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13 (de) vizualizări8 paginithis word file details about the non-linearities in the wave damping especially in the case of roll motion of ship

May 29, 2015

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this word file details about the non-linearities in the wave damping especially in the case of roll motion of ship

© All Rights Reserved

13 (de) vizualizări

this word file details about the non-linearities in the wave damping especially in the case of roll motion of ship

© All Rights Reserved

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ABSTRACT:

This paper presents the effect of damping on roll motions for ship heading in beam seas. The

roll motion is very important because when coupled with some other motions it can cause

the vessel to capsize. Damping is very important because it controls the magnitude of

motion. So it is dealt by many scientists and researchers in different ways. But yet thorough

understanding has not been done. The paper introduces non linear terms in the damping

and restoring term of the equation. The damping co-efficient is divided into various

constituents like eddy making, wave, lift, friction and bilge keel damping.

1.INTRODUCTION:

3.WORK

ships because when coupled with other

motions it can make the ship capsize.

Damping is most important in case of roll

motion as it brings down the peak values.

Damping is broken down into various

components like wave damping, lift

damping, friction damping, eddy damping,

bilge keel damping. Therefore it is of

complex nature. But Ikeda et al has made

an comprehensive study and given

empirical formula for evaluation of each of

the component.

the non-linear roll equation of motion and

uses numerical simulation techniques to

apply chosen modal to chosen ship.

GM = 0.78 m.

2.METHODOLOGY:

A sample vessel is taken and assuming

the non-linear damping and restoring

coefficients, the equation for roll motion is

analyzed. The damping is broadly divided

into linear and non-linear terms. The linear

terms are the wave and lift damping,

whereas the non-linear terms include the

eddy damping, friction damping and

appendage damping. Then the influence

of various parameter like speed of the

vessel, loading of the vessel, stability of

the vessel, presence of bilge keel, wave

slope on the roll motion are studied and

graphically plotted.

FISHING VESSEL

LBP = 64.0 m.

BREADTH = 11.6 m.

DEPTH = 7.32 m.

DRAFT = 4.48 m. (loaded)

= 1556 tons

Cb = 0.449

Cm = 0.852

LCF = 2.02 m. (aft)

LCB = 1.17 m. (aft)

basing on the above assumed

assumptions we get:

B L +B

N | |+ ( C1 +C3 3 +C5 5 )=e 2 m I

( I XX +I XX ) +

Dividing the above equation with

( I XX +I XX )

of

Various loading , hydrostatic and

hydrodynamic characteristics of the ship

have been used in the analysis. The ship is

fitted with bilge keels, rudder and fin

stabilizers. But the rudder and fin

stabilizers were not considered in the

analysis because they are control surfaces

used to counteract any moment acting in

the ship. Other surfaces such as bilge keel

act as passive anti rolling devices. Various

hydrostatic and stability data of the ship

were calculated using software.

expression:

L +b

N ||+2 + m3 3 +m 5 5 = w e2 m cos ( we t )

+b

Where

2=

GM

( I XX +I XX )

4 2 3 A v

m 3= 2

1

v GM v 2

A + B ( , )+ C ( )=M ( t )

m 5=

the following in case of regular sea wave:

B ( , ) + GZ ( )= e2 m I XX cos ( we t )

( I XX +I XX ) +

In the expression the restoring term which

is an odd order polynomial is also nonlinear in nature. Restoring term may

appear as cubic or quintic polynomial

depending upon the nature of GZ curve.

Sometimes also the restoring term can

also be expressed as a higher order

polynomial, but it requires bulky

manipulations throughout the solution

scheme.

bL=

b N=

3 2 4 A v

1

v 4 GM v2

BL

( I XX + I XX )

BN

( I XX + I XX )

terms has been by ikedas and Himeno

approach. More detailed evaluation id

decided in the following sections.

The equation incorporates various effects

of ship dynamic and environmental

parameters including damping, restoring

and wave excitation. The GZ curve is

approximated as

C1 +C3 +C5

the static and dynamic nature of GZ curve

which includes the metacentric height GM,

Angle of vanishing stability

under the GZ curve

Av

C1 =

d ( GZ )

=GM

d

C3 =

4

3 A v GM v2 ]

4[

v

v , Area

as follows:

DEPTH =0.38 M

In order to see the effect of Bilge keel, the

damping values and roll amplitudes are

calculated with and without Bilge keel.

