

are

the

the

verbs
AdManner

of

Conjunctive

Name
mode

what

Time?

constitutes

of

/lasses

two

Future.

each

has

the

adverbial

Complex

Perfect.
tenses

Verbs.

answer

of

Preposition?
the
object of

What

?
What

lar
Irregu-

Name

adverbs

an

Place

are

by

mean

you

used?

used

used?

/
in

How

?
What

Verb

What

What

of

Adverbs

What

tenses?

each

is the

What

Cause

and

Defective

Adverbs

Degree?

four

list

Adverb?

of

gate
Conju-

^ote.

expressing

Adverbs

and

modes

the

interrogatively

the

an

ways

the

the

Give

of

of

event

Tense

How

Future

of

How

How

the
or

relative

Present

Tense.

each

you

Perfect

are

action

point

a,

Perfect.

Perfect.

What

AVhat
three

verb

Redundant

What
an

mode.

Present

Name

the

of

Parts

all

in

be

Name

is

ciple
Parti-

the

Person

distinguish

you

Conjugation

Conjugate
conjugated

participle predicated

many

the

the

What

are

How

indicative

Passive

form
mode.

and

do

Principal

Verbs.

fine
De-

Number

the

verb

verb

Participle.

being

What

period?

What

What

Active

considering
meant
by

Absolute

How

forming

forms

assumed

is Tense

Past

Participles

is the

When

is

many

Show
to

Indicative

How

is

Negatively

of

Present

When

of

is

is

The

?
the

so

of 7nust?

in

mode

it.

verb

What
verb

Wby

Active
of

the

Passive.

What

the

use

cation
signifi-

mode.

the

are

them

one

Potential

questions?

Define
;

the

tenses.

many

Present
uses

of

How

How

the

say

them.

What

is the

participles

ways

one

mode.

nate
subordi-

in

is

called

for

Of

-=-What

principal

in

propositions
Participle?
a

What

in

the

the

abridged

The

are

shall

the

combine

the

of

for
is the

can?

auxiliaries

tenses

Of

each

used

are

The

W^hat

voice?

passive

the

can

Of

rules

What

7?jo?/f oi

of

signification

have?

the

will.

and

the

of

What

What

are

verbs

Give

shall

how

Of

do?

will?

Active

active

the

the

Of

he?

is the

What

them.

jugate

verbs

to

Define

the

uses

divided

verbs

are

tlieir

to

163

REVIEW.

FOR

Define
of
a
form?
fective, and
Verb, an Irregular Verb, a Deof
Auxiliary, an Impersonal.
an

according

"

QUESTIONS

"

are

?
stantive
sub-

Adjective

clauses?

Interjection?

Name

164

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

SYNTAX.
147. Preliminary Deyelopment"
1. Syntax
2. A
Ex.

The

"

of the construction

treats

is

jsentenee

Socrates

The

is

sun

unmoved

was

when

Syntax signifies
puttingtogether.Thus,
put together, but in such

"

joined thus,
"

the

i.e.

3. To

Ex.

the sentence

they

not

the

"c.,

his

not

of death

in these

affi,rm,

was

would

examples

boy heeding
not

his

not

tell,or

say,

are

If

something.

assert

the

sun,

they

"

assert

thought.

express

words
or

shining

thought,we

the

to say,

as

unmoved,

would

express

The

"

assert

something,

say,

or

"

must

of

something

say

is

say,

is the

is the

Where

It
is

moon

may

or

Ex.

"

ignorant

our

the

east

subject

"

I"

it, is rising. When

implied that
believed

and

know

we

what

If

we
a

for

seek

of the

Thus,

express

of

did not

sentence

feelings or
Give

me

what

act, but

not

of the

know

the

"

we

say

know.

object,we

or
we

know

of

speak, but

we
2^lctce,

so

Thus,
should

should

say,

rance.
knowledge,or igno-

express

desires.

If

still
do

we

not

may

or

can

we

believe what

said.

we

objectis rising,we

know,

we

rising?"
also

say

or

what

doing?"

moon

moon

risingin

4. The

said

If

rising?"

What

knew

know

what

we

here, it is

if we

not

the east.

moon;

do

we

as

to intimate

only

*'What
"

do

risingin

is the

as

speak

we

rising,but

the

is

moon

objecthere

The

"

heeded

boy

object.

some

as

manner

fading flowers,

father's advice, Socrates


any

The

shining.

words.

againsthim.

pronounced

thing :

of sentences.

thoughtexpressedin

flowers fade.

father's advice.

Sentence-Making.

How

beautifullythe

that book."

representsthat of which

somethingis

affirmed.
^The trees grow;
is coming ;

Let the pupil point out

the
was

the

clouds

are

beheaded.

subjects,and

is

beautiful;
Is

the

reading;
?
capital

supply appropriate

ones

in

place

of the blanks.

5. The

affirmed.

predicate

represents that which

is said

or

165

SYNTAX.

Ex.

house

The

"

duck

; the

Remark.

exclaim;

that in these

Observe

6. We

may

of

things

ral

Ex.

affirm,

say,

examples

assert

we

say

one

one

object.

to

only

thing

one

of several

thing

say

deny,ask for,command,
appliesto either case (80, 3).

used

sometimes
or

; the

boy

Walter

Will

predicate is

the term

and

is falling;the

built; the rain

daisy

The

"

is

of

object.

one

or
objects,

seTe-

and dahlias hloom.


Lilies,
roses, asters,hyacinths,
bird chirps,
hops,builds a nest,layseggs, and feedsher
sings,

"

The

are

citiesof New

are

branches of the

factorsof

young.

York.

Mississippi.
of Mexico.

into the Gulf


-, -j empty
are

or

72.

vowels.

are

the week

The

days of

The

parts of

The

seasons

The

States of the Union

tree

are

of the year
^

Let

thus

mellow,

The

"

sentence

pupil. The

the

expresses,

as

common

it

general term

when

adjective,as

white, may

lohite birds, "c. ;


common

there

as

noun,

may

loeak, brave

joined

ha

few

or

to it to

men,
or

apply

can

apply
in

many,

to

to

the

the

any

may

or

limit

(a.)The

the

above,
rich

ripe,

may

article,

the

or

adjective,is
Thus,

an

tohite house, ichite snow,

action

may

an

of many

belong

to

objects; a

many

classes ;

good or had, strong or


verb formed has
The
nothing
why they formed.

or

umoise, "c.

or

what, where, lohen,how,

subject,we

definite

are

bined,
com-

is
predicate

individuals.

of

the

express

young,

(2.)A definite
thought,when
properlylimited.
To

number

objects,as,

example

old

the

subjector

or
verb, a participle,

many

run

cowardly,wise
show

pears,

be

formed.
a

noun,

verb

the

then

may

"

Men

word,

cases

delicious."

thought,when
(1.)An indefinite
generalterm without limitations.

Any

two

apples, lemons, peaches, and

oranges,

sweet, juicy, and

7. A

"

by

be filled

blanks

the

poor,

subjectand

the

are
predicate

join to it,
"

to

The

show
men

that

some

formed.

men
particular

are

intended.

166

ENGLISH

(b.)A

numeral

GEAMMAK.

adjective,

to

The

(c.)A qualifying:

restrict the

formed.

twentymen

adjective,

show

to

numher.

lohat

kind, and

thereby

to exclude

all others.

The

{d.)An

adjective

twenty

expression,

to

formed.

men

young

them

point

how

by showing

out

they

regarded.

were

The

twenty

To

limit

the

predicate,we

(a.)An adverb,

to

The

h.) A

to

noun,

The

(c.)An
The
free

have

we

they

to show

definite

formed

combination.

formed

ichythey

combination,that

combination.

they

mig-ht

invaders.

nig^htly

thought intended, namely,

"

prideof the town-immediatelythey might free the peoplefrom these nightly

The-twenty-young-men-who
combination-that

formed-a

formed.

expression,

the

formed.

town

formed.

immediately

....

these

the

time.

immediatelyformed

from

of

"

the

immediately

people

pride

join to it,

may

tohat

....

....

the

Thus

men

show

the

were

determine

men

adverbial

men

wlio

men

young

the

were

invaders.

Observe, here,
"

more

(1.)We have one subject and one predicate (6, above).


added
words.
have
definite,must
(2.)That each, to become
many
becomes
and more
definite,the sentence
more
(3.)As the thought becomes
the
obtained
from
is
and more
extended, and the definite
nite
indefithought
various
modifications.
thoughtby
8. A

is a word

modifier

limit,extend,or
application.
a

term

Ex.

lost
"

to

"

Men,

"

diligentlyin
"

9. The

form
Ex.

every

the elements
"

groups,

all men,

in

some

the

way

of the

men

and

that

last century;

seek

"

the

the modifiers of

each,

of the sentence.

above,
each

to

joinedto
determine,its

place.

CAarZes's" resignation"
and

of words

group

and
the predicate,
subject,

Observe, here
are

ten men,

or

that

expresses

filled
some
an

"

all

elements
idea.

Europe

"

are

with astonishment.

singlewords

and

some

SYNTAX

uniting of

The

10.

construction,

ideas

are

As

"

and

their

the

all

expressions should

which

prominent ideas

Syntax

The

is called

sentence

of
separation

the

constitute

be reduced

to

syntax

its

first steps in

sentence

expression,so

its elements

analysis should
In

thought.

the

Hence,

singleicords.

naturallydivided

is

and
of elements^

the

thoughtand

expressions.

by

11.

is

sentence

into

is called analyisis.

into its elements


Remark.

elements

isyntliesis

or

167

EXERCISE.

"

be

final

guided

analysis,

"

syntax of sentences,
syntax

into

of words.

148. Exercise.
and the predicate,
and
thefoUowingexamples,
pointout the subject
unite them to form the indefinite
thought; then point out the modifiers
of the subject,
explainingthe limitations; then the modifiersof the
and show
how
the definite
thoughtis
predicatein the same
manner,
:
expressed
In

"

clouds

The

fashions

crossed

Ancient

"The
best

Thimble

grows
is derived from

word

lived about

in

thumb.
a

should

be

six hundred

Do

is

river.

an

Italian

drone

is

continent

The
all

birds

rusty. Caesar

Coleridge

idle,lazy bee.
is a large island.
gracefulornament.
an

Humility is a
winding road, to the top of Mt.
is favorable

to invalids.

Solon,the Athenian

kept sacred.
years

climate.
is

climate of Florida

The

Kosmos.

wrote

weathercock

The

Cuba.

ascend,by

can

Washington.

Rubicon

Mariner."

tobacco

Travellers

man's

The

fine

The

is east.

the Eubicon.

wrote

The

wind

The

has

Madeira

change.

migrate?

Humboldt

gathering.

are

before

lawgiver,
is through all
Christ.
Montaigne, the entertaining
There

regularsuccession of events.
French
essayistand philosopher,travelled on horseback,from his
chateau
in France, through Germany and
Switzerland,into Italy.
and a half million
Apicius,a Eoman
glutton,
having spent seven
dollars in the gratification
of his palate,and finding he had but
three hundred
thousand
dollars left,killed himself for fear of
dying of hunger. A basket,left on the ground and overgrown
by
acanthus,suggested the Corinthian capital. The Giant-killer with
the familiar name
has the whole heart of the boy.
nature

When
dies
world

I look

within
since

me.

the

upon

The

the tombs

of the

sumptuous

great,every emotion

cities which

beginning of time, are

now

have
beheld

of envy

lighted the
only in the

168

ENGLISH

picturesof the historian


forth to take

goes

of

the poet. 'Whenever

or

behind.

best-known

his

the queen
bees attend upon

of the small

air^many
and

before

her

guarding
Life/' one

the

GRAMMAK.

"

Longfellow, in the

poems,

that

says

bee

hei\

Psalm

of

hearts,like

our

The life
beating funeral marches to the grave.
written
of Agricola,the Roman
was
generalwho conquered Britain,
The
by his son-in-law Tacitus,the celebrated Latin historian.
in mourning.
a nation
rule,were
Venetians,while under Austrian
which
is the result of thinking of something else
of mind
Absence
which
is the result of
absence
of mind
is quite different) from
thinking of nothing at all.
muffled

drums,

are

OF

SYNTAX

classified

149. Sentences

considered

1. Sentences

SENTENCES.

by their Use

as

whole

are,

as

Whole.

"

those which declare something as real and


or
(1.)Declarative,
or
probable,obligatory,
absolute,or as possible,
necessary.
Ex.

found

I have

"

Ehould

be

It may

the

rain.

It may

king.

body

main

negative;

positiveor

the

We

be done.

must

forms

sentence

declarative

The

sightof

work

The

debts.

our

pay

favor in the

speciesof

of every

its mode

may

be

position.
com-

indicative

or

potential.

(2.)Interrogative,
Ex.

Doth

"

Interrogative
assent;
An

as,

sentences

Who

by

in the

yea

or

garden

Let

or
a

The

pervert judgment?"
be

can

answered

by

interrogative(78, 2, 5)
to-day ?" "Who

an

yes

or

cannot

no

be

ing
is walk-

ride to town

you

gain

or

express

command,

an

entreaty,

prayer.
done.

sentence

Do

extricate

Thy kingdom

my

sufferingfriend.

foe has

or

come

character

by

the

is determined

in

those which

express emotion.

Was

it not

Let

come.

rank

(89, 15).

(4.)Exclamatory,
Ex."

information

and

those which

dissimulation.

imperative

partiesinvolved

obtain

God
it

child ?

forgether

mother

?"

justicebe

love be without

question.

to

"Doth

?"

by

either

is direct -when

as, "Will

no;

(3.)Imperative,
exhortation,or
Ex."

door

it is introduced

when

answered

An

the

opened

Can

used

are

sentence
interrogative

indirect

an

"

father yet live ?

my

ask

which

those

or

strange !

Make

haste !

of

the

170

ENGLISH

Ex.

I know

"

thai my

require attention.

GRAMMAR.

Redeemer
I

Though

thingsthai

liveth. The

teach courage,

cannot

beforeus

are

must

learn

not

cowardice.
that

Observe

another, but

with

at least

is

sentence

proposition is

much
But

only
aimjile
Ex.
"

are

but

"

ster.

of my

all

of useless

"

suspectedthat

and

complex
In

idea.

an

tences,
senpound
com-

thoughts.

express

all other

(156),is

elements
limitations.

without

of all the ages of the world

"

indigestedmaterials.

(simple)me

robbed

had

sleep

events

"

to

combined

or

however
simplesentence,
definite thought. (147,7.)
is

general idea

the

"

In

merely

used

element, like

most

alone

sentence.

to express

sentence

an

the

"

crowd

"

BucJcmin-

"

of

"

some

part

element).
{complex

powers

united

Among

5.

as

skeptic

"

always

not

to express

used

it expresses

as

To the

"

as

be extended

proposition

proposition,either

propositionsare

two

propositionused

it may

proposition is used

one

sentences, at least
4. A

always

that
propositions,

one

is
"

which contains the principalor


(1.)The principal
proposition,
leading assertion ; and is that on which the subordinate depends.
Ex.

When

"

The

which, by
proposition,

snbordinate

part of

depends

upon

some

Ex.

When

springcomes,

"

6. United
A

the

containing
clause

is

but

one

always

of

means

connective,

principal.

the flowers will bloom.

propositionsare

sentence

clauses.

will bloom.
the flowers

spring comes,

called clauses.
proposition (150, 1) cannot

proposition;

but

be

propositionis

said
not

to have

always

clause.

7. Two

united

are
propositions

"

kindred
both express
propositions,when
thoughts of the speaker; or
when
Similar
subordinate
they express elements of
propositions,
the thought kindred in construction
(i53,3).
Similar

Ex.
nor

"

when

principal

Talent

is skill.

I cannot

tell when

he camcy

he went.

when
propositions,

Dissimilar

speaker,and

the other

two

elements

or

[but] tact

is power,

express

mere

of the

one

element

thought

of the

thought of the
thought,or when any

unlike

in their

expresses

construction

relations.
Ex.

"

He

who

assumes

the

guidanceof others,should

govern

himself.

SYNTAX

If

take

we

committed

period,

that

"

sins

our

that

"

tlie day

on

will

they

which

on

"

to us

recur

at

they are
tant
dis-

more

againstthem to-morrow," or that


strengthto resist them, which we will not implore?
watch

shall

we

g-ain the

shall

we

hope

we

can

"

of

account

no

171

EXERCISE.

"

"

Channing.
in this

Observe
is not
the

similar

bold

that
has

to

type

of these, compared

Kemark.

has

but

; and

in mind

that

of the

any

marked

clauses

to each

similar

are

hope,"

we

other subordinate

by

other;
clauses,

for the

division

of

tences
sen-

compotind(1,(1),(2),(3),above). A simple
dissimilar propotwo
or
more
sitions
proposition
; a co7"i2^lex,

one

comjwiind,two

two

more

or

Entire

or

more

It should

propositions.

similar

be borne

similar

whether
propositions,

subordinate

mere

form

never

can

8.

upon

Can

complex, and
simiyle,

into
sentence

hope," and

"

with

subordinate

distinctions lay the foundation

These

"

the

that

"

principalclause,

the

construction.

different

others;

dependent

alike

are

one

any

of the

any

that

sentence

complex

similar,
dis-

or

sentence.

by

sentences,

in the thoughts
affinity
paragraphs either by con-

some

expressed,are united into


junctionsor by simplesuccession.

(Athens's)power is,indeed,manifested at the bar,in


in the school of philosophy. But these
senate,in the field of battle,
not her glory.
Ex.

As

Her

"

example

an

observe

of succession,

the

paragraph

from

Patrick

the
are

Henry,

below.

151. Exercise.
the interrogative,
the imperative,
and the
declarative,
exclamatorysentences in the followingexamples. Construct or select
others like them.
Change any of them from one class of sentence to
the interrogative
another; that is,turn the declarative into interrogative,
or

Point

the

out

into declarative.
Note.
consider
a

The

"

whether,

command,

Thou

Though
Whose
my

son

learner

shalt

son

! my

not

an

the

slayme, yet will


Would

is he ?
son

the

and
attentively,

sentence

something,asks

then

question,expresses

exclamation.

take

Is this

long, the wind


expiresI

was

first read

whole, it declares

utters

or

he

as

should

was

name

the Lord

I trust him.
God

of

I had

dagger that
cold.

What

thy God
think

for

before

Strike!

see

till the

vain.

ye of Christ?

thee,O

died

in

me

last

Absalom
The

armed

way

foe

172

ENGLISH

Great
And

Hierarch
tell the

GEAMMAR.

tell thou the silent

stars,and

sky,
risingsun.
voices,praisesGod.

tell the

Earth, with her thousand

Coleridge.

"

They tell us, sir,that we are weak, ^unable to cope with so


formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it
be the next week, or the next year ? Shall we gather strengthby
irresolution and inaction ? Sir, we
not
are
a
weak, if we make
those
of
the
which
God of nature
hath placed in
means
proper use
The
our
battle,sir,is not to the strong alone : it is to the
power.
the brave.
If we were
the active,
base enough to desireit^'
vigilant,
"

late to retirefrom

;4tis now too


and\letit

com^

"

Oiir brethren

stand we'il'ere idle ?


at

the

1 know

God!

what

Tell luhich

field.

the

and

death !

Patrick Henrm

"

which

paragraph, tell what sentences


%vhat by simple
succession.

Why

dear,or peace so sweet, as


and
slavery? Forbid it.Almighty
others may
take; but as for me,

of the foregoingor of the followingsentences

COMPLEX,

are

alreadyin

are

is inevitable,

war

to be purchased

course

or give me
liberty,

give me

which

Is life so

price of chains
not

The

the contest.

Bi

compound.

are

are

the

connected

are

simple,

foregoing

hy cONJUisrcTloiS'S,
relation of thoughtcan you

What

and
see

recognizesomething sacred.
when
Decide not by authoritative rules,
they are^inconsistentwith
be dissatisfied
still^ould
man
reason.
Though he were as rich as Croesus,
hvith his condition.
Pope had perhaps the judgment of
Dry den, but Dry den certainlywanted the diligenceof Pope. The

productionof order, all

In the

men

Augustus was a patron of the fine arts. Good and evil


are
inseparablecompanions ; but the latter often hides behind the
that you
it was
felt yourself
when
back of the former.
me
fTell
emperor

most

stronglyinclined

to go

astra^
OF

SYNTAX

ELEMENTS.

152. Definition and


1. The

each

for an
standing

Ex."

of

elements

The

sentence

Diyision.
are

its

component parts,

idea and its relation to

shepherd"

gave"

the alarm"

when

other idea.

some

he discovered the approach

of the wolf.
Here

we

have

the person,

oleipeHts(147,9).

the
the act/ion,

and
object,

the time,
"

feur distinct

SYNTAX

Every element,considered

(1.)As

i^principal
or

whole,

173

ELEMENTS.

"

"

subordinate,substantive,
adjective^
"

adverbial.

or

The firsttwo distinctions

refer to the ranh

of the united elements ;

three,to their grammaticalvalue as parts of speech. This


of an
sembles
expressionas a whole for any grammatical purpose rethat of the parenthesisin algebra.

the last
use

" "

(2.)As to its component


parts,
or
simple,complex, compound.
The

first three have reference


its relation

three,to

to

word, 2i phrase,or

of the
the/or?7i

clause^

; the last

element

with, other elements.

union

to,or

is

153. Principal,
Subordinate,and Independent Elements.
1. The

elements

parts of the
and the predicate
sentence, namely,the subject
(l47,4, 5).
principal

the essential

are

"

Ex.

The

"

2. The
upon

the

elements

subordinate

each its peculiar


pleasures.

"

those which

are

modify the principal.They


and the adverbial element.
objective,
Coming
subjectand
of the

are
so

events

"

"

The
them

their shadows

"

while

elements

best,however,

depending

to consider

elements

these

upon

sentence

the

as

rank

to be

are

3. Two
when

earlyand

that

the

same

boy

studies

rank

reason,

went

up

the

to

tell where he

and

John

teas

and

but
(coordinate),

have
what
not

the

of

the second

below

elements

he had
a

temple.
was

or

similar

sentence.

are

"

We

coordinate

Two

and

; so,

also,early

elements

construction.

grammar

employed

were

lohat he had done.

construction

done.

similar

'grammar diligently."Here

"

element

subordinate,

three

construction.

could not

Peter

complex

subordinate

two

John

of the third'

are

hav6

may
"

Thus,

diligently
are

of the second

rank,

constructions.

For

the

coordinate, though both

of

subject

"

and

the

predicate are

principalelements.
15*

not

"

The

of the

dependence, that is,they are both


coordinate,because they have dissimilar

order
not

parts of

similar

v^here he

lat^,and

same

late. He

Observe
and

have

Peter and

"

as

principalor

they

Ex.

regarded

depending on

having only fiveele

two

"

depend
adjective^

before.

"

of the first rank

predicateare

second;

It is

on.

the

cast

"

the

are

the predicate,
and
and
principal,the subject
the
and
the
adverbial.
All
elements
adjective, objective,

ments,

are

bring-

"

and

Ex.

and

of the year

seasons

"

yet they
the

same
are

174

ENGLISH

united elements

4. Of two

and

the subordinate
Ex.

Now

"

in rank,the principal
differing
governs,

limits.
the boat upon

launch

principal,and

is

launch

Here

GEAMMAK.

the

wave.

hoat; while

governs

boat

is

subordinate,and

limits launch.
Remark

1.

called

concord,

tense, in which

element

it may

or

"

of the

government

subordinate

the

cause

may

The

"

it is called

case

"I

walks"

of

2.

Remark

its

extending
Remark

take

kinds.

which

It
it is

case

particular case, mode,

some

as, "These

or

(not this)books;"

The

be
(not him).
government
may
*' We
him ;" or indirectly,
saw
by
temple ;"
looked
at him."
temple of Solomon;" "We

subordinate

The

"

agree

is of two

in
itself,

he"

connective; as, "The

with

government;

am

"

means

to

it to

cause

(not walk);
eflFected -directly
Solomon's
; as,
"He

principal element

element

limits the

or
principalby restricting

application. (See 147, 7.)

3.

elements

Coordinate

"

elements

5. Coordinate

neither

connected

are

modify

nor

govern

each

other.

by coordinate conjunctions

(143,3).
Ex.

Youth

"

is

bright and

Then

lovely.

build

or

anew,

it

act

on

plain.
6. A

subordinate

connective
Ex.

Remark.

The

"

Cassius, you

7. An

no

to

Ex.

like

world

Remark.
the

"

connective,and

lamb."

me,

as,

When
"

; as,

is

tcise

"A

man

subordinate

son

maketh

use

The

an

Brutus.

adverb

used

in any

when,
adverbial,
Ex.

"

glad

in

"0
is

father."

no

matical
gram-

parts of the sentence.


Why,

independent element

element

of the

nect
con-

element

stands

man,

he doth bestride the

may

be

the

nominative

narrow

as

of its forms

"

Birds

devour

Elements.

is substantive,
adjective,

whole, it has

part of speechfor which

Substantive.

independent,

independently.

154. Substantiye,
Adjective,and Adverbial

or

to

of tcisdom;"

the

which

one

is used

Colossus.

or
interjection,

1. An

nate
subordi-

stares ?

subordinate

element

to the

wrong

is used

independent

You

"

with

connective

relation

madman

principal element;

yoked

are

single word,

when
frighted,

prepositionis

subordinate

principalby

(i43,12).

Shall I be

"

is joined to its

element

the construction

and

it is named.

insects.

To

live

requires
happily

SYNTAX

obedience to all the laws of


to

adoptthis

best books

The

Adjective."

Adverbial.

Kejiark.

group

Ex.

in
predicate,

and
adjective,

is

was

principal

the

What

or

word

f
Who

his natural desire.

be contents

To

it is either

certainlyknown.

invented letters is not


3. The

Lord

sentence.

rides.

He

Bees buzz.

"

ways

long.

to form

in

enter

are

ways

disagreed

doctors

subject(147,4) is always substantive :


of words answering the question Who

2. The
or

of elements

parts of the

the subordinate

and

kinds

of the

voice

briskly.The

shall decide when

three

These

"

assigned

too

was

was

blew

Who

garden.

in the

heard

wind

The

"

Wisdom^

selected.

were

lesson which

ofpleasantness.The

necessity

any

of action is denied.

that mode

or

is under

That the mind

being.

our

175

ELEMENTS.

"

its

word

or

or

answering the question

of words

group

either substantive

be

attribute,
may

is said?

What

The
affair is to be investigated.
The
only
day dawns.
of miracles is,that theyare contraryto general
to the credibility
objection
experience.Buckminster.
Ex.

The

"

"

that

Observe

ia said?

What

of

only

word

or

how

Ex.
my

White clouds

"

necessities.

equalto

all its

are

of

seen

The

"

that I lost the


Remark.
indirect

answers

the

answers

the

"

man

"

usually of

boy opened
sense
of song.
The

direct
the

These hands

in the west.

idle,

the direct

a
or

and

the

wnrk."

ministered

have

the whole

Wisdom^

are

ways

ways

is

of

and is a word or a group


substantive,
verb, answering the question What?
whom

the door.

"

or

propositionthat

The

f
He

the

The

attributive.

me

gave

or

double

or

To
or

book.

question What?

of ^o hat

In lohat state?

servant

"

is

question To,for, or

question

the

and

adjective,
words added to the subject(or to the
relation)to show what kind,what one,

object answers

What?

question

copula

be either substantive

parts is a self-evident truth.

objectiveelement
of words added usually to
f To,for,or of what
Whom

the

of words.

group

the hermit.

Peter

5. The

Ex.

may

in any

the pronoun
whose.
many,

As

to the

answer

as

case,

every

predicate contains

the

become

can

group

or

noun

to

subject.

adjectiveelement

4. The
a

the

latter

attribute,the

and is

predicate stands, in

the

whom?

do v)hat?

combined

perceived

The

Whom?

or

The
as,

attrihutive

"They

object

made

consists

176

ENGLISH

6. The

added

adverbial

GEAMMAE.

element

is any

word

or

of words

group

an
or
an
verb,a participle,
adjective,
f
How
the question When
Where f Why f How
f

to

Ex.

approached

of the Elements"

155. Forms
1. A

Remark.

of

element

2. A
and

"

"

such

third

word

spring. They

Phrases"

nective
con-

the^rs^class,

"

depends

that is,forms

"

without

idea

of

Clauses.

betrays incapacity.
of the

one

upon

rank, and, though

element,

an

to find

hoped

boasting always

"

it is of the
an

Words"

word,

"When

"

the

in

came

an
expressing
(153,6, Rem.),is an element

single

Constant

"

slowly. They

very

7nuch f "c.

nightovertook them.

the

stoppedwhen

Ex.

adverb,answering

We

"

(132,2)

of the

element

an

part of

complex

ments,
ele-

subordinate

first class, it is

element

*'

; as,

We

employment."

having

phrase,

another

show

to

word

one

to

relation,is

its

idea,

represent an
of

element

an

the

second class,
Ex.

"

1.

Remark
as,

"

very

in

one

word

to express

as, "A

"

an

qu"i*
the

When

popular poet

All

phrases,as
bial (153,2).

of

dawn;"

second

the

assertion is

an

each

here

word

"at

3. A

and

some

Clause,

word

group
or

of

fied,
modi-

one

class,but

not

of the subordinate

elements,

sentence-element

(153, 2);

honor."

adver^
or
adjective,
whole, are either substantive,

Analysis, Chap.

Phrases, see

idea.

an

expresses

early dawn."

Every simple phrase should be separated into its


complex or compound phrase, into its simple elements.
of

phrase;

another, either alone

upon

post 0/

artist.

sentences, is restricted to

phrase depends

had

containing

relation, and

as, "a"

of the

element

not

favorably ,""but

to show

"

analysis

idea;

an

2.

Remark

"

by the

chiselled

was

"

of words

j?roup

used

having

it is still

Any

"

earnestly;"

phrase, as

words

of marble

statue

two

parts;

For

and

11.

to representan
having a proposition
to

every

full discussion

is
its relation,

show

an

idea,
of the

element

third class,
Ex.

"

Observe
a

Satan,whom
that

now

transcendent

clause, like

phras"e,it always contains

gloryraised

phrase, is always
a

proposition.

above his fellows,


spake.

group

of words

like
but, un-

178

ENGLISH

begged

GRAMMAR.

that

to his assistance.
His parents
they would come
mourned
his untimely death.
He
labored
to complete
diligently
the work.
is not strained.
The quality of mercy
Simon, son of
lovest
thou me?
He jestsat scars
that never
felt a wound.
Jonas,
How
the
sweet
moonlight sleepsupon this bank ! Let me stand
tillthou
remember
here
it. Peace,tranquillity,
and innocence,shed
their mingled delightsaround
him.
Approach and behold,while I
liftfrom his sepulchreits covering.

2. Tell which

are

3. Point

the subjects,

and

Old

which

subordinate.

predicates,

adjective,

objective,

elements.

adverbial

Tell which

4.

and

principal,

which

substantive,

are

and

adjective,

which

adverbial.

Tell which

are

simple,

6. Tell which

are

words,

5.

7.

which
which

phrases,

Separatethe followingsentences

tell the

of

RANK

and

into their

tohich
which

compound.

clauses.

elements

(i54),and

each.

Soft stillnessand
The

and

complex,

the

the touches of sweet

night become

that hath

harmony.

in

himself.
with concord of sweet sounds,
Nor is not moved
Is fit for treasons, stratagems,and spoils.

the

Now
from

the

All the
in

every

man

music

not

comes
bright morning star,day's^harbinger,

dancing

east^
triumphs of
country

and

truth
in

and

genius over
age,

every

have

prejudiceand power,
the triumphs of
been

Athens.

/The way
The
8.
each

was

minstrel

long
"

was

the wind

infirm

Separatethe followingsentences
element in full.

and

was

cold,

old.^

into their

elements,and describe

died in ignorance of
Regard the rightsof property. Columbus
the real grandeur of his discovery. On
Prague's proud arch the
fires of ruin glow. The
credulitywhich has faith in goodness is a
Caesar was
hath
told you
sign of goodness. The noble Brutus
stand the latest,
We
ambitious.
probably the last,
and, if we fail,
experiment of self-governmentby the people, ^e have begun it
in
of the most
are
circumstances
under
auspiciousnature)We
the
been
Our growth has never
ihe vigor of youth, j'

cnecked^by

SYNTAX

oppressionsof tyranny.

The

of the

Locbiel,Lochiel,beware

AND
I. SIMPLE

1. The

ANALYSIS.
WOKDS.

SINGLE

joined without

Connective.

contains

possiblesentence
and a predicate.
subject

simplest

elements,

"

Model

CONSTRUCTION

SENTENCES."

158. Elements

Time

1."

flies.

simple declarative

sentence

Here, time and fly combine


of which
(l49,1) Time flies,

only two

simple predicate;

Time

be

is to
be

examples

analyzed

in the words

They

Eoses

"

Who
Know

representswhat

(54) ; flies,as

similar

as

they

manner.

enter

in (131,
Let

into

the

is affirmed.
Let

1).

pupil

combination,

something

the

mark

and

following

the

the

changes

changes

in

of the sentences.

fade.

He

run.

in

as

in

(fly=/je")

classification

Ex.

parsed

it

the

"

simple subject;it represents that of which


and
affirmed,

is the

Flies

form

to

is the
is

any

day

COMBINED."

ELEMENTS

Time.

and

us

thee in battle array.

shall meet

the Lowlands

When

Children

sings.
What

came?

We

play.

ride.

Jesus wept.
Which

comes?

read.

You

laugh.

God

fails?

She writes.

reigns.

Understandest

thou?

ye ?

Come
Hasten

[thou or
!

to

the

(1.)A
Model
a

you].

Learn.

Study.

Go.

Wait.

They

come!

Arise !

2. The

form

rolls between

Atlantic

foe.

formidable

the

179

ELEMENTS.

"

complex

subjectis formed

ing
by join-

simplesubject
"

singrie word,
2."

logieal

or

These

men

as

an

came.

element.
adjective
Here

declarative sentence,of which

Men

is the

Came

is the

this,
man^
"

simple subject(why?).
simple predicate(why?).

and

come

unite

and

180

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

is the

simple adjectiveelement ; it is a word joined to


the subjectto limit its application
(i47,7). Parse it by
(67,6.)

Tbese

These

complexsubject;it is
modifications
(i56,3).
is the

men

the

simple subjectwith

What
trees fell ?
The
ink
dogs barked.
plays. Which boys study? Every star shines.
Old trees decay. Wise
Hot water
scalds.
men
err.
Cold
winter
learn.
comes.
Queen Mary reigned.
Ex.

Five

"

Prince

conquered.

mother

Mary's
invention

Eugene commanded.
Wellington's renown
wept.
door

Our

failed.

(2.)By joining two


In

this case,
old

as, two

Model

or

word

one

creaks.

His

usually modifies

Good

cat

scholars

General

increased.

Scott

William's

ends.

term

to the subject.
directly

words

more

fades.

its

the

subject,as

limited

by

the

other;

men.

3."

