Sunteți pe pagina 1din 109

Chapter 4

Recruitment and
Selection policies,
including an overview of
Discrimination Issues and
EO policies
1

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Definition


Recruitment is the process of having the right person, in the right place, at the right
time. It is crucial to organizational performance. Recruitment is a critical activity, not
just for the HR team but also for line managers who are increasingly involved in the
selection process. http://www.cipd.co.uk (Chartered Institute of Personnel Department)

Recruitment & Selection Process


Employment
planning &
forecasting

Recruiting:
Build a pool
of
candidates

Applicants
complete
application
forms

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

Use selection
tools like tests
to screen out
most
applicants

Employment
planning &
forecasting

Candidate
becomes
employee

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: HRP (Human Resources Planning )& Strategic Management
Successful HRP helps to increase organizational capability the capacity of the
organization to act and change in pursuit of sustainable competitive advantage.

Strategic Analysis
Establish the context:





Business goal
Company strengths
External opportunities & threats
Source of competitive advantage

Identify related business issues

Strategy Formulation

Strategy Implementation

Clarify performance expectations &


future management methods:

Implement processes to
achieve desired results:







Values, guiding principles


Business mission
objectives and priorities
Action plans
Resource allocations

Define HR strategies, objectives &


action plans

 Organizational change
 Strategic staffing
 Learning &
development
 Employee relations
Implement HR processes

James W. Walker, Integrating the Human Resource Functions with the Business, Human Resource Planning 14, no.2 (1996): 59-77

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Employment Planning & Forecasting


Employment planning & forecasting is the process of deciding what positions the
firm have to fill, and how to fill them.

In order to forecast the personnel needs, the company first need to forecast the
expected demand for its goods and service through forecast revenue.

Then reflect the staffing plans based on the following factors:

Project turnover (as a result of resignations or terminations)

Quality & skills of your employees (in relations to what you see as the changing needs of
your organization)

Strategic decisions to upgrade the quality of products and services or enter into new
markets.

Technological and other changes resulting in increased productivity

The financial resources available to your department.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Employment Planning & Forecasting
Methods to predict employment needs:


Trend analysis study of a firms past employment needs over a period of years to predict
future needs.

Ratio analysis a forecasting technique to determine future staff needs by using ratios
between, for example sales volume and number of employees needed.

Scatter plot a graphical method use to help identify the relationship between two variables,
for eg, the relationship between business activity and the firms staffing levels.

Computerized forecast determination of future staff needs by projecting sales, volume of


production, and personnel requirement to maintain this volume of output using software
packages.

Management forecast the opinions (judgments) of supervisors, department managers, or


others knowledgeable about the organizations future employment needs.

Delphi technique forecasts by soliciting and summarizing the judgments of a pre-selected


group of individuals.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall / Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Employment Planning & Forecasting
Forecast the supply of inside candidates determining which current employees
might be qualified for the projected openings:
1. Qualification inventories manual or computerized records listing employees education,
work experience, product knowledge, industry knowledge, training courses, relocation
limitation, performance appraisal, career and development interests, languages, special skills,
and so on, to be used in selecting inside candidates for promotion.
a. Personnel replacement charts company records showing present performance and
promotability of inside candidates for the most important positions.
b. Position replacement card a card prepared for each position in a company to show
possible replacement candidates and their qualifications.
c. Personal Privacy Act gives some employees legal rights regarding who has access to
information about their work history and job performance.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Personnel replacement charts
Division
Vice President

Vice President
Production

Vice President Sales

ABC

Required development:
Job rotation in finance &
production
Executive development
course in strategic planning
In-house development center
2 weeks.

Required development:
None recommended
Present performance:
Outstanding
Satisfactory

XYZ

Needs improvement

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

Vice President
Sales
123
Required development:
None recommended
Promotion potential:
Ready now
Need further training
Questionable

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Employment Planning & Forecasting
Forecast the supply of inside candidates determining which current employees
might be qualified for the projected openings:
2. Staffing tables a pictorial representations of all organizational jobs, along with the
numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs and future.
3. Markov analysis / matrix a method of tracking the pattern of employee
movements through various jobs.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall / Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Employment Planning & Forecasting
Markov analysis / matrix
1998 - 1999

Store
Managers

Store managers (n=12)

90% (11)

Asst. Store Managers (n=36)

11%

Section Managers (n=96)

(4)

Asst. Store
Managers

Section
Managers

83%

(30)

Exit

11%

(11)

6% (2)
66%

(63)

10%

(29)

Sales Associate (n=1440)

8%

41

92

(8)

72% (207)
6%

15

Sales
Associates

10% (1)

Dept. Managers (n=288)


FORCASTED SUPPLY

Dept.
Managers

(86)
301

15% (14)
2%

(6)

16% (46)

74% (1066)

20% (288)

1072

351

% = Transition percentage
( ) = Actual number of employees

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Employment Planning & Forecasting
Forecast the supply of outside candidates anticipate the availability of outside
candidates:
1. Periodicals Business Week, Fortune, Economists, Wall Street Journals
2. Recruiting firms
3. Local labor conditions
4. The Bureau of Labor Statistics
5. Federal agencies such as Public Health Service, Employment Service or Office of
education

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

10

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Balancing Supply and Demand Consideration


Demand consideration are based on forecasted trends in business activity.

