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This paper presents the effect of damping on roll motions for ship heading in beam seas. The
roll motion is very important because when coupled with some other motions it can cause
the vessel to capsize. Damping is very important because it controls the magnitude of
motion. So it is dealt by many scientists and researchers in different ways. But yet thorough
understanding has not been done. The paper introduces non linear terms in the damping
and restoring term of the equation. The damping co-efficient is divided into various
constituents like eddy making, wave, lift, friction and bilge keel damping.



Roll motion is important phenomenon in

ships because when coupled with other
motions it can make the ship capsize.
Damping is most important in case of roll
motion as it brings down the peak values.
Damping is broken down into various
components like wave damping, lift
damping, friction damping, eddy damping,
bilge keel damping. Therefore it is of
complex nature. But Ikeda et al has made
an comprehensive study and given
empirical formula for evaluation of each of
the component.

The details of the model are given below

This work uses available methods to solve

the non-linear roll equation of motion and
uses numerical simulation techniques to
apply chosen modal to chosen ship.

GM = 0.78 m.

A sample vessel is taken and assuming
the non-linear damping and restoring
coefficients, the equation for roll motion is
analyzed. The damping is broadly divided
into linear and non-linear terms. The linear
terms are the wave and lift damping,
whereas the non-linear terms include the
eddy damping, friction damping and
appendage damping. Then the influence
of various parameter like speed of the
vessel, loading of the vessel, stability of
the vessel, presence of bilge keel, wave
slope on the roll motion are studied and
graphically plotted.


LBP = 64.0 m.
BREADTH = 11.6 m.
DEPTH = 7.32 m.
DRAFT = 4.48 m. (loaded)
= 1556 tons

Cb = 0.449
Cm = 0.852
LCF = 2.02 m. (aft)
LCB = 1.17 m. (aft)

If we establish the equation of motion

basing on the above assumed
assumptions we get:

B L +B
N | |+ ( C1 +C3 3 +C5 5 )=e 2 m I
( I XX +I XX ) +
Dividing the above equation with

( I XX +I XX )
Various loading , hydrostatic and
hydrodynamic characteristics of the ship
have been used in the analysis. The ship is
fitted with bilge keels, rudder and fin
stabilizers. But the rudder and fin
stabilizers were not considered in the
analysis because they are control surfaces
used to counteract any moment acting in
the ship. Other surfaces such as bilge keel
act as passive anti rolling devices. Various
hydrostatic and stability data of the ship
were calculated using software.

and substituting the values

C1 , C3 , C5 we get the following


L +b
N ||+2 + m3 3 +m 5 5 = w e2 m cos ( we t )


( I XX +I XX )

4 2 3 A v
m 3= 2
v GM v 2

Non-linear equation of motion:

A + B ( , )+ C ( )=M ( t )

m 5=

. The above equation can be expressed as

the following in case of regular sea wave:

B ( , ) + GZ ( )= e2 m I XX cos ( we t )
( I XX +I XX ) +
In the expression the restoring term which
is an odd order polynomial is also nonlinear in nature. Restoring term may
appear as cubic or quintic polynomial
depending upon the nature of GZ curve.
Sometimes also the restoring term can
also be expressed as a higher order
polynomial, but it requires bulky
manipulations throughout the solution


b N=

3 2 4 A v
v 4 GM v2


( I XX + I XX )
( I XX + I XX )

Evaluation of the linear and non-linear

terms has been by ikedas and Himeno
approach. More detailed evaluation id
decided in the following sections.
The equation incorporates various effects
of ship dynamic and environmental
parameters including damping, restoring
and wave excitation. The GZ curve is

approximated as

C1 +C3 +C5

where the co-efficients are determined by

the static and dynamic nature of GZ curve
which includes the metacentric height GM,
Angle of vanishing stability
under the GZ curve


C1 =

d ( GZ )

C3 =

3 A v GM v2 ]

v , Area
as follows:

DEPTH =0.38 M
In order to see the effect of Bilge keel, the
damping values and roll amplitudes are
calculated with and without Bilge keel.
Thus eight different test conditions have
been analyzed.
As far as experimental conditions are
concerned linear sinusoidal waves are
generated with no phase lag between the
waves and motion. The wave slope plays
an very important role on the right hand
side of the roll equation. So the
experiment is conducted with three wave
slopes i.e

C5 =

4 A v GM v 2 ]
6 [

Solution can be made by perturbation

method or by using runge-kutta method.

