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TIMPUL PREZENT CONTINUU

(THE PRESENT TENSE CONTINUOUS )


EXPRIM : 1) o aciune care are loc chiar acum, n momentul vorbirii;
e.g. We are speaking English.
2) o aciune care se repet foarte des, deranjnd vorbitorul (+always,forever,continually);
e.g. This baby is always crying.
3) o aciune care se desfoar pe o perioad relativ ndelungat, care cuprinde i momentul
prezent;
e.g. I am reading a good book.
4) o aciune cu caracter temporar sau care contravine rutinei;
e.g. I work in an office, but I am working in a school this
year.
5) o aciune viitoare care e vzut ca un plan personal al subiectului (+un adverb de timp viitor);
e.g. I am visiting London next summer.
6) o aciune viitoare care este predicatul unei propoziii temporale sau condiionale (introdus prin
while sau if);
e.g. I will watch a film while you are reading.
Youll pass this exam if you are learning hard.
AFIRMATIV

SUBIECT + AM / ARE / IS +VB-ing

INTEROGATIV

Why are you reading ?

NEGATIV

I am/Im not laughing.

VERBE CARE NU SE FOLOSESC NICIODATA LA TIMPURI CONTINUE:


a) verbe non-durative (a caror aciune nu poate s fie de durat):
to explode, to burst, to stop etc.
b) verbe ale percepiei, cnd sunt folosite cu sensul lor primar: to see, to hear, to seem, to look, to taste, to
smell, to feel;
e.g. I see/ can see a woman waiting there.
Atunci cnd aceste verbe sunt folosite cu alte sensuri, restricia nu mai este valabil.
e.g. I am seeing (= am meeting) Christine tonight.
De asemenea, dac dobndesc sensul de a avea iluzia c .
e.g. He is hearing voices (=has the auditory illusion ) all night.
c) verbe de atitudine : to like, to dislike, to love, to hate, to hope, to want, to agree, to disagree
e.g. I hope she likes tea.
d)verbe de existen/posesie : to be, to have, to posses, to own, to belong to
e.g. He is quite young.
* The house is being painted.

* She has blue eyes and long hair.


e)alte verbe : to cost, to hold, to contain, to consist
e.g. This bottle holds one litre. It contains water.
REGULI ORTOGRAFICE
1) verbele terminate n e mut pierd acest e naintea terminaiei ing;
e.g. to come - coming
to dare - daring
2) verbele terminate n consoan precedat de vocal scurt n silab accentuat dubleaz consoana final
nainte de ing;
e.g. to sit - sitting

to run - running

to ban - banning

to begin - beginning

*to offer - offering


3) dac verbele se termin n l acesta se dubleaz nainte de terminaia ing, indiferent de locul accentului;
e.g. to travel - travelling (BE)
- traveling (AE)
4) verbele terminate n c adaug k nainte de ing;
e.g. to panic - panicking
5) verbele monosilabice care conin grupul ie schimb acest grup n y nainte de ing.
e.g. to lie - lying
to die - dying
to tie - tying

PREZENTUL SIMPLU ( PRESENT TENSE SIMPLE )


Exprim: 1) o aciune care se petrece repetat, la anumite intervale : sometimes, always, usually, often, never, ever,
every/month/year, on Sunday, in winter
e.g. We (always) walk home
He speaks German and English
2) un obicei pe care l are subiectul;
e.g. He drinks a lot of coffee.
3) un adevr universal valabil sau o legitate tiinific;
e.g. It rains a lot in autumn.
The Earth spins around its axis.
4) indicaii scenice, titluri de ziare, comentarii sportive;
e.g. Boy rescues girls from drowning (titlu de ziar)

Hagi kicks the ball and throws it into the goal.


5) ntr-un paragraf narativ n care mai multe aciuni se succeda rapid una celeilalte (prezentul narativ);
e.g. The man comes in and closes the door after him. Shortly after he hears a knok on the door.
- ntr-un paragraf care relateaz evenimente istorice (prezentul istoric) , cu scop stilistic :
e.g. Churchill signs the treaty which puts an end to war.
6) o aciune viitoare, vzut ca un plan oficial, ndeosebi pentru a vorbi despre orare ale instituiilor, ale
mijloacelor de transport, frecvent n legatur cu verbe de tipul : to start, to begin, to end, to close, to set off, to take
off (a decola), to land, to get, to arrive, to reach (+adverb de timp viitor);
e.g. The plane takes off at 9 a.m. and gets to N.Y. at 12.
The trip to Paris starts on the 11th of October.
7) o aciune viitoare, exprimat ntr-o propoziie subordonat temporal (introdus prin : when, till,
until, before, after, as soon as, once, as, by the time) sau condiional (introdus prin : if, unless, on condition)
Ex) Ill call you when/after/as soon as I arrive home.
She will come if you invite her.
FORMA
AFIRMATIV - prezentul simplu este identic cu infinitivul scurt al verbului
E.G. I/you/we/they go home.
* la persoana a treia singular (he/she/it) verbul primete terminaia s/es
e.g. I read he reads
I speak he speaks

I cross he crosses
I brush he brushes

I arrive he arrives

I watch he watches
I wash he washes
I go he goes
I do he does

INTEROGATIV

DO/DOES + SUBIECT + VB1

e.g. Do you speak English ?