Supply considerations involve the determination of where and how candidates with
required qualifications are to be found to fill vacancies.

However, when HRP shows a surplus of jobholders, companies may use


terminations, work sharing, layoffs or demotions, attrition (gradual reduction of
employees through resignation, retirements or death), encourage early retirements,
voluntarily separation scheme, etc.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

11

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Internal Recruitment Method
1. Job posting publicizing an open to employees by posting it on bulleting boards and listing its
attributes, like qualifications, supervisor, working schedule and pay rate. Its posting vacancy
notices and maintaining lists of employees looking for upgraded positions.
2. Hiring employees the second time round especially former worker that you know will do
well. Often they are people who previously that quit for a better jobs or would like to try their
luck in start-up entrepreneur that didnt work out eventually.
3. Succession planning the process of identifying, developing and tracking key individuals for
executive positions. Its to ensure suitable supply of successors for current and future senior or
key jobs.
4. Computerized record system the development of resume-tracking system that allows
managers to query online database of resume. The database can also be used to predict the
career path of employees and to anticipate when and where promotion opportunities may arise.
For eg; Employment Solution by IBM subsidiary.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall / Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western 12

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Internal Recruitment Pros and Cons (Promotion & Transfer)
Advantages
 Organization can capitalize on the investment it has
made in HR activities.
 Promotion serves to reward employees for past
performance and to encourage them to continue their
effort.
 Improving internal moral to other employees a reason
to anticipate their similar efforts may lead them to
promotion.
 Transfer protects employees from layoff or to broaden
their job experience.
 The transferees performance record is likely to be
more accurate predictor of the candidates success

Disadvantages
 Certain jobs at middle & upper
levels in small organizations that
require specialized training and
experience often filled from
outside, especially knowledge or
expertise gained from another
employer.
 Outside recruitment can prevent
the inbreeding of ideas and
attitudes and prevent the risk of
employee cloning. Outside
recruitment can attract fresh
blood.

 Reduce recruitment & training cost


Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

13

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
1. Advertising publicizing an open to employees by posting it on bulleting boards and listing its
attributes, like qualifications, supervisor, working schedule and pay rate. Its posting vacancy
notices and maintaining lists of employees looking for upgraded positions.
a. It aim at attracting quality applicants and aiding self selection.
b. Advertising media professional & specialist newspapers, magazines, national / local
newspapers, radio, t.v, job centres, school & university careers offices, internet
c. Qualities of a good job advertisement:
 Concise but comprehensive
 Attractive to the maximum number of the right people.
 Positive & honest about the organization.
 Relevant & appropriate to the job & the applicant

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall / ACCA, Accountant in Business, BPP

14

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
d. Constructing and advertisement AIDA


Attention: attract attention to an ad using wide borders or heavy background.

Interest : develop interest in the job such as challenging work or location

Desire : spotlighting the jobs interest factors like travelling opportunity

Action : prompt action with statement like call today or write today for more
information

 EEO laws do not allows terms such as man wanted or young woman
preferred in the advertisement.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

15

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
2. Employment agencies
a. Public employment agencies operated by federal, state or local government
to advise applicants about available jobs and sometimes counselors will visit
employers work site, review the employers job requirements and even assist in
writing job description. Some states turn their local employment agencies into a
one-stop shops from training, employment, and educational service centers.
b. Nonprofit agencies mostly professional, technical, disabled or war veterans
societies., labor unions.
c. Private agencies they charge fees for each applicant they place. Market
conditions generally determine whether the candidate or the employer pays the
fee.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

16

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
 Private agencies
Reason to use private agencies

Relationship with the private agencies

 Your firms does not have a HR


department

 Screen the agency

 Historically, the firm found it difficult to


generate a pool of qualifies applicants.

 Know the agencys selection process devise


such as tests, applicant blanks, interviews

 The need to attract more minority or


female

 Give the agency an accurate and complete job


description

 The firm wants to cut down time


devoting to interviewing

 If feasible develop a long term relationship with


one or two agencies.

 Check the effectiveness and fairness of the


 You must fill a particular opening quickly
agencys screening process

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

17

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
3. Temp agencies contingent staff like part-time, just-in-time workers to fill in
permanent employees who are out sick or on vacation. Some agencies not only
provide job posting but also candidate screening, interviewing, background check,
reliability and integrity testing and training.
Advantages
 To help increase productivity if needed.
 Save time and expense of personally recruiting,
training new workers and personnel documentation.
 Useful in corporate downsizing as some of the
former worker can return as vendors or contractors.
 Better quality force as some candidates arrive
already pretested and trained.
 Suitable for seasonal business.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

Disadvantages
 Cost more than comparable
permanent workers due to agency
fee.
 Temps are less likely to be loyal
 Temps hoping to get a full time job
 Periods of low unemployment leads
agencies to become less selective in
choosing the people they send out
to employers.
18

