Hamiltonian grid is a famous problem

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Hamiltonian grid is a famous problem

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Gee-Choon Lau 1

Faculty of Computer & Mathematical Sciences

Universiti Teknologi MARA (Segamat Campus)

85000, Johore, Malaysia

Sin-Min Lee

34803, Hollyhock Street,

Union City, CA 94587 USA

Karl Schaffer

Department of Mathematics

De Anza College,

Cupertino, CA 95014,USA

Siu-Ming Tong

Department of Computer Science

Northwestern Polytechnic University

Fremont, CA 94539, USA

such that for each i = 1, 2, . . . , p1, the distance for vi and vi+1 equal to k, then the sequence

is called an AL(k)-step traversal. Furthermore, if d(vp, v1 ) = k, the sequence v1 , v2 , . . . , vp, v1

is called a k-step Hamiltonian tour and G is k-step Hamiltonian. In this paper we completely

determine which rectangular grid graphs are 3-step Hamiltonian and show that the torus

graph Cm Cn is 3-step Hamiltonian for all m 3, n 5.

AMS Mathematical Subject Classification (2010): 05C78, 05C25

Keywords: k-step Hamiltonian, cycles, grid graphs, NP-complete problem.

Introduction

All graphs considered are simple and loopless. For terms used but not defined here, we refer

to [2]. For a (p, q)-graph G, if the vertices of G can be arranged in a sequence v1 , v2 , . . . , vp

such that for each i = 1, 2, . . ., p 1, the distance for vi and vi+1 equal to k 1, then

the sequence is called a AL(k)-step traversal. If d(vp, v1 ) = k, the sequence v1 , v2 , . . . , vp, v1

is called a k-step Hamiltonian tour and we say G is k-step Hamiltonian (see [6]). Clearly,

1

a 1-step Hamiltonian graph is also Hamiltonian. The problem of Hamiltonian graphs has

application in traveling salesman problem. The readers may refer to [3, 4] for a survey on the

developments of Hamiltonian graphs and traveling salesman problem. In [6, 7], the authors

showed that all bipartite graphs are not k-step Hamiltonian for all even k and also determined

the k-step Hamiltonicity of many families of graphs.

The classical closed knights tour of a chessboard problem asks whether a knight on a chessboard can visit every square and returned to its starting position. The closed knights tour

problem is the problem of constructing such a tour on a given chessboard. It is clear that

every rectangular chessboard of size m n corresponds to a rectangular grid graphs of order

mn and size 2mn m n denoted G(m, n) for n m 1. Hence, a closed knights tour of

a rectangular chessboard always corresponds to a 3-Hamiltonian tour in a rectangular grid

graph. However, the converse may not true. For simplicity, we label vertices of G(m, n) by

(i, j) counting from the upper left corner of the grid in matrix fashion. In this paper we

completely determine which rectangular grid graphs are 3-step Hamiltonian and show that

the torus graph Cm Cn is 3-step Hamiltonian for all m 3, n 5.

Main Results

Definition 2.1 For a graph G, let Dk (G) denote the graph generated from G such that

V (Dk (G)) = V (G) and E(Dk (G)) = {uv|d(u, v) = k in G.}.

Lemma 2.1 A graph G is k-step Hamiltonian or admits an AL(k)-step Hamiltonian traversal if and only if Dk (G) is Hamiltonian or admits a Hamiltonian path.

Proof. Obvious.

Lemma 2.2 If G is a bipartite graph with bipartition (X, Y ) and it is 3-step Hamiltonian

then |X| = |Y |.

Proof. D3 (G) is also a bipartite graph with bipartition (X, Y ). Since D3 (G) is Hamiltonian,

therefore |X| = |Y |.

Remark: However, bipartite graph with |X| = |Y | in bipartition need not be 3-step Hamiltonian. The simplest example is K(n, n), for n > 3.