What

travellers returned?

two

it is used

ask

This

is

an

interrogative
simple

is the

question. Travellers
and returned
is the simple predicate. Travellers is limited
subject,
together(parsetwo
by two, which shows how many are considered
by 67, 5) ; it is further limited by what, which asks for some
ticular
parthe
is
two travellers. What
two
travellers
complex subject.
sentence;

Parse what
Ex."

in

as

The

to

(79).

firstdawn

appeared.

Caesars

reigned. Many a gem


lesson varies.
Every new

houses

fell. Which

agree.

Many

smooth

serious

The

second

sparkles.
Any good

class recites.

book

strugglearose.

Those

twelve

Several

instructs.
Those

shines?

button

The

two

old
men

young

bright,cheerful

days

return.

apostlePaul (54,1) labored.

The

(54,2) eldest

son

Model

contains

Very

but

something

as

Reports
Arose

Very

strange

one
a

martyr Stephen died.

Jacob's

returned.

Reuben

(3.)By forming
the subject.

The

complex

adjective

element,

A
reports arose.
proposition;declarative,
strange

"

and

joining it to

simple sentence,
"

it is used

to

it

declare

fact.

simple subject(why?).
is the simple predicate(why?). The
is limited by
is the

element
complex adjective

used to show

what

kind

of

subject

of the first class,

reports arose.

SYNTAX

(l56,4),and is
of the first class (parseit
element
itself an
in 67, 2); it is limited by
as
element
of the firstclass,
a simple adverbial

Tery

used

truly great

"

intensity.

to express

is the

reports

strange

Ex.

element
or leading
basis,

is the

(^itrange

Very

181

ELEMENTS.

"

complex subject.

appeared. Too

man

entered.
competitors

many

Exceedinglyheavy rains fell.


The
The old man's daughter left. The brightsun's rays illumine.
shepherd'sdog barked.
Henry's daughter,
escaped. Elizabetli,
Arnold, the base traitor,
denied.
delayed. Peter,Christ's bold disciple,
3. The

compies:

or

formed

is
predicate

logical

by joiningto the

simplepredicate
"

(1.)A

word

single

as

an

element.
objective

A simpledeclarative sentence,
nuts.
boy gathered
the complex subject;
is the simple, and
of which
the
boy
boy
is the simple,and gatherednuts the complex predicate.
gathered
Gathered
is limited by nuts,
a
simple objectiveelement of the
first class,
used to show what the boy gathered. Parse boy as in
(54,2, history.)
Model

5.

The

"

"

Ex.

Csesar

"

thou ?

have

What

(2.)A

Attila invaded

conqueredGaul.

single

you

word

Which

?
as

an

has he ?

adverbial

Eome.

Whom

seest

write sentences.

We

element.

simpledeclarative sentence,
for the complex subject
the
bells
having bells for the simplesubject,
p^nd riwgr merrily
; having also ring for the simple predicate,
for the complex predicate. Bells
the indefinite
ring
expresses
thought; the bells ring merrily,the definite thought. Ring is
limited by merrily,
a
simple adverbial element of the first class,
showing how the bells ring. Parse merrily as in (iss,2.)
Model

Ex.

6.

"

shadow

The

here ?

came

The bellsringmerrily.

"

Go

onward.

moves

forward.

Come

standest

Where

hither.

The

coach

ride

thou?

arrived

Who

yesterday.
ye? The

occasionally.Why
They
changes
The
curtains hang gracefully.
campaign opened vigorously.
He

often.

(3.)By joiningtwo
As

Ex.
The

model,

"

Give

teacher

Jesus made

combine
me

or

flowers.

appointed
the water

words

more

Models

came

5 and

They

Charles

to the predicate.
directly

6.

lent him
monitor.

wine.
16

money.

They

I wrote
called

liim letters.
him

traitor,

182

ENGLISH

They raise oranges there.


taught him thoroughly. He

GRAMMAR.

the lesson

faithfully.The

found

He

Study
never

it.

the

utters

master

syllables

distinctly.
In the

of combined

case

is joined to the

Analyze

thus:

predicate,while
The

"

which

commander,

*'

as
in, They
objects,

predicateelected
is used

They

object is called

elected

by

time

same

its

commander,"
double

the

meaning,

each

joined together.

are

the

by

direct

object him
object

him

the attributive

and

answering the question


{what?) The attributive

{ichom?) They elected him


i\i.Q
object, that into
factitive

many

him

they

is limited

complete

to

answering the question Wliom?


What?

the

at

elected

which

"

the direct

object

is made.

(4.)By first forming a

complex

objective

or

verbial
ad-

complex

element.
Model

7.

"

The

tropicalislands yielddeUcions

spices.

This

is

simple declarative sentence, of which


is the

Islands

and
simple subject,

is the

Yield

simple predicate. Islands yieldexpresses the indefinite


unlimited
or
thought. Islands is limited by tbe and
of the first class.
tropical, two simple adjectiveelements
islands is the complex or definite
The tropical
subject. Yield
element
is limited by delicious spices,a complex objective
of the first class,of which
spicesis the basis,and is
of the first
element
limited by delicious,
a simple adjective
"

class.
Ex.

The

"

monk

profit. He
Herod

beheaded

Shakspeare
adroitly.
4. A

very

sentence

Model

8."

led

desolate

life. The

some
gained a handkept his word.
skilfully.Bead

merchant

recognized his mother's voice. He


John
the Baptist. She plays very
attentively.The generalmanaged

have

may

Plato,

thou

with it

connected

well.

reasoiiest

an

his

troops

most

ment.
independent ele-

simpledeclarative

tence
sen-

(why?).
Plato

is the

"

the

to whom
person
part of the sentence
Remark.
of the

"

The

subject and

foregoing ways.

Let

examples, though
connective

'. it represents
compellative
words are addressed,and forms no
reasonest well. Parse it as in (54,2.)

independentelement, the

of any

following exercise.

kind.

the
thou
the
it be

predicatemay

The

that

observed

it contains

any

pupil should

or

both
no

become

complex

sentence

all of the

five

carefullyapply

in any

in all the

ceding
pre-

elements, has

the

models

in the

SYNTAX

183

SENTENCES.

SIMPLE

"

159. Exercise.
The

gives every bird

God

the truth.

still stands.

old mountain

lightningglares. This

wise

its food.

Speak

sometimes

man

Bushed
the bold eagle exultinglyforth. The
changes his mind.
disrevived the drooping plants. The
soon
refreshingshowers
tinguishedhistorian Xenophon skilfullyconducted the dangerous
defended the
retreat.
Leonidas,the brave Spartan hero,gallantly
narrow

pass.
the

Confessed

PHEASES.

SENTENCES."

II. SIMPLE

joined hj

160. Elements

hautboy'smelting trill
magic master's skill.

soft

The

Auxiliary

some

"

(1.)Inseparable;as, to read,to walk, to


(2.)Separable; as, in town, is base,over
Here, in parsing
the

two
as

infinitive.But

to

read,

in

may

should

we

the

auxiliarijas

2. The

parts of

parse
the

mountains.

call the

we

the

and

phrase

learned; or,-"

have

whole

toton, is base, "c., we

cojmla
object,

"

be done,

xoalk,"c.,

to

parsing in

parts, prepositionand

between

sition.
Prepo-

phrase(155,2) is,

1. A

"

by

or

separate each

must

But

attribute.

as

expression a verb,

whole, yet

relation-word,and

in such

should

ih.Qprincipalverb

into

phrases

distinguish
as

the irfea-

tcord.

separable
phraseare,

"

expressinga relation, namely, the copula,


(1.)The connective,
the preposition.
the auxiliary,
or
noting
dean
idea,
namely, the attribute,
(2.)The word
expressing^
the cla^s,quality,
action,or condition of the subject; the
principalverb,denoting the state (98,3) of the act or the event (98,
denoting the person or the thingnamed.
113, 114, lis); or the object,
"

"

Kemark.

Here

"

finds the first kind

the learner

called term-connectives,inasmuch
subordinate

to

3. The
an

Model

base unite

9."

and

tlie

of the second
To

they join,not

not

improperly

propositions,but usually a

principalterm.

subjector

element

as

of connectives

is base.

steal

form

be

predicatemay

pbrase,

or

class.
Here

the two

simple declarative

phrasesto

sentence.

steal and

is

184

ENGLISH

Observe, here
to, but both

cannot

we

unite

must

to

say

GEAMMAK.

that steal is the

form

the

subject in

modified
simple subject,
its

simplest

So

state.

b"
of is

base.

simple subject(why?); an element of the second


because
it has one
form or class,
to express
an
word, steal,
its
and
relation.
to
another,to, represent
idea,
is the

^osteal

Parse

as

irregularintransitive

an

in the nominative

noun

is

steal

to

base

the

having
with the
The

"

together;

ba^e to

attribute

forgive ennobles.

To

as.

be

subjectonly may

it is of the

the

second

class,
predicatedidea,
and

it

connect

base.

phrase,

the

"

Night

as

proposition.

express

is and

subject. Parse

used

"

is,the copula (so,5), to predicateit

and

Remark.

verb, present tense,

subject of the

simple predicate(why?);

is the

case,

and

is

predicateonly,
"

approaching.

To

or

both

betray is

infamous.
Ex.

To

"

To

impressive.

err

desire is

Her

is human.
leave.

to

intention is to return.

His

The

exalts.

love

performed.

forgiveis divine.
love is to obey. The
rob is to plunder.

Silence

is

To

To
To

4. The

the

was

ceremony

complex subjectmay
simplesubject,

be

formed

lady is

in

grief.

by joiningto

"

(1.)A simplephrase ?is" an


Model

waving. Here the singleword


phrases of grain and were
waving, unite and
of

FieMs

10."

adjectiveelement.

g-rain

were

and the two


fields,
form a simple declarative sentence,of which

simple subject (why?) ;

is the

Fields

element

an

of the

first class.
Were

waving

Parse

Ex.

simple predicate;a phrase of which were


is the copula and waving is the attribute.
Fields,
the
the subject is limited
simple adjectiveby
phrase of grain; of is the connective,and grain is
the object.
is the

of by (141,2,)and grain

fastingwere

(2.)By

often
two

or

more

class,each joined to
Ex.
waves

"

The

of the

(54, 2, last model.)

on

adjectiveelements
the subject.

first settlers at
ocean

in

history were
carefullyconsulted. Days
presented.
appointed. Bouquets of flowers were

works

Many

"

as

overwhelmed

of the first or

Plymouth were
the ship. The

called
dawn

the second

Puritans.
of

of

Huge
lightappeared.

186

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

knowledge is one of the most pleasingemployments of the human


mind.
Hope, the charmer, lingeredstill behind. "Men apt to promise
This
hour's
work
breed
to
will
are
forget)
proscriptions,
apt

^^anyactions

apt

not

are

flowers of

brilliant

The

nappinesa

fame

to procure

the

conducive

ultimate

to our

from

tropicsbloom

the

green-house. The hermit trimmed his little lamp.


A
His
to victorywith the precisionof machines.
troops moved
ship incurs guiltby the violation of a blockade. ^ sea of blood
gushed from the gaping wound^
^h that those lipshad languag^
windows

of the

SENTENCES."

III. COMPLEX

162. Elements
1. The

joined hj
be

subjectmay

CLAUSES.

SUBOEDINATE

Subordinate

substantive

Conneetiye.

clause,

or

an

ment
ele-

of the third class.


Model

Here

That

11."

the substantive clause

doth appear,

and

sentence, of

which

you

Both

appear

Doth

appear

unite
this,

and

in

is the

this

subjectis

wronged
you

have

wronged

ivrongedme, the phrases


complex (i5o)declarative

and
subject,
simple predicate.
complex predicate.

used here without an


connective,
antecedent term
(201,3).
is the subject(why?), and
is the simple predicate. Hence
element.
is the basis,or unmodified

You

That

its

...

Wronged is limited by
element
a simple objective

Me

Parse
can

That

as

depend,

in

since

in this.

substantive clause,having
as

That

Have

appear

clause

is the

me

doth

me,

have

form

is the

The

it

that you

the substantive

wronged

have

That

in

wronged

have

you

of the first

element
(144, ?".) Observe, there is no principal
clause occupies the highestplace in the
the whole

on

which

sentence.

(= It
prevailcannot be questioned,
finally
prevail.)Who wrote
that the truth will finally
be questioned
cannot
AVhen Congresswill adjourn is a question.
Junius's Letters is uncertain.
will
the goods has been ascertained. Why
the thief concealed
Where
Ex."

he

That

?
persist

Whether

the truth will

is often asked.

How

he lives

the clouds will pass away

on

such

is doubtful.

pittanceis a mystery.

SYNTAX

2. The

COMPLEX

"

consist of the

predicate
may

187

SENTENCES.

copulaand

stantive
sub-

clause.
As

model,

Ex.
that

desire is that the

My

"

entire

an

change of his
means
requisite

that the

was

Let

the

by

it

and

9 for its relation.

be

examples

the

Model

12.

Lines

"

In

objection

1 and

2 to

equivalent

(173,4).

time, it may

same

His

easilyobtained.

in this section

be formed

complex subjectmay
an
adjective
simplesubject

At

adjusted.Our hope is

his health.

restore

3. The

the

be

difficulty
may

habits may
could not

all the

pupil change

introduced

ones

11 for the clause

see

be limited

tvbicli

by

clause.
a

word

drawn

are

by joiningto

or

phrase.
each

to

parallel

will

other

this

example, the single word


lines^the clause
drawn parallel
the phrase will meet, and the
to each other,
are
and
form
the complex declarative sentence,
never, combine
meet.

never

which

word

of which
is the

liines
Will

is

meet

l"ines

which

Will

Wtiich

drawn

are

drawn

parallel

the

"

Evils which

is the

ject
complex sub-

or

purse

trashyThe

plans

insured

firstcrusade,was
who

was

The

stream

the

their

ment
ele-

which

son

be cured

the earth

are

must

is limited

of

which

the
(Peter

success.

Amiens, in
Jacob, were
the

from

be endured.^

called vertical.

pains
unwearied^

flows from

the east, takes its name

attribute

parallelis

by

to each

of the

class.

native of

favorite

The

connective,and

element
{is7,l,b),an indirect objective

cannot

fall perpendiculariy
upon
steals

is the

attribute.

second
Ex.

drawn

are

other

on

other

subjectand the connective,and


is the predicate,
of which
the copulative
(82,7)

verb

his

each

is the

Which
Are

to

(why?).
complex predicate(why?).
Lines is limited by
parallelto each other,an adjectiveclause
of the third class,
of which

drawn

are

parallel

.is the

meet

never

simple subject(why?).
the simple predicate(why?).

he

France.

uVho

took

Hermit,
The

the occasion

Rays

who

which

steals my

accomplish
preached tlie

to

dreams
of much

of

Joseph,
ill will.

mountain-range that bounds the valley


an
of the inhabitants.
earlycustom

188

ENGLISH

Remark.
formed

The

"

by joining

to the

simple

subject several

of these

any

show

to

that

the

class of the

and

be

may

whole

the

united

to

be
complex predicate
may
an
or
an
objective
simplepredicate

Here, also, modifying


and

clause;
each

they

other,forming
As

class.

model

ModeL5

see

or

at
Ex.-|jJ

During

loords
be

may

complex

for

the

or

ph- as

es

of the
Model

clause,see

first believed

that

tive)
(adjec-

name

example

the

class.

by joiningto

employed
the

12 ;

as

besides

the limiting

simple predicate,or

first,the

of darkness

all these
I

imagined

this exercise

being. By
expanded over

feeing was

be

second,

model

for

or

the

to

third

its relation,

6.

this moment

part of my

in the last

him

adverbial clause.

joined directlyto
element

the

formed

be

may

Let

subject.

before it,of the second

one

4. The

the

the

determines

Thus,

class ; in the

b"

singleadjectivexoords,
phrases;
to each
other,forming a

element.

complex

subjectmay

complex

joined

always

leading elevient

is of the third

adjectiveelement

be first

may

complex adjective element, which


careful

that

learner will readily see

clauses, or that

or

GRAMMAE.

that I had
learned

soon

part of

objectsexisted

frame.

within

t^

lost the greatest

that the

facultyof

Buffon.
v^
career
completed
thirty-sixth
yearf
Place the package where
it will not be injured.^Had he reformed,I
would
have assisted himjf
to hope. /If such be the
as I encouraged him
character of the youthml
I to ask you what
be the
must
mind, am
of riperyearsj*
down
When
the farmer came
to breakfast,
appearances
he declared that his watcn
had gained half an hour in the night.(The
have now
views which we
unfolded
show
that a vigorous action of the
mind is dependentupon
condition of the physicalfunction^
a healthful
J^JIeclosed

his

1. Discourse

or

when

my

before he had

163. Direct

(1.)Direct,

every

and

Indirect

"

his

Discourse"

Quotations.

is,
"

when

afterwards

originallyuttered as a thought of its author,


quoted by the speaker,without change,as the

alreadyuttered words of the author.


for the author
narrated
(2.)Indirect, when
changes as shall make it the adopted language of
Ex.

"

I wiljobey
your
(J

orders:"

"

the

"

said,
{Jfou
said,

I will

"

"

said,

the author.

Indirect.

your

your
willyobey
^

'He

obey

the

thought of

Direct.

only such
speaker.

with

orders,"=^
orders,"='aou

said that I

obey, "c.
ivovl^

said that you

woul^ohey
my

oruers.

willjobey
=^e
your orders,"

said that he

orders.

obey my
woulc^

SYNTAX

In

this

instead

last case,

correspond

to the

party

clause

the

3. All substantive

clauses may

(1.)A

or

Ex.

pledge

statement

her,your, Ms,

have

our,

their,to

made.

was

and appears
stantive
a subas
substantively,
in the objective.
be divided into those containing,

commonly

most

might

we

is used

quoted part

2. The

of 7ny

whom

to

189

QUOTATIONS.

"

"

command.

Many suppose that


order, Shoulder arms."
"

the

inhabited.

are
planets

The

captaingave

"

the

(2.)An
Ex.

inquiry.

Let

"

ask

me

you have

why

come.

4. In

should indicate
of another directly,
we
quoting a statement
without
the quotationby the marks, or the use of the capital,
nective.
a conBut in quoting indirectly,
the quotation-marksare omitted,
and the connective
be employed.
that should
Ex.
says

God

"

said,Let

that God

5. In

there

inquiryof another,two

(a.)The interrogative
may
word ; or,
interrogative
an

may

adverb

for

there

light.

was

St. John

is love.

quoting an

(6.)It

light,and

be

be

direct

may

occur

"

question(l49,1),without

with
question,
(78,5).

indirect

an

connective

be

cases

an

an

interrogative
pronoun

or

the
question is quoted directly,
quoted part should begin with a capital,or receive the quotationmarks, having the interrogation
point at the close.
6. When

Ex.
must

direct

or

an

They inquired,Will

"

we

indirect

he

He

comef
certainly

asked,

^^

How

long

wait?"

7. When

the connective
question is quoted indirectly,
whether (sometimes if) is used,the quotation-marksare omitted,and
asked whether
the time had
a period is placed at the
close; as, "He
arrived."
indirect question is quoted indirectly,
the interrogati
When
an
the connective,
and
the sentence
word becomes
closes
with
the period,the quoted part having no
quotation-marks; as,
where
to stop."
were
we
They asked
a

direct

"

8. The

quoted

passage,

either of the five elements


Examples.""

*.Will

he do A"^
is,'(iVill

been

answered."

"

direct

or

form

indirect,may

of the sentence,except the adverbial.

he do

"The
He

whether

%'

is the

question;"

"

The

he do i^'has
question,'i^ill

said that he would

do it."

question
not

yet

190

ENGLISH

Remark.

It should

"

interrogativeclauses
clauses

when

be

GRAMMAR.

when

with

I tell where

with

met

we

9. The

that in which

the

The

dark

is omitted

this

in

case

"

encouragement?"

clause which

interrogation point follows

principalclause

is generallythe

(a.)A prominent position; as,


(6.)An intermediate position;
is very

the

directly,and

quoted

quoted indirectly.

confounded

that

observed

"

after

remark

you

ask

all such

must

interrogative;
who

me

leadingone

For

as,

is

Do

may

as,

be

not

Shall

"

?"

am

take,
"

that

They say
"

last

all

all

they have bought it."


that,said the pendulum, it

here."

(c.)A positionwholly

"

subordinate

He

; as,

as
left,

he told me, before

the arrival of the steamer."

164. Exercise.
1.
the

Separatethe followingsentences
:
quotations

into their

and point out


elements,

"

Then

Judah

came

him, and

unto

near

said,0

my
"

servant,I

lord,let thy
Punctuality,"

thee,speak a word in my lord's ears.


repliedWashington, "is an angel virtue."
son^'
*t(Tell
me,
my
said he,
did you
hear
of
who
called ungrateful?"
ever
are
any
He
whether
asked whether
Try the spirits,
they be of God.
they
late?" was
the
friends or foes.
have you
were
so
come
"Why
funds
shall
the
be
question, "Where
prompt inquiry. The
pray

"

obtained ?" seemed


if your

you

resolutions

life.
spiritual
life.

not

The

It is natural

have

to

firm

as

are

entered
as

Scripturesinform

their

when
how

us

minds.

you
we

Let

first set

out

obtain

may

me

ask

in the
eternal

Patrick

Henry eloquentlysaid,to
not to discuss the question
indulge in the illusions of hope. I am
the souls of men
whether
are
naturallyequal. But I would ask,
of Bunker's
does the recollection
Hill, Saratoga, and Yorktown
afford no pleasure?
2. Show
3. Show

which

to

as

man,

are
quotations

which

contain

direct,

and

statements

or

which

indirect.

are

and

commands,

which

INQUIRIES.

IV.

COMPOUND

165. Elements
1. The

SENTENCES."

joined Ibya

elements

propositions.

of

PEINCIPAL

Coordinate

compound

sentence

CLAUSES.

Conjunction.
are

principal

SYNTAX

Remark."

hence

have

may

itself be

by

may

191

SENTENCES.

principal proposition

Each

of elements, and

forms

COMPOUND

"

of

any

complex

the

preceding

sentence.

In this sentence
hungry, and ye gave me no meat.
the two
independent propositionsI was hungry and ye gave
meat
unite and form
a
no
me
compound declarative sentence, of
which
I was
hungry is the first clause,and ye gave me no meat is the
second,beingjoined to the first coordinatelyby the conjunctionand.
Model

each

Analyze
and

parse

13."

was

clause

as

simple

by the preceding models,

sentence

and

by (144, 2.)

EXAMPLES.

I. Copulative
Witliont

emphasis,

the

shines.

aiMl

sun

singleconnective.

rain

is over,

emphatic,

clause

II. Adversative
Opposition

he

The

"

of an
associated connective.
by means
she plays skilfully.
She sings,and, besides,
I instructed by this exXot
am
ercise,
Emphatic
by correlative."
only
I
but
am
also
invigorated.
Second

"

with

Clauses.

contrast.

or

persistedin
liimitation

wandering

opposition

or

repeatedlyadmonished,

oireringr

emphasis.
else

south

Component

take

my

; and

"

live.

parents, but
the

he is

still

The

delinquent has been


negligentas ever.

"

as

Clauses.

choice.-^urrender,
or
he

Either

wind

will

love

when

take

Causal

he

my

complex.

^When

"

spoke, every

eye

do

the

you

the

quences.
conse-

the

when
life,

one,

and

hate

the

despisethe other.

Clauses.

blows, [and]therefore

parts

take

will he walk.

he will hold to the one, and

house, when

house ; you

to his

but
victorious,

was

army

restriction.

ride,nor

cannot

IV.

hushed

The

"

but

denying:

or

He

The

return

strangers.

Alternative

III.

or

not

slain.

Emphatic

other ;

did

among

restriction.

or

general was

With

He

"

Clauses.

take
you

it will rain.

he
was

prop

do take

rose, every

fixed upon
that
the

doth
means

sound
him.
sustain

was

You
my

whereby I

192

ENGLISH

V.

CONTRACTED

166. Common
1. A

sentence

using but

compound, by
and unitingall

and

earth

shall pass

Model
a

Compound

be contracted to

may

all elements

once

Elements.
joar^m%

sentence

to the fiillpropositions,

common

others.

pass

away,

Observe

away.

and

earth

that

the

shall

pass

contracted

away,

Heaven

has

sentence

only

subject.

compound

It is

shall

SENTENCES.

omitted."

Part

compound

Thus, Heaven

GRAMMAR.

14."

contracted

sentence,

and

Exercise

strengthenthe

temperance

declarative sentence,derived from

constitution.

the

compound

Exercise

the
strengthens

strengthensthe constitution,and
temperance
constitution,
by omittingthe common
part in the first

proposition.
and

Exercise

temperance

is the

and
simple predicate,
is the complex predicate. Exercise
and strengthen
connected
are
by the
coordinate conjunctionand, because
they are equal in rank and have
similar
a
construction,being both
equally subjectsof the proposition.
is of the pluralnumber
Streng:then
hen.
(RuleXII). 'Pa.rseand sindstroigt

fiitreng^then
the

Streng^then

Examples.
contrast

and

"

to each

shall be my

constitution

Subjects
other.

admit

the

of

compound.

To

pleasure.

that their views

all who

is thetjompound subject,
and

soothe

"

Virtue

and

and
thy sickness,

their poetry is almost

That
nature

dark

were

of
authenticity

and

vice form

strong

to watch

thy health,
uniformlymournful,

dreary,will

be allowed

by

Ossian.

throng weep, and melt,and


tremble
at his gate. The
present life is not wholly prosaic,precise,
tame, and finite. His direction was, that the patientshould take a great
attended to, and
deal of exercise,
that his diet should be very carefully
that every thing of an excitingnature
should be avoided.
Wise and good men
are
element
frequently
Adjective
compound.
is beautifully
unsuccessful.
The
parting of Hector and Andromache
and justifies
described by Homer.
That faith which is one, which renews
all who possess it,
which confessions and formularies can never
adequately
compound.

Predicates

"

No

fascinated

"

express,

is the property of all alike.

Objective
It teaches

us

element
to

compound.

be thankful

"

Behold

for all favors

my

mother

received,to

and my
love

brethren.

each

other,

194

ENGLISH

It is

GRAMMAR.

contracted

derived from
a simple sentence
or
complex sentence,
the complex sentence, "A
is a
ship which glidesover the waves
beautiful object,"
by abridgingits subordinate clause.
a

is the

and
simple subject,
is the complex subject.
is the simple predicate: is is the
copula,and objectis the attribute.
is the complex predicate(pointout
the modifications of object).

Ship
A
Is

Is

g-liding

ship

the

over

waves

object

beautiful

object

subject,ship,is

The

element

waves"

limited

the first

of

the waves,"
by "gliding over
class; it is equivalentto "which
of the third

(an adjectiveelement

obtained
proposition,
"

changing

by dropping

the

the

glides over

and is,therefore, an abridged


class),

subject and

glides,"the predicate,into

tive
complex adjec-

the

and

"which,"

connective
"

participle gliding."

EXAMPLES.

publicis no

the whole
is

no

retained.

what
leader,

they do

can

circumstance,
the

both

as

Since

"

Observe, where

under

abaoh-ed

should

one

be

servant

to the whole

servant

is

to

public

causal

example,

word

of any
the

and

relation,or

accompanying

some

does

abridged expression

the

in

," they

not

principal clause

the

nominative

predicate

grammatical regimen

any

youthbeingtheir

influence

governing

from

denotes

clause

in the last

youthis their leader,

subject nominative

the

Being

all virtue
lost,

is

task.

easy

soth

That

task,

easy

shame

is lost.

retained."

nominative

Predicate

When

"

all virtue
beinglost,

Shame

lost,

retained.

nominative

Subject

as

are

are, hence, in

the

come

hence

it

were

nominative

absolute.

changed

Subject

lived in the
the

Here
of

The
was

Wiis

not

Here

of

same

of

aware

in

has

of

aware

the

his

principal

control

no

"

was

over

not

livingin

abridged expression

the

and

clause.

his, which

the

city.

under

are

that he

aware

the

regimen

Observe, however,

that

under

the

is

wholly

living.
with

pred.

foreigner,
=

aware

not

was

full clause

governing word

government

he

or

aware,

this

city,

possessive.

the

to

of

his, itself

its

unchang^ed.

noun

was

not

aware

of

"

his

was

not

being a

aware

that
I

foreig^ner.

being he.

subordinate

element

(153, 4, Rem.),

has

no

power

over

its principal(153, 1). Hence, though being a foreigner is


leiiiga foreigner,
governed by of,foreigneralone is governed neither by of nor being. Like the

SYNTAX

to this

Similar
the

is the

among

of

regimen

this

the

this

deities is the subject:" "Was

owing

expletive there when


twelve

being

primary-

abridged expression is
to.

to

aheolute.

pred.nom.

governed by
thefactihaXthere

deities is not

owing to, but

the

to there

owing

Here

nations?"

G-othic

the

after

nominative

"Was

is

and

government,

any

of the

case

is abridged.
proposition

deities

the

from

is absolved

above, it

case

195

PROPOSITIONS.

ABEIDGED

"

In

under

the full form,


twelve

were

mary
pri-

"fcc.
deities,"

as

being a good

Edric.

in many

other

In

case

forms.

two
In

as

becoming a
this

objective.

intrusted his

He

writer.

the

to

that the chrysalis

saw

the chrysalis

Here,

changed

pred.

and

Subject

When

dropped.

cases, there
usual

is

lightof

we

arrived

arrivingat

the

for

ice

infinitive.

is the

subject is changed

The

case.

same

Forms.

from

officer commanded

that he should

retire.

him

to

It is

retire.

simple

complex sentence,The

the

and
simple subject,
is the complex subject.
is the simple predicate,
and
is the complex predicate. Commanded
double
is limited
a
by him to retire,
of which
is the direct and to
him
object,
the attributive object.
retire
is the

Officer
officer

Commanded
him

Commanded

retire

to

Observe, in the full form, that the whole

abridged

holding

the

were

sentence,derived

the

saw

gate,"c.

The

"

cerned
diswe
walking by the sea-shore,
"c.
the burning ship,
WaUcing by the sea-shore,
found the porter asleep, O71
at the gate, we
As

commanded
officer
by contraction

16.

meaning between

abridgment
the

takes

II. Infinitive
Model

butterfly,

of

difference

form

predicate noun

"

the

gentlemannamed

becominga

was

regardedhim

butterfly.

the

the

objective,and

Subject

The

to

son

fact,the participleis equivalent to the infinitive.

to the

^We

"

form

the

subjectbecomes

ita relation to it

as

clause

the direct

is
attribute,

the

is the

only object,while

still
predicate,
object.

object,and

attributive

in

the

EXAMPLES.

Subject

retained

wish that you would


Here

the

the

in

stay,

--

subject should

principalclause.

I wish

be

to go;

We

wish you

dropped

when

not, I wish

taught them

We

objective."

me

to

We

stay.

it is the
to

to read.

go.

same

as

that

of the

196

ENGLISH

Predicate

be

retained

noun

that he

was

and

predicate

an

honest man,

to be such

him

The

abridged

is shorter

Here

7b he

nominative."

than

the

know

that

Here

the

the

An

k.ing^ is U

Remark.

In

"

stop, Koto

elated

sentence, they

as

the two

man.

of

comparison.

himselfin

it.
"

The

"

Bible.

bed
The

"c.

that he

clauses

"

sentence.

I knew

"

what

not

to do.

the

same

manner

The

be

have

we

retained.

they

Were

whom

send, when

to

to

go, when
Rule

what, xohere, xohen,"c., by

connectives

be dropped ; but, as

must

alike.

are

interrogative

proceed.

to

8, above, should

hotiest

an

"

what

man,

term

stretch

can

to be

him

I believed

"

wholly inexcusable.

was

the

objective.

forgot his appointment, as to


soldiers desired nothing more
than that theymight
than to know, "c.
enemy
was,
so

subjectsof

do,

the

unlike.

incorporated

should

in

I believed

man

for a

subjectsare

where

retained

expression,

My friend was
forget,"c. The

be

the

spendthrift

bed is shorter than

to

in

sovereign.

Snbject

For

GEAMMAR.

are

part

of the

substance

of the

they merelyconnectives,they would

dropped.

VI. TRANSFOKMATION

OF

EQUIVALENT

SENTENCES."

ELEMENTS.

168. Equiyalent Elements.


1. A

is

sentence

when

transformed

change in the form of any of its


material change in the meaning;
elements,which express the same
meaning, are called equivalents,

it

undergoes a
elements,without anythe

new

forms

of the

nearlythe

or

same

returned
to
Hispaniola,Columbus
returned
to Spain.
Spain, Having discovered Hispaniola,Columbus
Here the subordinate clause denotingtime is exchanged to an equivalent
abridgedpropositiondenotingtime (see167).
Ex.

"

After he

had

discovered

2. We

may

change the form of

sentence,

the grammaticalconstruction
(a.)By altering

"

of any

(b.)By causingor supplyingan ellipsis;


(c.)By transposing
any element to another part of

of its elements

the sentence.

SYNTAX

EQUIVALENT

"

grammatical construction

3. The

197

ELEMENTS.

of

element

an

be altered

may

by changing,"
(1.)The
Ex.

of the verb.

voice

Columbus

"

discovered

America,

America

==

discovered

was

by

Columbus.

(2.)The
second,
Ex.

from

or

of the first class

one

of the second

one

morning ride

"

from

class

When

"

(4.)A

into

elements
Ex.

to

Ex.

equal

an

When

"

Man

"

has

Since

being,
=

to

with

rank
to

changed
Ex.

into
Will

"

(8.)Its

to

who

man

is merciful

bloom,

The

springwill

moral
a

of

rank.
and

sense,

moral

complex, by depressingone

subordinate

he

therefore

sense, he is

or

an

he

is

an

accountable

(i49,2, Eem.)
declarative

accountable

being.

may

be

sentence

with his great power

plead againstme

changed
may

be

He

will not

with his great power.


constrnction,

which

agrees

by entirelyremodellingit.

with the will of God

pleasedAvith whatever

be

should

the flowers will

sentence,

wliole

That

"

beast,

questionfor gaining assent.

pleadagainstme

Ex.

his

coordinate.

sentence

has

man

declarative

of its

any

nate
compound, by raisingthe subordiand
the principal,
changing the

(7.)A questionfor gaining assent


into

complex, by expanding

to

spring comes,

(6.)A compound
into
its propositions
Ex.

to

The

journey,

our

the flowers will bloom.

and

come,

passed,we resumed
resumed
our
journey.

is merciful

connective

subordinate

clause.

sentence

complex

clause

(a contracted complex)^

to his beast.

is merciful

(5.)A

simple one

proposition.

mercifulman

"

to

sentence

simple

of the first.

one

had

the shower

having passed,we

shower

of the

one

A ride in the morning is refreshing.


is refreshing,
=

sentence
(3.)A complex
by abridgingits subordinate

Ex.

to

(i55,1, 2) to

is

agreeableto

should
the will

We
pleaseus,
of our heavenly
=

Father.

(9.)A
Ex.