Thus eight different test conditions have

been analyzed.

As far as experimental conditions are

concerned linear sinusoidal waves are

generated with no phase lag between the

waves and motion. The wave slope plays

an very important role on the right hand

side of the roll equation. So the

experiment is conducted with three wave

slopes i.e

C5 =

3

4 A v GM v 2 ]

6 [

v

method or by using runge-kutta method.

1

25 ,

1

50 ,

1

65 .

between 0-10 knots to observe the

influence of speed on roll damping and

hence on the roll amplitudes.

ambigious owing to the complex nature of

the damping terms. Though extensive

research, numerical simulation and

experiments have been performed but yet

it is not completely understood. Radiation

theory can alone not solve for damping

terms. Viscousity plays an important role.

Haddara and Zhang carried out

experiments to prove that speed

influences roll motion of the ship.

Contributions from many sources and their

interaction makes evaluation of the

damping terms difficult.

five different parts:

values are used in analysis 1556 tons and

1909 tons. However three metacentric

values are taken into account : 0.43m,

0.61m, 0.788m. four conditions are taken

into consideration:

2. =1556 tons , GM =0.61 m

geometric details of the bilge keel are:

LENGTH =32 M

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Wave damping

Lift damping

Eddy damping

Friction damping

Appendage damping or Bilge keel

damping

under linear damping co-efficients

whereas the other three are non-linear in

nature. The effect of each damping coefficient is studied on the fishing vessel by

numerical simulation. Empirical formulaes

developed by Ikeda and Himeno have

been utilized.

The procedure and relavent formulation

have been shown in the appendix.

4.RESULT:

Based on the numerical simulation the

damping characteristics of the sample

ship are shown in figure 2 and figure 3.

damping co-efficients is to understand

their effect on the roll amplitudes.

Therefore several parameters,

displacement, GM, wave characteristics

and wave speed were altered and the

frequency domain. But in this paper only

few of the combinations are discussed due

to space constraints. A sample of graph is

given for each individual parameter.

Figure 4 depicts the influence of speed on

the roll motion for specific condition. 15%

increase is observed for knots when

compared to 0 knots. So, damping values

are susceptible to the velocity variations.

Figure 5 compares the roll amplitude with

and without the presence of Bilge keel.

The Bilge keel reduces the amplitude by

35% at resonant frequency.

amplitudes. Increase in GM not only

reduces the peak to a lower value but only

increases the frequency at which it occurs.

effect on the roll amplitudes. About 40%

reduction in amplitude occurs between

slope

1

25

and

1

60 .

amplitudes for highest wave slopes is also

shown in figure 8.

Furthermore time domain solutions and

phase diagrams can be obtained for each

case. Figure 9 and Figure 10 are the

examples of such specific solution.

5.CONCLUSIONS:

In the paper the effect of damping, waves

and stability on the roll motions of ship

have been investigated by numerical

simulation techniques for sample vessel. It

plays an important role on especially the

peak amplitudes regardless of other

factors. A change of 25-40% is seen

between the lowest and highest wave

steepness.

Speed also effects the roll motions. But

the effect cannot follow linear trend. A

increase of 50% is present with the speed

increased from 0 knots to 10 knots.

Stability characteristics can be translated

as the different weight and the centers

which the ship undergoes during her

voyage. A change in the resonant

frequency can be observed along with the

change in the amplitude.

As expected the Bilge keel is the simplest

and most conventional source for roll

damping. A 30-40% reduction in roll

amplitudes can be seen with the presence

of Bilge keel.

Finally the above assessment we

understand roll damping is an important

parameter in predicting the motions of

ship. Therefore meaningful estimation of

roll damping is essential for the prediction

of roll characteristics for the ship. In

principle it may be explained that it is

simply an energy balance between

damping and excitation forces. Since wave

and wind excitation cannot be controlled

so one can play with the damping forces

to enhance the stability and motion

characteristics of the ship.

6.REFERENCES:

Influence of damping on roll motions of

ship by Emre PESMAN, Deniz BAYRAKTAR

and Metin TAYLAN.

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