2

In 1750s, Euler presented solutions for the standard 8 8 board (see [8, 9]) and the problem

is easily generalized to rectangular boards. In 1991 Schwenk [9] completely answered the

question: Which rectangular chessboards have a knights tour?

Theorem 2.1 (Schwenk [9]) An m n chessboard with m n has a closed knights tour

unless one or more of the following three conditions hold:

(a) m and n are both odd;

(b) m {1, 2, 4} ;

(c) m = 3 and n {4, 6, 8}.

We now present our complete solution to the question: Which rectangular boards have a

3-step Hamiltonian tour?

Theorem 2.2 For n m 1, G(m, n) is 3-step Hamiltonian except for the following four

conditions:

(a) m, n are odd;

(b) m = 1;

(c) m = 2, n = 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14;

(d) m = 4, n = 7.

Proof. By Theorem 2.1, it is clear that we need only consider the grid graphs that do not

admit a closed knights tour. We first show in Figure 1 that G(3, n) is 3-step Hamiltonian

for n = 4, 6, 8.

3

(a) Suppose m = 2s + 1 and n = 2t + 1. We see that |X| = (s + 1)(t + 1) + ts = 2st + s + t + 1

and |Y | = s(t + 1) + (s + 1)t = 2st + s + t.

As |X| =

6 |Y |, thus by Lemma 2.2. G(m, n) cannot be 3-step Hamiltonian

(b) If m = 1, it is clear that D3 (G(1, n)) is disconnected. Hence, G(1, n) cannot be 3-step

Hamiltonian.

(c) If m

admit a 3-step Hamiltonian tour.

We now consider the remaining values of n. In Figure 2, we give a 3-step Hamiltonian tour

in G(2, n) for n = 5, 10, 11. Note that a 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(2, 13) (see Figure 3)

can be obtained from the 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(2, 11) in Figure 2. In a similar way,

we can construct a 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(2, n) for odd n 13.

n=5

n = 10

n = 11

By Software Maple, we check that D3 (G(2, n)) is not Hamiltonian and hence G(2, n) is not

3-step Hamiltonian for n = 12, 14. In Figure 4, we give a 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(2, 16)

and G(2, 18). We can then construct a 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(2, n) for even n 18 in

a similar way.

(d) If m = 4, we can construct a 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(4, n) from each 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(2, n) in part (c). In Figure 5, we show an extension of a 3-step Hamiltonian

tour in G(2, 5) to a 3-step Hamiltonian tour in G(4, 5).

We now only need to consider G(4, n) for n = 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 14 in which G(2, n) is not 3-step

Hamiltonian. In Figure 6, we give a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for n = 4, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14.

n = 4, 8, 12

n = 6, 9, 14

By Software Maple, we have D3 (G(4, 7)) is not Hamiltonian. This completes the proof.

As a natural extension, we have the following results.

Theorem 2.3 The cylinder graph Pm Cn is 3-step Hamiltonian for all m 3, n 5.

Proof. Pm Cn contains G(m, n) as a subgraph, so if G(m, n) is 3-step Hamiltonian, then

so is Pm Cn . This leaves the cases in which m and n are both odd, as well as m = 4, n = 7.

Figure 7 shows a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for P3 C5 with the same pattern may be extended

for all n > 5 and m = 3 as well as a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for P2 C5 with the same

pattern may be extended for any odd n.

.. ................................

5 ... 1 2 3 4 5 ... 1

..

..

...

...

..

...

..

...

..

..

.

.. ...... ...... ..... ...... .......

...................................

5 ... 1 2 3 4 5 ... 1

..

..

..

..

..

...

. .. ...... ...... ...... ...... .....

P3 C5

P2 C5

These two patterns may be combined to create 3-step Hamiltonian tours for other odd m

and n. In Figure 8, we give a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for P4 C7 and one for P5 C7 . The

pattern may be extended to other odd m by adding other additional rows of P2 Cn and

linking them similarly.