"

compound

Butler

were

to

partialcompound.

distinguished
writer,
Shakspeare was a distinguished
Butler was
a distinguished
writer, Bacon, Shakspeare,and
writers.
distinguished

Bacon

writer,and

sentence

was

198

ENGLISH

(10.)Any
Ex.

contracted

The

"

the queen

compound

king and

were

queen

absent,
=

arrangement of the

they take

5. There
and

to

sentence,

The

complete

pound.
com-

absent,and

king was

absent.

was

4. The

which

GRAMMAR.

is the

position

in the sentence.
kinds of arrangement,

two

are

elements

the inverted

the natural

"

or

matical,
gram-

transposed.
a
proposition,
by the natural order,the subjectis placed
before the predicate;the adjectiveelement is placed before the
but after the noun
when of the first class,
when of the second
noun
or
third; the objectiveelement is placed after the verb which
it ; and
the adverbial element
jective
commonly follows the obgoverns
or

6. In

element.
Ex.

The

"

of Sardinia

good boy

is situated in the

7. An

element

The kingdom
geogra]phyattentively.
south of Europe.

studied his

is

whenever
transposed

it is

placedout

of its natural order.


Ex.
told.

Great

"

is

Diana

of

the

Ephesians. Copernicusthese

wonders

his efforts directed.

Wiselywere

the subjectis not


predicatesexistence,
only transposed,but its place is suppliedby the expletive there"
(i34,9). So when a phrase or a clause as subject(i60,1 ; 162, 1) is
it" used as an expletive(70,4).
its place is suppliedby
transposed,
8. When

the verb "to be"

"

"

169. Exercise.
and the passive
in
for the active,
passive,
followingexamples,supplyingthe agent where omitted:
1.

Use the active for the

the

"

AVellingtonis buried in
funeral
note.
a
heard, nor
before unknown.
of your
I

Can

Honor's

Energy of purpose
voice provoke the

armies,O Eomans, have

give my

hand

and

heart

my

Abbey.

Westminster

been

hero.

and

the

reverse

statue

was

drum

was

powers

silent dust ?
Mark

Three

Antony.

to this vote.

of

the

firstclass

to one

of the

"

placed in
The siegeof Troy lasted

marble

awakens

by
slaughtered

2. In the following,
change any element

second;

Not

the grove.

Achilles

ten

In dreams

years.

was

Grecian

his song

of

SYNTAX

triumph [he]heard.

199

ANALYSIS.

"

Strike the

golden lyreagain.

Last

Joy's

came

ecstatic trial.

Change the followingcomplex sentences


complex sentences,by abridgingthe subordinate
3.

A
had

is deceitful

who

man

finished, the

breeze,as

soft it

This

is the

his.

that he

Egypt

assembly retired.
murmured
by ? He

might

the

see

contracted

or

"

When

the orator

Heard

ye the whisper of the


declares that she is a slave of

deserves

who

man

clauses

be trusted.

never

commendation.

He

went

to

pyramids.

the italicized elements into clauses

Expand

4.

can

simple

to

"

bal,
blooming in the garden,attracted the bees. Hanniin four battles.
the Carthaginiangeneral,
conquered the Romans
told him
Caesar should have perishedon the brink of
to leave,

The

We

crocuses,

the E-ubicon

beforeattemptingto
Perhaps
Some

5.

Supply the

words

omitted

of the

is Diana

relies
be.

on

Then

began

we

"

to thee

is

be

In

the
know

hills

not

see

"

thou

he

That

arose.

shook, riven

with

To

Whom

ye

you.

Alexander.

is the

me.

art to

improved by transposing
any
I not

The

"

parting soul
be, or not lo

question,

to

thunder.

When

"

element

creation

not.

170. Directions
Sentences."!.

breast.

order

freedom

fearless

be

Welcome

declare I unto

Diogenes, were
fond

some

art,unknown

Ephesians.

ifthe followingcan

I would

:
by ellipsis

elements in their natural

given.
ignorantlyworship,him
7. See

celestialfire.

chance, direction which thou canst


discord,harmony not understood ;
partialevil,universal good.

honor

is but

with

pregnant

All

Arrange the

each

once

laid

nature

All

Great

heart

neglectedspot is

All

All

6.

in this

it.

cross

for
Read

Analysis of Sentences
the

sentence,and

determine

and

Elements.

by its meaning
whether
it is declarative,
or
interrogative,
imperative,
exclamatory.
the leadingassertion,
2. Determine
and point out the subjectand
the predicate.
3. If any of the parts are
inverted,arrange them in the natural
order.

200

ENGLISH

4. If necessary,
5. Find

GRAMMAR.

supply ellipses.

all the separate words

distinct ideas

added

to

the

or

of words

groups

subject,and

show

in

which
what

express

way

they

modify it.
6. In the

disposeof all the additions to the predicate.


7. If neither the subject,
the predicate,
nor
tions
nor
any of the addicontains
to either,
the sentence
a proposition,
is simple.
8. But if either contains a proposition,
the sentence
is complex.
9. If the sentence
contains
two
or
more
independent assertions,
it is compound, and should firstbe separatedinto its component parts,
each of which should be analyzed as a simple or a complex sentence.
the predicate,
10. If the subject,
or
any of the additions to either,
contains
coordinate
two
is a. partialcompound,
parts,the sentence
and should be analyzed like a simple sentence,with the exception
of the compound part : this should be named
as a compound element,
and

then

same

manner

resolved into its component

parts.

11. If the

the predicate,
or
subject,
any of the additions to either,
contains 2^ participle,
pendent
or
an
infinitive
equivalentin its use to a deis a contracted
proposition,the sentence
complex, and
should be analyzed like a simple sentence.
Yet the part derived by
abridging a dependent clause (i67,2) should be named, and its
equivalentpropositiongiven.
1. Eesolve

Elements."

each
Note.
ideas

part
This

"

2. If any
and

analysis gives the

prominent

3. If
it must

an

be

words

in ito;

in the

oflSce and

in

then,regarding

(i55.)

relation

; that

sentence

and

in 170

of all the

gives

the

subordinate
relation

of

ideas.

element

then

may

as

it as
element,classify

an

of all the

and

all the

as

the sentence

contains but

one

word, it is completelyreduced,

be

parsed.
element
containingmore
and
a phrase or
a clause,

than

one

word

is simple (i56,1),

is to be still further

analyzed by

pointingout,
"

[a.)The connective,
showing what parts it joins.
[b.)The part which expresses the idea:" in case of the phrase,
word; in case of the clause,the subjectand the predicate.

complex or compound, reduce it to its simple


elements,and then proceed as in 2 or 3 above.
of a complex element,point out and disposeof the
5. In case
each of the others in the
basis (i56,4), then
or
principalelement,
4. If

an

element

order of their rank.

is

202

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

the second

class;"by observing" is the basis,"by" is the con*


nective,and "observing" is the object;"observing" is limited by
that the philosopher might despisethe company
of a king," a
of which
"that"
is
complex objectiveelement of the third class,
the connective; "philosopher" is the subject,and is limited by
element
of the third class ;
who could dine on herbs,"an adjective
and is limited by
the company
might despise"is the predicate,
of a king," a complex objective
element
of the firstclass.
The predicate,
was
by well,"a simple
repliedto,is limited,first,
of the first class,and
adverbial element
by "by Aristippus,"an
and also by the clause
w^hen
of the second class,
adverbial element
ment
elethat the philosopher,""c.,a complex adverbial
he remarked
of which
when"
is the connective, he"
of the third class,
is the predicate;"remarked"
is the subject,and "remarked"
is
element
limited by "that the philosopher,"
"c.,a complex objective
of the third class,
of which
that" is the connective, philosopher"
is the subject,
could enjoy the company
"the philosopherwho
of a
and
king" is the logicalsubject,"might despise"is the predicate,
might also despisea dinner of herbs" is the logicalpredicate; the
subject,"philosopher,"is limited by the clause "who could enjoy
of the third
of a king," a complex adjectiveelement
the company
"'could enjoy"
class,of which "who" is the connective and subject,
the company
of a king,"a comis the predicate,
and is limited by
plex
spise"
objectiveelement of the first class; the predicate"might deof herbs,"a complex objectiveelement
is limited by
a dinner
and is limited
dinner"
is the basis,
of the first class,
of which
by "of herbs,"a simple adjectiveelement of the second class.
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Model

18."

Brief

Method.

the

Cynic,

is
subject,

twitted

Aristippus

replied

to,

by the expressionwho
king^, used to identify
.

he did and said.


Cynic,by
is limited,
the predicate,
of the reply.
(1.)By well, showing iha fitness
showing by whom the
(2.)By by Aristippus,
reply was made.
dinner
of
he
remarked
(3.)By when
rather
used to show the replyitself,
herbs,

statingwhat

the

Was

limited

"

than the time of it.

Analyze the followingsentences accordingto

the models:

what

they love.

Most
He

men

who

know

what

they hate

openly tells his friends

; few

all that he thinks of

"

them,

muarti

SYNTAX

expect

IN

tell
they will secretly

that

sympathize with
and
improved by his virtues,

are

when

enemies

their

nations

That

his

203

ANALYSIS.

that

much

they do

of him.

think

not

EXERCISE

"

that

he

leads

the

band

monarch's

that the tone

of

glory,that they
morals
rises high

is

truths admitted
with
are
perfect,
exultation and felt with honest pride.
he returned
home.
Highly elated by his unexpected good fortune,
fruits
his
the
of
able to
labor,he at length was
Saving carefully
purchase a farm.
A pretendedpatriot,
he impoverished his country.
How
is it that tyranny has thus triumphed, that the hopes with
which
we
greetedthe French Revolution have been crushed, that a
plucked up the last roots of the tree of libertyand planted
usurper
despotism in its place?
Eevolutions which
acted out in a day have often been years
are
"

"

or

centuries

in

did

Why
On

preparation.

weak

Wolsey,

raise the

foundations

beneath

Why,

but to sink

With

louder ruins to the

Will you

believe

that

steps of fate,

the

near

the

weight?

enormous

misfortune's

gulf below
system

pure

appeared eighteen hundred


years
empire,at the
regionsof the Roman

ago,

blow

of Christian
in

of

one

faith which

the

obscurest

of the

highestmental
cultivation and of the lowest moral
degeneracy; which superseded
all the curious
fabrics of pagan
at once
philosophy; which spread
almost instantaneously
through the civilized world,in oppositionto
the prejudices,
the pride,and
the persecutionof the times ; which
has alreadyhad the most
beneficial influence on society,
and has
been

the

; and

domestic
best

of almost

source

which

is

world

moral
:

originatedin the unaided


with
the Sea of Galilee,
Join

subordinate

therebyconvert

them

and

of the

human

racter
cha-

harmony, the
improvement of the

intellectual

will you

believe,I

say,

that

reflections of twelve Jewish


the

elements
into

melioration

the chief support of the

now

happiness,the

part of the

all the

moment

son

of

to the

carpenter at their head

system

fishermen

on

and
followingindefinite
se?itences,

ones
definite

"

Messenger brought.
Will the pupil remember?
Men

understood.

Poet

says.

History was

this

traced.

204

ENGLISH

GEAMMAR.

SYNTAX
In

the

OF

syntax of words
and

incorrect,

recognizea

we

peculiar

WORDS.

172. Rules

governs

Rule
a

of

rule

the

and

I.-V^

noun

must
proposition

Rule
of

II.

III.

in person,

or

Rule

Rule

or

case.

agree with

must

verb

its

subjectin

identify

another

in the

or

belong

must

participle

pronoun.

VI.-^A

used
pronoun
another pronoun,

or

noun

or

noun

to

explain

is put

or

by apposition

case.

same

VII.-V-A

noun

used to limit another

pronoun

or

by denotingpossession,

noun

attribute

gender.

adjective
V.-f-^^^

Rule

Rule

the

as

agree with its antecedent

must

and

of

case.

used

pronoun

the subject

number.

noun

some

as

be in the nominative

IV.-^The
and

person

which

in construction.

pronoun

number,

word

used
pronoun
be in the nominative
or

noun

"

of

use

law

of the

statement

the

must
proposition

Rule

to

"

USE.

of Construction.

syntax is

/orm

an

use.

I. REGUIiAR

regular,

be in the

must

possessive

case.

Rule
of

VIIL-I^A

noun

transitive

verb, or

or

pronoun

used

as

in

be

must
participles,

its

the object
the

case.
objective

Rule

IX."

and
adjectives,

Rule
In

X.

"

jection,

parts of the

Adverbs

are

used to limit

verbs,participles,

other adverbs.
The

nominative

have
sentence.

no

case

independent,

grammaticalrelation

and

to the

the

other

SYNTAX

Rule

XI.

AND

RULES

"

used to

are
conjunctions

Coordinate

"

205

CAUTIONS.

nect
con-

similar elements.

Rule

XII.

more

or

When

"

connected

nouns

be in the

it agrees with
take the number
of that
A

XIII."

of its

of

"

XV.

them

conjunction,
"

conjointly,

and

one,

it must

it

separately,

noun

the pronoun

or

the

not

other,it

must

one.

is used to show

noun

or

the relation

w^hich the latter depends.

on

used

pronoun

be in the

the object

as

case.
objective

connectives

Subordinate

"

taken

the

as

the word

objectto

XrV.

Rule

relates to two

pronoun

taken

preposition

must
preposition

to it.

(3.)If

Rule

coordinate

number

same

stands next

Rule

by a

with

if it agrees

be of the

which

or

pluralnumber.

(2.)But
must

verb

with them

it agrees

(1.)If

used to

are

join

dissimilar elements.

Rule
the

XVI.

noun,

with

verb, and,
which

The

"

the

when

and
signification

"

have

Participles

and

nounSj

RULES,

are

the

word

1. Rule

CAUTIONS,

I.
"

must
proposition
Ex."

GiBsar

noun

AND

conquered

the

Subject.
used

pronoun

Gaul,

/have

found

as

the

of
subject

who

professesto

case.
a

man

to be known.

symbol,

is a
subject,

of

REMARKS.

be in the nominative

teach all that is necessary

letter,

or

the construction

limited like verbs.

173. The

as

of

limitations of the

dependent,is governed by

XVII.

and
adjectives

the construction

it limits.

Rule

has

infinitive

noun

phraise,

or

clause,

in the nominative
18

when

used

singular.

206

EXGLISH

Ex.

"

Tliat you

is

have

noun

vowel.

or

verb
Ex.

For

or

you

2. A

with
no

abridgedproposition,

an

participle
(l67,4, Ex.)

other word

infinitive when

an

all virtue
beinglost,
and /or me
to
released,

noun

(1.)As
(2.)As

subjectof

; but

its case

in the

dependsupon

preposition.

to be

steal is base;

in this.

the

Shame

"

To

of additioo.

"

with

ObjectiTe
a

as

depends upon

case

sign

appear

absolute

NominatiTe

its

doth

pronoun,

is in the

when

is the

wronged me

GRAMMAR.

or

predicate

be

They requestedhim to leave.


burdened,is obviouslyunju"t.

is in the

pronoun

subject

is lost.

nominative

when

used,
"

(l47,4).
(l47,5).

with the subjector the predicate(i83).


(3.)In apposition
(4.)As the compeliative
(i58.Model 8).
(5.) As subjector predicateof an abridged proposition(l67,4).
and unfinished sentences.
(6.)In headings,titles,
3. The

subjectis usually omitted,

(1.)In

the

of the
Ex.

"

in which

imperative mode,

second

person,

Son, arise.

Go,

even

"

when

by

as

and

always a pronoun
the compellativeis expressed.

friend.

my

(2.)After hut,when, while,if,and


made

it is

case

though; also after comparisons

than,

if [it is] possible. Though poor, luxurious ;


feel
must
though submissive,vain. There is no heart but [what or it']
them.
The disaffection was
spread far wider than was supposed.
Ex.

"

We

4. The

but it is

shall

proper

go,

placed after

subject is before the predicate;


verb or its auxiliary,

of the

position
either

the

"

(1.)In the imperative mode, in direct questions,in exclamatory


in sentences
without
a connective,
arranged
sentences,in suppositions
for rhetorical effect,
and in the governing clause of a direct quotation.
Ex.

"

creature.
not

Go

ye into

Doth

Alexander,

Jt is natural

hope.

to

my

all the

father yet live ?

I would
man,

world,and preach [ye] the gospel to

be

Diogenes.

said Patrick

How

is the

Great

Henry,

to

great fallen !

is Diana

of the

indulge in

the

every
Were I

Ephesians.
illusions of

SYNTAX

RULES

"

207

CAUTIONS.

AND

is a phraseor a clause. The


the subjectof a sentence
(2.)When
vacant
place of the subjectis then filled by the expletive"it,"a
to the construction.
word adaptedto this idiom, but not necessary

subject is

the

"When

before

the predicate,the expletive should

followingsentence, therefore, is wrong

The

the

subject of

lawful

duty

do

to

the

on

following

following

sabbath

days

That

"

the

We

"

?"

faulty

are

infinitive

"Why

verb.

do

have

which

[it]is
[it]was

which

that

objectof the verb in the active voice becomes


the passivevoice.
granted the Magna

John

"

granted by

our

its

"

in the

noun

the

use

should

caution

subjectsconsistingof
pronoun,

Charta

Magna

used

personal pronoun

as

term

and

of

to

questions. See examples

in

the

jointlywith

was

verb.
finite

construction

noun

interrogativepronouns,

comparison

pronoun

subjectof

speciallyheeded

be

of the relative

use

the

as
objective

or

answers

''Me did it."

it,""not
This

"

Never

I.

Say, "/did
Note.

The

Charta,

subject

John.

Caution

not

do."

to

Ex.

of the

subject,is erroneously
that

ye

done

ledge,
know-

for want

6. The
in

be used.

not

the soul be without

sentences

which, the object of

expletive,because
made

The

good."

it is not

"

under

after

thmi

Incorrect

or

of

another

or

in the

use

of

and

in

the

as,

Use.

174. Exercise.
1.

Analyze the followingexamples,and

Those

parse

the SUBJECTS:

"

would

who

give the highesttraining to the mind must


furnish to it deeds of excellence,
tales of heroism.
How
beautiful
with
all
an
its foliage,
object\% a tree,growing,
on
freelyand fairly
a
sheltered lawn ! Ye hills,
lift up your voices ; let the shaggy woods
upon

with

wave

Have

adoration.

ceased

we

to reflect?

giving pleasure to children.

goes
to

summits

borders?

our

in

your

indulge

divine.
ticket.

Commons.

It
It

was

The

doves

captain commanded
Model

is great economy
trifling
gift,a little kindness,

is

determined

was

I.

"

constitution of

to

examine

besought the

his company

fled from

reason

There

long remembered.
the illusions of hope. To err
said that fifty
guineas had

great way,
in

and

Has

It is natural
is human
been

witnesses
hawk

to

for

man

forgive,
paid for a single

at

; to

the bar of the

defend

them.

The

to march.

"Happiness depends
the habits."
Pahy,
"

upon

the

prudent

208

ENGLISH

This is a
The

"

upon

in the

Happiness

is a

needs

"

predicate, depends ;"

the

teacher

practicein minute

more

is recommended

18), with

the

best

can

only

mutual

the sentence-elements

influence

pupil fails

to

jud^^e

If sufficient

analysis.

that

their

constructions,or when

the

and

of the habits."

following models

(171,Mod.

rare

of the

the

the constitution

acquired, it

out

relations

the

"

pupil

been

pointed

except in

other,

happiness;"

this and

the

already

be

as

In

"

not

or

skill has

"

element,

Remark.
whether

true

simple sentence,containingthree sentence-elements.

subjectis

adverbial

GRAMMAR.

each

upon

the

comprehend

parts.
common

noun,

third,sing.,
neut.,nom.,

and

is used

subject. (Eule I.)

Model

II.

directed
This

by

is

"It

"

is evident

that

his

conduct

was

profoundpolicy." Macaulay,
"

complex

order,it
would
his conduct
directed by a profound policy
was
be, "That
is evident." (i68,4, 2.) In
it contains
either form
two
general
That
his
elements : the subject,
conduct was
directed by a profound
policy;" the predicate, is evident."
a

Arranged

sentence.

in the

natural

"

"

"

The

subject is
by

case,

For

the

I.

expletive "it" (70, 4), of


clause,and

is

of the true

agreeable

the

This

3.

201^
same

person,

clause

subject (see 4, above),

and

is also

number,

grammatically pleonastic,but

the

native
nomi-

is used

gender,

is essential
to

represented by

introduce

and

to this

the

case

as

the
the

arrangement

sentence

in

an

way.

Model
ordered

in

a.

of that, see

use

clause, third,sing.,neut., and

substantive

Rule

III.
his

"

"The

patriotsnot

Pitcairn
dispersing,

to fire."

men

simple sentence, having abridged propositionsfor its


from the complex sentence,
It is derived,by contraction,
elements.
Pitcairn
ordered
that his men
"As
the patriotsdid not disperse,
This

should

is

fire."
"

subjectis Pitcairn ;" the predicate, ordered ;" objective


the adverbial
to fire;" and
element, "the
element, "his men
patriotsnot dispersing."
The
The
predicateis modified by the
subjectis not modified.
Men'' is the direct,
double object "his men
to fire." (187, 10.)
is derived
and
to fire" the attributive,
object. The combination
should
from the objective
fire," "men"
proposition"that his men
should fire" the predicate.
beingthe subject,and
The

"

"

"

"

"

210

ENGLISH

with

its
are

you

"

subject; as^ You


the captain,"c.

(2.)In

GRAMMAR.

I must
beiligthe captain,

after the

the objective,

to
participle,

Since

obey,"

with

equivalent
descended
with the elders,
and
with a certain orator [who was] named
TertulluB;^^
who, the true
subject,
being dropped, by 167, 3.
to agree with the
(3.)In the objective
case, after the infinitive,
subject; as, I believed him to be a traitor," I believed that he was
of the

agree

an

subject;as, "Ananias

"

traitor.

(4.)In the

after the participle,


absolute,
preceded by
of his being a
not
aware
subject; as, I was

nominative

the

"

possessiveof the
foreigner," I was not
(5.) In the nominative

that he

foreigner.
or the infinitive,
participle
of the full propositionhaving no equivalent,
the subject
and being
wholly dropped from the sentence; as, "To be a Jdng is to be a
sovereign;" Being a scholar is not being an idler." See a parallel
construction of the predicateadjective(isi,20).
aware

ivas

after the
absolute,

"

Remark.
used

"

the

with

noun

denotes

the
the

attributes,
"

other
was

the
made

the

the

one

copulative verb
or

person

copulativeverbs, the
participleor

propositionwhen

9),to form
the

as

only

in

"He

case,

but

seems

part of the
was

the

called

in
to

it is

predicate.
when

subject, and

predicate

attributive

adjective;as,

or

of

(S2,

thing

the subject not

with

following noun

gender and
have

verb,

two

and

the

"The

John;"

it

boy

side."

algebraicsymbol for an
or a proquantity,is made the subjectrepresentinga noun
noun
It
is
in
attribute
//"
any number, person, or gender ; as,

2. It, used in
unknown

any

of

case

is the attribute

pronoun

same

it agrees

person
In

copula, or

It usually denotes

number.

or

vague

sense, not unlike the

"

as
"

It is

they;"

"

"

It is James;"

It is she;"

"

It is clear that the enemy

has crossed the river."

subject,and
Ex.

"

and

number

3. The

not

Apples

by
are

the

the person

of the

verb

are

affected

by the

predicatenoun.

fruit.

His

meat

was

(not were) locusts

and

wild

honey.
reckon,name, and
copulativeverbs regard,consider,
some
others,the connective "as" precedes the attribute when the
it is active,to
the attributive object when
verb is passive,and
the subjector the direct objectis to
denote the capacityin which
4. After the

be taken.
Ex.
an

"

He

was

able advocate.

regardedas

an

able

advocate, They regarded


-=

him

cw

SYNTAX

]SOUN

"

AS

211

ATTRIBUTE.

5. The

predicatenominative is commonly placed after the verb,


and the subjectnominative
before it ; but in questions,
both direct
in poetry, and
and indirect,
in sentences
arranged for rhetorical
this order is often changed.
effect,
Ex.

it If

the

to

eyes

Is

"

is he?

blind,and/ee^ was

6. The

subjectmay

subjectmay
is the

Who

be

be

question. The

victim

thy

remain.

now

was

7 to the lame.

and

noun,

clause,and

And

the attribute

the attribute

questionis,Who

noun,

will

the

put

clause

; or

win

lie

bell

upon

do

the
it?

the

(i63,6.)

cat?

Caution

I.

Never

"

the

use

as
objective

verb,nor the nominative afteran


subject.Say, It is /,"" not
"

"

not

I knew

Caution

the attribute aftera finite

precededby

infinitive

"

It is

me;"

"

I knew

its objective

it to be

him,"
"

it to be he."
II.

Avoid

"

in which

constructions

the

thingdenoted by the

"

is

is falsely
James
subject
identified
by the attribute. Say, The noun
of the actor," not
the NAME
The noun
James is the actor."
"

"

176. Exercise.
and
Analyze the followingsentences,

1.

John

was

are

grammar

called

the

three

arts

beloved
that

obscure, and

Embarrassed,
always, the result
What

is man,

who

came

Warsaw

foe.

was

are

attributes

walk
are

embarrassed, obscure, and

capital of

as

always

feeble sentences

of him

It still remains

the

the

"

disciple. Ehetoric, logic,and

should

that thou art mindful

Mohammedans
desert

of

parse

Poland.

holy city. The

He

is

inhabitants

in

hand.

generally,if not
feeble thought.
returned a friend,
of his

monument

Mecca

hand

greatness.

regarded by the
of

the Arabian

styledBedouins.

second

mistake

the

subjectof happiness is,that it is to


be found in prosperity. The truth is,that of the objectsof human
the means
of
acquisition,
very few are, beyond a certain limit,even
in
happiness. To be an Englishman in London, a Frenchman
is
in
no
Madrid,
sary.
Paris,a Spaniard
easy matter
; and yet it is necesof its being he.
I did not dream
Do
take it to be her?
you
For

him

to

upon

become

correct

writer

is out

of the

question.
is the state of beinpr a widow.
Widowhood
A second
objection
raised againstour Lord's being the Son oi God and King of Israel,
was

taken

ever

from

his

mean

condition.

212

^ENGLISH

Model

I.

"Talent

"

thing." London

is

something,but

is every

tact

Atlas,

"

Analyze. This

is

"

is

GRAMMAR.

compound sentence, "c.

(See Model

13.)

of the

third,sing.,neut.,and in
the nom.
the attribute of the proposition
as
case, being used
Talent is something,"
accordingto Rule II. (Repeat it.)
Somethings

common

noun,

"

In

the

same

Model
a

dull

II.

Analyze

as

"That,"

in

in

If the

has

boy

case,

be

considered

The

"It

"

the outward

as

signsof
Sydney Smith,

"

joining the

copula joins

of

the

when

"The

is almost

phrase
boy

it

clause

only

subject, "that"

that the outward

reason

connection

field." Compare

III.

the

assumed

were

Thus,

clause.

2.

may

"

second

the same.'^

are

subject,while

clause

similar

man

the

is,that

reason

wise

to the

is in the

Model

The

Model, 162,

only connective.
"The

"
"

this

element

thing,"in

parse

and

man

element.

"

manner

as

of fortune,
as it is in
poet in despite

a.

the

pendent
de-

predicated

would

signs,"Ac.

becomes

in the

as

as

be

the

The

attribute

position
pre; as,

field."

hard

thing to be
despiteof nature."
a

"

Cowley,
This is a

complex sentence, consistingof one principaland one


subordinate
clause. It is introduced
by the expletive it,"which
is disposed of as in Model
Arranged grammatically, it
II.,174.
stands, To be a poet in despiteof fortune,is almost as hard a
The logicalsubjectis to be
thing as it is in despiteof nature."
a
poet in despiteof fortune ;" the logicalpredicateis is almost
hard a thing as
The
as
[to be a poet] is in despiteof nature."
plex
grammatical subjectis to be a poet,"and is limited by the comphrase in despiteof fortune." This is an adverbial element,
since it limits not
poet,"but the whole idea, to be a poet." The
copula is "is," the simple attribute,"thing;" it is parsed as in
I. The
Model
attribute
thing" is limited by a," and by as
hard as [tobe a poet] is in despiteof nature,"a complex adjective
hard ;" it is comelement
since the basis is
plex,
; it is of the first class,
since the basis is limited by
as
[tobe a poet]is in despiteof
two things,or the two
nature,"which shows a comparison between
be a comparison of equality^
conditions of being a poet, and would
almost."
In the subordinate
but for the effect of
clause, as" is
hard ;" the conthe connective,and joins the adverbial clause to
"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

SYNTAX

213

PKONOUX.

"

"

nection is strengthenedby the correlative adverb


clause.
"

principal
clause is introduced
by the expletive
arrangedgrammatically,stands, [to
is [hard]." This clause is analyzed

subordinate

The

as" in the

completed and
be a poet] in despiteof nature
like the principalclause.
is a part of the granimaticalsubjectof both clauses :
to
Poet
be" is not the grammatical subject,
since it no
more
an
expresses
idea than
does the copula (80,5). The
simple idea is,"to be a
poet."
is a common
third pers., sing.,masc,
Poet
noun,
nom., and is
used as the attribute of an
abridged proposition,namely, That
should be a poet in despiteof fortune,
To be a poet in
one
"c.,"
is entirelydropped
The subject "one"
despiteof fortune,"c."
from the sentence
in abridgingthe proposition
; and hence,by Eule
II.,1, b, poet" is in the predicatenominative absolute. See 167,
"

it,"and, when

"

"

"

"

4, Model

16, Ex.

Construct,
analyze,and
preceding.

2.
the

177. Agreement and


1.

III.

Rule

in person,
Ex.
than

"

Those

theyare

who

"

parse

must

pronoun

and

own

similar

to

agree

with

its

cedent
ante-

gender.

consistent

most

your

of the Pronoun.

Construction

number,
are

examplesof

not

are

more

unlike

to

others

to themselves.

in the
(a.)A pronoun
relatingto a collective noun
singularis put in the neuter singularwhen the noun
feminine
denotes unity,but in the masculine
or
plural
it denotes plurality,
when
Ex.

because
their

"

civilized

the other

report,were

{b) A

people has

2.

rightto

party is uncivilized.

violate its solemn

The

obligations
committee, having made

discharged.

pronoun

to
relating

coordinate terms, agrees


193,

no

with

an

antecedent

it,by

Rule

of
consisting
XII.
(See,also,

1, a, 6, "c.)

Interrogative
commonly refer to objectsunknown
pronouns
the speaker; and
hence
the person, number, and
gender must
assumed
till the person or thing inquiredfor becomes
known.

to

b"

214

ENGLISH

the

Although

pronoun

by rule, with

agree,

reference

every
charmed

with

to he.

Again,

is

commonly

my

life,had

the

and

?"

relatingto

pronoun

put in the plural; as,


Heaven

3. The

vouchsafed
it

pronoun

is

should

I have

me

heard
to

grace

It is good

The

"

the

act

an

they

or

by

Tvau?/

of devotion

in

Scott.

"

employed

to be

for me

Come
afflicted.

is

tripit as

child

young

or

in 173,

?.s

you

go.

animal,the

an

4;

of

sex

regardsits future well'


chieflyby night,keeping in its hole during

feeds

raccoon

day.
4. A

Ex.

"

that

sometimes

pronoun

rule)to

"

limited

thevi."

not

was

to were,

friend of the child is he who

true

The

being.

"Who

"

in

"

(b.) When the antecedent


which is disregarded.
Ex.

mani/

preserved

used,
"

"

be

changed

profitby

{a.) Without an antecedent,(1) when


(2) as an expletive.
Ex.

be

singular antecedent

"

should

is wrong:

sentence

Was

antecedent,it doe?

true

consistency

following

theyheard

the

with

agree

assumed;
The

the music
a

not

may

it.

to

GEAMMAR.

taken

noun

refers

(apparentlycontrary to the
from its ordinarysignification.

ral
gene-

Woodhridge^sElements of Geography on its firstappearance


before the public. When
we
it,
classify
say books is a noun, we
themselves.
is,the word, not the objects
Herod, wMch (notwho)
We

studied

"

is another

for

name

cruelty.

of the
English language being destitute of a pronoun
third person, which
apply equallyto either sex, an erroneous
may
of they,referringto persofi, any
been
some
use
one, has
one, or
adopted even
by respectablewriters to conceal the gender, or to
5. The

avoid
Thus

before
gave

"

they{he
such

awkward

an

or

If any

mind

referred

and

of

accordingly.
females,usage

thus,

'*

Is any

6. When
as

Ex.

"

among

to

to

an

has

when

the

nightlyfold

the

speaker

gender

person
the

or

thus,

be

to

The
a

"

belongs

to

of
"

masculine
not

fire. The

who
son
per-

should

of
be

of males
:

pronoun

her) pray."

they should
personified,
employed.

Anger rushed,his eyes on


fierce drags the bleatingprev.

the

assemblage
a

person

person

When

pronoun

an

(not them,

The

of

want

definite

composed wholly

feminine

employment

afflicted ? let him

has

name."

known

masculine

preservationof health,

weather."

of the

to conceal

me

thingsor animals are


persons by the pronouns

Next

for

the

the

assemblage

sanctioned
you

when

conceal

females, the
But

rules

all states

in

desired

belongs

wholly

or

used

to

these

apparent

wishes

and

she.

or

test

persevere

is still more

this information

me

males

would

one

she)must

pronoun
his

of he

use

wolf

who

be represented

from

the

SYNTAX

7. The

usuallyfollows

pronoun

215

PEOXOUN.

"

; but sometimes

its antecedent

it

is placed first.
Ex.

Hark

"

theywhisper ; angelssay.

and

8. Relative

would

assignthem

Ex.

Paternus

"

9. The
Ex.

The

had

The

[which] he

himself.

me.

gave

unfrequentlyomitted.

steals my

antecedent

of construction

omitted.

objectiveis sometimes

is not

Who

[He]

"

order

he educated

son, whom

one

is the present

antecedent

Ex.

but

relative in the
Here

"

usuallyplaced at the

are
interrogative
pronouns
the
clauses,even
though
other position.
some

beginning of their

steals trash.

purse

is sometimes

part of

sentence,and sometimes

possessive.

boy closed the blinds,which darkened the room.


Supreme
speaking,is only His who created* the universe.
authority,
strictly
Ex.

The

"

10. The

nominative

possessivecase,
preposition;

to

which

we

In

"

The

should

to

"

verb,

ordered

the horses
"He

hoary locks
whom

person

they

call the

personal

pronoun,

verb

to be

hastened
and

to

"

janitor."

harnessed,
the palace

visage

Whoin
This

by

or

mournful
"

I saw."

tohom

absolute,

nominative

transitive

did

you

is the rule

and

one

the

rule

for its construction


for

it

relative which

as

two

rules

; in

disposing of

explain

its

in

; and

connective
use

formerly referred

as

as

be

should

case

given,

relative,
of

what,

adjective.

an

well to persons

as

things.
Ex.
It

"

was

to persons

which art in heaven.