NEGATIV

Does she drive well ?

SUBIECT + DO NOT/ DONT + VB1


DOES NOT/DOESNT
e.g. I dont like cats.

She doesnt wear glasses.

TRECUTUL SIMPLU ( THE PAST TENSE SIMPLE)


Exprim:

1) o aciune care s-a fcut n trecut, ntr-un moment precis determinat (de exemplu: yesterday; last week/month/year
; a week/tendays/many years ago; in 1999; in April; between 1990 2000; when I was little) i nu are legatur cu
prezentul;
e.g. The child played all day yesterday.
She made a cup of tea and gave it to her little son.1
2) o succesiune de evenimente trecute, ntr-un paragraf narativ (aa-numitul narrative past/trecut narativ);
e.g. He got on the car and drove off. Behind him ran another
car
They saw the car, inquired about its price and decided to buy
it, and so they were the first to bid in the auction.
3) un obicei pe care subiectul l avea n trecut i nu-l mai are;
(sinonim cu construcia used to) ;
e.g. He smoked a lot in this youth.
Mary sang when she was in college.
4) o aciune prezent, care este predicatul unei subordonate cu verb regent la timp trecut.
e.g. I like tea. (present simple) devine, la trecerea n vorbire indirect:
She said she liked tea.

(past tense simple)

n ceea ce privete forma, trecutul simplu are, la forma afirmativ, regul doar pentru verbele aa-zis regulate,
respectiv:
VB1 + - ed
e.g. I worked late last evening.
They studied hard to get where they are.
O grup destul de cuprinztore de verbe, ns, nu au nicio regul de construire a trecutului motiv pentru care sunt
cunoscute sub denumirea de verbe neregulate i, ca urmare, trebuie nvate cu trei forme de baz (infinitivul,
trecutul i participiul trecut), forma a doua fiind cea de past tense.2
INTEROGATIV

DID + SUBIECT + VB1 (indiferent dac verbul este regulat sau nu, i unde indicativul vb1

semnific forma de baz a verbului, cea de infinitiv scurt)


e.g. Did I/you/he/we/they come early ?
Did you walk to school?
NEGATIV

SUBIECT + DID NOT/DIDNT + VB1


e.g. He didnt run fast enough.
I didnt enjoy the party.

Chiar dac adverbul de timp nu este exprimat explicit, ci doar presupus cunoscut, fie din context, fie din relatri
binecunoscute ale evenimentului (de exemplu, evenimente ale primului sau celui de-al doilea rzboi mondial),
motivaia folosirii trecutului simplu exist.
2
O list a celor mai cunoscute verbe neregulate poate fi consultat la sfritul capitolului despre Past Tense Simple.

N.B. PAST SIMPLE se folosete ntodeauna cu adverbe de timp precis: last,ago, yeasterday, etc., aciunea lui
nu are nicio legatur cu prezentul, n comparaie cu PRESENT PERFECT care se refer la aciuni recente,
neprecizate n timp sau desfurate ntr-un timp nencheiat: today, this week, this month etc.
Cteva consideraii ortografice:
1.

Verbele regulate terminate n e mut pierd acest e naintea terminaiei -ed a trecutului;

e.g. chase - chased, like - liked, intervene - intervened, file - filed, etc.
2. Verbele terminate n consoan precedat de vocal scurt, n silab neaccentuat, dubleaz consoana final
naintea terminaiei ed;
e.g. stop stopped; regret regretted; refer referred; ban banned
dar: *offer offered (condiia accentului pe silaba final nu se ndeplinete n acest caz)
3.Verbele terminate n l dubleaz aceast consoan naintea terminaiei ed a trecutului, indiferent de calitatea
vocalei care l preced i de locul accentului, dar numai n engleza britanic;
e.g. travel travelled, cancel cancelled (BE)
traveled

canceled (AE)