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
4. Alternative staffing use of nontraditional recruitment sources such as in-house temps (short
term staff employ by company directly) and contract technical employees for highly skilled
workers like engineers with long term projects under contract.
5. Executive recruiters/ headhunters special employment agencies retained by employers to
seek out top-management talent. Technology, such as internet-linked computerized databases
is use to create a long list by pushing a button. Headhunters are becoming more specialized
either in function or industries.
Advantages
 Have contact of qualified but
currently employed candidates
who arent actively looking to
change job.
 Keep firms name P&C until late
into the search process.
 Help firm to save time

Disadvantages
 Essential for firm to explain completely what sort of candidate is
required and why.
 Headhunter are more salesperson than professionals who may
persuade firm to hire a candidate than finding one who will really do
the job.
 Headhunter may claim clients are not accurate in what they want or
looking for.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

19

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
6. College recruiting sending an employers representatives to collage campuses to prescreen
applicants and create an applicant pool from that colleges graduating class. Potential
candidates will be invited to have an on-site visits or take up an internship in the firm. The goal of
using college recruiting are:
 To determine whether a candidate is worthy of further consideration. Exactly which traits to
look for will depend on the companys specific needs, for eg; communication skills, education,
experience and interpersonal skills.
 To aim to attract good candidates.
7. Referrals and walk-ins openings and requests for referrals are normally posted at the bulletin
board. It aim to encourage existing employees to refer qualifies friends and colleagues. Some
companies provide cash award for referring hired candidates. However, company must avoid
nepotism (preference of hiring relatives of current employees) to prevent favoritism or violations
of EEO regulations.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

20

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
8. Recruiting on the internet/ e-recruitment using internet as a recruitment tool can be more
cost effective, have a longer life span and more timely. Computer can scan, digitize and process
applicant resumes automatically. The downside is employer may be flooded with un qualified or
unrealistic faraway candidates. IT tool options:
 Companies web page
 Cyber fairs and links to hot jobs
 Job search web sites
 Applicant tracking help employer to monitor applicants including requisition management
(monitoring open job), applicant data collection (scanning applicants data into the system),
reporting (such as cost per hire or hire by source).
9. Employee leasing process of dismissing employees who are then hired by a leasing company
(which handle the HR related activities) and contracting with that compnay to lease back the
employees.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

21

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: External Recruitment Method
10. Recruiting a diverse workforce a socially responsible action and to tap the untapped labor
market.
a. Single parents family friendly offer such as flexible schedule and support group.
b. Older workers can offer them mini shifts and lower stress job. They tend to be more
committed and loyal than the younger workers.
c. Minorities, disabled and women company can develop flexible work options, redesigning
jobs, remedial training or offering flexible benefit plans.
d. Welfare-to-work they are people who are receiving welfare assistance to be either
working or involved in a work training program. Employers can use counseling or preemployment training that focus on work and life skills, and design to rebuild self esteem and
instill positive attitudes about work.
e. Global talent search use technology to conduct global search or hiring/ training foreign
worker/students. Company are interested in global potential that are willing to relocate
internationally, able to handle adjustment well, have international experience and language
proficiency.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

22

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Employer Branding
Employers of choice a branding image process where potential employees come
to regard working for the particular company is highly desired. The employer
branding exercise can be carry out through the unique selling proposition whereby
company build working experience distinct from other company competing in the
same applicant pool.


Offer relatively high pay or generous benefit packages

Friendly or informal atmosphere

Strong career development potential

Flexible working

Job security

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

23

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Short listing Method
Use a panel of managers to prevent
individual prejudices
Stage 1: Define key short listing criteria
Stage 2: Selectors each produce a
personal list (say 10) that focus on
strengths rather than shortcomings.
Stage 3: Selector compare their list and
find consensus.
Stage 4: Reconsider candidates preferred
by some but not all (only required if stage
3 is not working)

Scoring system

Software system

Stage 1: Define key short


listing criteria

 Shortlist candidates
electronically.
 Ensure criteria are clearly
define.
 Online application form
can make use of multiplechoice answer.
 Scores can e given
speedily and objectively.
 Candidate can be given
feedback quickly whether
their application is
successful or not.

Stage 2: Shortlisted score


the CV or application
forms based on:
A high mark
B candidate partially
meets criteria
C no convincing
evidence is provided.

Stage 5: Produce final shortlist


Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

24

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Recruitment: Application Forms
Application form provides information on education, prior work record and skills.
Purposes





Judge substantive
matters such as
education and
experience
Observe previous
growth or progress (vital
for managerial post)
Observe candidates job
stability
To collect data of
candidates for
comparison and
selections purpose.