Father

Our

sometimes

preceded by

sometime."

also walked

; as,

12. The

"

Which

"

of the two

relative pronoun

the

"When

Bible.

when
(a.)Restrictive,
an

We

The

still another, to

whatever,or whatsoever,
11. The

finite

his

presence

disposing of

to these

add

of

journey."

our

man

for its agreement,

one

relations.

his attention."

called

we

Remark.
"

whose

admission."
"

"

speak."

commenced

sovereign, into
to be ?"

subject

as

objective
case, governed by
tcho

They

being done, we

him

take

"

as,

case,

in the

or

obtained

soon

in similar

noun

cedent,
ante-

"

the

of his

independent of its

be,

It may

which

is

pronoun

is like that of the

and

In

of the

construction

was

definite
used
the

article ; as,

"

In

the which

which
interrogatively,
wiser

man

may

ye

refer

?"

is,"

it introduces

the generalidea denoted by


adjective

clause which

restricts like

the antecedent.

216

ENGLISH

Ex.

The

"

GRAMMAR.

coffee which grows

in Java

Java

coffee

is of

lent
excel-

an

quality.
{b.)Explanatory,when
either

the

antecedent,

and

adds another
Ex.

me

He

"

Remark.

he

such
correlative,

necessary

by these

or

expressedby
previouslydefined,

as

requestedme

He

read,

to

the antecedent,

the,this,that,these,those; the adjective clause


the

to

When

the

antecedent, to complete

used

in

proposition,and

an

is

gave

read it.

it often has, prefixed to


restrictively,

used
as

words.

he

addition

additional

an

its full extent

book, which
requestedme to

me

When

"

in

idea

the

simply resumes

thought.

gave

book, and

it

becomes

limitation

intimated

explanatoryway, the relative introduces


equivalentto and he, and she,and it,and

they.
That, what, and
either

restrictive

13. When

Ex.
alluded

which

and

be

may

is the

it is genegoverijedby a preposition,
rally
at the beginning of the clause.
which

subjectto

he

alluded,"
"

"which

not

he

to."

But

when

placed

relative is

place.the latter

"This

"

restrictively. Who

explanatory.

or

the

best to

used

always

are

as

the

at the

better not
sometimes

"

; as,

employ

to

it is

that

relative

end

is thus

is the

that when

used;

so

Here

last

the

as, "In

governed,the preposition is always


bridge

that

shall

we

governing preposition is

the

thou

day that

to."

come

It ia

understood

thereof,thou

eatest

yet

shalt

surely die."
14. The

compound relatives whoever,whoso,whosoever,whichever,


show
that the antecedent
whichsoever,
whatever,and whatsoever,
"

(1.)Is taken

nniversaiiy,

Whoever

seeks shall

Ex.

"

(2.)Is
and

to

be

an

or

Ex.

to whoever

word

They

"

are

oflBce of

relative

; and

and

pronoun

76, 3).

be

double

struction,
con-

supplied.

the

Sometimes

the

one

its correlative.

limiting adjective,and

hence, too, unlike

antecedent

in

combine

whatsoever

those

equivalentto the,this,
that,these,or

they perform the

placed before

must

either have

must

what, whatever,and

words

both the relative and

Remark.

words

of who

proclamationthat they would sell the empire


who']would purchase it at the highestprice.

[any one

15. The

seeks shall find.

in the compounds
especially

these

antecedent

who

one

of its application.

soldiers made

The

"

hence

is,in the full extent

find, Any

understood,

what; and

that

"

(except

as

simple

tchat

all other
in

at the

17, below)

is

same

relative
when

separated

from

which

"

time

pronouns,

hence

that

of

they

are

expressed (75, 5,
the

affix

by

the

218

ENGLISH

(3.)After

very,

Ex.

is the very

He

This

"

is the

same

Ex.

that I want.

that I took him

Is not

this all that you

ask "

to be.

antecedent

an

denoting both

things.

Here

"

book

the relative refers to

and

persons

all,same.

person

(4.)When

GRAMMAR.

the persons and papers

are

Instead

that

sent

were

for.

of in

which,by which,of which,"c.,the equivalent


relative adverbs
where, when, whereby,whereof,"c. are used, like
the pronoun,
to join an
adjectiveclause to its antecedent.
20.

Ex.

discovered

We

"

Caution

the

Avoid

I.
"

placeivhere the goodshad

the

of

or
subject
great emphasisis required.Say, The

use

"

II.

"

antecedent.

Say,
III.

"

Avoid

the

Let

every

noun

as

pronoun

did it."

pluralpronoun havinga singular


attend to his (nottheir)
work."

of

use

one

avoid ambiguity in its


of a pronoun,
to an antecederit.
Say, "A boy who deceives his father will
reference
If a boy deceives his father,
he will regret it."
regret it," not

Caution

"

In

"

objectof the same


verb,unless
The boy he
boy did it,""not
Caution

and

been concealed.

the

use

"

"

Caution
a

IV.

the
in

Yet,

In

arranging nouns

of the

pronoun

or
first

"

third;

second person

"

as,

You

is

more

of different
sons,
perone
placedbefore
of the

pronouns

should

he and

and

confessing a fault,it

or

be

/,"

"

not

"

/and

for the

generous

he and

t/ow."

speaker to put

self
him-

first.

Caution
and

V.

Avoid

"

the

who

of

use

when

speakingof animals
Say,
speakingofpersons.

and of which when


objects,
which
mews," not ^^who mew^."

inanimate

"The

cat

came,"

not

"

than

Say,

I love

you

who

came."

change of number,
to the

stranger

same

antecedent

too,"
"

not

or

"

change of pronouns,

in the
I know

same

sentence.

thee,and

too."

to an antecedent consisting
ordinate
ofcorelating
should agree with the first
terms of different
persons or genders,
and with the second rather
rather than the second or the third,
the third,
and with the masculine gender rather than the feminine.

Caution

"person

Avoid

you, and

I know

love you

"

stranger which

is made
reference

when

Say,

The

VI.

Caution

"

*'The

"

"

"

You

YH.-^" A pronoun

and

Charles

are

learningyour lesson,"
"

not

"

their lesson."

smite the eye of his servant,or the eye of his maid, that
it perish,he shall let him [noth^r,nor
them^go free for his eye's

"

If

man

^ike."~Bibk.

SYNTAX

219

PKONOUN.

"

178. Exercise.

Analyze
examples:
1.

the

and
sentences,

the pronouns,

parse

in the

following

"

who
love
Ye, therefore,
Other sheep I have, which
I spoke. He who
of whom
to

At

enemy.
the

surrounding

which

had

no

may

is

pity of his

the

excite

others

upon

mercy

now

most

duced
re-

placable
im-

thing that breaks the monotony of


That
attention.
life is long
attracts

sea, every

expanse

life's

answers

to love it too.
sons
your
of this fold. This is the friend

not

are

which

condition

teach

mercy,

great end.

is the friend

He

whose

arrival is

dailyexpected. The board of health have publishedtheir report.


The committee, who w^ere divided in opinion,will discuss the question
undaunted
It
is
the
their
next
at
more
bravery
meeting.
fully
that
their
of
the
Zouaves
render
the
and
wild impetuosity
charges
and
the vice
All this took place when
formidable.
so
ignorance
the old

which
with

destruction.

Either

Jane

One

the

or

will

Julia

or

Model

threatened
generated,

tyranny had

other

must

her

task.

perform

"Hastings advanced
MacauJay,

I.

his knee."
Analyze

as

"

14

in Model

(166),and

parse

thus

Ms

freedom

new

relinquishhis claim.

the bar

to

"

the

and

bent

"

personalpronoun, of the third person, singularnumber,


III. (repeatit); in the
masculine
gender, according to Eule
Rule VII.
possessivecase, limiting knee."
His

is

"

II.

Model
^'

Thus
Who

urged the chief;a generous troop appears,


spreadtheir bucklers,and advance their spears."
Pope.

Let the learner analyze this

preceding model, giving


Who

as

sentence, and

compound

rule 177,

is a relative pronoun

as

parse

their

as

in tlia

1, a.
a

it has

pronoun

troopfor

its antecedent,

and is
singulardenoting plurality,
of the third person, pluralnumber, masculine
gender,by 176, 1, a,
and in the nominative
case, by Eule I.
a

Observe
it denotes

collective

that

noun

in the

troop first denotes

plumliti/,as

shown

by

nnity,since
who

and

appears

their.

is

singular ;

and

then

220

ENGLISH

Model
and

III.

"
"

wish,after all I have said about mi


satisfymyself of their good effects

I could

humor,

'^

the character and

upon
This

is

GRAMMAR.

disposition.SidneySmith.
"

complex declarative

the predicate of the


of the

is

sentence, of which

principalclause.

predicate,and

parse

Let

/ is the

the learner

subject and
all the

point out

wish
fications
modi-

the pronouns.

personalpronoun, of the third person, pluralnumber,


neuter
gender,and agrees with its antecedent "wit and humor,"
taken
whose
coordinate terms
are
by 177, 1, b, or Eule
conjointly,
XII., and is in the possessivecase, by Eule VIL
Their

179. Tlie Yerb


1. Rule
and

person
Ex.

rV.

"

The

"

Predicate.

as

agree with

must

verb

its subject
in

number.
Thou

am.

sitting.We

art

have

come.

in the
(a.)A verb agreeingwith a collective noun
denotes
singularis put in the singularwhen the noun
unity but in the pluralwhen it denotes plurality.
J

Ex.

"

wing.

detachment

The

council

thousand

of two

men

divided in their

were

sent to

was

support the left

opinion.

nate
of coordiconsisting
agreeingwith a subject
or
plural,
accordingto Rule XII.
terms, is singular
(See195, 1, a, Z),c.)

(6.)A

To

the

verb

general rule

subject,according

any

"

feeding,"" Five yoke of


seen," the
exception

treatise itself

as

the

as

game

''Treatise

(173, 1, a) used
to be

in the

third

of numbers

number, the verb


2. The
HI

the

as

upon

ploughing ;"

were

title of

is

"

is

"

Fifty sail

"Elements

to

be

singular.

when

regarded as denoting

should

nominative

be

plural;

as,

"

Political

one

Three

times

is the

Economy"

rather

three
a

or

are

the

Economy

phrase expressive of

and the verb after many

singularnumber.

upon

clause

thing,
requiringthe

separate units

were
were

apparent

So, again, a, phrase or

"fcc.

regarded as
But

is fixed

of Political

Elements
of

of vessels
of the

case

mind

plural,the

Wayland's

Elements,"

subject is

person

book

Here

the

perly,
pro-

"

thing: thus,

one

with

person

unity or pluralityof idea, there are,


following examples, Ten head o. cattle

oxen

published in 1837."

locw

be

the

1, a, is properly applicable. So, in

rule 177,
in which

and

in number

agree

it denotes

as

exceptions. In

no

verb must

the

that

than

verb

nation
combi-

a
a

single

nine."

7nany

an

should

SYNTAX

Ex.

Full many

"

flower is born to blush

221

PREDICATE.

AS

VERB

"

unseen.

subjectof verbs in the imperativemode is thou,or


you, and is usuallyomitted.
The
subjectis often to be suppliedafter comparisonswith
or
as.
(See 173, 3.)
3. The

Ex.
in

4. In such inverted

ishef

Who

as

Avoid

I.

Caution

"

/;" ''ThinU /;"


II.

Cautiox

Never

Be

"

for lie, come


/or -written,

sit, lay

gave;

use

or

Wio

not

be taken

or

the

with

verb,

FORM,

WRONG

WRONG

Says

the WRONG

use

"

"

TENSE,

CONTRACTIONS,

IMPROPER

which
subject,

singularsubject,
the plural. Say, Each
of

in

noun

Who

Is it he f

ungrammatical expressions
as,
"c.
''I
hears
him,''
J/"

carefidnotto
/or go: or the

"c. ;

gathered

If

am

Is it If

for the

than

of the verb.

plural verb

modifiedby a
(notare)well."

III.

Caution

for

says

htter be

his brothers is

wrote

all such

''Thinks

"

as, Who

art thou f

If

and number

alone controls the person

though the

am

the attribute should

Is it thouf

sentences
interrogative

you? What

are

be

can
\xvliat that which']
[itis]long.

fruit than

more

It is as broad

week.

has

John

"

or

ye

as,

as,

as,

ain't

/or did,

done

for saw,

see

/or are

for

as, set

not,

give

"C.

180. Exercise.
1.

Analyzeand

parse

the following
examples:
"

Hartford,by
Block.
The sun
Adrian
was
settingupon one of the rich,glassy
gladesof the forest. Those who have ever witnessed the spectacle
for
of the launching of a ship of the line,will perhaps forgiveme
adding this to the examples of the sublime objectsof artificial life.
and Isabella were
Ferdinand
seated,with their son. Prince John,
The nobility
under a superb canopy.
were
haughty and exacting.
into
their
hands.
The
own
Societyis not
people take the matter
always answerable for the conduct of its members.
The

Connecticut

Model

"After

I.

"

requestedof

River

Columbus

first explored,as

was

brief

a
a

far

as

interval,the sovereigns

recital of

his adventures.''"

Prescott.
Analyze accordingto Model
Requested

is a

(162,3, 4),and

regulartransitive verb
19*

parse

thus
requested

"

parts,~x"re^.
principal

re-

222

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

quest,
past participle
past requested,
requested;indicative mode, past
tense,third person, plural number, and agrees with
sovereigns,"
Eule
to
IV.
according
(Repeat it.)
"

Model

II.

vain

peopleimaginea
This

is

compound

the

thing?''

heathen

rage,

and

the

Bible,

"

interrogativesentence, consistingof
Analyze them separately.

clauses joined by "and."

is

do

"Why

"

two

coordinate

regularintransitive verb,emphatic form, indicative


mode, present tense,third person, plural number, and agrees with
do
heathen,"accordingto Rule IV., a. In the same
way parse
imagine."
Bo

rage

"

"

III.

Model

and
"Gold, silver,

"

copper

abound

in

America."

South
Follow

Model

(166,1),and

14

is

abound

parse

thus

"

regular intransitive verb, indicative mode, present


tense,third person, plural number, and agrees with its compound
accordingto Rule IV., b, or Rule XII.
subject,
Abound

2. Construct similar

181. The
1.
to

Ex.

The

"

"

or

noun

some

own,

Adjectiveas Modifier
V.

Rule

examplesof your

An

or
adjective

and

must
participle

The

"

; the

guiltyman

tree

will be obtained

is tall. To

is

man

guilty.

was

the

see

sun

"

An

is pleasant.Where

"

uprightjudge.

This book.

(d) The

the funds

doubtful.

Five boxes.

The

(c.)Adjectives
denotingnumber
the nouns
they limit.
Ex.

the ati7%iite of

as

used
a participle
or
(b.)An adjective
which it modifies.
belongsto the noun
Ex.

belong

pronoun.

used
or
a participle
(a.)An adjective
belongsto the subject.
proposition,
Ex.

Predicate.

as

These trees.

article a

or

an

Ten

to

modifya

good old

agree

noun,

man.

in number

with

men.

belongsto

nouns

in the

singular

SYNTAX

before

number, except
to

Ex.

J.

"

2. The

of
The
noun

thej

few men.

restrictthe

is to
adjective

of the

appropriateuse

2%e pens.

tion
applica-

noun.

its

3. A

TAe desk.

hour.

adjectivethus used
as

and

few hundred^or thousand;

singularor plural.
^w

man.

223

PREDICATE.

either

nouns

AS

ADJECTIVE

"

is

always

dependent term, having

the

restricted

principal.

noun

be restricted

may

(1.)Without

limited in its

or

"

properties;as, ^^Ttvo men."

of its

affectingany

application,

"These hooks."

(2.)By designatingsome
property
"Industrious
boys."
(3.)By identifyingit; as, "Paul

quality;as, "Good

or

men."

Apostle." "Peter

the

the

Hermit."
it as
(4.)By representing
The
ov

limitations

first two

the

performing

pronouns

the
adjectives;

effected by

are

"i"awc"'s

^ossessec?/
object
as,

an

office of the

last two,

harp."

by

nouna

adjective.

Any word, or group of words, employed to limit a noim, is an


element; that is,it is of the nature of an adjective.
adjective
4.

Ex.

Industrious

"

Men

men.

of industry. Men

when
Limiting adjectives,
generallyplaced first.

Ex.
When
is

The old

"

This valuable

man.

limitingadjectivesare

two

"The

usually placed first; as,


and

all, what,

both,the

preceded by
*'All

the

boys.

too, so,
''What

great, hoio great, a

"

Wood

Patience

is

becoming

used,

or

is

the latter
article,

an

But

the noun;

"Ifani/

the

qualifying,

after many,

such,

so, also,after

tives
adjec-

man."

girls." "Too

"Such

great, as

great, so

dollar."

"

or

proper

Christian

abstract nouns,

nouns,

when
material,

virtue.

Gold

used

in their

abounds

in

general

Colorado.

as

noun,

with the limitations of

the verb.
"

The

and

scarce.

used
[b.)Before the participle

Ex.

man."

be,

substance

to

as,

"Both

[a.) Before

is

next

hoio;

of which

one

with

Ten small trees.

commandments."

ten

stands

boy."
"Half

man."

(1.)Omitted,
nouns
denoting
signification.
"

as,

article should

6. The

Ex.

article

hint.

industrious.

are

used in connection

5.
are

who

ancients erred in

the
siipposing

earth

vast

plane.

224

ENGLISH

(c.)Before
Ex.

Man

"

countries.

The

the

is
ant

the

we

noble

animal.

an

of

reptile.

rule, the is often

individual
the

be

must

by
object,

horse is lame.

before

used

careful

Go

in

noun

the

distinguishedfrom

horse,the bee, the oak,

The

cation.
signifi-

cases

to the

attention

the

nection.
con-

The

the ash, the dahlia.

to

the ant, thou

sluggard.

in the cup.

drowned

kind

this

to

have

Thus,

{d.) Before

of its

is justlyappreciated
only in civilized

tchole class, and

points out

was

Woman

lizard is

denote

used in the full extent

noun

Contrary

"

singularto

horse

common

is mortal.

The

Remark.

in which

GRAMMAR.

denotinga

noun

or
title,

mere

used

name

as

word.
Ex.
and

Ye

"

call

Master

me

and

is derived from

Acorn

Lord.

ac,

oak,

of

the

grain.

corn,

(e.)Before

any

common

already limited by
no
or
much, neither,

noun

definitives any,

each,either,
every,
this,that,these,or those,or by any
definite.
meaning sufficiently

other

words

"

none,

which

used

noun
(2.)Inserted,
{a.)Before a common
individual object,
or
of individual
any number

one

to

some^

make

its

denote

an

ferred
reobjectsdefinitely

to.
Ex.

The

"

which

rose

blooms

used
(b.)Before adjectives
Ex.

None

"

by
as

the wall.

nouns.

but the brave deserves

the fair.

used wholly as
(c.)'B^ioTQ participles
Ex.

For

"

the

of
edifying

nouns.

the church.

in the plural,abstract nouns, and nouns


[d.) Before joroper nouns
denoting substance or material when used with specificreference
individual example (6,1, a, above).
an
Ex.

Tlie Websters.

"

patienceof

Job.

The

The
wood

twelve

is

Ye

have

heard

of the

dry.
sufficiently

if requiredat
article,

7. The

Caesars.

to

all

should,
by the precedingrules,
"

nation,
of a coordinate combi[a.)Before each noun
when
the objects,
correspondenceor contrast, or by
by some
limitation not common
to all,
distinguished.
are
specially

(1.)Be
some

Ex.

"

repeated,

The

"

soldiers did not

inquirefor

the

number,but

enemy.
Here

the contrast

requires the repetitionof the article.

of the
the place,

226

e:nglish

10. When

grammar.

that
objectsare contrasted,

refers to the firstand

this

to the last mentioned.


Ex.

Wealth

"

and

poverty

both

are

: that tends
temptations

to excite

discontent.
pride; this,

peculiaruse, the
the,primarilyarticles,
belongingto
noun
some
understood,2^ part, are used with comparatives,to denote
proportionateequality,and are to be regarded as conjunctive
adverbs used to join two clauses.
By

11.

Ex.

"

The

"

more

it,the

see

better I like it.

12. The

adjectiveis often used


belongsbeing understood.
Ex.

The

"

On
Ex.

the

noun,

noun

to which

it

respected.

good are

the other

as

hand, the

is often used

noun

as

adjective.

an

Gold heads.

"

13. One

adjectiveoften limits the complex idea expressed by


and a noun.
another adjective
Ex.

one

"

Two

old horses.

So, again,in combined


numbers,
adjectivelimits another.
Ex.

"

Five

hundred

thousand.

and

in

some

few

other

cases,

brightred apple.

14. The

verbs generally
predicateadjectivefollowingcopulative
either alreadypossessedby it,
denotes some
property of the subject,
or
acquiredthrough the action of the verb.
Ex.

"

The

boy

made

was

sick.

The

bread

was

baked

brown.

The

fruit tastes sweet.


15. A

in the predicate,
an
or
even
a noun,
participle,
adjective,
is often used somewhat
to the subject,
adverbiallyto
yet referring
an
accompanying action.
Although it does not show the
express
of the action,it shows
how or with what it is accompanied.
manner
Ex.

"

The

there sod.

Son

He

came

of

came

man
as

eatingand

drinking. The

Ex.
Our

"
"

two

George

oranges

17. When

is taller than

sweeter

are

more

degree is used.

than

than

sat

spectator.

objectsor sets of objectsare


degree is generallyused.

16. When

maiden

two

William," or,

"

compared,the

parative
com-

is the tallerof the two."

yours.

objectsare

compared,the superlative

SYNTAX

Ex.

Achilles

"

He

is

York

New

"

comparative degree is used,the latter term

should

the former.

always exclude
Ex.

227

PREDICATE.

the bravest of the Greeks.

was

the

18. When

AS

ADJECTIVE

"

largerthan

other

any

the United

cityof

States.

wiser than his brothers.

was

when

But

is used,the latter term


superlative

the

should

always

include the former.


Ex.

^Ehode

"

Island is the smallest of the United

States.

Each, one, either,and neither belong to nouns


used as nouns,
verbs
person singular. Hence, when
should agree with them
accordingly.

in

19.

Ex.

neither have

Either and
to

than

more

while

of his brothers

Each

"

each, every, and

Every

"

tico

things only; each,

in the

of

when

refer to them
because

is wrong,

term

reference to

any

and

third

pronouns

(notare)well.

All refers to the individuals

two.

sentence
"

is

the

whole

should

Say, ^^All

taken

the

be taken

terms

are

any,

collectively
;

distributively. The

taken

the individuals

series is alike."

every, and

lowing
fol-

:
collectively

alike."

infinitive of the copula


or
participle
it may
used
is sometimes
be, logically
(but
referring,
abstractly,
to some
indefinite object.
not grammatically)

after
adjective

20. An

Ex.

"

To

be

21. An

"

as

This

22. The

"

beforethe

That

Never

"

sound

Caution

of

other

phrase,or

to a

"

"This

peace

consonant.
the

use

sort of

Avoid

III.

should

be

"

ceive
To de-

time.")

one

is undeniable.

away

appliedto

two

objects;

two.

use

Avoid

II.

Say,

adverb, to

an

equivalentto
vigor must pass

various tribes have

I.

noun.

and

youth

than

more

These

Caution

to

once" is

"Righteousness and

Caution

have

kissed

been

at war

beforethe
Say, "An

each
with

other," not
"

one

"one

another.

sound

of a vowel,nor AN
apple," not "A apple."
"

to limit
of a pluraladjective
sost."
people," not "those

singu^

"

the

and
vulgar use of them
for those,
THAT
or
'ERE,/or THIS, or THAT.
Say, Those books,"
books;" ''This chair,""not ''This 'ere chair."
"

''

THIS

HERE,

"not

"7%"m

Caution
"

"

reciprocaleach

another."

lar

belong

(Here

once.

another,to
Ex.

happy.

noun.

is criminal.

one

he

adjectivemay

clause used
Ex.

good is to

the

IV.

Sipeskprompt

"

Avoid the

ly,'' not
"

of the adjectmefor
"prompt.^*
use

the adverb.

Say,

228

ENGLISH

Caution

V.

Avoid

"

the

GRAMMAR.

degree when
of the sujDerlative
than two
comparativewhen more

use

twe

are
objectsare compared,or of the
The
wisest of the
compared. Say, The wiser of the two," not
The wiser of them all."
The wisest of them all," not
two ;"
and superlaAvoid
the use of double comparatives
Caution
VI.
tives.
Say, "This is the unkindest cut of all," not "the most un"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

kindest cut of all."


Caution

Avoid

"

the

the article

beforea titleor name


usedmerelyasaword.
Say, He is called cap^aw," not thecaptain.^^
Caution
Avoid the use
VIII.
of the article beforethe second,
the same
when
capacities.
objectis compared in two different
noun,
Say, "He is a better teacher than^oe^," not "than a poet."
VII.

of

use

"

"

"

"

"

182. Exercise.
1.

Analyze the followingexamples,and

parse

the

adjectives:
"

beauty stood.
yellow sunflower by the brook in autumn
Life is real,life is earnest.
influence of such pursuitsis
The
a
burning
ennobling. He was a good man, and a just. He was
and a shininglight. These
opportunities,
improved as they should
be, must
produce the desired results. The hopes of the whole
inexhaustible.
His
him.
centred on
were
resources
family were
of a poor old
To insult the afilicted is impious. Pity the sorrows
whose
trembling limbs have borne him to your door. That
man,
he should refuse such a proposition,
not unexpected. Every
was
is false,
thing which
vicious,or unworthy is despicableto him,
The

though

should

all the world


"

Model.

"

of the heavens

approve

it.

vault
and the immense
skj was clear,
appearedin awful majestyand grandeur.'*

The

Brydone,
Analyze by
is

The

the proper

definite

models,

and

parse

the,clear, and

and belongs to
article,

"

immense.

sky,"accordingto Eule

Rule

V., 1, d.
and is used as the attribute of the
is a qualifyingadjective,
Clear
and belongs to the subject sky,"accordingto Rule V.,
proposition,
v., or

"

l,a.
Immense

to which

and is used
qualifyingadjective,
it belongs,accordingto Rule V., 1, b.
is a

2. Construct
the

adjective.

examplesof your

own

to

modify "vault,"

to illustrate the various

uses

of

SYNTAX

Noun

183. The

Rule

1.

VI.

in the

same

noun

or

explanatorynoun
thing as that which

or

used

pronoun

is put

pronoun

to explain

by apposition

of the

denote

must

pronoun

Saxon

king.

the

same

son
per-

it identifies.

It usually explains by showing


character

Apposition.

Conquerordefeated Harold, the

the

2. The
or

in

case.

William

Ex."

or

noun

another

identify

or

"

tlie Pronoun

or

229

APPOSITION.

IN

NOUN

"

principalterm;

as

ranh, capacity,
occupation,or
office,
the Evaiuje"Peter the Hermit;" "John
the

list."

construction

3. This

Paul,who

"

derived from

regardedas

tive
adjec-

an

by abridgingit.

clause
Ex.

be

may

to the Gentiles,Paul,the apostle


to
apostle

the

loas

the

Gentiles.

Hence,
the

like the full

individual;

(177, 12); that


of

servant

used

to

the

is,it

Lord,

examples

resumes

"You

Remark.

character
"

"

The

have

"

with

put in
subject noun,
affirmwhat
active

the

Conqueror;"

It is

Lord,

the

voice

of

case.

4. Three

(a.)The

cases

or

it is
we

pronoun
The

that

the

because

to be

The

copulativeverbs,is

not

is not
same
or

idea

that

and

withstanding
is,not-

is in apposition

pronoun

case:

is not

of heaven
"

in

the

ing
also,the follow-

best

"Moses,

servant"

requiresthem

construction

second,
in

Mark,

or

for the

the writer's

friend,"
friend.

the

in the

as,
"

possessor

noun

predicate noun

required
assume.

heat

your

to suppose

error

other

Here
to show

Lord.

high God,

the most

protector and

case.

though

of the

servant

explanatory

principalnoun,

of Moab."

other, but

some

be

argument;

even

him, your p"rotector,


your

noun

same

in the

same

an

or
effect,

from

the

it points out

case

it may

or

expressed by

in the land

the

as

ruined

another

to be

in the

there

died

he is your

the

in which
be restrictive,

the idea

this Moses
distinguish

of his exalted

earth;"

"William

as,

may

rhetorical
amplification,

of

purpose

clause,it

appositionwith
in

attributive

one

case

the
we

object,after

appositionwith the first,though

(See 187, 9.)


of

appositionmay

in

be

:
distinguished
"

apposition,
though subordinate to the principal,
is made
prominent, and receives the emphasis; as, "Peter the
Hermit."
In this case it is always placedlast.
[b.)The noun, when put in appositionwith a personalpronoun,
is so nearlyequal in value with the latter as to
though placedlast,
render it sometimes
doubtful which should be regardedas principal
;
"

as,

Ye

men

noun

of Athens."
20

230

ENGLISH

GBAMMAR.

the noun
in appoor part of a name,
title,
sition
and
the
is
be
taken
with
loses
emphasis, placed first,
may
the principalnoun
as
one
(44,5); as, General
complex name
Scott;"
Washington Irving." Some have supposed the leading
is used wholly
here to be used adjectively.But when
a noun
noun
it denotes a different
an
as
thing from that which it limits ;
adjective,
A silver cup."
as,
used

(c.)When

as

^^

"

"

5.
is in

When, for the sake


appositionwith the

Ex.

"

horse I

Bemare.
or

die,
"

other

any

sleep;

to

to

it
is repeated,

name

former.

kingdom

my

be

for

horse.

said

part of speech,may
sleep,perchance to dream."

conspiring against my

same

construction, whether

resumed

Any

"

horse!

emphasis,the

of

country

"

it be that
to be

He

or
why
falsely,

:"

in

has

has

of

noun,

apposition;

as,

falselyaccused

he

not

made

noun,
pro"

his

me

To
of

charges

good?"
the

6. When

Ex.

Milton,the poet.

"

7. The

in the

"

or

more

Ex.

"

The
Ex.

noun

or

The

victims,a

brother and

of this rule is

the

struck

boys

John

and

with two

or

pronoun,

one

David

in

are

one,

the age.
and

other

one

another,
preceding

appositionwith a
or
more
singularnouns

taken

another, The boys struck" erne


and David
love each other, John
=

struck
love

each loves the other.


Each

and

"

He

did

10. The

are

one

It is better, in
as,

and

words, each

two

equallytrue.

expressionseach

of the

case

The

he,as God, sitteth

sister.

Intemperance,oppression,and fraud,vices of

another.
"

So that

James.

pluralmay be representedby
equivalentto it.

in the

pronoun

togetherare

or
pluralnoun
conjointly.

Ex."

which

first

the

Franks,a peopleof Germany.

The

nouns

9. In

case.

God.

reverse
"

it generally,
though

nmnber, gender,and

in

namely,Georgeand

men,

temple of

8. A

person,

emphatic when
apposition is rendered more
connectives
as
namely,as, to wit,that is.

such

Two

in

noun

joinedby
Ex.

the limited

with

always,agrees

not

denotes

limitingnoun

some

not

in the nominative
cases,

recommend

proper

name

to consider

the

of

case,

other is in the objectivecase.

the combination

washing
a

and

of

one

as

an

term;
inseparable

another's feet."

place,instead

of

being put

in appo-

SYNTAX

sition with

the

is

name,

common

231

APPOSITION.

IN

NOUN

"

usuallygoverned by the

sition
prepo-

of.
Ex.

The

"

11. A

Ex.

good as

shall not

we

silenced many

has
feast,

in

are
possessives

12. When

appositionwith

sentence, and

noun.

their whole

devoted

They

attentions which

"

as

with

sentence

"

in

is sometimes

noun

sometimes

Rome.

cityof

promotionof

time to the

vain wish.

the sign of possession


apposition,
that

('s)is commonly used with only one of them, and with


which immediately precedesthe limited noun.
Ex.

Herodias^

13. Sometimes

evidentlywithout
to

or

noun

Ex.

author,his

better
from

do you

to

think

and

success;

to
to

and
in

refer
refer

brother's success

as

teacher f

As

an

capitalwork.

teacher

teacher
author

of my

is his

to consider

siippose

possessive.

in the

"Adventurer"

than

Rather

the

pronoun

What

"

as,"without the sign and


of the possessive,
refers logically
signification
"

preceded by

noun

one

For

Baptisfshead. His majestyKing Henri/s crown.


wife. At Smith, s the bookseller.
sake,his brother Philip's
the

John

"

is

maxim, Enough

forget. The

soon

ness,
happi-

our

author
sense

to

in the

possessivecase, here, it is

brother's,but

to

take

to his,but grammatically
logically

its

case

to work.

184. Exercise.
Anahjze the followingexamples,and
in apposition
:

1.

parse

the

nouns

or

the pronouns

"

patriarchAbraham

The

accounted

was

faithful.

The

Emperor

cruel tyrant. James, the royal Scottish poet, was


imprisonedin Windsor Castle. In the fifth century the Franks,

Nero

was

Frederic William
III.,King
people of Germany, invaded France.
Princess
of
and
William
II.
of
Frederic
of Prussia,son
Louisa,
Hesse-Darmstadt,was born August 3, 1770.

Model.

"

Boone, the

"Daniel

pioneer of Kentucky,

in
Pennsylvania,
February, 17S5J'"Sparks.

was

born

in Bucks

Analyze this sentence,

county,

and

parse

the

the month

and
subject,
predicate,

all the

of

oon-

nectivea.
Pioneer

is a

common

noun,

of the third person,

number,
singular

232

ENGLISH

masculine

gender,nominative

Boone,"with

which

it is

Construct similar

2.

GKAMMAE.

VH.

apposition,
by

examplesof your

185. Noun
1. Hule

in

put

Pronoun

or

"

applicationof another noun,


case.
put in the possessive
Ex;

Eule

to illustrate

own

apposition.

used to limit the

pronoun

by denotingpossession,

failed.

Stephen's
courage

"

identify Daniel
VI.
(Repeat it.)

in the Possessive.

or

noun

"

is used to

case, and

Their

fortune

was

is

Whose

ample.

is this ?

work

principalidea expressedby this relation isthat of possession


:
this
be
should
term
not
understood to mean
yet
sim]^\y
property.
is
The possessive
case
employed to denote,
2. The

"

[a.)Property;
or
{b.)Sonree
rays."
(c.)Agency;

as, "The

/armor'shouse."
command;"
as, "Heaven's

orig^in;

as, "Solomon's

"the

sun's

built

temple," i.e.the temple

by

Solomon.
or
[d.)Adaptation
as
[e.)Kindred;
(/.)Time, weig^ht,
pound's weight ;" a
"

Remark.

"

The

some

express
treated

as

reckoned

an

person.

He

"

4. The

are

years'war;" "a

is used

to limit

usually from

performs

the

office of

the

noun

person
the

or

when
from

we
some

adjective,and

wish

to

object
is hence

some

possessiveis
noun

one

of

for it to limit.

dependence. There
This noun, however,

worships at

St. Paul's

\_church'].

the present passive(withbeing),


present active participle,
the

simple passive),
and at
used as nouns, may
when
be limited by the possessive,
have the limitation which
time may
same
they have when they
complete predicates.
the

Ex.

the

ten

be understood.
Ex.

the

as, "The

length."

emanating
It

SOU."

measure;

mile's

hats."

adjectiveelement.

be
must, therefore,

and

and

relation of the

3. The

may

Brother's

possessive case

agency
a

as, "Men's

fitness;

"

"

(but
perfectparticiples

I heard

disputeto

of your

never

studyingLatin.

speedy close.

the

am

past,or

in favor

of their

bringing

234

ENGLISH

Ex.