4. Verbele terminate n c, adaug k naintea terminaiei ed (pentru a nu modifica pronunia cuvntului i/sau
sensul acestuia);
e.g. panic panicked; picnic picnicked
5. Verbele terminate n y precedat de consoan schimb pe y n i;
e.g. study studied; rely relied
Echivalentul n traducere al trecutului simplu este, n romnete, perfectul simplu, sau perfectul compus ale
modului indicativ.
e.g. I understood your question. = i-am neles ntrebarea.
They did as they said. = Fcur aa cum ziser. (mai degrab livresc i neobinuit, totui, n exprimarea
curent)
n alte situaii, mai ales cnd exprim obiceiuri legate de trecut, este corect s fie tradus prin imperfectul
indicativului.
e.g. Dan smoked a lot in his youth. = Dan fuma/a fumat mult n tineree.
Nr.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Infinitiv
to abide
to arise
to awake
to be
to bear
to beat
to become
to begin
to behold
to bend
to beseech
to bet

Trecut
abode
arose
awoke
was,were
bore
beat
became
began
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Participiu
abode
arisen
awoken
been
born
beaten
become
begun
beheld
bent
besought
bet

Traducere
a locui,a sta,a persista
a se ridica
a se trezi
a fi
a se nate
a bate
a deveni
a ncepe
a zri,a vedea
a ndoi
a implora
a paria

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

to bid
to bind
to bite
to bleed
to bless
to blow
to break
to breed
to bring
to broadcast

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
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45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65

to burn
to burst
to buy
to cast
to catch
to choose
to cleave
to cling
to clothe
to come
to cost
to creep
to cut
to dare
to deal
to dig
to do
to draw
to dream
to drink
to drive
to dwell
to eat
to fall
to feed
to feel
to fight
to find
to flee
to fling
to fly
to forbid
to forecast
to foresee
to foretell
to forget
to forgive
to forgo
to forsake
to freeze
to get
to give
to go

bade
bound
bit
bled
blest
blew
broke
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt
burst
bought
cast
caught
chose
cleft
clung
clothed/cled
came
cost
crept
cut
dared
dealt
dug
did
drew
dreamt
drank
drove
dwelt
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flew
forbade
forecast
foresaw
foretold
forgot
forgave
forwent
forsook
froze
got
gave
went

bidden
bound
bitten
bled
blest
blown
broken
bred
brought
broadcast
burnt
burst
bought
cast
caught
chosen
cleft
clung
clothed/cled
come
cost
crept
cut
dared
dealt
dug
done
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
dwelt
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flung
flown
forbidden
forecast
foreseen
foretold
forgotten
forgiven
forgone
forsaken
frozen
got
given
gone

a oferi,a licita
a lega
a muca
a sngera
a binecuvanta
a sufla
a sparge,a rupe
a crete
a aduce
a emite (radio, TV)
a arde
a izbucni
a cumpra
a arunca
a prinde
a alege
a despica ; tehn.= a adera
a se lipi
a se mbrca
a veni
a costa
a se tr
a taia
a ndrzni
a se ocupa,a trata
a spa
a face (abstract)
a trage,a desena
a visa
a bea
a conduce (maina)
a locui
a mnca
a cdea
a hrni
a simi
a lupta
a gsi
a fugi
a azvrli
a zbura
a interzice
a prevedea
a prevedea
a prezice
a uita
a ierta
a renuna,a se lipi
a prsi
a nghea
a primi
a da
a merge

66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97

to grind
to grow
to hang
to have
to hear
to hide
to hit
to hold
to hurt
to keep
to kneel
to knit
to know
to lay
to lead
to lean
to leap
to learn
to leave
to lend
to let
to lie
to light
to lose
to make
to mean
to meet
to misgive
to mislead
to mistake
to outdo
to overcome

98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118

to overdo
to pay
to put
to read
to rebuild
to rend
to rid
to ride
to ring
to rise
to run
to saw
to say
to see
to seek
to sell
to send
to set
to sew
to shake
to shave

ground
grew
hung
had
heard
hid
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
knew
laid
led
leant
leapt
learnt
left
lent
let
lay
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgave
misled
mistook
outdid

ground
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
hit
held
hurt
kept
knelt
knit
known
laid
led
leant
leapt
learnt
left
lent
let
lain
lit
lost
made
meant
met
misgiven
misled
mistaken
outdone

overcame
overdid
paid
put
read
rebuilt
rent
rid
rode
rang
rose
ran
sawed
said
saw
sought
sold
sent
set
sewed
shook
shaved

overcome
overdone
paid
put
read
rebuilt
rent
rid
ridden
rung
risen
run
sawn
said
seen
sought
sold
sent
set
sewn
shaken
shaven

a mcina
a crete
a atrna
a avea
a auzi
a ascunde
a lovi
a ine
a rni,a vtma
a pstra,a menine
a ngenunchia
a tricota
a ti ,a cunoate
a aeza
a conduce
a se sprijini de
a sri,a slta
a nva
a lsa,a prsi
a da cu mprumut
a permite
a sta culcat
a aprinde
a pierde
a face
a nsemna
a ntlni
a inspira ncredere
a induce n eroare
a nelege greit
a ntrece
a nvinge
a face exces
a plti
a pune
a citi
a reconstrui
a sfia , a rupe
a scpa de
a clri
a suna
a se ridica
a alerga
a fierstrui
a spune
a vedea
a cuta
a vinde
a trimite
a fixa, a regla
a coase
a scutura , a cltina, a tremura
a se brbieri