EEO and Application Forms


 Discourage discriminatory items in the application forms for fear of
unsuccessful applicants might established a case of discriminatory by
demonstrating the item produces adverse impact.
 Normally the burden of proof will shift to employers to show that the item is
a valid predictor of job performance and that employer apply it fairly to all
applicants.
 Questionable questions include race, religion, age, sex or national origin,
educations dates and attendance (reflect age), arrest record, membership
in organizations, physical handicaps, marital status (single, divorced,
separated, in-living, spouses personal details), etc.
 Employers should not force mandatory arbitration on a job application.
 Employers should not use application forms to predict job performance such
as does not own a car or not living at home.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

25

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
1. Job analysis the process of analyzing
jobs to develop job descriptions and job
specifications to help identify the
individual competencies employees need
for success such knowledge, skills,
abilities, etc.
2. Selection the process of choosing
individuals who have relevant
qualifications to fill existing or projected
job openings.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

Selection Process:
Completion of application form
Initial interview in HR department
Employment test
Background investigation
Preliminary selection in HR department
Supervisory of team interview
Medical examination or drug testing
Hiring decision
26

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
3. Obtaining reliable and valid information:
a. Reliability the degree which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures
yield comparable data over time (yesterday and todays judgment is same) and
alternative measures (two or more methods yield similar results or are
consistent)
b. Validity how well a test selection procedure measures a persons attributes.
There are three approaches to validation:
i. Criterion-related validity the extend which a selection tool predicts or
significantly correlates with important elements of work behavior. For example:
sales figure is use as comparison for sales jobs and in production jobs,
quantity and output quality may be the best criteria of job success. There are
two types of criterion-related validity:
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

27

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
3. Obtaining reliable and valid information:
There are two types of criterion-related validity:


Concurrent validity obtaining criterion data from current employees at about


the same time test scores are obtained.

Predictive validity testing applicants and obtaining criterion data after those
applicants have been hired and have been on the job for some unidentified
period.

 Cross validation verifying the results obtained from a validation study by


administering a test or test battery to a different sample (drawn from the same
population)
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

28

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
Validity
ii.

Content validity exist when instruments such as a test, adequately samples


the knowledge and skills needed to perform a particular job. Its the most direct
and least complicated type.

iii. Construct validity a selection tool measures a theoretical constructs, or trait


such as intelligence, mechanical comprehension and anxiety

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

29

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
3.

Sources of information about job candidates

i.

Application forms

ii.

Biographical information blanks where candidate has to response to a series


of questionnaires

iii. Background investigation - checking references & using credit reports


(interviews with applicants friends, neighbors, and associates)
iv. Polygraph tests a lie detector devise that measures the changes in breathing,
blood pressure and pulse of a person in questioned. Its now prohibited by the law
with exemption of pharmaceutical companies and companies that supply security
guards for health and safety operations.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

30

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection : Matching People and Jobs
3.

Sources of information about job candidates

v.

Honesty and integrity tests commonly use in retail stores where employees
have access to cash or merchandise. Commonly are of inquiry include beliefs
about frequency and extent of theft in our society, punishment for theft and
perceived ease of theft.

vi. Graphology refers to a variety of systems of handwriting analysis, used by


employers to make employment decisions.
vii. Medical examinations costly but ensuring that the health of an applicant is
adequate to meet the job requirements.
viii. Drug testing Applicants with positive results have no chance of being hired.
Existing employees tested positive are normally referred for treatment / counseling
and receive some sort of disciplinary action.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

31

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
4.

Employment Test and objectives and standardized measure of a sample of


behavior that is use to gauge a persons knowledge, skills, abilities and other
characteristics.

a.

Classification of employment tests:

b.

Aptitude tests measure a persons capacity to learn or acquire skills.

Achievement tests measure what a person knows or can do right now.

EEO aspects of testing bars discrimination with respect to race, color, age,
religion, sex, disability and national origin. Therefore, the employer must prove:
i. That the test are related to the success or failure on the job (validity) and
ii. The test dont unfairly discriminate against minority or minority subgroups.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

32

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
c.

Types of Tests:

i.

Cognitive Ability Tests measure mental capabilities such as general


intelligence, verbal fluency, numerical ability and reasoning ability. For eg; GATB
(Aptitude Test Battery), SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test), GMAT (Graduate
Management Aptitude Test)

ii.

Personality & Interest Inventories measure dispositional characteristics such


as extroversion, inquisitiveness, and dependability.
 It can become problematic if they inadvertently discriminate against individuals
who would otherwise perform effectively.
 It may also be seen as invasion of privacy if question ask the candidates about
the political views, belief in God, homosexuality and bodily functions.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

33

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
iii. Motor and Physical Ability Tests particularly demanding and potentially
dangerous jobs like those held by firefighters and police officers. Abilities such as
strengths and endurance tend to be a good predictors of performance, accidents
and injuries.
 It may work to the disadvantage of women and disabled job applicants that can
lead to lawsuit. Therefore, it should be carefully validated on the basis of the
essential functions of the job.
iv. Job Knowledge Tests a type of achievement test designed to measure a
persons level of understanding about a particular job.
v.

Job Sample Tests/ Work Sample Test require the applicant to perform tasks
that are actually a part of the work required on the job. Often use to measure
skills for office and clerical jobs. Its also designed to test other jobs such as mapreading test for traffic controller, complex coordination test for pilots, etc.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

34

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Matching People and Jobs
vi. Video-Based Situational Test normally presents the candidate with several
scenarios, each followed by a multiple-choice question. At a critical moment, the
scenario ends and the video asks the candidate to choose from several courses of
action.
vii. Management Assessment Centers is a two or three day simulation in which
10-12 candidates perform realistic management tasks (like making presentations)
under the observation of experts who appraise each candidates leadership
potential. The center itself may be a plain conference room but it is often a special
room with a one-way mirror to facilitate observation.
 The simulated exercise include the in basket, leaderless group discussion,
management games, individual presentations, objective tests, the interview.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

35

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Employment Interview
1.