Gould,Kendall,and

"

(b.)They
Ex.

GRAMMAE.

Lin"ioln^s store.

limit the

may

same

and
"Bichardson'SyWorcester's,

"

appliedto different objects.

noun

Webster's

Dictionary;"that is,

three dictionaries.
In

this

immediately

by

There

in

noun

b, and

case

the sign, because

in the

the

other

to the

other

of

complex

other

case

"dictionary'*is

the

constructions

possessives:

subject has
in

mentioned

is the

one

some

of the

case

been

For

13.

183,

is,

word.

thought by

are

the

understood

sign, which

the

governing

which

proposition whose

is that

has

group

to the

nearest

noun

two

abridged

an

possessive;

175,

are

the

under

come

to the

changed

these

cases

13.

183,

11. Sometimes

But

after it.

"

predicate

see

has

noun

general rule,applied

Remauk.
to

each

case

possessiveand the limited


compound, which may be taken,
a

unite

noun

and form

"

(a.)liiteraiiy, and should be


Ex.

"

without

written

the

sign.
possessive

ratsbane,
Tradesman, craftsman,
doomsday.
in

{b.)Metapboricaiiy,
the sign.

which

be

it should

case

with

written

s-breech,
JoVs-tears,Jew's-ear,bear's-foot,hounds s-tongue, beai-'
of plants.
names
lion's-tail,
wolf's-bane,
wolf's-pea^ch,
Ex.

"

"

12. When

governing

combination, consistingof a possessiveand


the sign should not
is used as an
adjective,

noun,

its

be

omitted.
Ex.

Greek

"

view.
bird's-eye

Grammar.

Caution

Eden's
In

I.
"

termination.
possessive

Caution

Taylor'sKiihner's

shawl.

garden bird.

in the possessive,
never
writingnouns
Write
man's," not "mans."

omit

the

^^

"

In

"

"

"

"

"

Caution

III.

yourn,
"

theirn."

Never

make

possessiveis plural. Say,


one

camel's-hair

insert the
never
usingpronouns in the possessive,
add
in speaking. Write
the letter n
writing,nor
their's."
Say, "his,hers,ours, yours, theirs,"not

II.

apostrophein
theirs," not
hisn,hern,ourn,
*'

"

Their

the limited
decisio7i""

noun

not,

plural because
"

Their

the

decisions;"

only being meant.

186. Exercise.
1.

Analyzethe followingexamples,and

Charles's

:
parse the possessives

resignationfilled all Europe with astonishment.

"

The

SYNTAX

"

THE

235

OBJECT.

bay received the ship. Her


and
all her paths are
A
of pleasantness,
are
peace.
ways
ways
and a father's care, are nature's gifts
for man's
mother's
tenderness,
Yet my last
advantage. A chieftain's daughter seemed the maid.
thought is England's. She stooped her by the runnel's side.
his Gertrude's lips. Our
Hushed
were
harps we left by Babel's

joy of

his

youth

great. Botha's

was

streams.
"

Model.
This
a

is

"

What, I

say,

Caesar's object
?"

was

complex sentence, consistingof

interrogativeclause,"What

subordinate

directly (163, 1),


(163, 6).

the

hence

subjectof

"

principal clause,

Cassar's object?"

was

interrogationpoint

is used

say," and

It is
at

quoted

the

close

principal clause,and say the grammatical


ordinate
predicate; it is limited by the quoted clause,which is subin construction,
and is an
objectiveelement of the third
class. It has no connective (i63,4) ; its simple subjectis object,"
Caesar's ;" the predicateis
and is limited by the adjectiveelement
bute.
"was
what," of which "was" is the copula and "what" the attriI

is the

and

Knowles.

"

the

"

"

is

Csesar's

proper

of the third person,

noun,

gender,possessivecase, and is used to


(Repeat it.)
denoting possession. Rule VII.
masculine

2.

Construct similar

1. Rule
of

object

in the
Ex.

"

Vlll.
a

examplesof

"

your

Object.

or

transitive

used

as

the

must
participles,

be

pronoun

of its

verb, or

"

own.

187. The
noun

singularnumber,
limit
object,"by

case.
objective

found

He

the

which
object

he desired.

verbs (9,below) in the active voice


(a.)Copulative
and predicate
of it an
take a direct
attributive
object,
both of which form a double object.
object,
Ex.

"

Remark.

They
"

the attributive

called him John.

In the
becomes

passive voice,the
the

attribute

(b.)Certain verbs,as

direct

," as,

give,

"He

ask,

objectbecomes
was

called

teacb,

the

and
subject,

John."

and

others

(11,

236

ElfGLISH

below),in
and

He

"

Remark.

gave
"

the indirect

In

me

direct,

one
objects,

two

passive,the

remain

noun

transitive

it
understood,

600^.

the

should

2. When
a

voice,take

the other indirect

Ex.

of

the active

GRAMMAR.

in the

or

object should become

predicate;

"A

as,

Ellen

"

3. When

should

gave

the

aid of

object;but when
that
to show
intransitive,

indirect

an

be omitted

Ex.

; when

I lent him

"

4. The

out

her brother.

to me."

it is added
to

or

of which

to

for which

thing

any

They spoke of kis

troubles.

the preposition
objectprecedesthe direct,
it follows,
it should be expressed.

book,
=

I lent

book

to him.

indirect

objectis sometimes used


and
in
with an
adjective,

verbs,sometimes

given

was

the direct

appleto

an

and
subject,

complete the meaning


prepositionexpressed or

verb,either transitive or
thing is,or is done, or that from or
any
proceeds,it is called the indirect object.
Ex.

book

the

is used to

pronoun

verb,without
is called

direct

alone
a

with

intransitive

few instances with

noun.

Ex.

"

hero that

He

spoke of

was

5. The

his trials. To

this rule is obvious.

me

To

the

proud day.

objectof

transitive verb may

be

stantive
infinitive,
or a sub-

an

clause.
Ex.

I love to write.

"

6. Some

I have

intransitive verbs

heard

that he

was

followed

are

by

sick.

objectof

an

kindred

signification
(82,10).
Ex.

He

"

7. The

ran

She

race.

dreamed

dream.

object of the active verb

becomes

the

subject of the.

passive.
Ex.

Romulus

"

8. To

founded

Home,

Home

==

founded

was

by

Romulus.

ambiguity, the object should be placed after


when
the subjectand the objectare both nouns.
verb,especially
Ex.

When

avoid

"Alexander

"

the subject or

the relation ; as, ''Him

9. The

conquered Darius,"
"

the object is
followed

his next

pronoun,

not

"Alexander

the form

Darius

the

quered."
con-

usuallydetermines

mate."

following copulativeverbs,make, appoint,elect,create,

SYNTAX

THE

"

237

OBJECT.

render,name, style,call,esteem,think,consider,regard,
constitute,
reckon,and some
others,not only take after them a direct object,
be called
but predicateof it another
object,which may, therefore,
its attribute. The attributive objectmay
be either a noun, an adjective,
Ex.

verb.

or

They

"

made

him

made

officer.
They

an

him

sick.

made

They

him labor.

same

and

the

in the

second

case

the

meaning

one

the

second

first
in

example,
be

"

similar

abridged

"

This

him

considered

is often

also

the

scholar;"

in the
take

hiin to be

knew

"to

him

to

compelled him

They

he."

the

In

noun.

the

the

objective,put
"

in

with

connection

to the

first

examples

object.

; or,

be

instances, may
has

one

In

may

been

traced

dropped

; as,

to
"

an

They

to

go,"
"

In

such

object of the

full

others, take
do it;

abridged;

verbs,

as

what

manner,
as,

was

I knew

"

the

cases

the

cate
predi-

that he

infinitive

verb, the second

was

and

being
hope,and others,

say, announce,

noun

proposition; others,as believe,know, think,and

the

"

like

scholar."

Some

of the

either

others, admit

"

the attributive

form

compel, constrain, and


**

in

verb;

poet,"that is, to he a poet. In fact,the infinitive of the


expressed,the first object representing,in the objective,what

the full form

did it," never,

carpenter." In

objectiveafter

only

many

"1

noun

to

the attributive,object of the verb.

many

nominative, before the propositionwas

the second

verb,

es^^mple, carpenter"

attribute

infinitive

subject nominative, the second, in

the

In

necessary

first

in

the above

the other

are

to the

to the
noun

the second

an

the

it.

of the

meaning

relation

as

In

"labor," in

construction,in
which

the

objective,forming,

"called,"being

proposition,in

apposition with

Miles, the carpenter." But

and

parsed

the

"sick," and

parse

be

and
theirs*or principal,

Remark.

was

to

in

noun

object of

way

be called

copula

as

verb

the

denotes

noun,

both
attribute)
They called Miles

"

first,by Rule VI.

the

called

its

grammatical

no

should
car2yenter"

parsed

the
*'3Iile8,"
a

has

noun

in

means

They

of the verb ; as,

directlyrelated both

apposition with

should

object,when

no

completes

objects (theobject and

complete

other,it is

"

the first;as,

limits

of two

case,

first,it is by

the

as

apposition,the principalnoun

of

case

thing

or

person

the

that the attributive

it is evident

Though

or

only

the
the

abridged

I believe that he is
never,

; while

abridged form
form

; as,

honest,"

that he shoxdd

=^

him

"

others,

I say

that

to be honest

as

he
;

go.

be the second or attributive object;the


infinitive
may
and the two togetherforming a kind
first objectbeing its subject,
of abridgedproposition.
10. An

Ex.
should

They ordered the soldiersto


march (l67.Mod. 16).
"

march.

They

ordered

that the soldiers

play,sing,get,lend,draw, seiid,
followingverbs,buy,sell,
do,present,throw,
leave,
bring,tell,
make, pass, write,pour, give,teach,
provide,and some
promise, refuse,dejiy,
carry, ask, show, oi'dcr,
11. The

238

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

others,take after them, besides a direct object,an


showing to or from what the action tends.
Ex.

Give

"

12. The

me

He

"

object sometimes, though with doubtftil


the subjectof the passiveverb.
asked

13. Instead

become

one

was

pro*

taught grammar.

objective case

after

passive verb, properly

prepositionunderstood.

some

of

opinion.
in the

are

singleword, or
of the objects.
a

informed

He

"

his

grammar

governed by

Ex.

book.

was

and

Opinion

may

object,

indirect

becomes
priety,
Ex.

indirect

an

a substantive clause
infinitive,

that the boat had sailed.

me

188. Exercise.
1. In the
nouns

followingexamples,analyze the
the pronouns
in the objective:

and

sentences j and

parse

the

"

Ambition

makes

the

same

mistake

makes

concerning power
have performed an

that avarice

act of great
concerning wealth. If you
and disinterested virtue,
conceal
it. (imperial
Rome
governed the
her empire farthe^In former
bodies of men, but did not extend
times,patriotsprided themselves on their own
poverty and the
endeavored
to inculcate right principles.
riches of the state. He
He sought to follow the example of the good. They say that they
how
have bought it. The trulygreat consider,
first,
they may gain
He inquired, Who
there?"
the approbation of God.
comes
"

I.r^"Thouhast

Model

delivered

from

me

the

strivings

people;and

of the

heathen."
This

is

Psalm

"

thou

hast made

the head

me

of the

xviii. 43y*^

compound sentence,consistingof

two

coordinate
"

parts,

for
simple sentence,having
its
"hast delivered" for its simple and "hast delivered
from
the strivingsof the people" for its complex predicate.
me
(Point out all the modifications of the simple predicate.)
The second component
part is also a simple sentence, having
"hast made"
for its simple and "hast made
"thou"
for its subject,
for its complex predicate. The
of the heathen"
the head
me
simple predicate"hast made" is modified by "me the head of the
and
me," the direct,
element,consistingof
heathen," an objective

connected

"

by
and
subject,

and."

The

firstis a

"

thou"

SYNTAX

*'

the

head

forming

239

MODIFIERS.

heathen," the attributive object,both together


object,used to complete the meaning of hast

of the

"

double

AS

ADVERBS

"

made."

personal pronoun, of the first person, singularnumber,


masculine
gender, and in the objectivecase, and in the firstclause
hast delivered,"
is the objectof
according to Eule VIII. ; and in
hast made."
the second,the leading or direct objectof
is a common
Head
noun, third person, "c.,and is the attributive
me
head," combined, being the double
object of hast made,"
object,accordingto Rule VIII. a.
is

Me

"

"

"

"

In the

manner

same

and

to

write,

in the

"

sentence, I

to write"

commanded

him

Model

II.

"

him,

parse

"

He

"

me

gave

promise."

"

and
subject,
gave" the simpleand "gave me a promise"
the complex predicate; gave" is limited by
me" and
mise,"
proindirect object of
the latter a direct and the former
an
gave." Let the learner parse each, and give Eule VIII. b, and
He"

is the

"

"

"

"

"

VIII.

Rule
2.

Construct

examples of

to illustrate

own

your

the

objectafter

transitive verbs.

189. Adverbs

Rule

1.

Ex.

"

Lightning

swiftly.He

are

Will

3. An

the word

yes, no, nay,

you

adverb
which

go?
or

it

ambiguity,as
the middle, or
"

He

can

the adverbial.
at the

end

of

Truly,God

He

is

good

expressionshould
make

to

be

to Israel.

be

placed so

its relation obvious

near

yet

no

easilytransposedwithout causing
be placed at the beginning,in
may

so

It

of the sentence.

examined
carefully

the document.

verbs,participles,

advanced, walking slowly. The


heard very distinctly.

was

adverbial

limits,as

limit

to

modifying any particularword,


used to modify an
entire proposition
"c.
likewise,
truly,
amen,

Yes.

of the sentence

element

Ex.

sound

The

adverbs, instead
independent, or are

these

"

moves

very dark.

either

Ex.

used

are

other adverbs.

2. Some

Adverbs

"

Modifiers.

and
adjectives,

night was

are

IX.

as

the

examined

document,

the document

did
Carefully
carefully.

he

amine
ex-

240

ENGLISH

4. Adverbs

used

are

sometimes
Ex.

He

"

almost

of

sometimes

to limit the

meaning

of

sition,
prepo-

phrase.

hand

his

held

GRAMMAR.

the

exactlyover

place.

We

absent

were

year.

5. Adverbs

themselves

are

sometimes

modified

by phrases

or

clauses.
Ex.

He

"

left four years

afterwards.He

came

He

time ago.

some

ran

fasterthan his brother.


What

6.

equivalentto partly,is sometimes used


(75,7). Once
one
time, is often used as a noun.
J

as

adverb

an

Ex.

Excuse

"

So, also,when,
"

then;"

for this

me

and

now,

once.

then

used

are

as

"

nouns;

as,

Until

now;"

"Since

Since icAen."

Conjunctive adverbs are complex words usually modifying


time joining an
adverbial clause to
words, and at the same
word on which it depends.

7.
two
the

Ex.

We

"

shall be present when

Caution

Two

I.

negativesshould
have no book," not

"

"I

negation;as,
Caution

"

Avoid

II.
"

and
object,

not

the

"

III,

verb

or

whether

"

"

He
how

not

"

"

Avoid

Never

said that he should


that he should

"

of

an

use

"I

(135,2).

employed to

haven't

adverb

no

when

express

book."
the

qualityof an
expressed;as, The
"

sweetly."
with a
of no, to express negation,
of action,
not change my
course

use

I shall
not

an

be

never

action,is to be

tastes

the

"

IV.

use

of

participle;as,
you do or not,"

Caution
"

the

manner

apple tastes sweet,"


Caution

the boat arrives

"whether

do

you

beforethat,

how

come,"

"

not

"

how

or

no."

or

instead of

he should

it; as,
come," nor

come."

190. Exercise.
Analyze the sentences,and
examples:
1.

parse

the

adverbs,in the following

"

for a breath might


Speak softly,
trulywelcome.
wake her. Yet we may
heavilyher
stronglytrust his skill. How
fate must
weigh her down ! Freely to give reproof,and thankfully
of true friendship.How
is an indispensable
condition
to receive it,
You

both

are

242

GRAMMAK.

ENGLISH

2. In the

tive
absolute,that is,the nomina-

of the nominative

case

"

preceding a participle,sometimes the


understood,and sometimes the participle.
"

"

or

noun

is

the pronoun

;" that is,


"we, or one, speaking properly." "This done, and all is safe;" that
is,being done. "This matter at an end, we will proceed;" beingat an
Ex.

"

Properlyspeaking,there

is

such

no

thing

as

cold

end.
Both

of the

last two

result from

cases

abridged construction

may

abridginga dependent

usually be restored

to

clause.

The

complete proposition.

192. Exercise.
and
Analyze the followingsentences,
ca^e^
independent:

1.
the

parse

and
interjections

the

"

Fair

daffodils !

we

to

weep

see

you

haste away

so

resides

With

soon.

the

day
venly
hea-

calm, most bright!


thee,sweet Hope,
The
light. A horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!
pilgrim fathers! where are they? He having given us the direction,
of his being the preacher. O the
not
we
aware
departed. I was
times! O the manners!
words.
Ah, father! these are wondrous
The savage rocks have drunk thy blood,my brother !
most

Model

I.

unnatural
This is
Alack!"

"Alack!

"

alack!

Edmund,

I like not

this

dealing."
"Alack !
simple sentence,preceded by the interjections
of the person
dressed.
adand the compellative,or the name
of
These have no part in the grammatical construction
a

the sentence.
"I"

subject,and "like" the simple and "like not this


unnatural
tions
dealing" the complex predicate. (Point out the limitaof the simple predicate.)
is an interjection,
and has no dependAlack
ence
expressiveof grief,
(Repeat it.)
upon
any part of the sentence,by Rule X. a.
is a proper
second
Edmund
singular number,
person,
noun,
and
Rule X.
nominative
case
independent by direct address.
See

is the

a.

II.

Model

"

"But,

Who
Boast

is

common

noun,

vain boast!

can

control his fate?"

third person,

"

Shahspeare.

singularnumber,

neuter

SYNTAX

nominative

gender,and

independentby

case

243

CONJUNCTIONS.

COORDINATE

"

exclamation.

Rule

X.

See 6.

III.

Model

"Gad,

"

troop shall

"

him."

overcome

"

Bible,
is

Gad

IV.

Model

See

X.

Rule

pleonasm.

third,sing.,masc,

noun,

proper

c.

"The

"

independentby-

nom.

having ended,the

war

was

army

disbanded."
the

For

analysisof

this case,

common

noun,

is

War

"

"

Y.

Model

"

friend to his

beinga

analysis,see
is

Friend

by Rule

Rule

displeasedon
enemy."
noun,

See

X.

"c.,and is in the nominative

examples to

illustrate the

use

of

and
interjections

the

Conjunctions.

Jacob

Abraham, Isaac,and

"

Jewish

were

conjunctionsare used only when


rank (i53,2, 3),and not even
of the same
similarityor contrast in the thoughts or

some

the united

south

thoughts

two

wind

is

are

blowing

in

but do not
AND

our

3. When

the

gently," they

expression "That
kindred

express
time

is

"A

the connection

ideas is to be made

old

ideas.

short;"

The

"

uttered, as,

independent sentences, but, being wholly


blend
into one
sentence.
So, again, the
"brown,"

parts connected

the
then

unless

ideas

there

is

expressed by

parts.

when

Thus,
The

to

patriarchs.

2. These
are

used

are
conjunctions

Coordinate

"

similar elements.

connect
Ex.

XI.

Hule

1.

or

lute
abso-

e.

193. Coordinate

do,

my

independent.

cases

"

of

account

III.

1, Model

176,

absolute

See d.

X.

was

common

Construct

2.

He

III.

third,sing.,neut.,nominative

participle having ended."

with the

For

1, Model

174,

see

iciae

and

between

close,or

one

unlike

brown

Compare

may

hold
in

house,"

the

rank

same

meaning, they

adjective
with

his throne,"

sat upon

king

"

elements
are

of the

these, "We

old,"

same

have

as

cannot
and

rank,
much

to

patrioticsovereign."
two

similar coordinate

is to be made

more

thoughts
emphatic

244

ENGLISH

than

the

other,two
the other,and

with

Ex.

GRAMMAR.

conjunctionsare
both combining

used, the

prince is both virtuous and


plays,hut he appreciatesthem.
Shakspeare's
4. Sometimes

the connection.

to form

The

"

corresponding

one

"

wise.

He

only

not

reads

thought or an idea sustains a double relation to


the other causal,illative,
cessive,
consimply coordinate,
another, the one
The
"c.
former
is repreordinative,
augmentative,
partitive,
sented
stood)
by the simple coordinate conjunction (sometimes underplaced between the coordinate parts, and the latter by a
connective (sometimes adverbial in its nature) associated with it.
Ex.

south wind

The

"

there
blows, [and'\
therefore

be rain.

must

She

she plays beautifully.


sings; [and,]besides,
5. When

causal
Ex.

or

thought or
illative conjunctionexpresses
the coordinate

The

"

is

tree

falling,
therefore
run,

correlatives

idea

purely causal,the

is

the whole

connection.

Run, for the

tree

is

falling.

employed, the principalconjunctionis


usuallyplaced at the beginning of the second or added clause,and
its correlative is placed in the first,
to give the reader or hearer an
6. When

intimation
Ex.

Whether

"

is very

of what

are

is to follow.
will

the truth of the matter

be discovered

ever

not

or

doubtful.

however)
(inelegantly,

Sometimes

either

or

neither

is

placed at

the end of the sentence.


Ex.

"

go,

In

I.

Caution
is

not

can

"

Say,

"

He

he poor,

of

Neither you

nor

can

go.

terms,unless great emphasis

coordinate

"

only. Say,
John."

be carefulto place
correlatives,

In using

"

so

series

"=

conjunction between the last two


John," not "Peter,and James, and

"Peter,James, and
II.

neither,

you

the

insert
required,

Caution

nor

both

junctions
con-

the prominent or contrasted terms.


correctly
only poor, but idle," instead of Not only was

to mark

as

"

not

was

"

but idle.'*

coordinate
disproportionate
constructions.
Say, I saw him enter the gate and ring the bell,"
I saw
him
not
enteringthe gate, and ring the bell."
III

Caution

"

Avoid

dissimilar

and

"

"

"

194. Exercise.
1.

and
Analyze the followingsentences,

Clouds

judgment

and
are

darkness

are

the habitation

round

parse

about

of his throne.

him

the
;

They

conjunctions:
"

righteousnessand
were

united both

SYNTAX

COORDINATE

"

by ties of friendshipand

kindred.

of

245

CONJUNCTIONS.

barbarians.

The

debtor

am

both

to

the

wasted, partly
by war, partlyby famine,and partlyby pestilence.The relations
of the teacher
will be treated as threefold: first,
to his pupils,
and thirdly,
to the parents. A hero
secondly,to his school officers,
therefore
the day of battle has sacrificed a meal, and shall we
on
pityhim ? The situation is not suited to his tastes ; the compensation,
indeed
honored
with
them
is meagre.
They have
moreover,
their praise,
but they have
disgracedthem with their pity. Not
only can he gain no loftyimprovement without labor,but without
it he can
gain no tolerable happiness.
Greeks

and

Model

"

I.

Talent

"

has

tact touches

bench,but
London

the

to

country

"

compliment from

many

was

the

attorneysand clients."

fees from

"

Atlas,

compound sentence,consistingof two coordinate principal


related
and
clauses.
hence
by contrast (i93,2),
They are
Let the learner analyze each
readilyunite to form one sentence.
separately.
and
is an
used to join
adversative coordinate conjunction,
But
the second clause to the first,
by Eule XI.
This

is

Here

hut is coordinate

since
the

the

clauses

not

are

thought expressed by
that

as

the

bring the second


And,

and

These

equal
Hence

two

phrases
equal

II.

in

similar

in

emphasis,

and

are

"

the

both

"

"
"

The

form,

coordinate

wolves

therefore the flocks and


This

bench

implies

versal
uni-

first.

from

[from]

attorneys and

herds

in

similar

in

the

perfect harmony
but

have
are

ideas
with

expressed,
each

other.

copulativeconjunction.

been

and
exterminated,

unmolested.^'

compound sentence,containingtwo coordinate


second being a partialcompound.
Let the learner
is

ference
in-

the contrast,

intended,by
the

such

copulativecoordinate conjunction,

elements

two

they require not only

Model

the

any

restricts

XL

Eule

in rank,

with

writer

opposing

or

greater prominence than

clause,is
the

the

off

adversative,

the second

other,but

of talent

that

It is

rank.

equal

each

by shutting
first,

thought into

to unite

clients,"
by

the

of

with

harmony

It also shows

in the second

is used

clauses

preeminence

mere

preeminence.
to

join

to

in

clauses,

analyze

clauses.
in the

first case, is

copulativecoordinate
as
joiningthe two clauses,
grammaticallyequal and
with each other,by Rule XI.
And,

21*

conjunction,
in harmony

246

ENGLISH

is

causal

GRAMMAR.

coordinate

conjunction,and is used to
clause is a logicaldeduction
from
the first.
It combines
with
and"
to join the two
clauses, the one grammatically,
the other logically,
but both cobrdinately,
Kule
XI.
by
in the second clause,
is a copulativecoordinate
And,
conjunction,
and
is used to join the two
and
"flocks"
subjects
"herds," by
Therefore

show

that the second


"

"

Rule

XI.
Construct

2.

select other seiitences

or

and explaintheir
tionSf

use.

195. Coordinate
1. Rule
or

more

XII.

When

"

by

(a.)If

it agrees with
be in the pluralnumber.

of that
and

Charles

"

Charles

or

Charles,and
2. In the

his

not

followingcases,

[b.)When
of such

means

Ex.
book

Each

"

and

should

be left out

(c.)When

"

is worth

to it.

other,it must
they were

take

sent

for.

absent.

were

taken

of its

place.

should

as

the

be

same

each,every-, or

are

George, and not James,


sake.
seekingfor its own

is at

The

or

"

in

ferent
dif-

all his friends.

by

by
separately,

no.

duties and
bringsits own
from its place. No book

nouns

taken

singular:

person

considered

are

nouns

to be

singularseem

died lamented

orator

means

Ex.

it must

stands next

his sisters

or

denote

nouns

each hour

the coordinate

in the

of not,only,too,as well as,


enumeration
of individuals.

by

the

the pronoun

and

was

every paper

it must

conjointly,

absent,but

Charles

and

verb

limitingwords
and

"

which
not

were

nouns

the coordinate

day

conjunction,

absent.

was
sister,

This great statesman

"

relates to two

taken separately,

noun

absent.

the coordinate
[a.)When
capacities.
Ex.

taken

one, and

sister

was

and yet the


conjointly,

pronoun

one.

his

his sister

the

coordinate

them

as

it agrees with

the number
Ex.

number

same

(c.)If

or

if it agrees with them

ih.)But
be of the

Constructions.

verb

connected

nouns

containingcoordinate conjunC'

trials.

Every

and

paper

no

with emphasis
distinguished
when

his task.
man,

and

there

is

an

emphatic

Truth, and

truth

his servant

too,was

only^
ro

SYNTAX

warded.

The

and

COORDINATE

"

well

father,as
and

the power,

the

his son,

as

Bread

"

chaise is in its

milk

and

food for children.

different
persons, the verb or
rather than the second,and with

thy sons with thee (thatis,ye)shall


priesthood.John, thou,and I (thatis,we) are

of your

horse and

The

of

parts are

bear the

and

Thou

"

as

place.

the first
the pronoun
agrees with
the second rather than the third.
Ex.

dom,
king-

che mind

regarded by

are

nouns

is excellent

the coordinate

3. When

is the

Thine

in fault.

was

glory.

the coordinate
{d.)When
representingone thing.
Ex.

247

CONSTRUCTIONS.

iniquity

attached

to

our

country.
4. When

the coordinate

parts

each

are

and of different
singular,

genders,
"

relate to but

may

Ex.

James

"

relate to them

verb may

(1.)The

(2.)Tho,

and

^^
"

by

and

his

taken

while the
conjointly,

destroyedtheir dictionary,"the
"

tionary
dic-

jointownership.
has

pronoun

James

separately.

his sister has

being theirs

(3.)If the

relate to them

taken

or

bonnet.

cap.

may

pronoun

James

her
destroying

his sister were

verb relates to them


Ex.

pronoun

one.

destroyinghis

sister were

while the
conjointly,

reference

common

to both

coordinate

taken

the gender cannot


be distinguished
conjointly,
by the
since the latter is plural,and
consequentlyhas, in English,
pronoun,
form for all genders.
the same
refers to two or more
taken
coordinate nouns
(4.)If the pronoun
there is no
in English,applicableto
personal pronoun,
separately,
in constructingthe expression
each, and there is an inherent difficulty
properly.
nouns

Ex.
To

John

"

his alone,

use

to be

explicit,
the

contrary

to the

pronoun,

in such

as, "Then

shalt

stone

Hence

in

sentence,

it does

general
cases,

the

her

not

rule

the

avail

feminine to

construct

so

pencil.

reveal

4, (1),above.

case
or

or

alone, would

feminine, and
as

to recast

has Iqgthis

her

or

unknown.

preferred to the
become

Ellen

or

it

To
to

as

ownership,
that

to say

the

neuter;

avoid

this

(177, 6), frequent instances

is put in the

plural,and

shalt

thou

bring

them

with

stones, till they shall die."

forth

that

man

or

thus

that

the

woman

is supposed

masculine
either

for

is

would

it is best
difficulty,

such

escape

the

which

dilemma.

gender
unto

Yet,

in which

occur

the

is concealed

thy

gates, and

248

GRAMMAR.

ENGLISH

5. When

by the same
and
referringto different objects,
singularnoun
last,is understood, being representedby some

Word, and that a


each, except the
modifying word,
the general rule.
"

the

consulted
and

;"

that

man

poor

is,three dictionaries.
assembled

were

6. Coordinate

and

of the verb

agreement

and
Webster's,a Worcester's,

"

parts

the

is denoted

"

"

Ex.

coordinate

of the

each

terms

other

in

one

taken

are

negative,or

Richardson's

were
dictionary
a scientific,
a wealthy,
literary,
a

A
room.

is affirmative
one
separatelywhen
when
is opposed to, or conone
trasted
all the

with,the others : in such cases, if both or


or the verb must, of course,
plural,the pronoun
a

verb

or

with

and be understood
Ex.

The

"

minutest
the

its life from

malady

to

but,but not,or

well as, save,

as

relates

pronoun

There

was

the

with

by

the former,

be its number.

largestquadruped,derives
but he

None

stranger with

no

are

When

plural.

agree

whatever
latter,

well as
as
insect,
omnipotent source.

same

of the soul.

not,it should

and

be

terms

terms, connected

coordinate

two

the

follows

the pronoun

or

in the

us

heal

can

the

house,save

two.

we

7. Two
Ex.

terms

Godliness with

"

but
logically

be coordinate

may

is great

contentment

not

grammatically.

Godliness

gain,

and

tentment,
con-

"c.
In

such

it refers

the verb

cases

or

should

the pronoun

with

agree

the

term

to

which

grammatically.

196. Exercise.
1.
and

and point out and parse


Analyze the followingsentences,
which

the pronouns

illustrate the rule

the verbs

"

and
only visitors,
and stars by
when
and blue heavens
the sun
by day, and the moon
as
they behold it
night,alone looked down and beheld it,the same
and
missed
her idiot boy were
One day the poor woman
?
now
his
his vote, his influence,
from
nor
the market-place. Neither
he had engaged.
from
the cause
in which
withheld
ever
purse was
Where

the

Neither
or

captainnor

more

Note.

"

For

2. Construet

every

models,
or

see

clouds

the sailors

concerned

were

and
Every insect,

and

winds

it when

was

in

bird,was
178, 1, and

select other

were

his

saved.

were

Whether

the business, does


hushed
180,

to silence.

1, Models

examplesto

not

II. and

III.

illustrate this rule.

one

son
per-

appear.

250

ENGLISH

it

which

the

shows,

relation

Thus, "0/

sentence.

for

topics
It will

easily discovered

be

may

all the

speak,"

to

me

GRAMMAR.

involved

be

in

this

theme,

for

impossible

by rearranging the
to

me

it will

be

possible
im-

all the

speak of

topics,"c.
Caution.

In

expressingthe relations between words, he carefulto


employ appropriatepreposiiions.Say, That is different from what
I expected," not "different to what
I expected."
"

"

"

These

relations

be

may

found

in any

good dictionary.

198. Exercise.
1.

the

Analyze

I call to you

is like

Her

voice.

tears

the

parse

end to

From

prepositions:
"

end, from

flowingwithout
pride and beauty of the
but with the worm
foliage,

form, bright in its

cliff to

control.

now

were

tender tree,the

some

in its

all my

with

free.

lake,'twas

and
followingsentences,

grove,

She

ful
grace-

"

preying

at

its heart.
"

Model.

"

choice

the

[error]of all
champion."
and

Analyze
is

"0/""

all his errors, the most

Of

of

his

parse

of "errors"

"

choice

of

of.

"

first instance

in the

to "error"

the relation of

shows

champion,"
errors
perhaps,the
was,
a

and
preposition,

serious was, perhaps,


The
serious
most

understood;

champion"

to

"

in

the

choice."

shows

second
Eule

the

tion
rela-

instance
XIII.

it

(Ee-

peat it.)
2.

Construct

the

when
VERB,

examples of

antecedent

199. The

Rule
of

object
Ex.

"

to illustrate the

own

term

is

Object of

the

noun,

an

use

of

the preposition

adjective,

ADVERB.

an

1.

your

The

"f Athens.

XIV.
a

"

noun

must
preposition
ruins of the Parthenon

Preposition.

used as
pronoun
be in the objective
case.
or

stand

upon

the

in
Acropolis

the

the

city

SYNTAX

OBJECT

"

251

PREPOSITION.

THE

OF

in the

denotingtime,meaobjective,
and before such
value,or direction,
quantity^
surej distance,
is
follow near, nigh, like,and worth,the preposition
as
usuallyomitted.

(a.)Before

Ex.

He

helped

is worth

and

man,

walked

We

feet high.
is not

live

prepositionis omitted
of several

omission

Remark.

The

"

predicated of
and, what

the

words

of

noun

this

last

day

is the

"

; as,

indirect

and

3. But

The

Worth

example,

is

by

idea

10th

verb

object of

be

learning ;"

and

noun,

in the

"

sometimes
"Woe

it can

but

qualifiedby

richlyworth
The

"

verb

loorth

relation

It is
a

be

adverb;

an

than

quality,rather

of great worth;"

person

loorth is

there

[of] February,[in

preposition;

may
of

is well worth

is sometimes
"A

called

some

an

lesson

in dates

prepositions.

adjective,and

an

it expresses

dollar;"

worth

like

is more,

money."

worth

word

3; and

in 187,

as

"

between

the

near

[At] Boston, [on] Monday, [on] the


year] 1860.

the

My friend has
city. The book

dollar.

usuallyan
Ex.

twenty miles that day.


poorer.

penny

father. They

is like his

He

2. The
is

worthy

West.

gone

is six

wall

The

"

nouns

; as,

the

In

day!"

he to, and

imperative, equivalent to

it.
"

save, in the

sense

of

all hut him

had

fled.

except,"are generallyused

as

prepositions.
Ex.