119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
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144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171

to shed
to shine
to shoe
to shoot
to show
to shrink
to shut
to sing
to sink
to sit
to slay
to sleep
to slide
to sling
to slit
to smell
to smite
to sow
to speak
to speed
to spell
to spend
to spill
to spin
to spit
to split
to spoil
to spread
to spring
to stand
to steal
to stick
to sting
to stink
to stride
to strike
to string
to strive
to swear
to sweep
to swell
to swim
to swing
to take
to teach
to tear
to tell
to think
to thrive
to throw
to thrust
to tread
to underlie

shed
shone
shod
shot
showed
shrank
shut
sang
sank
sat
slew
slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt
smote
sowed
spoke
sped
spelt
spent
spilt
spun
spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprang
stood
stole
stuck
stung
stank
strode
struck
strung
strove
swore
swept
swelled
swam
swung
took
taught
tore
told
thought
throve
threw
thrust
trod
underlay

shed
shone
shod
shot
shown
shrunk
shut
sung
sunk
sat
slain
slept
slid
slung
slit
smelt
smitten
sown
spoken
sped
spelt
spent
spilt
spun
spat
split
spoilt
spread
sprung
stood
stolen
stuck
stung
stunk
stridden
struck
strung
striven
sworn
swept
swollen
swum
swung
taken
taught
torn
told
thought
thriven
thrown
thrust
trodden
underlain

a vrsa (lacrimi), a revrsa


a strluci
a ncla , a potcovi
a mpuca
a arta
a se strnge
a nchide
a cnta
a se scufunda
a sta (pe scaun)
a ucide , asasina
a dormi
a aluneca
a azvrli
a crpa , a despica
a mirosi
a lovi
a semna
a vorbi
a accelera , a goni
a pronuna liter cu liter
a petrece , a cheltui
a vrsa
a toarce , a se roti
a scuipa
a despica
a strica
a ntinde
a sri , a ni
a sta n picioare
a fura
a (se) lipi
a nepa
a mirosi urt
a umbla cu pai mari
a lovi, a izbi
a nira , a ncorda
a se strdui
a jura
a mtura
a se umfla , a nghii
a nota
a se legna
a lua
a nva , a preda
a rupe , a sfia
a spune
a gndi , a crede
a prospera , propai
a arunca
a mbrnci
a clca
a susine

172

to understand

understood

understood

173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181

to upset
to wake
to wear
to weave
to weep
to wet
to win
to wind
to withdraw

upset
woke
wore
wove
wept
wet
won
wound

upset
woken
worn
woven
wept
wet
won
wound
withdrawn

182
183

to wring
to write

withdrew
wrung
wrote

a nelege
a rsturna , a supra
a se trezi
a purta
a ese
a plnge
a uda
a ctiga
a se rsuci
a (se) retrage
a frnge , a rsuci , a smulge
a scrie

wrung
written

TRECUTUL CONTINUU ( THE PAST TENSE CONTINUOUS)


Exprim :
1) o aciune trecut care avea continuitate sau durat ndelungat de desfurare ntr-un anume
moment ;
e.g. I was sleeping at 10 p.m.
They were reading the newspaper when I arrived.
The boys were playing while the girls were waiting.
2) o aciune care s-a repetat foarte frecvent n trecut, deranjnd/iritnd vorbitorul (n prezena unui
adverb de tip always, forever, continually);
e.g. He was always giving me bad advice !
They were forever coming late to school.
3) o aciune viitoare, parte a unui plan personal, dar vazut din perspectiva trecutului ;
e.g. He was packing as/because/he was leaving the next day.
4) o aciune prezent, predicat al unei subordonate care are ca verb regent un timp trecut.
e.g. I am waiting for you.

(present continuous)

He said he was waiting for me.


Trecutul continuu se construiete:
AFIRMATIV

SUBIECT + WAS/WERE + VB-ing


e.g. He was reading.
They were writing.

INTEROGATIV

WAS/WERE + SUBIECT + VB-ing


e.g. Was he reading?
Were they writing?

(past tense continuous)

NEGATIV

SUBIECT + WAS NOT/WASNT

+ VB-ing

WERE NOT/WERENT
e.g. He wasnt reading.
They werent writing.