Interviewing Method:

a.

Nondirective interview where the applicant is allowed the maximum amount of


freedom in determining the course of the discussion, while the interviewer carefully
refrains from influencing the applicants remarks. Mostly use to interview candidate
for high level positions and in counseling.
 Since the applicant determines the course of the interview and no set procedure
is followed, the reliability and validity is expected to be minimal.

b.

Structured interview where a set of standardized questions (based on job


analysis) having an established set of answers against which applicant responses
can be rated.
 It provides a more consistent basis for evaluating job candidates. And the type
of information needed for making sound decision. It also help to reduce the
possibility of legal charges of unfair discrimination.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

36

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Employment Interview
c.

Situational interview where applicant is given a hypothetical incident and


applicants response is then evaluated relative to pre-established benchmark
standards. Often use in selecting new college graduates.

d.

Behavioral description interview where applicant is asked questions about


what he or she actually did in a given situation. For eg; Tell me about the last time
you disciplined an employee

e.

Panel interview where a board of interviews questions and observes a single


candidate. After the interview, the interviewers pool their observations to reach a
consensus about the suitability of the candidate.

f.

Computer interview where the system ask candidates 75-125 MCQs tailored to
the job and then compares the applicants responses with either an ideal profile or
with profiles on the basis of other candidates responses. Often use
complementarily with conventional interview.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

37

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Employment Interview
2. Guidelines for Interview:

3.

Steps for Interview:

Establish an interview plan

a.

Establish and maintain rapport

Plan for the interview know the duties of the job


and the specific skills and traits looking for.

Be an active listener

b.

Establish rapport make the candidate at ease.

Pay attention to non verbal cues

c.

Provide information as freely and


honestly as possible

Ask questions dont put words in the applicants


mouth or telegraph the desired answer. Dont
interrogate, patronizing, sarcastic or inattentive,
monopolizing the interview. Ask open questions.

Use questions effectively

d.

Separate facts from inferences

Recognize biases and


stereotypes

Close the interview provide time to answer


questions and advocate firm to candidates. End
interview on a positive note. Inform applicant of the
next step; reference check, accept, reject, medical
check up.

Control the course of the


interview

e.

Standardize the questions asked

Review the interview reviewing shortly after


candidate leaves help to minimize snap judgments
and negative emphasis.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western/ Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

38

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Employment Interview
4.

Factors undermining interviews usefulness:

a.

First impressions making snap judgments about candidates during the first few
minutes of interview.

b.

Misunderstanding the job end up matching interviewees with incorrect


stereotypes.

c.

Candidate order (contrast) error and pressure to hire an error judgment on


the part of the interviewer due to interviewing one or more very good or very bad
candidates just before the interview in question.

d.

Nonverbal behavior and impression management interviewers draw


inferences about the applicants personality based on the applicants behavior
during the interview.

e.

Effect of personal characteristics interviewers has to guard against letting


applicants attractiveness and gender or race play a role.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

39

Chapter 4:
Recruitment and Selection policies, including an overview
of Discrimination Issues and EO policies
Selection: Decision Strategy
1.

Clinical approach interviewer make decision after review all data on applicants.

2.

Statistical approach identify the most valid predictors and weighting them
through statistical methods. Applicants with the highest combined scores are
selected.
i. Compensatory model selection decision model in which a high score in one
area make up for a low score in another area.
ii. Multiple cutoff model selection decision that requires an applicant to
achieve some minimum level of proficiency on all selection dimensions.
iii. Multiple hurdle model a sequential strategy in which only the applicants with
the highest scores at an initial test stage go on to subsequent stages.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