Whence

"

Yet

they
the

man

any

unfrequently

not

are

Father,

the

save

used

Son,

as

and

knoweth

conjunctions; as, "Neither

he to whomsoever

will reveal

the Son

him."

adverbs
followed by adjectives,
or
Prepositionsare sometimes
used substantively,
with which
they form adverbial phrases; as, in
vain, on high,for this once, tillnow, from thence,from above.
has been erroneouslysupposed by some
5. Than
before whom
to
be a preposition.
4.

Ex.

Than

"

Than
of the

no

more

It

word.

should
used

is

whom

be

by

it should

be

by

good

higher sat.

preposition here

denotes

followed

some

none

comparison,

the

of

in

and

be

by saying

case

of the

avoided

that

of any

the construction

nominative, instead

writers, it should

disposed

than

as

it is the

other proper

use

requires that

objectivelohom.
In

anomalous.

objective by

it

Though
this
the

case

figure

enallage (216, 7).


Cautiox.

Say,

"Between

"

Never
you

use

and

the nominative

we,""

not

as

the

"between

objectof a preposition.
you

and

/."

252

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

200.
1.

Exercise.

Analyze the followingexamples


:
objects

and

parse

their

similar

deeds.

It

improvement may be made


ground of hope is there

What

of his God

mercy

long

not

was

to

the

and
prepositions

"

the

the

me

as

and

of

person

so

with

of Christ

his

of

to his

sure

the intercession

before he returned
a

of the memory

exceeding honesty;

next
spirit,

his

whom

man,

and

good

our

we

to

Saviour?
he

duced
intro-

into

went

yard all together.


Model.

"We

"

Let the learner

is

live in

analyze

an

age

of

sifting."Neander,
"

this sentence.

third,sing.,neut.,obj.,and is the object


of the preposition in."
(Rule XIV.)
Sifting: is a participial
noun, in the objectivecase, and is used
of the preposition of."
as the object
(Rule XIV.)
Age

common

noun,

"

"

Construct

2.

examplesin which any of


adverbial phrases.
or
join adjective
3.
into

Change the phrases consisting


of
a
djectives
or
adverbs
equivalent

The

The

The

dash

waves

laborer

upon

entered

the rocks

with

201. Subordinate

Rule

XV.

joindissimilar
Ex.

prepositionand

"

He

"

object,

upon

The

his

temple of

mon
Solo-

The

messenger

task

ivith eagerness.

was

fury.

Connectives.
connectives

are

used

to

elements.

that hath

2. Subordinate

Subordinate

its

"

of the morning has passed away.


monarch.
destroyedby the Chaldean

in haste.

1.

(l4o)shall
prepositions

dew

was

sent

the

pity on

the poor

lendeth

to the Lord.

connectives,unlike coordinate,show a relation


dependence, and are used to join,not clauses of equal rank, but
to
dependent clauses to an antecedent term, which they serve
modify, except as below (3).
3. That,whether,or the various
when, where,"c.,
interrogatives,
when
used to introduce
substantive
clause
a
employed as the
the clause to an antecedent
do not connect
subjectof a proposition,
of

SYNTAX

SUBORDINATE

"

term, since the subjectcan

be

253

CONNECTIVES.

subordinate

to

other part of the

no

proposition.
The

connectives

subordinate
the

used

substantive

to convert

serve

principalproposition into

like

proposition,which,

noun,

any

be

may

used

a
as

subject.

4. In

Ex.

Then
as

aSj

"

in the

"

connective

has

ing
correspond-

principal
clause,called the correlative.
wheUy there
vjhere,
if
t
hose
that,these,
the,this,

"

then,though yet, so
or ivhich.
who, that,

"

"

as,

"

the subordinate

cases

many

word

so

thus

"

"

that,

"

Though a subordinate conjunctionappropriately


joinsa clause
some
nect
preceding term, yet than and as sometimes
appear to conwords only.
5.

to

Ex.

wit,is more

IjesH judgment than

"

sail than

ballast.

The

moon

as

attends.
this

Though

of the

not

are

connect

it not

belongs:
"

such."

He

of the

What

"
"

old

as

is

The

himself

pronoun

as

as, when

or

He

is

as

but

"The
"

the

patient is
boy knows

used

fruit

I do

from
distinguished

to the

not
a

to

to which

of

it

capacity

considered

was

respect your

noun

joined

employed

noun

the idea

expresses

printer."

as

as

assumed,

or

clerk."

or
as

rules

as

?"

"

;" that is,

subsequent

so

well

better

show

to

nice than wise

more

his cousin

Sometimes
"The

peculiar use

terms

thus

when

necting
comparison,instead of conwhich
words only,generallyintroduces an elliptical
clause,
of
the
o
f
its
construction
account
to that
so
on
similarity
principalclause.

becomes

is

employed

was

offered

6. Than

Ex.

has

only gives emphasis,

"He

office;as,
"

same

As

coordinate, the

resemble

to

seems

rank.

attribute,either predicated

an

good."

connection

tha7i to

his cousin

than

he is wise."

"

He

is old."

is not

but abridged; as,


only elliptical,
well as that he can
sit up."
disobey (167, Mod. 16, Ex.).
term

to sit

as

as

"

;" that is,

up;"

that

is,"so

and sometimes
and without
a noun,
As, followingan adjective,
nate
to the subordicorrelative,
gives an adversative signification

7.
a

clause.
Ex.

as
we
Defenceless
were,
"c.
defenceless,
Though we were

8.

"

That

or

as, after

noun,

still maintained

we

has

similar

our

construction

ground,

to denote

concession.
Ex.

"

Remark.

Fool that

[or as] I

"'"Subordinate

was,

I entered

connectives
22

are

the army.
a

kind

of

prejwsition placed

264

ENGLISH

before

which

sentence

adverb.

Hence

their

GRAMMAR,

be

is to

position is

into

converted

or
adjective,

an

novn,

invariably at the head

almost

of the

aft

clause

(^re-position).
Caution.
THAN
loiving
Say, My

a
tising

AS, avoid

or

"

There

In

"

brother

is

thou

there
his

appear,

is life there

heart

atmosphere,has
others

beside

heart.

Time

we

could

/The

see, all
more

bring

the

better
ruin

was

He

from

we

desolation.

the

that

heart

As

to

goes

far

The
as

an

loves

plantstrees

the

Work

has

moon

the

more

the

eye

long as you can.


Eevenge always costs
requires.J
be loved,be deservingof
may

he

That

friendlyhe might

ourselves.

serve

"

is hidden.

lightwhatever

more

it is worth.

than

is,"more

the connectives:

Whether

comes

to

and

has, the

one

than

more

will

God,

serve

What

himself.

parse

However

hope.

ascertained.

been

not

is

full of anger.

was

that

lovest these."

Analyzethe followingexamples^and

While

these?"

in the

occur

Exercise.

202.
1.

J'

me

cases
different

two

than

more

me

thou

incorrect construction.

than

"

clause foU
elliptical

an

an

"

than

more

in

pronoun

ambiguity only when

of

"

ambiguityand
than /," not

as, "Lovest

these love me," or,

or

both

is older

danger

principalclause;

noun

you

as

love.

Model

"

I.

"

If

the mothers
^Qef"

within

draw

we

of

the circle of

civilized

our

nation,what

templation
con-

do

we

Webster,

This

is

and

complex interrogative
sentence, consistingof

subordinate

cipal
prin-

clause.

subjectof the principalclause,and do see is the


simple predicate. "Do see" is limited by the interrogative
"what,^^
and by the conditional
"c.
clause "If we draw,^'
subordinate
If is a
connective,and joins the subordinate clause,
which
of the principalclause.
it introduces,
to the predicate
These
elements
dissimilar in rank, in meaning, and in form; they are
are
connected by Eule XV.
(Eepeat it.)
"Ve

is the

Model

II.

"

"As

Jesus the

Lord, so

Therefore,

in this

joiningthe whole

ye

walk

have

therefore

received

Christ

ye in him."

complex sentence,is a coordinate conjunction,


to a precedingsentence.
sentence, as an inference,

SYNTAX

verb
connective,having as its correlative the adIt joins the subordinate
in the principalclause.
clause,
Kule
XV.
to
have therefore received,"
walk."
"c.,

is a subordinate

As

so
"

255

INFINITIVE.

THE

"

"

As

ye

peonouns
examples in which any of the relative
clauses (l43,17), others in which
shall join adjective
that, that
shall joinsubstantive clauses (l43,16),
NOT, or any of the interrogatives,
and still others in which
any of the connectives (l43,18) shall join

2. Construct

"

"

adverbial

clauses.

Rule

1.

XVI.

of the nowif

To

"

wishes

and limitations
signification
dependent,is governed by the

is human.

err

to obtain

(a.)After

treatise

desire

They

of the
word

travel in

to

foreigncountry.

deposition
of dew.

the

on

the active voice of

bid,dare, let,
need,make,
some
others,the to of the

and
behold,hear,Sindfeel,

see,

construction

it limits.

Ex.

He

the

has

infinitive

the

with
when

verb, and,
which

The

"

Infinitive.

The

203.

infinitive is omitted.
Ex.

"

saw

Remark
as

1.

such,

"

him

do it.

The

infinitive

proposition. Of
that

of

"

love"

do

object

2.

Remark

to

"

mere

index

has

The

words

two

as, "To

wish

you

the

are

so

united

be used with

stay. We

sentence.
"

Thev

ordered

him

read,"

originalcharacter,

mode,

and

"

wish

to leave.

in

the

the

"

infinitive

language,

simple infinitive
to

or

to

as

be

to

die is

with

the

regarded

is the

tion
preposias

an

separable
in-

gain."

without

subject(i67,3).

stay.

have a subject
infinitive may
its subjecthas not alreadybeen

when

torite,""will

lost its

recognized

live is Christ, and

to

verb, and,

subject or object,in

"shall

and

the

only remaining, namely,

one

as,

of

na7ne

now

3. The

Ex.

of

form

of time

infinitive;or

infinitive may
We

"

the

principal verb

the

simple

(111, 4);

infinitive,as

The

phrase;

Ex.

here

the

object to attribute.

prefixed.

2. The

have

we

go.

preposition,as

auxiliaries

of the ancient

case

properly

without

uses,

the

auxiliary,a

an

from

changed

dative

these

after
But

"c.

has become
is

is

originallyused

was

let him

They

in the objectiTe,

expressedin

the

256

ENGLISH

{a.)The
also have
Ex.

predicate

I knew

{b.)The
;
Ex.

infinitive of the

"

him

you

to be a

Ex.

be]

verb,

He

"

subject,may

then

ordered

4. When

be introduced
For

him

the horse to be harnessed.

be

to

made

They

[to be]

position
pro-

hy for.

subjectmay be
preposition
/or.
him

of

(subject

scholar

is impossible.

the object

considered

chaiivnan.

of

Am

[to

ordered

They

the

subjecthas alreadybeen expressedor in


the infinitive is used without a subject,
and
required,
be,

not

may

"

{a.)The
Ex.

of

attribute

I do love.

"

Ex.

To

obey

the

infinitive

"

When

is to

pray

is to be

is to

upon

used, it denotes,

is thus

supplicate."(2.) What
"Our

found;"
x

The

as,

duty
work

is

is

"

wishes

He

[e.)An
another
Ex.

(in, 4).

prefixed.

to

is to

adjective

element

(1.) An

done,"

equivalentterm;
obligatory;

(3.)What

is settled

or
verb, a preposition,

as,

The
or

it may

be

intransitive verbs.

some

or

as,

**

to-morroio."

commence

They

to remain.

"

possible or

be

to

[d.)The object of a transitive


Used to complete the meaning of
Ex.

sign to

enjoy.

"

determined

with
proposition

the

learn.

may

of

attribute

propositionwithout

They

(c.)The

passage

proposition.

To retaliateis censurable.

"

Ex.

of

subject

[b.)The

to

copulativeverb may

be the

its

Tliey appointed
/o?'the boy to drink.

water

To

its

traitor.

some

*'

of the

or

of any

Let him be called Nathan.

preacher.

to deceive is criminal.

(c.)The infinitive and


transitive

copula or

objective.

and
infinitive,
the phrase must

For

"

GEAMMAR

are

about

to go.

in

noun

She

went

to

weep.

limiting

apposition,

noun.
"

Time

to

com".

desire

to go.

hope

to

wish

recover.

stay.

(/.)An
Ex.
In
to be

"

What

this

element

adverbial

use

went

ye

the infinitive

absolute; as, "To

ike truth, I

was

out

in fault.

to

used to denote

purpose

or

motive.

see?

is sometimes

confessthe truth,I

said
was

(though perhaps
in

fault,"'
=

That

not

properly)

I may

confess

268

ENGLISH

Model

II.

understand

"

GRAMMAR.

I have

"

dream

heard

say of

thee,that thou

it."
interpret

to

canst

Bible.

"

This

has an infinitive in each clause.


complex sentence
of thee" for an
direct,
inSay is an irregulartransitive verb,having
and
clause for a direct,
the subordinate
object; infinitive,
with
its objectivesubject [men understood),
present tense, and,
forms the objectof
It is
have heard."
Eule XV.
See also 5, c.
a.
put in the infinitive without the sign to,by Eule XVI.
is a regular transitive verb,infinitive,
To
interpret
present,and
is used to limit "canst understand"
its object,
as
by Rule XVI.
By
is
made
the
of
the
ancient
its
an
object
idiom,
object
cipal
prinproper
verb, and is then pleonastically
representedby "it." In
how to interpret
modern
a dream^^ of
styleit would be, understand
it."
understand
to interpret
a dream
8o as
"

"

"

"

2. Construct

examples of

to

own

your

illustrate the

uses

of

the

infinitive.
205.

Rule

1.

of

XVII.

and
adjectives
Ex.

yet

"

"

he

and

nouns,

in.

not

have

Participles

He, stoopingdown,

went

Participles.

and

habit

are

the

construction

limited like verbs.

the linen clothes lying;


lookingin,saw
in acknowledgingfaults is a
of sincerity

guard againstcommittingthem.
used
participle

2. The

what
subject
Ex.

"

it is called
"

an

The

"

assumes
adjective

of its

the verb asserts.

Hyacinthsblooming. Hyacinths

(a.)When
Ex.

as

bloom.

is used wholly as an adjective(93,2, b),


participle
and is placed before the noun.
adjective,
participial
the

risingsun.

The

roaringbillows.

is used like an
the participle
having the
adjective,
{b.)When
with
the verb,the participle,
and
limitations
as
same
signification
construction.
which
limit it,is then called the participial
the words
the
invitation,
Encouraged by this magnificent
globe considered labor as their only friend.
Ex.

"

inhabitants

of the

be followed by
of the copulativeverbs may
(c.)The participle
the pronoun
to
the noun
or
the predicatenominative," (1.)When
the prothe noun
or
which it belongs is nominative.
(2.)When
noun
the
to
is
it logically
possessive.
to which
belongs changed

SYNTAX

Ex.

He

"

259

PARTICIPLES.

"

being an accomplishedwrite)-.

heard

I have

of his

being an

accomplished writer.

Ex.

regardedhim

We

"

gentlemannamed

to a

as

being a good

followed

be

of copulativeverbs may
[d,]The participle
when the noun
or the pronoun
predicateobjective
is in the objective.

to which

He

writer.

by

it belongs

intrusted his

son

Edric.

be used with the


like the adjective,
{e.)The participle,
may
copula,to form the predicate; but in this construction it is regarded
as

Ex.

are

of the verb.

form

They

"

riding.

were

He

deceived.

was

such as admitting,
granting,and others,
speaking,
(/.)Participles,
properlythey belong
used,as some
say, independently; more

to some

or

noun

understood.

pronoun

is

Properly speaking,there
speaking properly,"c.
Ex.

"

such

no

thing

chance,

as

be used either wholly as a


participle
may
noun
having the meaning and limitations

3. The
or

as

We

noun,

of the

verb.
Ex.
avoid

It is

"

givingpain to

article
Ex.

an

or

this

at

the

risingof

the

the

case

We

sun.

should

others.

sighingof

The

"

walk

is

participleused wholly as a noun


and followed by of.
adjective,

{a.)The

In

pleasant to

The

the poor.

participlecannot

cryingof

the

be limited, like the

precededby

an

needy.

verb.

of the noun,
with
{h.)The participlehaving the construction
be the subject
the meaning and limitations of the verb,may
or predicate
of a transitive verb or a preposition.
nominative,or the object

Loving our neighbor as


is takingwithout liberty. We
approachingthe house,the sound
Ex.

"

the law.
ourselves is fulfilling
should
of

avoid

bell

was

Stealing
promise. On

breakinga
faintlyheard.

(c.)In this construction the participleis called the participial


in the
be limited by a noun
or
a pronoun
noun, and, as such, may
possessive.
Ex.

"

What

4. The

do you

think

of his

like
participle,

a letter,
ivriting

the Latin

"

his

beinga

gerund,may

writer ?

limit the

260

ENGLISH

GEAMMAE.

predicateby expressinga concomitant


to the subject.
belonggrammatically
Ex.

They remain
standing.
feet,
weeping.

"

master's

We

"

them

saw

fell at

his

the art of

as

of

cuttingawkward

extended

shore.

Exercise.

expect the dancing-masterto

well

He

approachthe

Arialyzethe followingexamples,and

as

amazed.

approachingthe shore,

206.

We

stood

may

is often equivalentto the infinitive.


participle

5. The
Ex.

He

action,yet

the

parse
teach

"

children

our

capers

:
participles
"

to music.

manners,"
Why is the

republicto be

near
experiment
rejected? He came
The
is
well
worth
devoured
case
being
by a panther.
considering.
him
his
of
their
without
They came
being apprized
approach.
upon
The urchin's becoming so respectablea man
surprisedevery one.
the
of his being
The gentleman'sreputationas a scholar was
cause
appointed professorof rhetoric. They narrowly escaped being
taken
resolved to
prisoners. Being convinced of his guilt,we
Having
punish him. We descried a vessel strippedof its masts.
declined the proposal,I determined
suited to my own
on
a course
taste.
They have said.Come, and let us cut them off from being a
doubt
of his being a great statesman.
There is no
The
nation.
maiden was
less
seen
standingon the shore,exposed to the merciyoung
towards
heaven.
Whom
winds, and extending her hands
him
having not seen, ye love ; in whom, though now
not,
ye see
yet,believing,
error, do not fall into
ye rejoice. In avoiding one
learned.
another.
By consulting the best authors, hie became
like a limitless
Stretching from horizon to horizon,losingitself,
wall,in the clouds above, it came
pouring its green and massive
waters
onward, while the continual and rapid crash of falling
and crushed
and
forests,
cities,
uptorn mountains, thus prostrated,
an

after another, under

one

its awful

power,

and

the successive shrieks

ing
of the on-rushabove the roar
piercedthe heavens,risingeven
kingdom after kingdom, disappeared,
ocean, as cityafter city,
indescribable.
producedterror and horror inconceivable,

that

I.

Model
dwells."

"

"

"Immured

be

cypress

shades

sorcerer

Milton,

Let the learner


may

in

regarded as

analyze the
a

sentence.

contracted

It is

complex.

simple sentence,or

SYNTAX

26 1

USE.

INCOKEECT

"

with a passive
or past participle
passiveparticiple,
adjective,
meaning {immure, immured, immured), and, like an
by Rule XVII., or Rule V.
belongs to sorcerer,"
is a

Immured

"

II.

Model

This

;"

is

the

too desirous of

was

ing
present-

to protracthis stay long


sovereigns

before the

himself
at Palos."

admiral

The

"
"

Frescott.

"

simple declarative
simple predicateis

"

subjectis
of which
desirous,"
The

sentence.

"

"

was

ral
the admi-

was"

is the

"

The
attribute is limited by
desirous" the attribute.
copula and
of presentinghimself before the sovereigns,"
indirect objective
an
element, complex, of which "of presenting"is the basis,"of" is
the connective,and
"presenting" is the object. "Presenting" is
himself,"and second, by
limited,first,
by the objectiveelement
the complex adverbial element
before the sovereigns." Desirous"
is further limited by
too,"which intimates the degree or intensity
of his desire,
and points,as a kind of correlative,
to the phrase "to
protract his stay long at Palos,"used to express the result of the
desire.
It expresses
kind
of comparison, and is equivalentto
a
"

"

"

"

"

another

construction

with

so

as

"

not,thus

desirous

so

"

as

not to

protract,"c.
is

Presenting

from the verb present{present


present participle,

used as a noun, and


is the objectof the prepresented,
presented),
position
of,by Rule XIV., and is limited accordingto Rule XVII.,
like the verb
present,"from which it is derived.
"

Construct

examplesof your
participle.

II.

own

IXCORRECT

207. Incorrect
1. The

laws of
Remark.
do

not

or

written

incorrect

use

good usage.
"

It must

guard against
language.

specialcautions
2. Besides

will be

To

Use

to every
most

provide

for

is any

one

that the

glaringdefects
some

of

the

violation of the

fake syntax.
rules of Syntax

mere

in the

most

of

use

obvious

of

spoken
those,

given.

there may
faultyconstruction,
the use of capitals,
or
pronunciation,
errors
a

of the

defined.

It is commonly called

of tho

uses

USE.

of words

be apparent
some

the various
illustrating

be
in

in

spelling,
the application
of
errors

262-

ENGLISH

words, errors
words,from

arisingfrom

GEAMMAR.

of
improper omission or a repetition
insertion of unnecessary
an
words,an improper arrangement
and
from
the parts,
tinguishin
errors
a
neglect of any of the dismarks
which good usage requires.

of

208.

Errors

an

in Coustniction."

1. Examples

and

You

will go

me
"

Model.

Eule

under

I.

together.

and

You

False Syntax.

because
together"is incorrect,
the objectivepronoun
is made
the subjectof the verb will go;
me
be used as the subject
but,by Caution I.,the objectiveshould never
of a finite verb.
Correct, You and I will go together."
"

will go

me

"

Him
than

that is studious w411


Them

us.

whom

would

one

Him

and

?
eclipse

that
think

her.
Us.

Them

upset the boat.

Who

There

each

Us
town

boys

not

whom

this

forming a
afternoon.
Mary

him

who

I think

me

most

this

lady whom

You

much
him

as

is in
in

are

better
that

Scotland

Me.

whomsoever

me.

club.

base-ball

are

blamed

be

to

is

and

passion.
fault,and not
a

expected.

are

morning? Not
is most deservingof praise;
the homage of men.
Thee
on

and

or

the door ?

at

Avoid

live.

present only him

were

I know

me.

in other

place sooner
They are people

brother

My

much

so

in

came

the

told you the story?


her.
the
Who
saw

Who

him

as

ones.

not

are

trusted.

well

as

the

are

We

did

it

found

will be wise.

wisdom

might be

I know

singerthan him.
thee

seek

improve. She

can

walk

and

Him

faster than

me

me.

I will mote
prothink called

do you
deserving. Whom
always does the world applaud
but him
must

who

not

going to

are

him

who

successful receives

is most

forgetmy

advice.

She

is

will interest you.

I know

2. Examples

under

Rule

II.

It is her.
I took

You

it to be he.

is the second

Models.
in the

"
"

because
It is her" is incorrect,

never

the attribute

"

her" is

but,by Caution I.,the attribute of a


It should be,
be in the objectivecase.

objectivecase

verb should

person.

finite

"

It is

she."
"I

took it to be he" is

because
incorrect,

the nominative

"he"

SYNTAX

IN

ERRORS

"

263

CONSTRUCTION.

follows the infinitive " to

b","precededby its objectivesubject it."


By Caution I.,it should be, I took it to be him^
because
You is the second person" is incorrect,
you," being a
and
is
i
dentified
is
not
hence
a person,
falsely
by person."
pronoun,
should
avoid
such
constructions.
It should be,
By Caution II.,we
You
is of the second person,"that is,a pronoun
of the second
"

"

"

"

"

"

person.

Correct,
hy
similar

heard

ones

Is it me?
I took

not only the followingexamples,hut


Catttions,

the

in conversation

Whom

she.

it to be

"

; but it is him.

No

it is them.

I would

know

I should

have

The

noun

I cannot

been

present.

is the

agent, and

speech is each boy


The
a

animal

crime

is

was

who

me

told you.
talk less.

her,I would
George that answered
being me.
They were
were

It is

to be.

you

ought

us

you,

not

The

badly
book, and
are

by

no

him,
being her,
were

What

part ot

is the

speaker.
"

/ is the first person.

do

who

us

had

They

me.

in

are

say that I

men

then

bribery,was

no

long time in doubt whom


suffer by your carelessness. It

who

Have

fault.
am

It

If I
was

suspicionof its
he might prove
is not I,but him,

avoid

all similar
were

up, but
every

made

amples,
Cautions,the followingexyourself:

the several
errors

"

unanimous

good

in

their

granted to the

its action.
Let

retreat.

slate be put in their

means

III.

Eule

under

1, a, b, and

177,

committee
cut

of

it is ?

to blame.

hy

and

first person

3. Examples
Correct

is the action.

It is not

Whom

If I
of its

sure

be convicted

To

noun.

be he.

been

it is ?

think

you

been

have

people say

do

Who

it to

The

It may

do

Whom

the verb

room

it is ?

it is.

altogetherunpardonable.
is the present perfecttense.

written"
It

horse

in this

he.

If I had

it is.

whom

think

believe

of its being him

thought

never

do you

her,but I always supposed it to be


They say they do not know whom
I think

any

places.

rich alone

army

w^as

chair,every
and happiness
is supposed by

every

Peace

yet

The

it

presidentor secretary will


favor us with their presence.
Many words they darken speech.
That girl she is very ignorant. The king he is very angry.
The
teacher
approving the plan, he immediately adopted it. Whom
when
What
they had washed, they laid her in an upper chamber.
many

to

depend

upon

wealth.

The

264
he

ENGLISH

said,he

is

raise their

one

party concerned.
A

nest.

of money.
whose
go,

There

support
and

if I

is
he

I and

hawk

which

we

can

street,which

goodly
that they

sure

contained

agree.

There

is the

was

acquainted with.
an
upright man.

The

and

you

should

Henry
has

and

stay

Harriet

soul

who

dog whom

my

father

He

has

may

going.

Horace

be

cannot

own

you

householder

certain

and
which

influenced

bought.

The

by
lady

friends which

some

of China

are

home.

at

art

largesum

of

highly educated.

was

saw

be

one

any

took

people in the empire


derived almost entirelyfrom rice. I and

This

motives.

Rebecca

so

small

on

60

millions

are

planted a vineyard. He
such

thinks

right to be a judge, who


caught a hen, and eat her in her

invited.

are

you

hast

Can

who

themselves

content

Jacoli

upon

said that I and

Father

scholar

each

fox themselves.

lost in the

was

purse

Let

can

answer

Thou
A

it.

person

them

deceived

not

are

every

raiment,and put

for

sorry

hands.

Let

means.

now

GRAMMAR.

judge which

pronounced the sentence


be
which
desire to be happy should
Those
was
careful to do that which is right. Though thou art wise,you sometimes
misjudge. Do thyselfno harm, and no one will harm
you.
and
that brought us
This
who
discovered our distress,
is the man
thou
whom
relief. I know
art,that annoyest me at thy gate.
you
all ! I labored long
and that rulest over
O thou who art all-wise,
thee happy, and now
me
to make
by ingratitude. Let
you reward
no
boy or girldrop her pencil. James and you must attend to his
am

studies.
of you

If any

aught to say against this


molasses,and the grocer

have

speak. I paid for the


them
immediately. What
hear

their

If any
every

what

one

friend

do

of them?

Wealth

Greek

the

drafted

man

their

Now

ails her.

nor

abused?

of you

may

not

home.

Roman
or

his

at

examine

duty.

Please

have

heard

the

poverty have

its

you
and

am

said he would

sit silent

can

Each

tell them
calls,
to

man

of you

one

news,

age.
person

Milo
whom

Horace

began

as

now

send

when

they
choose
for yourself.
England expects
watch, and see
my
do you

what

temptations.

Neither

think
the

Every
cooking-stovesin their houses.
the day
substitute
on
reported themselves
into a corner, they will often
rat is driven
had

a
appointed. When
and fightfuriously. It is impossibleto fix the
turn
of known
can
hardly be
languages,but its number

hundred.

let them

man,

well

to lift the

I took him

as

to be.

when

number

less than

nine

satirized the follies of their

Juvenal

ox

exact

he

was

calf.

He

is the

same

266

ENGLISH

neither
ladder
the

moon

fortyfoot

was

receiptof

brought

long.
Nearly

York

people

market

refusing.Three

He

dare not

touch

under

Rule

found

He
is

cattle

number

of

was

guished
distin-

composed of the
to be no
good reasons
enough to decide it.

Eule

under

the

V.

principlesand

Cautions

"

in the woods.

acorn

invention.

thought. She showed


hard saying.
an
I do not

of

hair of Catiline.

wonderful

an

increase in

were

city. There seems


months'
probation are

following examples by

V. :

head
A

mob

given. Tht

quite an

thousand

The

data

no

last week.

5. Examples
the

was

been

in the

for

Correct

have

six

present.

was

characters

worst

There

butter.

New

to

visible. There

star were

nor

GRAMMAB.

is

He
uniform

an

like remarks

He

was
an

adherence

Those

than

truth.

to

of

sort

It

man.

man

younger

kind.

of these

honorable

we

This

people

is

are

have
disagreeable.
buy
pair
you
thousand
It cost a
bought eightfoot of wood.
pound. The lot is
is six fathom
The
water
fiftyfoot in width.
deep. We walked
Will

very

three mile in
I found

Go

She

boys

The

great distance

stream

This

the
the

was

straitest sect of
unkindest

most

The

mix

cannot
to

the

master, to

sometimes

called

the

poet.
A

man.
a

was

of

the

ship glides
such

wiser

than

exceeding

am

oldest of the

the

He

Which

three.

the

oil and
The

pen

king of

is

The

two

is the

the
a

The

was

imagination is

sword.

time and

abler

an

useful servant, but

mightier than

beasts.

He

The

fairest

styledthe sheik.

tribes is

water.

Pharisee.

is most

rose

emperor.

fire is

lived

religionI

our

chief of the Arabian

magistrate is called
financier than a negotiator.
necessary

children

It is not
much

fluent.

very

of all.

cut

chief

You

recites

is the wisest of the two.

John

most

of all flowers.

The

them

The

on.

behaved

He

as

oldest of the two?


After

scholars

Ask

flows silent

thought it was.
the others.
Mary speaks French
sorry to hear such tidings.
the largerof them
all.
He was
He
brothers.
preferred the latter
a

of them

here.

to come

of coal.

ton

passedvery quick.

time

The

neat.

the water.

over

ten

boots?

appleshere.

dresses

smooth

of

the table. Which

on

tell them

and

bring them

to

books

ordered

He

short time.

them

the best?

six

hard

lion

the tide wait

is
for

SYNTAX

no

examined

He

man.

He
and

thimble

signal, and

anchor

in

the

it.

Just

it in the
kind
the

taste

of those

is

than

90", and

and

history.

our

delivered

the

better;

some
scarce

fed

Walter

going

am

last
him

w^ho

was

who

is
was

of
him.

writing
the

treat

not

Examples

my

father

the

friend

Henry VIII.

buy

lying

that

at

and
saves

he

who

He

of

do

How

to

growl

flag,
"

He

do?

past

am

quick

so

bear

had

not

How

savage.

in

era

interest.

The

the

Washington

you

rode

He

latitude

important

an

polite.

began

better

the

our

principal,but

me

left

It is

him

Poles

honor

us

formed

did

friends
will

of

his

in the

be remembered

delighted

treats

the

Cromwell,

me

"

country, they

country.

pupil

VI.

Eule

under

life of
and

mink?

think

South

good.

and

Everett, the orator,

would

rule,the following examples :

she

on

Very good.

6.

the

by Jenny Lind,
He

do

is

administration

the

is tolerable

part?

see

vessels

Grammar,

with

distinct.

and

Washington

summer.

Latin

Let

180".

demand

his

to

him

sweetly. Industry

and

government

days, and

the

sails of

animal

an

The

blue.

clear

You

perform

0" to

not

health

my

for two

Correct^by

from

address

him.

saw

been

did

of

North

the

of the

He

carpenter forgot to

The

acquires wealth,

charmed

were

At

the

establishment

I could

diplomatist. One

teacher.

white, and

red, the

sort

We

the

longitude

has

elephant

little money.

Stoddard's

What

and

statesman,

white

with

tastes

this

and

always carries

yet.

apple

and

quadruped.

me

buffalo,are

red

The

thirteen

servants

Andrew's

an

have

Bring
as

losopher.
phi-

molasses.

book-store.

of

pupil

The

stream.

Fortune's

bought

for I

he

I counted

pole.

are

Frugality

both.

them

little money

; for I have

his ten-feet

bring

buy,

well

as

of

eye

news.

ship displayed

trunk, which

flexible

I cannot

it if I chose

The

the

good

these

wdth

grizzlybear,

distinctly saw
a

journey.

The

America.

we

and

powerful

pleased

scissors.

North

of

natives

much

was

with

phenomena

every

267

CONSTRUCTION.

IN

ERRORS

"

of

The

whole
"

not

by
Echo

"

our

we

visited

posterityas

Song

was

sung

country.
the

Wolsey, and
ill, I,who

that

Protector,but
afterwards

would

so

he

ter
minis-

gladly

serve

268

ENGLISH

GRAMMAR.

7. Examples

VII.

Kule

under

Correct the following


examplesby the Cautions :
On

hills of blood-stained

Lindens

Bultans

palace.

The

nations

hopes

"

It

snow.

the

was

blasted.

grand

Next

Mars,
empire. His
brothers offence is not his.
Midst glorysglance and victorys
thunder-shout.
The mans
If of Drydens fire
false.
story was
the blaze is brighter,of Popes the heat is more
regularand
Piazzis orb,is

were

It is againstthe laws of Plutos

seen.

constant.
This

This

book

is

your's. I listened

is theirn.

map

handkerchief

to it's song.
knife is mine, and

This

is hern.

The
not

slate is hisn.
That

yourn.

These

Will you drive


sheep are oiirn.
is
task.
a pleasant
pasture? Our's
for your sakes. We
for
intend, our parts,to follow

out of the

yourn
I will do it

his advice.

lots. It
After

Their healths
not worth

was

pleasanttwo

have

their whiles to remain


hours

call at Little'sand Brown's

friends

His

him

will submit

improved. We

we
sail,

long in

so

port.

ashore to lunch.

went

book-store and

the last

get me

to our

Please

Galaxy.

Which
going into the army.
This is a book of my
my boot?

is the
opposed
neatest boot,your boot or
friend.
The
to reason.
elephant and beaver's instinct approachesclosely

James

sister thinks

saucy servant of

too

much

of dress.

under

following
examplesby the rule:
did you see yesterday? Who
did

help us

should

we

reward.

ehj^uldst
punish,not I,who
Will you

cousin?

who

see

that

He
am

who

VIII.