1

1

P4 C7

P5 C7

Proof. The torus graph contains Pm Cn as a subgraph. Observe that the distance between

any 2 vertices of a C3 is 1. This means the 3-step Hamiltonian tour of P3 Cm is not a 3-step

Hamiltonian tour of C3 Cm . Hence, the theorem holds.

We now consider two types of grid graphs of order n that we called T-polyomino, denoted by

T1 (n) and T2 (n). Figure 9 gives T1 (n) of order n = 10, 12, 14, 16, 18. Note that in D3 (T1 (10)),

vertices (2,2) and (2,3) are of degree 1, and hence, T1 (10) is not 3-step Hamiltonian. However,

it has an AL(3)-step traversal (see the labeling of T1 (10)). It is easy to check that D3 (T1 (12))

is disconnected, and hence, T1 (12) is not 3-step Hamiltonian too. For n = 14, 16, 18, a 3-step

Hamiltonian tour is also given in Figure 9.

9

6 1

8

10 5

3

n = 10

n = 12

n = 14

....................

..

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..

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.......

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n = 14

....................

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. . . . . . ... . . . . . ... . . . . . ..

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n = 16

....................

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. ........

n = 18

We have checked that T1 (n) is 3-step Hamiltonian for n = 20, 22, . . ., 32. However, we are

not able to find a general way to construct a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for even n 34 (see

Figure 10 for n = 20, 22, 24).

n = 20

n = 22

n = 24

We now look at T2 (n) for even n 14. In Figure 11, we give a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for

n = 14, 16. However, one can verify that T2 (n) is not 3-step Hamiltonian for n = 18, 20.

..

.. ............

..

..

.. ..................

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. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ..

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. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . ..

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.......

.

Hence, we have the following unsolved problems.

Problem 2.1 Find a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for T1 (n), n 34.

Problem 2.2 Prove that T2 (n) does not admit a 3-step Hamiltonian tour for n 18.

Problem 2.3 Study the 3-step Hamiltonicity of 3-dimensional grid graphs.

Since determining a Hamiltonian bipartite graphs is NP-complete [1, 5], we would like to end

the paper with the following conjecture.

Conjecture 2.1 The problem of 3-step Hamiltonian bipartite graphs is NP-complete.

References

[1] T. S. N. Akiyama, T. Nishizeki, NP-completeness of the Hamiltonian cycle problem for

bipartite graphs, Journal of Information Processing, vol. 3(1980), 73-76.

[2] G. Chartrand and P. Zhang, Introduction to Graph Theory, Walter Rudin Student

Series in Advanced Mathematics, McGraw-Hill, 2004.

[3] R. Gould, Advances on the Hamiltonian Problem, A Survey, Graphs and Combinatorics,

19 (2003), 7-52.

[4] S. Goyal, A Survey on Travelling Salesman Problem, available online: http://www.

cs.uwec.edu/MICS/papers/mics2010 submission 51.pdf, accessed September 2012.

[5] A. Itai, C.H. Papadimitriou and Jayme Luiz Szwarcfiter, Hamilton paths in grid graphs.

SIAM Journal on Computing, 11(4):676686, 1982.

[6] G.C. Lau, S.M. Lee, K. Schaffer, S.M. Tong and Samantha Lui, On k-step Hamiltonian

Graphs, J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comp., accepted, 2014.

[7] G.C. Lau, S.M. Lee, K. Schaffer and S.M. Tong, On k-step Hamiltonian Bipartite and

Tripartite Graphs, Malaya J. Mat., accepted, 2014.

[8] E. Sandifer, How Euler Dit It?, available online: http://www.maa.org/editorial/euler/

How%20Euler%20Did%20It%2030%20Knights%20tour.pdf, accessed September, 2012.

[9] A.J. Schwenk , Which Rectangular Chessboards Have a Knights Tour?, Mathematics

Magazine (1991),325-332.

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