40

Indirect discrimination in recruitment procedures


http://www.ppma.org.uk

The risk that a requirement in the person specification for a new appointment may prove indirectly discriminatory in respect of applicants with a
protected characteristic (as defined in the Equality Act), notwithstanding the fact that it may at first glance appear reasonable, is always
present for employers.
In a recent industrial tribunal case in Northern Ireland, Crilly v Ballymagroarty Hazelbank Community Partnership, a requirement for
applicants to have two years' paid work experience in the preceding five-year period has been found to have had a disproportionate adverse
impact on women, which constituted indirect sex discrimination and could not be justified.
Ms Crilly applied for the position of neighbourhood regeneration officer with the Partnership. The person specification for the post required two
years' relevant paid experience in a community development capacity gained within the last five years. Ms Crilly had not had paid work for six
years, due to child care responsibilities, but she had extensive high-level voluntary involvement in community development and neighbourhood
regeneration. When she was not shortlisted for the post, she claimed that the paid work experience requirement constituted indirect sex
discrimination.
The Partnership sought to argue that the requirement was based on legitimate business reasons - both the project manager and previous two
neighbourhood regeneration officers had left, and it therefore needed someone who could begin work immediately with minimal training and
supervision.
However, the tribunal found that the five-year requirement did have a disproportionate adverse impact on females. This was evidenced, among
other things, by the Northern Ireland Labour Force survey for January to March 2011, which showed that 90.6 per cent of those economically
inactive due to 'looking after family and home' were women. On the basis of this statistic, the tribunal drew the inference that women who were
otherwise suitably qualified for the post were discouraged from applying and consequently disproportionately adversely affected compared to
suitably qualified men
The tribunal ruled that, whilst the aims behind the requirement which caused this disproportionate adverse effect could be said to be legitimate,
the requirement could not be seen as proportionate. For example, the need to employ someone who could do the job without extensive
training was not necessarily met by a requirement that allowed a potential three-year gap since a candidate's last paid employment. In any
event, there was a two-month induction period, which could have met any issues to do with specific experience. The tribunal also felt that there
should have been flexibility on the five-year period so as to enable people such as Ms Crilly, who could demonstrate extensive unpaid relevant
experience, a chance to be tested at interview.
Ms Crilly therefore won her case, and was awarded 14,677 compensation for actual and future loss and injury to feelings.
Whilst this is only a Northern Ireland tribunal case which sets no precedents, it is a useful and salutary lesson for employers, emphasising the
need to take steps to monitor the requirements in person specifications on a regular basis, and check that what is being demanded is both
lawful and reasonable, and is not unjustifiably discriminatory in its impact on potential applicants.

GENUINE OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND QUALIFICATIONS


http://www.cipd.co.uk; Chapter 6-Recruitment, Discrimination and Adversity
In certain limited circumstances that are specified in the relevant legislation, an employer may discriminate by expressly setting out to
recruit either a woman or a man, a person from a specific racial or religious group, or a person of a particular sexual orientation based
on the requirements of the job itself. Essentially this is lawful where being of a particular gender, race, religion or sexual orientation is a
genuine occupational requirement (GOR) or genuine occupational qualification (GOQ) for the specific post.
Etam plc v Rowan (1989)
In this case, the employer set out to recruit a shop assistant to work in the ladies fashion department of one of its shops. The job involved assisting
female customers who could be in a state of undress in the changing rooms. Taking this into account, the employer rejected a man who applied for
the job. When the man claimed sex discrimination, the
Employment Appeal Tribunal (EAT) held that the decency/privacy requirement (see p. 116) could not apply to the job because the employer
already had an adequate number of female shop assistants who could deal with female customers in the changing rooms.

Decency or privacy
The decency/privacy GOQ may arise for one of three reasons:
1. because the job involves physical contact with either men or women
2. where the job has to be performed in a place where individuals are likely to be in a state of undress or using sanitary facilities
3. where the job involves the person working or living in a private home.
Sisley v Britannia Security Systems (1983)
The organisation operated a security station which was staf ed by two female operators. They worked shifts up to 12 hours in length, and were
allowed to sleep during the shifts or up to five hours. Within the control station, they had an area where they changed into their uniform, and a
collapsible bed that they used. When they slept, they stripped to their underwear so that their uniforms would not become creased.
Sisley applied for a post as security officer and was rejected on the grounds that he was a man and there was a GOQ for a woman on the grounds
of decency and privacy because the employees had to live on the premises, there were no separate sleeping and sanitary arrangements for dif
erent sexes, and because the employees stripped to their underwear while sleeping. Sisley claimed sex discrimination. The EAT held that the
GOQ was allowed on the grounds of decency and privacy, and hence dismissed the claim of sex discrimination.

Gender re-assignment
As the law stands at present, there are two situations in which it may be lawful to refuse employment to a trans-gender person.
Specifically, an individual who has announced an intention to undergo a sex change, is part-way through the process of gender reassignment, or has completed a sex change, may be refused employment in a job that involves:
working and/or living in a private home in circumstances where objection might reasonably be taken to a trans-sexual
conducting intimate physical searches
Even in circumstances where the job involves conducting personal physical searches, however, the employer should consider whether
the applicant could be employed and exempted from the requirement to conduct such searches.
A v Chief Constable of West Yorkshire Police (2002)
In this case, a male-to-female trans-sexual who had applied to join the police was rejected on the grounds that she would be unable to carry out
personal searches of people in custody. In considering the applicants claim for sex discrimination, the Court ruled that the police forces assertion
that the GOQ applied could not be upheld. This was because it would have been possible to exempt the applicant from the need to conduct
searches, particularly in view of the fact that she had made it clear that she had no objection to her trans-sexuality being disclosed to colleagues if
necessary.

