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Definition of stress
Stress is the psychological demand placed on the body when one must adapt , cope
or adjust.It can be healthful in keeping an individual alert , however , intense and
prolonged stress can be overwhelming on the body.
Organizatonal stress
Harmful physical and emotional responsesthat occur when the requirements of the
job do not match the capaabilities , resources , or needs of the worker.
Types of stress
The following are the different types of stress,as follows

Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past
and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future.

Chronic stress comes when a person never sees a way out of a miserable situation. It's the stress of
unrelenting demands and pressures for seemingly interminable periods of time. With no hope, the individual
gives up searching for solutions.

Stress thst has negative consequence on a persons well being.

Definition of stressors
Stressors are events or contexts that cause a stress reaction by elevating levels of adrenaline and
forcing a physical or mental response. Having a few stressors in our lives may not be a problem, but
because stress is cumulative, having many stressors day after day can cause a buildup that becomes a
Types of stressors
The following are the four main types of stresssors,

Extraorganizational stressors
Organizational stressors
Group stressors
Individual stressors

Extra organizational stressors It refers to the factors that are more personal and
related more to individual, like

Societal patterns
Technological changes

Changed lifestyle
Relocation of work or family
Unexpected happening or changes in life
Sociological variables like race, sex and class leads to stress
II) Organizational Stressors they emerge from reasons related to organization or job
assigned to individual. They can be of following reasons
a) High stress job- It refers to work which involves hectic schedule
and complex job responsibilities which result into imbalance in
personal and work a life and also overwork may affect physical health
of individual resulting into ineffective work and dissatisfaction among
employees leading imbalance in family or personal life also
b) Job role Certain job characteristics like job overload, job
assignment, job responsibility and responsibility of others, hectic
schedules and constant pressure causes stress.
c) Improper working condition Sometimes even the physical
condition, the infrastructure and lacuna in basic facilities of the
organization lead to stress and improper work efficiency.
d) Under utilization of skills If the skills remain underutilized it
leaves the person demotivated due to scarcity of opportunities for
growth resulting into frequent absenteeism, aloofness, role ambiguity,
instability and dissatisfaction.
e) Organizational Politics Competition within departments if
improperly handled results into negative feelings, fault finding and
high role ambiguity which spoil the overall culture and climate of
III) Individual Stressors
Since each individual's disposition and perception for taking and handling
stress varies, so the level of stress and its causes are more individual in
nature. The causes of individual stressors are
a) Role ambiguity It can be due to lack of training, improper
knowledge of subject, poor communication channel, friction between
superior and subordinates etc.
b) Psychological Hardiness It decides the level and capacity of a
person to handle stress since it varies from individual to individual.
Thus people having high level of hardiness in handling stress are

persons who know how to handle situation better and in a planned
way so as to reduce level of stress
c) Type of Personality As per the category Type A are people who
have high level of commitment, are competitive,, aggressive, and exhibit
different behavior patterns. They desire to achieve. Such personalities are
more prone to chances of stress and incompatibility. Type B are those who
have a relaxed and balanced approach and are more confident in their
approaches towards work. They are less susceptible to stress.
Stress Coping Strategies for Organization
After identifying the types and causes that lead to individual,
organizational stress the need arises to remedies these causes so as
to save organization and people from being stressful, unproductive
and dissatisfied. The organization and the HR department needs to
keep a proper eye and control on the organization activities like
A) Job related Strategies

Proper job designing and matching the job and the job incumbent
Proper selection and placement
Training to reduce stress
Counseling and mentoring
Proper and planned job delegation and allocation of task
Monetary and non monetary benefits

B) Emotion focused strategies


Creating open communication channels

Employee assistance programs
Wellness program
Team building exercises
C) Problem focused strategy
They hit the problem directly after analyzing the possible cause of
stress. They can be practiced in form of

Training employees for best time management

Training to perform in a team
Proper job allocation
Job evaluation
Matching performance evaluation with job delegation
Empowering employees

* Participative exercises to build up involvement, trust and trust.
* Recreation
* Training people in perceptual adaptation
Thus, it is though far difficult to ensure providing a stress less andrelieved work culture or
work, the real productivity and efficiency can be truly yielded a only when individuals at
their own and the management on continuous basis can practice a monitoring mechanism to
identify the causes resulting into stress and improvising such issues along with employees
participation matched with counseling, mentoring, open communication channels and
empowerment exercises.

Effects of Stress
Stress causes changes in your body. It also affects your emotions.

How stress affects the body

Common symptoms of stress include:

A fast heartbeat.
A headache.
A stiff neck and/or tight shoulders.
Back pain.
Fast breathing.
Sweating, and sweaty palms.
An upset stomach, nausea, or diarrhea.
Over time, stress can affect your:1

Immune system. Constant stress can make you more likely to get sick more

often. And if you have a chronic illness such as AIDS, stress can make your symptoms
Heart. Stress is linked to high blood pressure, abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia),

blood clots, and hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). It's also linked to coronary
artery disease, heart attack, and heart failure.
Muscles. Constant tension from stress can lead to neck, shoulder, and low back

pain. Stress may make rheumatoid arthritis worse.

Stomach. If you have stomach problems, such as gastroesophageal reflux
disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, or irritable bowel syndrome, stress can make
your symptoms worse.


Reproductive organs. Stress is linked to low fertility, erection problems,

problems during pregnancy, and painful menstrual periods.

Lungs. Stress can make symptoms of asthma and chronic obstructive

pulmonary disease (COPD) worse.

Skin. Skin problems such as acne and psoriasis are made worse by stress.


Hans Selye, MD, PhD (1907 - 1982), the Father of Stress, was a Hungarian endocrinologist
and the first to give a scientific explanation for biological stress.

Every stress leaves an indelible scar, and the organism pays for its survival
after a stressful situation by becoming a little older. - Hans Selye, MD, PhD
He eloquently explained his stress model, based on physiology and psychobiology, as
the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), stating that an event that threatens an
organisms well being, a stressor, leads to a three-stage bodily response:
Stages of GAS

1: Alarm
Upon perceiving a stressor, the body reacts with a fight-or-flight response and the
sympathetic nervous system is stimulated as the bodys resources are mobilized to
meet the threat or danger.
2: Resistance
The body resists and compensates as the parasympathetic nervous system attempts to
return many physiological functions to normal levels while body focuses resources
against the stressor and remains on alert.
3: Exhaustion
If the stressor or stressors continue beyond the bodys capacity, the resources become
exhausted and the body is susceptible to disease and death.