Kule

Correct the
Who

like to

your's. That is a robin,thrush,or sparrow'snest

8. Examples

my

I would

"

he

marry?

committed

innocent.

They that

the offence thou


should I find but

Who

and I sit together? I did not know

let him

to send.

Let

him

and

the boat back.

row

I can't tellwho

you

mean.

and they that are feeble do guard


fight,
and ye only will I
Ye have ever been my friends,
duty at home.
trust. Both candidates are popular men, and it is quitedoubtful
the last speech the
who the people will choose. He
that made
Let

the able-bodied

audience

men

cheered.
9. Examples

Correct,
by the Cautions
I "?rill
not take that

uiojer

the
,

course

Eule

IX.

examples:
following
I did not like neither
by no means.
"

SYNTAX

his
never

his practice. I
nor
principles
can
justifysuch conduct.

Neither

he

wheres.

no

nor

No

knows

one

him

and

soon

The

occurrence.

the

be

never

better,

no

never

neither

no-

go
nor

now,

the

nor

causes

Nothing

more.

story.

him,

trust

no

any-

effects of

Know
whether

I shall do
said

how

if she

could.

I will send thee far from


of
description
I

names.

got

no

to
apple-trees

nor

clear and

She

favors
trim

told

how

hence

picnicwhere

our

never

it.

remarked

He

decree.

I w^ill ascertain

no.

believed

he

issued

time

he mentions
in the

them

how

often.

all of

Tell

me

no.

she would

George
under

us

It isn't

He

arrive

valuable.

was

army.

he

true,or

that

Gentiles.

to the

of seldom

no?

if it is

me

smoothly.

Did

beautifully.
be thy son's coat, or

this

it,or

feels very
incidents are

Such

answer.

emperor
seemed

She

whether

now

harshly. Satin

decisive

then

safelyand sound?

trees

will

He

neither the

expressionssounded

His

come

to

write

cannot

influences.

such

He

not

269

CONSTRUCTION.

else believes

one

resolved

am

time.

other

Give

IN

ERROKS

"

good

wrote

assumed
for pear-

delivered the address

distinct.

10. Examples

Rule

ui^der

X.

Oh, unfortunate me ! why did I not heed your counsel ? Me excepted,


of the club.
Him
they were all members
guiding,we took
the forest-path
in confidence.
They refused to begin the contest,
the performance will be successful.
absent.
Them
us
assisting,

11. Examples
Correct

They
their

followingexamplesby

confess

the

evening.

neither

and
His

nor

came

and

power

John

Creator.
this

He

the

conduct

sent

and
was

XI.

the Cautions

wisdom

James

was

Rule

under

and

Henry
unkind

for. We

"

love

and

goodness of

and

Charles

and

unjust and

will

turn
remerciful.
un-

pervert the noble faculty

of

speech when we use it to the defaming,or to disquietour neighbors.


We
hope that we shall hear from him, and that he has returned.
I always have
and
I always shall be of this opinion.
The work was
executed with rapidityand promptly. It is a region
of
rural
distinguishedby many
charming varieties
scenery,
and

which

may

and
voluntarily,

be
a

termed

the

Arcadia

conqueror.
23*

of Scotland.

He

retired

270

GRAMMAR.

ENGLISH

Are

lazyin

not

we

make

or
duties,

our

Christ

of them

In

pursuitswe embark with pleasureand land sorrowfully.


It is a good which
neither
depends on the will of others nor on
the affluence of external
Either
fortune.
sentences
are
simple or
His fortune has not only suffered by his folly,
but his
compound.
health.
This is not merely a questionof interest,
but of rightalso.
and he is good to the poor.
He was
A man
not a rich man,
may
smile and smile,and he is a villain. Charles V. retired to a convent,
is
and chess
Back
to thy punishment,
a
fascinatinggame.
false fugitive
I and to thy speed you may
add wings. Genius hews
out its figurefrom the block,and with the sleepless
chisel he gives
it life. Neither Whigs or Tories foresaw the bad effects of the
passage of the bill. No one gave his opinion as modestly as he.
many

12. Examples

XIII.

Ruxes

under

XIV.

and

the followingexamples:
Correct,
by the Cautions,
"

engaged with

am

rivers.

I left my

it that you

on

candidate.
what

are

are

That

in my
has

strong prejudiceto the

is too

her

indulgent with
should profitfrom

We

careful with

is not

boy

friend

My

mother
intent?

so

Come

to home.

wrong.

That
you

others.

book

lies among
two
house.
They insist

Mesopotamia

work.

my

his

the

child.

experienceof

With

books.

With

what

does

he excel ?
Who

Go, little
evenings with is well known.
pathy
antiinsect : the world is wide enough for you and I. Mankind's
for snakes is derived,some
Do
know
you
say, from Adam.
who
was
are
speaking to? Gibbon
engaged with his great
you
work

spend

you

about twenty years.

rely? Though

we

your

with

much

young

But
In

Correct,
by
can

I?

sheep as

turn, and

presidedupon

in whom

the

can

assembly

ride
So you must
horseback after we.

it

the

singlefightour

strengthto try.

under

Rule

XV.
"

write better than

as

Caution,the followingexamples:

I know

well

and

for you

vain

were

13. Examples

than

he

man,

we

dignity.
On

Who

shall

Where

him?

James

better than

wolf.

He

is

no

Whom
him.

better

does he honor
The

lion

spelleras I.

can

more

devour

SYNTAX

14. Examples
rain

Unless

XVI.

Eule

under

be

shall

we

comes,

271

CAUTIONS.

SPECIAL

"

for to

sure

go.

expected

to

yesterday. Govern your own


temper, and thus teach
half the town, I
As we
others to.
marched
through the streets,
With a few simple words he
out for to see
should think,came
us.
Buy the best
proved the previous speaker to have been mistaken.
in the market, or, at least,
standing by the door,I
try to. While
have

the

saw

you

seen

processionto

the

round

pass

I should

to deliver this message.

have

colonel bade

The

corner.

have

to
preferred

me

taken

an

outside seat.

209.

Errors

I.

1. Caution
These

Ex.

You

Avoid

"

low

are

by Special Cautions,

to be corrected

Tnigarisms.

expressions which

uneducated

are

adopt.

to

sure

that game.
That is tip-top.Go it,boys. Keep
your eye peeled.I'll break your top timbers;and others without number.
"

can't

the

2. Caution
These
a

Ex.
to

II.

in the

sound

Where

"

That

depends

Ex.

My

"

will have
Well

place for

upon

"

foilageof

causalitiesof that battle


what

I disremember

necessiated

was

voilent prespiration.The

Avoid

the

fearful.

were

told

you

me.

proTinciaiisms.

to certain

heap better.
chance.

rightsmart

He

refugematter?

The

expressions confined
father is a

from

ipsedixie.

your

III.

the

fit to eat.

not

are

word, sometimes

true

word.

all got into

3. Caution
are

all perversions;

corruption of the

is beautiful.

cowcumhers

These

of

We

in autumn

Them

from

is the

stay to hum.

trees

Avoid

"

sometimes

come

mistake

come

localities in the

country.

same

I reckon I will never

succeed.

it commenced
started,

we
Directly

You
to rain.

I guess that will do.


(loal),

4. Caution

IY.

These

using words

consist in

"

Avoid

misapplications.

either with

meaning

wrong

or

in

wrong

connection.

Ex.
Fruit
Which
seven

I have

"

in

broughtthe

damp

cellar is incident to

of these six
but
pear-trees,

they would

not

balance of the books.

decay.

pencilswill you

take ?

neither of them

lived.

speak

to one

another.

The

This

is

It didn't

I will take
The
farmer

two

likely
youth.

hurt

me

were

any.

We

either.

boys

had

so

fewerhay

had
angry,

than

he

272

ENGLISH

expected. He
I shall

to me,

teacher
The

had

the

learned

council

maple

sugar

my

brother

to

ship

The

Let

two

sides

him.

I expectsome

school

do

He

equal.
is

of his

long

It is

for

you

short

making

road

He

has

never

and

well

been

raised f

where

The

could

do

proved

he

I diflered icith

undertaking.
on

does not

calls.

your

advice.

the

affection

it.

It is not

She

friends
so

easy

are

as

hard

to

blame

near

get money

gentlemen.
the desk,

whether

know

his

pledge

We

never

false

placed me

I
plaintiff.

or

stories

His

apology.

Your

I do not

room.

defendant

an

banished

was

honest boors than

will.

never

of the

Solon

admit

honor.

alienated

He

his best friends.

credits and

the

received

he

its
overflown

though I

as

I shall confide

turning.

no

sacred

succeeded,and

engaged by

manner

as

our

the farther end

James

has

rather live with

spend it. I would

he

you

I carried

3.

lives,fortunes,and

our

Do

that sled.

was

trees.

improperellipses.

offence which

an

cloud.

demonstration

the

his father.

Avoid

"

216,

as
acquaintance

country.

as

V.

/rom

averse

independent

It is

"

I feel

gave

fallthe

river has

sleigh. The

whole
He

was

broke

boys

month.

will

in
sitting

Where

on

see
ellipses,

Ex.

and

is

sun

a cure.
affected

like I do.

5. Caution
For

has

woodsman

The

of the

horse

the harbor

him

He

in

If you will not go


the river in a flat-boat. The

neighbor.

rode down

arithmetic.

boys

medicine

laid in

it.

We

settingall night. The

was

love

banks.

lessfruit-trees than his


to you.

come

GRAMMAR.

he has

surprised at

was

swallow

to

the

Baron

as

Munchausen.

VI.

6. Caution
Repetitions are
against

(2) of the

repetition(1)

idea, or

same

Avoid

one

of the

nearly

repetitions.

unnecessary

ahcays censurable.

not

needless

"

same

The

caution

tcord

or

any

is intended
of

to

guard

its derivatives

allied to it.

formationof the different /orm.?of the verb,we should be


careful to use the present participle
/orm, and
informing the progressive
and
the passiveparticiple
in forming the passiveform. Her
faithfulness
Ex.

"

In the

deserved
fidelity

much

7. Caution
Ex."

you

He

never

line of railroad
The
so

Avoid

YTI."

Have

ofit.

praise.
unnecessary

words.

No ; but Mr. Jones talks of buysold your


house ?
ing
This
law.
the
denied bid that he was
to
opposed

opens

up

fine prospect for this section of the

State.

gratefulacknowledgments for the support hitherto


liberally
extended,and which has so greatlycontributed to this satisBoard

offer their

274

GRAMMAE.

ENGLISH

To

well-built two-story house,containingeleven

let,a

and
dry cellar,

furnace,with

new

French

roof.

large,

rooms,

brought home

man

Newfoundland

dog in his shirt-sleeves.


I feel obligedto reluctantly
remind
promise. He ought
you of your
After the firing
to be without doubt regardedas the real inventor.
ceased,
lie was
and cautiously
to slowly
retreat.
seen
my

9. Caution
is

Language
be expressed.
be

hath

Art

"

caught

Adieu

style,it

in

familiar

in the

styleis

feeding the
Mr.

trout.

to you, fair Ehine

hotel is

new

liveth at

O you

Parnassus

the

poetic

thought

styleshould
and

elevated

offensive.

thou to school

No.

late ?

Washington
I

! whom

to

now

He

Street.

survey.

Examples.

the market.

old

How

are

you

am

these

going

twelfth
year.)

"

used

to

{isbuilding.)Large suppliesof

"

upon

Deity,in

Camest

Jones

built.

being

goods are beingthrown


on
[inmy
for twelve.
He

suited

highest degree

cows

the

to

210. Miscellaneous
A

is not

discourse, the ancient,poetic,or sacred

common

thou

expressions.

nsibccoming

in addresses
apostrojjhe,

composition, the
Ex.

Avoid

"

unbecoming when,

In

In

avoided.

IX.

(vulgarisms).

to was, used to could

walk, like I do. {as.)


They were not fortunate in choosinga day, like we were.
is not as tall as George. {sotall.)
James
He brought home
glovesand laces,and all those sort of things.
not as difficult as they feared.
The ascent was
You will find these kind of applesexcellent for winter use.
I had rather stay at home.
rather.)
{ivould
Turn

toes

your

when

out

you

"

"

"

We

ainH

going to

It ainH any
There is a
He

sent

Our

use

for

was

The
you

in this hive.

drones

fellow like

to

me

great deal of fat cattle to

mustn't
you

go

in the

near

milked

try.

{greatdeal.)
Brighton. (greatnumber.)

capitalin the

minister is justrecoveringfrom

Have
It

any

good deal of idle

They attacUed us
morning, I tell you.
You

have

night; and

John

"

"

fsevere

we

the water, for I'm

the cows,

country.

attackt of the

Yanks

I didnH

will be droumded.

yet,sir.

impossibleto say who it was fired by.


pleasureof your evening'sparty depends very

for company.
Haven't you no idea who
have

I don't think

no

worse

it was

of him

?
for that.

till

busy enough

were

afraid you

gout.

"

(I hmenH.)
much

upon

who

SYNTAX

could not do it justice


by

You

I reckon

New

generally used

I meant

to have told you

He

us

They

with

come

How

guess

is in

(in.)

come.

"

chickens.

catches my

cat

all these weeds

came

liked to have

cityyesterday. (went.)
Philadelphiathis week, if I

to

"

postponed.

meeting was

have

into the

us

certainlycome
jealousthat the

RTQ

the

he would

word

I shall
I

States,as

Southern

I guess he is about eighty.


of the convicts of the State Prison is two hundred.

number

sent

the

in

rain.

much

so

father ?

old is your

The

after

dry spellnow,

give.

for think.

England,

How

is

reckon

word

The

shall have

we

could

description
you

no

275

USE.

IMPROPER

"

(suspidov^.)

"

I expectthey grew.

parsnips?

my

among

can.

"

(suppose.)
{at.)
has both talent and capacityin business.
(forbusiness.)
the beggarsand vn^etcheder poor keep themselves warm
by sundry
general will

The
He

four o'clock

about

arrive in Boston

p.

M.

"

"

And

recollections of

is

After

an

under

down

the firsttree I

came

to.

child ; he cannot
lay stillor set stilla moment.
of eggs, she generallywants
has lain a certain number

uneasy

hen

I laid
fatigue,

with

Overcome
He

summer.

to

Bet.
is

Lay

lie
transitive,

an

Set is sometimes

verb.

intransitive

intransitive,

but usually transitive;sit is always intransitive.

do you

How

lost the knife father

I have
The

robin

told you

Who

knew

never

skate.

"

(toteach.)

tolerablewell.

last Christmas.

giveme

the branch

alit on
finally

time did you

What

promised to learn me to
do, Mr. Brown ? Oh, I'm

has

brother

My

justabove

me.

say it wasf

the Governor

to be

was

before that Russian

present ?
had

America

such

mild

climate.

"

{has.)
good night'ssleep,he woke much refreshed.
About
midnight we were suddenlyawoke by the ringingof
All talkingceased when he begun to speak.
broke.
On tryingto get up, he found his leg was
After

I waited
He

till noon

only done

I drunk

no

his

tea

or

his
Iforgit

name.

He

well.

meaned

They
His

have

vessel

; but no

duty.

one

Who

the bells.

come.

done it ?

coffee for two

years.

I done

They^f

as

you

like

told

me.

tigers.

It is time to
I have

jumped over
was
spokeoff

rode

gitup.
so long,I

the fence and


the coast

would

ran

of Chili.

away.

like to walk

while.

276

ENGLISH

Byron, while
Ask

all to

in

come

Venice, is said

The

will then

we

Deceiving is much
It is the

the

book

same

evidentlynot

well

The

influence

last

and

did

about.
much

so

trouble

to

select

were

other.

extravagance

plainlyforeseen.

were

friends,in such

cases,

the

carry

well,but neither of them

ivei^e

day.

equal

to

the

speaker.

The

wisdom

Your
last

and

his decision

justiceof

is

with the proof-sheets


of the
letter,

apparent.

now

wei'e
arithmetic,

new

received

night.

Each

day, each hour, bring their temptations.

His

manly principles,and

The

audience

And

And

It

the

church

open

and

perfume,

as

world,restrains him.

pit.

dip of the

soft

company

oar, and

the

gurgling progress

gentlestlullaby.

it steals

mitigated to

nostrils out of

your

door, is the reverendest smell in the world.

commended,

was

the

night

boats,was

I think

his fear of the

not

its hats in the

wears

far into the


of the

an

friends.

your

lie.

each

and

both

are

taken

had

and

of wealth

Jones

to

three miles.

srmm

who

see

I told you

pleased with

result of his waste

to have

as

she

The

Brown

same

what

which

company

GRAMMAR.

assure

the

by

you,

sdectest circle in

very

our

village.
These

rule for

violations,by good writers, of the

nowadays

they

eventually be

will

comparison

recognized,

doubt,

no

not

are
as

common
un-

lawful

usage.

The

resort

to

begging,in

cases, is

such

in the

universal

more

south

of

Italy than in the north.


And
woe.^

"

nature, from

I have

Curtin,of Pennsylvania,delivered
seen

I cannot

him

do it

give you

the

spoonsfulof

two

hundred

an

gave

signsof

never

pepper

cayenne

girlwhat lives
hxive and

Call about

noon

"Which

is the

I think

James

I think
:

eulogy.

times.

near

with

are

round

talismen

fate,and yet wear

oat-meal,and give it just before


It is the

an

but these
s:
why's and wherefore?

believe in

Mussulmen

Mix

its works

(her.)

Ex.-Gov.

The

sighing,through all

its seat

three

four

or

the facts.
their necks.

handsfvlof

sunset.

the
never

depot.
shall

I shall be to home

largestcity,Baltimore
is the handsomest

at
or

see

another

sightlike that.

that time.
New

of the two.

Orleans

SYNTAX

PECULIAR

"

III.

277

USE.

USE*

PECtJI^IAR

211. Definitions.

usual

has

word

1. A

peculiar

when

use

it varies from

its

elassificatioriy
meaning^or relation in construction.
A ivord or an expression
has an idiomatic
use
when,

2.

with the sanction of

good authority,
"

(1.)In the same


language,as in the English, for example,
from
its generalanalogies.
departs
Ex.

story

''We

"

told

were

excitingstory,"instead

an

the
(2.)In different
languages,
marked

and

uniform

How

do you

"

How

exciting

told us."

was

Ex,

of "An

it

(3.)In

expressedwith

diflference.
do f

English.
yourself? French.

carry you

is

thought

same

"

How

goes it with

German.

youf

"

"

of general
language,it deviates from the principles

any

grammar.
Ex.

In

addressinga singleperson, we
of generalgrammar
principles
requireus to
"

Remark.
them.

This

All
is

languages have

chiefly owing

of many

mixture

ing

"

nationalities

others.
of

the

to

idioms, but

De

the Sclavonic

"

of

Vere,

alone

the
the

"

In

The

youf^

are

say, "How

character

Professor

Says

Europe

their

say, "How

art thouf^
abounds

English

in

as
language itself,

English,all the exist-

excepted

and

meet

"

mingle

less of their pecumore


or
together." With the words of these nations came
liar
of expression
modes
and
after
been
moulded
and adapted,
these,
having
;
have become
a part of our
mother-tongue. The grammarian cannot
change
these
are

above

and
not

if he would.

you

and

to

choicest

his

should

of

language, its new


*'

often

Try

to

"

if he could:

he

must

of life and

strength.

perplex the learner

be consulted

in

not

thus

cases

of

are

In

formations, and

alter the smallest

physicallyimpossible."

grammatical rules, and

elements
that

and

them

growth

his control.

beyond

will find it is

change

idiom

The

Max

attempt

MUller.
to

And

adjust the

rob

the

the

following section

arranged

language
under

its

decay,
English,

rule of

of

ho would

words
some

of

an

of its

the

peculiarities
appropriate heads,

difficulty.

212. SpecialExamples.
1. The

same

(i.)Idea-words,

word
or

may

belongto

those which

diiFerent classes.

form the substance of the


24

language.

278

ENGLISH

(a.)From
Own.

"

The

the

own

without

root,

same

horse

GRAMMAR.

(verb). The

change.

horse

is my

(adj.).

ovm

idea of peculiarownership is its prevailingmeaning.

possessivesto

In

"

that

the

Nearly all the


vrithout change,as

any
common

(noun); a
one

or

It is used
house

own

; mi/

with
position,
com-

spring;

distinct adjectiveby usage,

language are thus used,


Thus, we have
adjectives.
good
"

as

bar;

In many

springmorning."

(adj.);to

of the

words

often

iron

shower

summer

thing (verb).

any

household

thief; an

or

verba,and

nouns,

will iron the

with

emphatic. J/y house, wy

summer

summer

iron; he

idea

composition.

own

my
Sammer.

render

an

when

cases,

it becomes

such

eye him

they

eye;

the word

in effect

does

cool
not

spring;
become

by being prefixed to

a compound
noun.
interveninghyphen, as a
Thus, we
"eye-glass,
eye-witness;dog-iooih,plural (ioy-teeth;
do^'a-tongue(185,
W), dog's-tail
gxa.s"', 6ear-skin,tear'"-footj"and others almost without limit.

noun

part of

an

have

the

{h.)From
Gold.

with

modification.

some

The

to gild
gold of California (noun) ; a gold watch (adj.);
(verb); a golden opportunity(deriv.
adj.); ^o/c?-cloth,
golddust (adj.
in effect).

"

(c.)From
Weu.

root,

same

differ

t roots.

en

Anglo-Saxon weaiian, to boil. A we^/ twenty feet deep


(noun) ; the water began to well up (verb). From AngloA well man
Saxon
wel.
(adj.)
; he does well (adv.). Thus,
have bear
we
(from A.-S. beran),to carry, bear
(from A.-S.
(from A.-S. here),a kind of
bera),a quadruped,and bear
barley. We have bay, brown; bay, a body of water; bay,
a
really four different
berry; bay, a barking, to bark:

From

"

"

"

"

words.
these, there

Besides

are

words

many

but different in pronunciation,or

orthography;
lye,

lie

dye,

Remark.

pupil

into what

by

"

to

any

of

These

word,

it falls from

connect

each

belong

to the

may

in

same

pronunciation

orthography

but different

in

(bo); an'grust, ang^nst';


to

or

same

different

classes,

or

limit.

be introduced

here by requiring

form, feed, silver,fair, close, and

determine

either

form

its various

of its

words,
or

as

Let

derivation.

containing

time

in

(bo), beau

profitableexercise

any

(2.)Complex
same

may

same

the

are

use.

very

take

classes

form

sentence

the

(bow), bow

bow

die.

to their

according

the

as,

are

which

him

uses,

be

required

in its
to

unchanged

write

or

or

give orally a

uses.

those

which

express

and
idecLs,

at

the

SYNTAX

Remark.

It should

"

and connections.

[A.)
Wbo,

In

be

some

observed

279

USE.

their

is to express

generaluse

limitingwords

mere

connectives,

(1.)Pronouns

Wbicli.

that

they are

cases

Snbordinate

PECULIAR

"

having also

or

connectives.

mere

substantive

and subordinate connectives

ideaa

use.

the

at

same

time.
Who,

and

(2.)also,When, Where, Why, How,

Which,

all other interrogative

words.

Who,

What.

rogative
interor
Interrogative
pronouns,
adverbs,when used to ask a question.
and
subordinate
(3.)Indefinite
interrogative
pronouns
and the others conjunctive
when
adverbs,
connectives,
is incorporated into
the interrogativesentence
another sentence.
(See 78, 4,5.)

Which.

Besides the

uses

mentioned

on

78, it is,

page

"

asked what
"He
(1.)An indefinite
interrogative
pronoun:
happened."
(2.)An adverb: "The
having his country wasted,
enemy,
what (partly)
by himself and what (partly)
by the soldiers,
findeth succor
in no place."
For whoever,
For

the

of that,

uses

*(j5.)
Subordinate
As.

(1.)A part of
he

was

(2.)A

whatever,

whosoever,
see

silent."

subordinate

compound
'^

As

177, 14, 15.

see

78.

page

connectives,
a

whatsoever,

having also

"^5

preposition.

for me

and

adverbial

an

use.

to that

matter,

house."

my

connective.

(a.)Conjunctive adverb

of

"Speak

manner:

as

you

think."

of

comparison:

is

He

as

tall

his brother."

as

of time:
he
of

"

"

I arrived

(when)

as

taking his leave."

was

^^As

(since)
you take the responsibility,
I will proceed."
of correspondence:"As
the
door turneth on
its hinges,
cause

or

reason

doth the slothful

so

man

on

his bed."

of

an
"

adversative

Fatiguedas

four hours."

meaning::
I was, I walked

280

ENGLISH

[b.)A
"

Such

as

index
"

attends."

to

be

This

use

ence

to the

of

man."

is often

as

called.

is often

ye do, do it

It is

When

adverb:

Alter,

as

as

"A

that which

be

regarded.

shall

therefore

consider
The

refer

or
as

subsequent

highest rank
made

man

follow

cannot

I have

used

when

the

(sec 183, 13)

the Lord."

the

denotes

as

particular view

some

"We

unto

having attained

adverb

no

position.
pre-

"

covery."
dis-

new

the first part of

as

as.

"

to introduce

is used

we

to

yet (untilnow)

an

is the

noun

Sometimes

[or]house."
or

as

vice."

heartily,as

as

"As

adverb:

correlative:

him

is to

thing

relation

after

in construction

term

participle,and

to show

the term

same

than

antecedent
as

used

ever,
not, how-

must

learner, especiallywhen

rather

considered

It

preposition.

the

to the

(not a proposition)

term

prepositionis

which

sense

limit the

They regarded

"

in

is in

adjectiveor

an

(3.) An

Remark.

join only

the

The

troublesome

to

Whatsoever

"

so

"Vice

of itself.
"

far resembles

term

it is used

attribute

so

character

or

antecedent

Sometimes

to

serves

representingdifferent
things ; whereas

terms

copacityfrank,

term

and

this account

on

between
the

the connective

use

superior term,

but by an ellipsis)
:
(not strictly,
have give I unto thee."
satellite
"The
moon
as
of apposition-'
They regard him as innocent."

relative pronoun

(c.)An

In this last

GRAMMAR.

of

name

supply

must

examples, it

illustrative

it:

an
"

object;
The

rule

junctive
con-

[is]John, Boston,

as

is

is

follows,"

as

"

lows,
it fol-

follows.

until,ere,
words, such as before,
since,till,
"e. (see 143, 18), are
junctive
conexcept,save, for, notwithstanding,
adverbs when
they connect subordinate clauses ; when
or
a pronoun
as
object,they are
they are followed by a noun
adverbs.
Several of them are used as mere
Thus,
prepositions.
his
friend.
AfterI left he wrote
we
afterme.
have, He came
and

other

many

"

We

left

not

seen

of the

after. He

soon

him

since.

the rain is over', he

(3.)Defining
limit,unite,or
1

and

The

Since

are
prepositions

or

show

at home

has been

in

went

connecting

returned,I

some

under

uses

since
have

adverbs

or

ill."

been
"

; it is under

words,

I have

noon.

words

thus,

over

Most
head

the house."

used

chieflyto

transitions.

when
division of limitingadjectives,
or
a
articles,
when
is a preposition
placed
A
they belong to nouns.
in
and
before a participle;
composition;
as, a hunting;
is an adverb when
prefixedto an
as, aground,aloft. The
I see him, the
adverb
or
an
adjective;as, ^'The more
are

better I like him."

282

GRAMMAR.

ENGLISH

(1.)(For,subor.-conj.)See After.
He
(2.) (Prep.) I will call for you.

To.

For,

Either

may

knife."
"For

They

him

be

supplied before

lack

to deceive

the

antecedent

the

indirect

object:

when

term

used

is inexcusable."

me

will send to
"He

before

''To write

bought [for]me
a

the

me.

phrase

as

subject.
is not

same

things

is

required.

profitable."

(1.)(Noun.)

Macii.

(2.)(Adj.)
(3.)(Adv.)

Where
ilft^cA ado
I

given,much

is made.

pleasedwith the

much

was

is

much

visit.

(1.)(Limitingadjective.) He had no funds.


(2.)[a.)(Adverb, a modifier.) No longer.

No.

"

will do it." To
[b.)(Adverb, independent.) "No, I never
this add, as independentadverbs,yes, will,why. "Are you
going? Fes," I am going.
Well,what shall we do?
Why, I do not know."
"

*-

(1.) (Noun.)

Now.

Now

is your

time.

now.
(2.)(Adverb.) Come
(3.) (Coordinate causal conjunction.) Now

more

subtle

than

beast

any

the serpent was

of the field.

connective. ) Now
(4.) (Correlative
miss.
Pope.
up, now

high,now

low,now

master

"

used with had to express


are
(adv.),also lief,
better,
best,
equal willingnessor preference. Probably they were
tion
originally mistaken
interpretationsof the abbreviaFd, i.e.I would; not / had.
They are idiomatic
and are
in good use.
I had rather speak
expressions,
five words with my
I had as liefgo
understanding."
You
had better stay."
as not."

Ratber

"

"

"

"

So.

(1.)(Adverb of
is

so

manner

or

thus.) Do

degree,
=

it

so.

The

air

clear.

(2.)(Subordinateconnective.) So he can gain his point,he is


unscrupulous as to the means.
of an expression.)
used to avoid the repetition
(3.)(A substitute,
I
There.

am

in earnest,but

he is

more

so,

in earnest.

^Aere might well


Darkness
opposed to Aere.
seem
twilighthere.'' Milton.
(Adv. expletive.) It has no specialvalue in this use.
is a pleasurein the pathlesswoods."
"There
Byron.

(Adv.)

"

It is

"

"

Then.

(1.)(Adv.) Of
of those

time

dire arms?"

merely.

"Till

then who

knew

the force

PECULIAR

SYNTAX

"

Of succession.
eye, and

is used
the

with

sometimes

or

so

that

has

man

to indicate

now

own

all

natural freedom.

advance

an

in

is established.

previous point

of thine

out

clearly,""c.

see

"Noic, then, be

by hearing."

beam

the

out

If this be so, then

speaker assuming

faith Cometh

cast

then shalt thou

(2.)(Conj.)
Then

First

283

USE.

thy weighty

an

ment,
argu-

"So, then,

away."

cares

(1.) (Adv.), also therewith,whereby, wherewith,therein,


"You
will gain fhereby.
wherein, hereby,herein,"c.
"Herein
"Hereby shall I know that you are true men."
thou hast done foolishly."
(2.)(Conj.adv.) "Acquaint thyselfwith him, and be at
Bible.
unto
thee."
therebygood shall come
peace;

Thereby

^^

"

It is to be regretted that
in
such

the

language

words

these

relative words,

century ago,

passing

are

"c.
thither,hither,thenceforth,

as

place

of whither

where

and

there

thither,for example.

or

expressive,and

so

These

difficult to

is

mon
com-

with them

and

of use,

out

It

so

supply the

direction,whereas

denote

denote, rather,i:"lace.

(1.)(Noun.) "It has a real wor^A."


(2.)(Adj.) "A ring he hath of mine worth fortyducats,"
of the value of. The idea of a prepositionis involved
in the word, as in like or near.
be to the man,
Woe
(3.)(Verb.) Woe worth the man,"
be
"Let woe
imper. mode, or infin. after /e^understood.

-wortb.

=:

"

"

to the

man."

The
deed was
(Adv.) Yet more.
professionof friendship.
(Coor.conj.) Yet I say unto you,
his glory was
not arrayed like one

Yet.

2. Certain

and
are

to

To

"

the

till every
A

noun

study these,as

student

with

than

word

is

noun.

to

We

them

is

connected

forms
with

the

with

compatible with

in all

"

Bible.

meaning
of

the

idiomatic,
and

expression,is
tenacity

class and

force

far

of the

more

marian
gram-

rule of construction.

followingcombinations

"

be

Solomon

even

(1.)"o4ir(linate;
as, brother and sister/man
vice and misery; horse and chaise; bread
sorrow;
[a.)These may
example" which

by the

of these.

their

to its proper

have

yet darker

become

authorized
follow

adjusted
"

That

combinations

or

when
inseparable,
practically
lost by analysis.

Remark.
useful

phrases

made

each

and

wife; Joy

and

milk.

"

and

predicate,for
separately:as, The bro-

term

"

as

"

284

ENGLISH

ther and

the sister

home,"

at

are

GRAMMAR.

is at home

brother

The

and

the sister is at home.

(b.)They

be united to

may

combination

which

term

such, and yet be looked


inseparable."

as

and

misery are
and idiomatic
(c.)By a common
regarded as one thing,and unite with
"

chaise is at the door."

horse and

only belongto the


separately;as, "Vice

can

upon

come
they may
accordingly;as,

use,
term

Bread

and

be

to
"

The

is the best food

milk

for children."

(2.)Subordinate;

as, David's

"

Apostle John;

the

harp;

an

or/s^er-saloon.
unites subordinatelywith the principal,
noun
(a.)The possessive
by the latter is owned by
primarilyto show that the objectnamed
the person
named
by the former; as, John's coat.
Most

of the

that

Observe

(185).

of the

peculiar uses
the

two

nouns

mentioned
under
are
possessives
denote
objects.
different

in Apposition; Arnold
[b.)The noun
George Washington; Ye tw^w of Athens.
For
Here

the idiomatic

the

(c.)As

the

denote

nouns

this combination,

of

uses

(183, 2, 3, "kc.)

object.

same

adjective; as, A varietystore

an

VI.

Rule

see

VII.

King Henry;

the ii^aitor;

"

Rule

"

waXl;

stone

brick

house.

adjectiveit shall
a

require that when

of general grammar
principles

The

be used

undergo

change

some

But

in

as

an

any

leads

is idiomatic, and

use

to

an

gold-en harvest

without

noun,

becomes

noun

j as, "A

of termination
almost

English

girdle."
adjective. This

leather-n

change,

may

variety of

con-

Bcquences.
First.

gate."
Secondly.
the limited

Thirdly.
of

engine"
Fourthly. To

pressure

"

"

follow

nor

ambiguity,

avoid

This

white-oak

; as, "A

pail,a

white
almost

"

pole;"
the

noun

by
^^

must

adjective signifying

an

forty horse
otherwise

tac/e-maker,"
"

not

power,"
"

iron

from

different
thing

adjective,still retaining some


like the

not

the

is often

case

when

oak-pail."
any

high-

to unite

such

in the

result

the

two

would

Dictionary

the

word.

singidarnumber,

plurality:as, "K

horses' power.

no

See

common

be in the

used

as, "A

engine."

highlypressure

"a

hyphen

noun;

This

foot pole;"
must

be

so

even

"a
even

when

ten-foot
when

a spec'
plural; as, "A ftoice^-complaint,
a "pec"acA2"-maker.'*
ftowefo-complaint,

is used
"

the

is often

compounds of dog, bear, fire,or


thus used
Fifthly. The noun
limited

means

It is limited

noun.

high engine,"

"a

word.

compound

of apposition,it

only partiallyan

of the

not

the other; as, "An

placed before

berry pie."

becomes

It

the characteristics

into

case

; as, "A

noun

"

the

Unlike

"

be

adjective-nounmust

The

"

only in

the

SYNTAX

witli

noun

verb,

{a.)As

subject.