Loss of employees on Malaysia flight a blow, US chipmaker says


Employees of Freescale Semiconductor who were on a Malaysia Airlines flight presumed to have crashed were doing sophisticated
work at the US chipmaker, a company spokesman said yesterday.
The 20 Freescale employees, among 239 people on flight MH370, were mostly engineers and other experts working to make the
company's chip facilities in Tianjin, China, and Kuala Lumpur more efficient, said Mitch Haws, vice president, global
communications and investor relations.
"These were people with a lot of experience and technical background and they were very important people," Haws said. "It's
definitely a loss for the company."
None of Austin, Texas-based Freescale's most senior executives were on board the Boeing Co 777-200ER airliner that vanished
from radar screens about an hour after it took off from Kuala Lumpur for Beijing on Saturday.
The employees who were on board, 12 from Malaysia and eight from China, came from a range of disciplines and they were part
of a broad push by Chief Executive Officer Gregg Lowe to make Freescale more efficient and cost effective, Haws said.
Top-quality engineers are hard to come by for chipmakers and other technology companies, and losing them can have a major
impact on business, regardless of their seniority.
While the employees on the flight account for less than 1% of Freescale's global workforce of 16,800 people, they were working
toward the same goals and their loss will reverberate throughout Freescale, Haws said.
They had been streamlining facilities in Tianjin and Kuala Lumpur that Freescale uses for testing and packaging microchips used in
automobiles, consumer products, telecommunications infrastructure and industrial equipment.
Yesterday, Freescale was organising transportation and accommodation for the 20 staff members' families, as well as providing
grief counseling, Haws said.
One of the chipmaker's long-time competitors, Texas Instruments, tweeted on Saturday: "We extend our condolences to the
families and coworkers of the @Freescale employees aboard Malaysia Airlines flight MH370." Reuters, March 10, 2014.
44

Freescale loss in Malaysia tragedy leads to travel policy questions

By Noel Randewich | Reuters

SAN FRANCISCO (Reuters) - The loss of 20 key Freescale Semiconductor employees in the disappearance of a Malaysian airliner on
Saturday raises questions about whether the company should have allowed so many of them to board the same plane, but security
experts said that at big corporations it's hard to avoid.
The disappearance of Malaysia Airlines' Flight MH370 about an hour into its journey to Beijing remained a mystery on Monday as a
search orchestrated by 10 countries failed to find traces of the plane or the 239 people on board. It was a blow to Austin, Texas-based
Freescale. The vanished employees were engineers or specialists involved in projects to streamline and cut costs at key manufacturing
facilities in China and Malaysia.
Many large companies have policies to prevent chief executives, chief financial officers and other senior executives from flying together
to minimize disruption in case of a fatal crash, but few firms extend strict policies much further down the ladder. Large organizations
from corporations to sports franchises almost never prevent key employees and team members from riding together in buses,
limousines or cars, which are potentially more dangerous than flying, corporate safety and security experts say.
Even the Manchester United soccer team, which in 1958 lost eight players after a plane they were on crashed during take-off in
Munich, continues to fly together to games across Europe, as do professional sports teams around the world. For global companies
organizing sales conferences and moving workers frequently between sites, fettering employees' travel plans is impractical and often
not worth the inconvenience and potential extra costs, except in unique cases where their loss would be catastrophic, the experts say.
"When a lot of people are killed all in one place at one time, we spend disproportionate emotional focus on that risk: disproportionate to
the probability and to the tradeoffs involved in any risk management choice, like spreading these guys out and putting them on a bunch
of different airplanes," said David Ropeik, who writes and consults about risk perception. The risk of dying in a plane crash differs
depending on variables looked at, like total distance flown versus the number of trips. But in general, commercial flying is safer than
driving, Ropeik said.
Freescale has travel policies covering all of its employees and the number of workers on the Malaysia Airlines flight fell within applicable
guidelines, said Mitch Haws, the company's vice president for global communications and investor relations.
Shares of Austin, Texas-based Freescale fell 1.28 percent to $23.09 on Monday. They were down 2.7 percent at one point in early
trade.

45

.
RIDE WITH ME
The Freescale employees on MH370 were mostly engineers and other experts working to make the company's chip facilities in Tianjin,
China, and Kuala Lumpur more efficient. They were based in those two locations and travelled back and forth on a regular basis to
work on different projects, according to the company.
While they accounted for less than 1 percent of Freescale's 16,800 employees, they were doing specialized work and were part of a
broad push by Chief Executive Officer Gregg Lowe to make Freescale more cost-effective.
"Anybody who travels for a company is a relatively important individual," said RBC analyst Doug Freedman. "But Freescale has a deep
bench. It has resources it will pull from other places to fill the void."
Letting a number of employees travel together is the norm rather than the exception for many companies. Chipmaker Intel uses private
planes to shuttle managers and executives between offices and factories in California, Oregon and Arizona. Those fly several times a
day, often with more than 35 employees on each flight, and are also seen as ideal opportunities for executives to network.
Meanwhile, Google , Apple , Facebook and other big technology companies operate private buses to shuttle dozens of employees at a
time from their homes in San Francisco to offices in Silicon Valley, a 50-mile trip. Those buses carry about 17,000 passengers a day
back and forth, according to the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency.
Tim Horner, a managing director at Kroll and a specialist in security consulting, said corporations organizing major sales events and
other employee gatherings should consider a host of travel-related risks beyond flights.
Some US companies sending employees to the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi worried too much about terrorism and not enough about
more mundane risks like street crime and medical emergencies, he said.
"You also have to realize that this type of tragedy, as horrific it is, is very infrequent," Horner said of the Malaysian airliner loss. "This is
not something that occurs with any great frequency."
(Reporting by Noel Randewich; Edited by Martin Howell)

46

Chapter 5

Health and Safety


Aspects from an HR and
Legal Perspective

47

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective

Health and Safety: Definition and Purpose


Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is an area concerned with protecting the
safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment.