25 ,

50 ,

65 .

Finally the speed of the vessel is altered

between 0-10 knots to observe the
influence of speed on roll damping and
hence on the roll amplitudes.

3. =1556 tons , GM =0.788 m

Estimation of roll damping co-efficients is

ambigious owing to the complex nature of
the damping terms. Though extensive
research, numerical simulation and
experiments have been performed but yet
it is not completely understood. Radiation
theory can alone not solve for damping
terms. Viscousity plays an important role.
Haddara and Zhang carried out
experiments to prove that speed
influences roll motion of the ship.
Contributions from many sources and their
interaction makes evaluation of the
damping terms difficult.

4. =1909 tons, GM =0.788 m

Ikeda has broken down the damping into

five different parts:

Basically two different displacement

values are used in analysis 1556 tons and
1909 tons. However three metacentric
values are taken into account : 0.43m,
0.61m, 0.788m. four conditions are taken
into consideration:

1. =1556 tons , GM=0.43 m

2. =1556 tons , GM =0.61 m

Vessel is provided with Bilge keel. The

geometric details of the bilge keel are:



Wave damping
Lift damping
Eddy damping
Friction damping
Appendage damping or Bilge keel

Furthermore the first two terms come

under linear damping co-efficients
whereas the other three are non-linear in
nature. The effect of each damping coefficient is studied on the fishing vessel by
numerical simulation. Empirical formulaes
developed by Ikeda and Himeno have
been utilized.
The procedure and relavent formulation
have been shown in the appendix.
Based on the numerical simulation the
damping characteristics of the sample
ship are shown in figure 2 and figure 3.

The main purpose to estimate the

damping co-efficients is to understand
their effect on the roll amplitudes.
Therefore several parameters,
displacement, GM, wave characteristics
and wave speed were altered and the

equation of motion was solved in time and

frequency domain. But in this paper only
few of the combinations are discussed due
to space constraints. A sample of graph is
given for each individual parameter.
Figure 4 depicts the influence of speed on
the roll motion for specific condition. 15%
increase is observed for knots when
compared to 0 knots. So, damping values
are susceptible to the velocity variations.
Figure 5 compares the roll amplitude with
and without the presence of Bilge keel.
The Bilge keel reduces the amplitude by
35% at resonant frequency.

Figure 6 depicts the influence of GM on roll

amplitudes. Increase in GM not only
reduces the peak to a lower value but only
increases the frequency at which it occurs.

Wave steepness also has a considerable

effect on the roll amplitudes. About 40%
reduction in amplitude occurs between



60 .

Effect of increased displacements on roll

amplitudes for highest wave slopes is also
shown in figure 8.
Furthermore time domain solutions and
phase diagrams can be obtained for each
case. Figure 9 and Figure 10 are the
examples of such specific solution.

In the paper the effect of damping, waves
and stability on the roll motions of ship
have been investigated by numerical
simulation techniques for sample vessel. It

has been shown that wave steepness

plays an important role on especially the
peak amplitudes regardless of other
factors. A change of 25-40% is seen
between the lowest and highest wave
Speed also effects the roll motions. But
the effect cannot follow linear trend. A
increase of 50% is present with the speed
increased from 0 knots to 10 knots.
Stability characteristics can be translated
as the different weight and the centers
which the ship undergoes during her
voyage. A change in the resonant
frequency can be observed along with the
change in the amplitude.
As expected the Bilge keel is the simplest
and most conventional source for roll
damping. A 30-40% reduction in roll
amplitudes can be seen with the presence
of Bilge keel.
Finally the above assessment we
understand roll damping is an important
parameter in predicting the motions of
ship. Therefore meaningful estimation of
roll damping is essential for the prediction
of roll characteristics for the ship. In
principle it may be explained that it is
simply an energy balance between
damping and excitation forces. Since wave
and wind excitation cannot be controlled
so one can play with the damping forces
to enhance the stability and motion
characteristics of the ship.

Influence of damping on roll motions of
ship by Emre PESMAN, Deniz BAYRAKTAR
and Metin TAYLAN.