Here

verb

the

"

is used
a

similar
house

rule
"

such

The

feeble

fault remain

constructions.
formed

expressions

are

In

become

subject to
''Flour

as,

"c.

making,"

are

"He

''Sight

The

of notice

that

deserving

from

the most

familiar

sightand
with

abounds

language
these

verb

object"with

Here

fault with."

found

the

to

grammarian's

lost of the

objective.

It is

the

passive

was

was

in the

use

closelyallied

so

the

using

Compare

sight of."

idiomatic

by

has

part of it.

construction.

lost

object was

similar

"Efforts
is building;"'

objectivenoun

apparently

gives

of the

"

the

cases

to form

as

object.

him.

In

capacity

progressive form;

the

have

we

way

reads well.

sentence

They laid siegeto the city. ThQj found fauU


They lost sightof the object.

[b.)As
with

In

act.

the

denote

passively,to

is sellinghigh,*" "The

the

receive

That

steak eats well.

The

"

285

USE.

PECULIAR

"

rich and

vigorous

elements.

Anglo-Saxon

and
noun
a
an
(c.)A double
adjective;as, to lay the
object,
head low,to drink the cup dry,to plough the furrow deep,to bake
"

the bread

the

Here

by

means

of

the

brown.
adjective expresses

of the

gives

attribute

which

hence

helps

the

Here

to

attribute

new

wal^

as, to

verb;

imparted

to the

complete

the

the

to

lame, to
of).

self rid

{rid,pas. part.,to get one's

rid of

it

is

noun,

object

meaning
"

tive
attribu-

(a).

witb

adjective

it

as

object. See 187,


An

of the verb

action

inasmuch

verb,

an

adjectives or participlesbelong

the

to

late,to get

come

the

subject,but modify

action.
A

with

preposition

verb

as, to

(accenton to,to recover


by, to go by,to go over with,to
up, to do for,to lay up, "c

to

to

come

come

do

Examples
to the

united
with

of this

kind,

verb

to form

verb

the

into

not

meaning.

These

as

an

by

These
A

be

called

with

are

==

almost

whenever
but

not

is

often

be

from

They
the verb

entirely changed

alone.

If

parsed by

joined

to

go
the
in
the

themselves.

(coordinately)
; as,

preposition

closely

so

innumerable.
taken

taken
to

to

prepositions are

two

or

adverbs,if

it,they

on

part of it,are

weakened,
of

from
do

buy in,off,out;
swoon), to bring to, to
don, to do off= doff,to
to ;

up

over

and

by,through and through,"c.

should

be taken

preposition

as, in

becomes

inseparablepart

and

one

passive voice,and

must

preposition

over,

the

only

expression
verb

as

in which

act

vain,at

with

at
first,

together as inseparable adverbial


an

adjective

large,at

phrases.

(some noun
being understood);
on
high.
least,

most, at

286

ENGLISH

These
A

end

to be taken

are

inseparable adverbial

as

preposition,

nonn,

GRAMMAR.

and

noun

phrases.

as, hand

for end, cheek byjowl,face to face,year

All

such

If they

are

with

expressions
to be

separated, the

Two

The
or

"

They

second

is

(1.) The firstused


field. He

went

regarded

hand

or

as

witboat

the
thus ordainedj

as,

He

feet of the

ten

Each

"

3. The

lute
absoa

sition
prepo-

[with] hand

several functions at

into the open

verb,
enemy's works" (up,adten feet, space, within,
=

be lived w/) ^o."

these

when

"The

thingswere

often.?'

has its use,

in the

word

"

always into the first tabernacle."

offer himself

connective

same

"

or

out

came

as, ''Now

priestswent

''Nor yet that he should


Remark.

by analysis.

nominative

as

conjunction,

a
"

adverb:

an

conjunctions;

more

force

[being] to hand,"

governing the expression^i7Am


U),prep.
^rcp. governing/ee^).
(2.)Both used as adverbs. " The rule must
whole subjectwas
ivith."
gone over
Two

their

governed by the prepositionexpressed.

to within

up

lose

be

perhaps better,governed by

or,

fought

prepositions,

more

and

first may

participleunderstood,

understood.
to hand."

adverbial,

are

hand, hand to mouthy


by year, day by day,"c.
to

and

should

always

be

connection

same

explained.

may

form
per-

once.

It may
stand as different parts of
{a.)The adjectiveused as a noun

speech at the
maybe a noun

time.

same

in its

regimen,

"

but

We
honor
the brave."
adjectivein its limitations ; as,
"The
most
abandoned."
When
comes
an
adjectivebedegeneratewere
wholly a noun, it is limited as a noun.
the infinitive
have the construction of
or
{b.)The participle
may
the noun, but the tense and limitations of the verb,at the same
the occasion of
time; as, "His not having written the letter was
much
inconvenience."
To see the sun is pleasant."
an

"

(c.)All

relative pronouns

have

both

and

substantive

nective
con-

"

ceived
What, in the example, He restantive,
subwhat
instructions were
adjective,
required,"is at once
and it connects.
and connective; i.e. it has case, it limits,
(See 77, 5.)

value

the

at

213. Exercise"
1.

Analyze and

The

learned

same

time.

Idiomatic
parse

pagans

and

Peculiar

Constructions,

the followingexamples:
"

ridiculed the Jews

for

being

credulous

SYNTAX

IDIOMATIC

"

287

CONSTRUCTIONS.

people. That the barons and freeholders derived their authority


It is certainlyas easy to be a
from
kings is wholly a mistake.
of there ever
I am
not
scholar as a gamester
sure
having been
than can
The boy has more
such a man
excuses
as
Casper Hauser
Six times six are
in the allotted hour.
be considered
thirtysix.
He received sixty-twoand a half cents for every three pounds he
to action.
us
furnished. The thought of being good ought to arouse
Cursed
is he that setteth
The higher one
is,the farther he can see.
The
distance
fell a little short
lightby his father or his mother.
of

wind

The

twenty miles.

I
sake,and Israel mine elect,
To be good is to be happy.

introduced

He

I rejoicein your

servant's

by thy

success

as

honor

president, an
"

name.
an

structor
in-

which

soon

sunshine
am

called thee

even

to the

my

The rain and the


forget. They struck one another.
It is man's to err.
have each its appropriatework to do.
There shall nothing
and my beloved is mine.
beloved's,

shall not

me

have

Jacob

For

cold.

blows

my

die of all that

children's of Israel.

is the

Were

you

at

Beecher's

evening'slecture ? In Henry the Eighth's reign England and


Wales
were
completelyunited. This book was purchased at Little
Whom
do you
and Brown's.
?
have they elected chairman
What
call it?
By the world, I Avould not care a pin if the other thtee
in
in. For one to steal is base.
To confess the truth,I was
were
fault.
Then
shalt thou bring forth that man
unto
.or that woman
thy gates,and shalt stone them with stones tillthey shall die. He
last

was

2. Parse
To
I

being twelve
\A11

whatever,
you,

lord in one's

of his

is worth

Wheat

do ye

to

so

Thinks
may

me

this

And

cup

black.

The

be romantic/madness.

The
ye

affair is of

whole

would

that

men

no

account

should

do

to

faultless piece to see,

ne'er was,
we

nor

is,nor

shall press

e'er shall be.

the

measure

vigorously.

once.

all the air

messenger

closet would

bushel.

oppose,

Save where
A

"

themj

thinks
what

in italics :

having been a teacher. Was this owing


the Gothic
nations?
primary deities among

things whatsoever

Whoever

Excuse

"'

ever

dollar

even

Whoever

to weep.

as

explainthe words

aware

there

to

and

be
affect^to
not

am

affected

much

so

solemn

stillnessholds,

the beetle wheels

his

droning flight.

rushingfrom the crowd.


knife was
ground sharp. The

came

The
more

fire turned
I read

the

it,the

288

ENGLISH

"

better I like it.


intruder.

"/

Who

GRAMMAE.

you f"

are

his

was

greetingto this strange

the answer.
Let there be
you" was
the committee.
light. Every thing depends iipon who
compose
and two
We
found four persons : namely, two men
He
is
women.
Parrots
both witty and
wise.
The
will talk like persons.
boy is
and
like his father. He
some
some
apostles,
prophets,and
gave
and some
some
evangelists,
pastors and teachers. He bids whoever
he had the boldness even
thirst to come.
rejected,
Though he was
to renew
his application. They talked the night away.
They ran
the train at the rate of fifty
miles per hour.
This is what do you
will not

hurt

"

call it?

I know

They

hut

rose

as

to send.

whom

not

fathers

your

Let

rose.

communication

your

be

If

they kill us, we shall but die. Give


thanks
ever.
forendureth
unto
the Lord,/or he is good; for his mercy
The
cloth is five dollars a yard. They go a begging to a
bankrupt'sdoor. They are beautiful in themselves,and much more
in the noble language peculiarto the great poet. Though all
so
the earth,so truth
let loose to play upon
the winds of doctrine were
her strength. Discourse
to misdoubt
do injuriously
be in the field,
we
Not this
animated
oft wants
an
no.
Go, and sin no more.
and

yea, yea,

nay,

nay.

but Barabbas.

man,

I think

as

did;

hard

her

to labor.

The

as

I did.

this.
of the
As

was, he had no power.


hath he removed
our

a^

There

is not

We

agreement
as

the

did;

as

received

fiirloughs.I
compelled
were

we

Rich

follows.

as

is from

east

regardresults

cannot

are

as

brought her,as pitying


crime,let us not try to

it was,

as

I live

sick

were

Sunday
far

robber.

was

substitute.

Such

as

terms

as

poverty

causes.

such

more

no

As

usage.

separatedfrom
have

I love you

enlisted

hide it. He

Barabbas

Now

the

as

west, so

he
far

As for your threats,


from us.
transgressions
heard.
As yet, nothing has been
The
I pay
heed to them.
no
it was
called. As an
as
artist,
government sent out a stone fleet,
his

success

the interior ceases, and

Will you

voice

But

that

go,

He

then

I tell thee

dismissed

about

knew

man

the doors

of
enter.
re-

all in all to him.

was

"

bees

of the

all the blind

was

stay?

pendulum,
for refusinghim.
the

at all

or

whole

the

Her

All at once, the noise

could be wished.

all that

was

It is all
it is very
He
us

dark

counted

"

to

one

us

me.

There

here."
to

For

if

see

we

all
is
were

lumed
that,"reno

reason

all present.

all.

what, corporal,I could

tear

her.

"

Shak.

What

time

290

ENGLISH

GEAMMAE.

Figuresare divided into three classes,figuresof 'Ety*


mology,of Syntax,and of Rhetoric.
"

215. Figures of Etymology.


1. A

figure

of

is

Etymology

deviation

from

the

form of a word.
ordinary
2. Figuresof Etymology consist either in a defect,
an
of the elements of a word.
excess, or a change in some
3. Aphseresis
from the beginning
cuts oif a letter or syllable
of a word ; as, Against,
^gan,for against,began.
Ex.

Around

"

'gan Marmion

4. Siyncope

of

word

Ex.

Kind

"

removes

nature's bounties

cuts off a

5. Apocope
a

word
Ex.

; as,
The

"

merrier

Ex.

And

"

; as,

tears adown

Ex.

; as,

9.
form
Ex.

the end of

quiteas

mad.

the

dusky

or

cheek

have

letter

chain.

rolled.

or

Others

two

strife to

ning
begin-

yieldthe

end of

breath.

syllablesinto

one;

as,

thou art,it is.

you'll
see,

when

all the toivn'safloat.

separatestwo vowels which otherwise might


diphthong; as, coordinate,zoology.

Diteresis
a

"

10.

We

ask your

Tmesis

word
Ex.

that

contracts

thou'rt.
His,for
"

letter

taught withouten pain and

8. Synseresis

Ex.

globe diffused.

to the
syllable
bound.
withouten,bounden, for without,

And

"

over, ever, loved,

syllableto
adown, enchain,for down,

adds

7. Paragoge
word

the middle

from
syllable
the,though.

fool o' ih^ two, yet

adds

word

o'er the

from
syllable

letter or

tN, tho\ for

6. Prosthesis

of

letter'or

for
o^er,
e^er,
lov^d,

as

wildlystare.

between
"

On

in
cooperation

this noble

enterprise.

separatesa compound word


its parts; as, to

which side

soever

we

turn.

us

a
by inserting

ward, for toward

us.

SYNTAX

FIGURES

"

OF

291

SYNTAX.

216. Figures of Syntax.


1. A

of

lignre

is

Syntax

consh'uction of

deviation

the ordinary

from

word.

an
Figuresof Syntax consist in a defect,
excess, or a
of the elements of a sentence.
change in some
is the omission of a word, phrase,or clause
3. Ellipsis
which is necessary to completethe construction.

2.

Ex.

We

"

Remark.
as

truly belong

sentence

the

to

They

expressed.

are

be understood

It should

"

that

the words

omitted

are

omitted

considered,

sentence, grammatically

agreeable

more

day.

[during] one

absent

were

by
as

this

figure
which

those

eflfect,that is, to render

for rhetorical

"

forcible.

and

takes place,
generally
Ellipsis

4.

"

to avoid the repetitionof


(a.)In coordinate constructions,

Ex.

"

much

There

vice and
one

"

different

the

same

reason.

gratitude[is].

stronger feelingthan
faces

our

as

those which
constructions,
especially

subordinate

is

tise
prac-

the other.

or

Revenge

think

write,[and who] talk,[and who]


[about]virtue,that they have no time to

comparison, for

denote

as

who

some

certain

{b.)In
Ex.

are

about

either the

are

some

part.

common

so

the

Our

minds

[are].

(c.)In certain idiomatic constructions,


"

of imperativesentences
(1.)In elements of the first
class, the subject
j
after
"Go
"Awake
after
[ye]." The noun
adjectivesor
[thou]."
"

as,

the

"

case
possessive

book

is

mine;"

(2.)In

; as,

i.e. my

elements

The

The

violent

it by force."

[persons]take

"

This

book.

of the

to before

second

class.

The

connective

May

be

omitted.

"

the indirect

object; as, He gave [to] me a


book."
The to of the infinitive after bid,dare,let,
make, hear,r^ed,feel,
To
after
"Like
his
father."
"Near
unto
or
see
like,
[to]
[to]
near;
as,
the house."
During, over, for,in,or on, before nouns
denoting time,the
of distance,
measure
magnitude,or excess; as, They left [on] Monday."
"They travelled [through] twenty miles."
Examples.

"

"

The

objectmay

be

around

[us]." In

such

adverb.

omitted;
cases, the

as, "The

leaves

were

scattered

prepositionis usuallycalled

an

292

ENGLISH

(3.)In

elements

of the

GRAMMAR.

third class.

The

be omitted

connective may

substantive clauses in the objective;as, "My

in

whispers,[that]God
is nigh." In adjective
clauses when
the relative is in the objective
; as,
The paper
is
The
house
[which]
[which] we purchased damaged."
heart

"

we

"

to stands

went

on

hill."

"

if
subjectand copulain expressionslike If [itis]possible,
if convenient,when
agreeable,while absent,""c.
necessary,
The

The

whole

Ex.

He

"

clause between
seemed

[he would

as

if,as and though.

and

as

[he were] deranged.

if

seem]

in inscriptions,
and
{d.)In exclamatorysentences,in responsives,

titles.
Ex.

is] the

New

is the

I know

"

Note.
to take

"

did you

[I saw] George. [This

see

Testament.

5. Pleonasm
Ex.

Whom

[Itis]strange!

"

words.
superfluous

of

use

thee who thou art.

Pleonasm

and
oppositeof ellipsis,

is the

place where

ellipsisshould, but

6. Pleonasm

takes

(a.) When

same

the

may

not, take

does

said,in general,

be

place.

place,
"

idea is

repeatedin

the

same

in different

or

words.
Ex.
and

1 say
Verily,
verily,

"

dwellers

unto

the earth.

on

into a sentence, and


is introduced
a noun
[b.)When
relation by a pronoun.
representedin the same
Ex.

"

Now

Harry

(c.)When

he had

noun

or

"

that God

who
of

great God

That
who

all these

7. Enallage

another,or
"

They

Emperor
Here

some

is

and

the earth ;

change

modification

fall successive

*
"

is your

men,

"

Father

of
of

[ly],and

is used

for the

lation,
re-

one
a

"

*
"

"

"

"

this God

this greatGod, the Creator

and

Friend.

part of speech for

word

for another.

successive [ly]rise.

of Russia.

the plural number

same

dailyworship ;

me

"

mediately
im-

it.

see

you

great things

worlds,of angels,and

Ex.

modifying

whom

is repeatedin the

word

other

any

created the heavens

has done

then

long suspected.

of

for the purpose


Ex.

world,

All ye inhabitants of the

you.

singular.

der,
TTe,Alexan-

SYNTAX

its song rolls the woods

While

"

217.
1. A

OF

of

figure

Figures

of another

word

on
object,

Rhetoric.

of

from

commonly

is

; it

gives to

2. Metaphor

along.

is a deviation

Rhetoric

of a
application

293

KHETORIC.

of words.
transposition

is the

8. Hyperbaton
Ex.

FIGUBES

"

the ordinary

called

trope,

objectthe appropriatename

an

of

account

resemblance

between

them.
Ex.

Man

"

! thou

smile and

tear.

comparisonintroduced by likej
as,

is a formal

3. Stimile
or

pendulum betwixt

so.

Ex.

"

4. An

kind

Ex.

"

"

7.

The

sky

saddens with the

changeof

is a

president.

his head

forests

part, as

advance

use

of

dance.

part for the whole,or the

sail for

the mountains

on

is the

8. Synecdoche

a roof for
s/iip,

the head for the person.


Ex.

"

"I

Ex.

"
"

ordered

was

9. Irony
He

sent
pre-

senses.

nodding

for

name.

real and
as
representsimaginaryobjects

^See loftyLebanon
See

whole

some
objects

gatheredstornio

will address the chair;" i.e. the

"You

to the
"

metaphor,forming a

of living
qualities
beings.

Vision

Ex.

continued

attributes to inanimate

6. Metonymy
Ex.

the rivers of water.

Pilgrim'sProgress. See, also,the EightiethPsalm.

see

Personification

of the

plantedby

fable.

parableor

examples,

5.

is

Allegory

of

For

shall be like a tree

He

is the
was

as

to call all hands"

use

of

virtuous

as

word
Nero
25*

{handsfor crew).
for its opposite.

;" i.e.as

vile as Nero.

houses

294

ENGLISH

10.

is the

Antithesijs

in
objects
Ex.

placingof contrary or opposite

contrast.

Immortal,though no

"

GEAMMAR.

11. Hyperbole

more

thoughfallen,
great.

diminishes

magnifiesor

yond
objectbe-

an

the truth.
Ex.

thy

Rivers

"

of water

down

run

mine

eyes, because

they keep

not

law.

12.

is used to express

Exclamation

strong

some

tion
emo-

of the mind.
Ex.

Oh

"

the

is used

Interrogation

under
Ex.

the form

Hath

"

he said

of

address

O grave,

15.

is

Death

is swallowed

where

is thy

What

"

hope

express

the knowledge

tion
strong affirma-

do it?

turning off

up

in

the

from

to
subject

thing.

or

victory.O death,where

series of members

risingin importanceabove
Ex.

and

is

thy stingr

victory?

is

Climax

to

will he not

other person

some

"

of the wisdom

question.

it,and

14. Apostrophe

Ex.

the riches both

of God

13.

depth of

is there

the

in

sentence

each

preceding.

if
remaining of liberty,

is their

whatever

pleasureit is lawful for them to do if whatever it is lawful for them


able to do they dare to do;
do they are
able to do; if what they are
what they dare to do they reallyexecute
they execute
; and if what

to

noway

if
is

offensive to you ?

PUNCTUATION.
218. Definitions and
1.

is the

Punctuation

*iionby

of

means

2. Points

art

of

Distinctions.

dividingwritten composi-

points.

ments
used to separate either entire sentences,or the ele-

are

of sentences.
Remark.

phraae, or

"

Let

it be uuderstood

clause.

that

an

element

may

be

either

loord,a

SYNTAX

pointshould

3. A

used,

be

not

295

PUNCTUATION.

"

"

(a.) To separate the parts of a simpleelement.


when
arranged gram^
[b.)To separate two united elements
and
closelyjoined.
matically
(c.)To separate two united elements simply because, in the
a
utterance,

Points
a

equally

used

are

should

pause

be made.

point

rather than

the sense,

to mark

generally

that

true

4. A

should

pause

made

bo

should

where

the pauses.

there

is

placed wherever

be

It is true
but

point;

there

is

that

it is not

pause.

pointis required,
"

at the end

(1.)Always

of

full sentence.

(2.)Always between the members of a


(3.)Generallybetween two elements of

(a.)When
(h.)When
(c.)When
(d.)When

several

similar

loose sentence.
a

sentence,

elements

"

together.

come

is

connected.
loosely
more
closelyconnected,but transposed.
closelyconnected, but greatly extended in
length.
When
some
important word is omitted.
(e.)
(/.)When, in any case, the meaning would be obscure or
ambiguous without a point.
As

example

an

following words
James
has

of the effect of

the

change

of

meaning

in the

"

says

he

has
"

beautifully.

James

pointing,see

Johnson

written

element

an

Johnson

says

written

James
he

beautifully.James,

Johnson,"
has

"

written

says

he,

"

Johnson

has written

says

he

fully."
beauti-

beautifully."

colon
principalpunctuationmarks are the cornma
( ),the semi( ; ), the colon {:), the dash ( ), the parenthesis( ), the
point (?),and the exclamation point(I ).
period( ),the interrogation
5. The

"

USED

POINTS

WITHIN

219. General
1. The
elements of
2. As

the

comma

SENTENCE.

of the Comma.

is used

simpleor
comma

Uses

in separating
the
principally
complex sentences.

in
interrupts,

some

measure,

the union

be employed to break the


elements,it should never
when one necessarily
restrictsthe meaning of the other.

of two

connection

296

ENGLISH

3. When

element

an

the end of

pointed off stands at the beginning or


comma
only is used; but when it stands
commas
are
usuallyemployed.

to be

sentence,one

within the sentence,two


Ex.
in

In

GRAMMAR.

fact,are

fact,the people are the dupes


the dupes of demagogues.

4. The

comma

"

that
especially
Ex.

is often

of the verb in

Semiramis

"

used

built

of

mark

to

the

omission

closelyconnected

Babylon;

The

demagogues.

of

people,

word,

clauses.
and

Dido, Carthage;

Eomulus,

Borne.

5. The

comma

be used to

may

separate,
"

(a.)Coordinate elements.
(6.)A principalfrom a subordinate element,
(c.)TvfO principalelements.
element from
[d.)An independentor a parenthetic

the rest of the

sentence.

Coordinate

220.
1. All coordinate

[a.)coordinate

elements

pairs,

Elements.
be divided

may

into,
"

consistingof
couplets,

or

coordinate

two

terms.

(b.)Coordinate

three

of
consisting

series,

or

coordinate

more

terms.
and

Thus, "Nouns
and

is
participles"

series

of

learned

compound

ignorant, cloicnish

as

good

rightto

couplet;"Nouns, adjectives,
pronouns,

In

series.

coordinate

couplets,or
or

has

pronouns" is

or

terms:

"

the

"But,

liberty

whether

innocent

polite,every
as

following example

to life."

"

have

ingenious or
without

man,

dull,

tion,
excep-

Beattie.

the closeness

pointingof coupletsdepends chieflyupon

2. The

we

of the connection.
As

general rule,two

a
are

aected

He

used, except when

when

used;
"

both

virtuous

for
is

contrast

employed

and

"

when

closelyconnected

most

wise;"

or

; and

"He

emphasis ;

less

was

virtuous

tives
correla-

closelycon-

least of all whdii

terms

not

be

of

coordinate

as
couplet,

and

none

is

wise;"

Hope

and

generalrule,

separated.

our
fear,pleasureand pain,diversify
and vjoman.
vice predominates in every man

Ex.

or

was

are

virtuous,wise."

3. The

should

used

singleconjunction

as, "He

was

elements

lives.

Virtue

298

ENGLISH

By

yet erroneously,the

some,

the

from
and

Horace,

views
the

comma

That

noun

of

subjectis

compound

rated
sepa-

of the

ancient

poets."

coupletor a series consist of coordinate


themselves
the propositions
ordinate,
are
principalor subshould separate them, except as in 227, 1,a, b, 7.

whether

"

renowned

most

the terms

Ex.

the

last

the conjunction is used; as, ^'Horner,Virgil,

when

verb, even

were

7. When
clauses,

GRAMMAR.

of

their poetry is almost

of nature

were

of
authenticity

dark

and

Ossian.

uniformly mourn
ful,and that their
dreary,will be allowed by all who admit
was
hungry, and ye gave me no meat.

221. Exercise.

Explain (220,3) why

1.

and

than

wounds

parched

John
His

prayer.

up

went

up

bitter

and

not

rated
sepa-

and

of their

mind

the

public gaze.

alluded

to

the

greatest potentates.

the

prudently.

Either

of
pu?ictuaiion

the

you

or

In

his

by

he

Explain
b, c, "c.):

powers

withered

wiselynor

2.

together into the temple at the hour


scoffingspeech had inflicted keener
The

his ambition.

conversation
neither

following coupletsare

"

Peter
of

the

I must

seem

to be

letters and
He

acted

go.

(220,4, a,
followingsyllables

"

We
often commend, as
lavish,is nature's hand.
well as censure, imprudently. He
can
None,
eat, and sleep too.
but
sent
not
to
to
aid us.
For Christ
but thou, can
me
baptize,
and
benevolent
associations,
preach the gospel. Public charities,
for the gratuitousrelief of every
are
speciesof distress,
peculiar
and
first-rate connections,
often
to Christianity.Powerful
friends,
assist a man's
rise,and contribute to his promotion. Illustrious
have
often lived unrewarded, and died unlamented.
Blow,
men
Freeze, freeze,thou bitter sky. A
blow, thou winter wind.
is a point,or mark.
Dear, gentle,patient,noble Nell was
comma
there.
The
dead.
deaf,the blind,the lame, and the palsiedwere
and
blooming youth, and helpless
Decrepit age, and vigorous life,
She plans,proinfancypoured forth to gather round her tomb.
vides,
triumphs therS. The rich and the poor, the high
expatiates,
alike to
the unlearned,have
and the low, the learned and
access
of peace.
The
this fountain
air,the earth,the water, teem with
of the ramChildren climb the green mound
part,
delightedexistence.
buttress.
and ivy holds togetherthe half-demolished

Liberal,not

PUNCTUATION

hardihood,
Epaminondas rears again,
children are with arts endued,

When

riseth Lacedaemon's

When

Thebes

When

Athens'

When

Grecian

shall

mothers

give birth
;" but

may'st be restored

thou

Then

299

ELEMENTS.

"

to men^

not

till then.

Blessing,honor, glory,might.
Are the Conqueror'snative right;
before him fall,
and powers
Thrones
Lamb
of God, and Lord of all I
"

subordinate

1. A

generallyis not separated


used
which it belongswhen

element

element to
principal
when the connection
or
restrictively,
the

from

Ex.

He

"

cases

rule

oivn

is like
spirit
The

citythat is broken
preciseperiod when
a

known.

element

adjective

his

over

is close.

earth set themselves.

is not

made

was
discovery

2. The

no

kings of the

The

down.

the

that hath

Elements.

Subordinate

Principal and

222.

should

be

pointedoff

in the

following

"

an
{a.)When
adjectiveclause,either full,or in its equivalent
(l77,12, b; 183, 3, Eem.).
abridgedform, is exiolanatory

Ex.

We

"

Passion

of his country.
whatever
In
the

this case,

two

before

sentence

When

equallyto each
The

"

is like

of
a

Washington,

who

was

styledthe father

whirlwind,prostrating
indiscriminately

is

used

are

when

the

clause

comes

within

predicate.

antecedent

is

coordinate

pointed off,to show

a
(220,1),even
the relative belongs

series

that

of its terms.

oxygen,

are
atmosphere,

(219, 3)

commas

the

the

restrictive clause

Ex.

name

in its way.

comes

{b )

the

venerate

and
nitrogen,

mingled

in

carbonic

acid,which

unite to form the

unequal proportions.

in appositionmay
be considered as derived from
(c.)The noun
an
adjectiveclause containinga predicatenoun, and is always to
be pointed off when it is explanatory(i83,3).
Ex.

I have

"

Moses, the servant of the Lord,died


killed the king,my husband.

(d.) A

noun

in

when
apposition,

used

there in the land of Moab.

or when
restrictively,

with

300

ENGLISH

personalpronoun

is not

John,

King

"

Yet, when
as,

another

or

it forms

noun

close

combination,

pointed ofP.

Ex.

"

GRAMMAR.

closelycombined

two

Levi

Lincoln,

Gates.

General

;"

"

Ye winds.

names

Harrison,

William

are

Gladdingbrothers.

inverted,the

is

comma

Henry."

in apposition,
if modified by phrases or
(e.)A noun
usuallypointed oflf.
Ex.

Theodore,the

"

(/.)A

hermit

used,

clauses,is

of Teneriffe.

in

or
an
adjectiveor participial
phrase
apposition,
subordinate
when
to
introduce
to
a
clause,
employed
equivalent a
sentence, is pointed off.

Ex.

noun

he imprisoned
professedCatholic,

"

Napoleon

camp.

the

was

darlingof

the

in the

Cradled

Pope.

his army.

element,being closelyconnected to the verb


which it depends,unless transposed,should not be pointed off.
3. The

Ex.
not

objective

The

"

what

knoweth

ox

we

The

do.

can

his

They long to
impending storm which
owner.

see

that

on

I know

day.

threatened us,

all

we

escaped.
{a.)Though, as a generalrule,inverted and
phrases or clauses should not intervene between
governing verb,when such cases do occur, commas
them from the verb and its object.

should

to join his companions.


wishes,in fine,
land.
a largetract of uncultivated
told,

Ex.
J

looselyconnected
the objectand its

am

He

"

He

has

separate

bought, a^

an
objectiveclause is a direct quotation,and is sepa[b.)When
rated
by the principalclause,the latter should be pointed off by
two commas
by one.
; otherwise,

Ex.

all that," said the

"For

"

pendulum,

"it is very

dark

here."

all.Watch.

I say unto

copulativeverb should not be separated


the first has the emphasis, or when
they are equally
objectof

double

(c.)The
when

emphatic.
Ex.

"

But

They

called him John.


the

when

pointed off;

as,

emphasis
"And

falls

They called

Miles

strongly on

the

they called

Barnabas,

carpenter.

second,

Jupiter;

and

it

should

be

Paul, Mer-

curiua."

looselyconnected
either the adjective
and is,consequently,more
or the objective,
4. The

adverbial

element

is often

more

than
fre-

PUNCTUATION

301:

ELEMENTS.

"

of its transposition;yet, when


quently pointed off on account
arranged in its natural order,or when closelyconnected,it should
not be pointed off.
Ex.

"

when

Rejoicenot

glad when he stumbleth.


refreshing.The child

falleth;and let not


the summit
of the mountain the
treated kindly.

thine enemy

On
was

thine heart be
air is cool and

whether words,
(a.)All looselyconnected adverbial expressions,
and
such
adverbial
and
conjunctive
phrases,or clauses,
especially
words and phrasesas again,now, then,
however, therefore,
too,besides,
without
the
on
doubt,
contrary,
farther,once more, in fine,in general,
it seems
should be pointedoff (227,and 220, 3).
to me, and the like,
as
Ex.

"

On

the contrary,the truth lies here.

(b.)Phrases and clauses which in the natural order would be


so
closelyconnected as to need no point,are usuallypointed off
be doubtful
the meaning would
when
and always when
inverted,
without a point.
Ex.

"

But

to

When

lookest in vain.

Ossian,thou

thou goest,
thy steps

shall not be straitened.


In the
often

of inverted

case

omitted

"

,"as,

On

phrases which commence


rose."
the third day Burke

sentence, the

point

is

Macaulay.

"

when long,and always if loosely


(c.)Adverbial clauses,
especially
connected,are pointedoff,wherever placed.
These

are

generally such

as

denote

condition,picj'pose, concession, cause,

time, or place.
Ex.

"

Kiss the

Son, lesthe

be angry,

and

ye

perish.

element
is connected
of
subordinate
a
by means
(d.)When
it is closelyunited, and, therefore,not
generally
correlatives,
that,or such
that,
pointed off,especiallywhen than or as, so
less by way of contrast in all other
used ; but is used more
or
are
cases, and, hence,pointedoff.
"

"

Ex.
be

"

Never

sought

take

more

food than is conducive

for,yet shalt thou

never

be

found

to health.

Though thou
again. Though deep,yet

clear.

223. Exercise.
In the followingexamples,
point out

elements; and show


222,

He

why

the

comyna

nate
principaland the subordiis or is not used,accordingto

the

1, 2, 3, 4.
that covereth his sins shall not prosper
2G

; but

whoso

confesseth

302

ENGLISH

and

forsaketh

them

pursueth.

man

who

have

shone

shall

Some

GRAMMAR.

have

have

The

mercy.

wondered

how

conspicuouslyat the bar

in the senate.

He

had

faults unknown

wicked
it

flee when
that

happens

should

have

to all but

been

his most

no

those

eclipsed
intimate

friends

(2,", ft,
c). Men of strong minds, who think for themselves,
should not be discouraged on
of
finding occasionallythat some
their best ideas have
been
anticipatedby former writers. There
are
good-natured fellows who have paid the forfeit of their
many
lives to their love of bantering and raillery.The
oranges, lemons,
which
in
the
northern
and figs
States
grow
range of the Southern
of an inferior quality. No
are
thought can be just,of which good
is not
the groundwork.
sense
I, therefore,the prisoner of the
Lord, beseech you. Thus saith the Lord, your Eedeemer, the Holy
One
of Israel,
the Lord
I am
commanded
General Howe
your God.
the British forces. Otis,James
A.
0 ye laurels ! He
called the
Daniel
of that place Bethel.
name
Webster, the great American
statesman,

died

at

Marshfield.

at

first believed

that

all these

"

And
cried, I've caught you then at
objectsexisted within me.
tunately
Forlast."
"My dear Edward," said he, "this is truly kind."
ginning
this place was
for him, a little below
island. The bean
of strife is

as

when

one

letteth

borne, so can another and


to assignmy
generalsatisfaction,

comma

Ex.

am

burden

one

willing,for the

reasons.

Principal Elements.

224. The
1.

If

water.

another.

be

can

out

Except when the complex subjectis very long,no


is requiredbetween it and the predicate.
"

He

who

masters

his

his greatestenemy.

passionsconquers

scarcelybe called an exceptionto this rule that a point


should be placed before the predicatewhen
preceded by a phrase
pointedoff by 222, 4, a.
2. It

can

Ex.

The

"

delicious

most

are
fruits,generallyspeaking,

found

in

tropicalclimates.
So, by 220,

6,

a,

comma

"Patience, meekness, humility,

are

When

the

as,

Whatever

be

placed

among

the

noblest

logicalsubject ends

meaning might
"

should

be

doubtful,a

is, is right."

comma

with

verb,

should

or

be

before

the

Christian

wh