The goals of occupational safety and health programs include to foster a safe and
healthy work environment.

OSH may also protect co-workers, family members, employers, customers, and
many others who might be affected by the workplace environment.

OSH can also reduce employee injury and illness related costs, including medical
care, sick leave and disability benefit costs, replacement of employees who are
injured or killed. Often, workers compensation far exceed the costs of maintaining
a safety and health program.

www.wikipedia.org

48

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: The Law
Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1970 to assure so far as possible every
working man and woman in the nation safe and healthful working conditions and to
preserve the human resources.
1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) the agency created
within the department of Labor to set safety and health standards for almost all
workers in the United States.
a. OSHA is responsible for promulgating legally enforceable standards covering
for major categories general industry, maritime, construction, other regulations
and a field operations manual.
 These standards cover the workplace, machinery & equipment, material, power
sources, processing, protective clothing, first aid and administrative
requirements.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

49

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: The Law
 OSHA can begin standard-setting procedures on its own initiative or on petition from other
parties.
 OSHA provides free on-site consultation services no citations can be issues and consultants
files cannot be use to trigger an OSHA inspection.
 Voluntarily protection programs (VPPs) created by OSHA to extend worker protection beyond
OSHAs minimum requirement. It recognize outstanding achievement, motivate other to achieve
excellent results and establish relationship among employers and employees.
 OSHA enforces its standards through:
i. Inspection after acquiring an authorized search warrant or its equivalent.
 First priority danger situations that can immediately cause death or serious physical harm.
 Second priority catastrophes, fatalities and accidents already occurred.
 Third priority valid employee complaints of alleged violation standards.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western/ Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

50

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: The Law
ii. Citation summons informing employers and employees of the regulations and
standards that have been violated in the workplace.
iii. Penalties calculates based on the gravity of the violation and usually takes
into consideration factors like the size of the business, the firms compliance
history, the employers good faith. The final order must come from the
independent occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC)
iv. Improvement notice setting out recommended improvements and requiring
these to be put in place by a set date.
v. Prohibition notice where substantial risk to health is identified, employer is
prevented from using particular pieces of equipment until better safety
arrangements are established.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall/ Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

51

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: The Law
ii.

Its the responsibility of employers to become familiar with those standards are
applicable to their establishments. Employers with more than 11 employees must
maintain records of, and report:
 Occupational injuries those that result to medical treatment, loss of
consciousness, restriction to work, restriction to motion or transfer to another
job.
 Occupational illness any abnormal condition or disorder caused by
exposure to environmental factors associated with employment such as
chronic illness caused by inhalation, absorption, indigestion, or direct contact
with toxic substances or harmful agents.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

52

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: The Law
iii. Responsibilities and rights of employer and employees
Employers

Employees

 Duty to provide a workplace free from


recognized hazards.





 OSHA cannot cite them for violations of


their responsibilities
 Complying with all applicable OSHA
Duty to be familiar with mandatory OSHA
standards.
standards and examine workplace ensuring
 Following all employer safety & health
they conform with the standards
rules & regulations.
Right to seek advice and off-site consultation  Report hazardous conditions to
from OSHA
supervisors.
Right to request and receive proper
 Right to demand safety & health on the
identification of OSHA officer before
job without fear of punishment. Acts
inspection
forbid employers from punishing or
discriminating against workers who
To be advised by compliance officer of the
complain to OSHA
reason of an inspection.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

53

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: The Law
iv. Dealing with employee resistance employers remain liable for penalty even
employees resist to comply to OSHA standards. The ways to address the liability
problems:
 Courts held that an employer can bargain with its union for the right to discharge
or discipline any employee who disobeys an OSHA standards.
 Aggrieved employer can use a formal arbitration process to resolve an OSHArelated dispute with employee. Inexpensive and quick.
 Employer take positive reinforcement:
Provide adequate safety procedures
Training that really gave employees the understanding, knowledge and skills required to
perform their duties.
Employer really required employees to follow the procedures
Management commitment
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

54

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: The Law
2.

Factories Act 1961

3.

Office, Shops and Railway Premises Act 1963

4.

Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

5.

Fire Precaution Act 1971

6.

First Aid Regulations 1981

7.

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1988

8.

Working Time Regulations 1998

9.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is also a major source of
standards and is responsible for conducting research on various safety and health problems,
including the psychological factors involved.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall / Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

55

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Causes of Accidents
1.

Unsafe conditions the mechanical and physical conditions that cause accidents
such as:
 Improperly guarded equipment

Remedy:

 Defective equipment

 Use checklist t to spot problems

 Hazardous procedure

 Eliminate or minimize unsafe


conditions

 Unsafe storage congestion, overloading


 Improper illumination glare, insufficient light
 Improper ventilation

2.

Danger zones accidents are more prone around forklift trucks, wheelbarrows, other
handling & lifting areas, near metal & woodworking machines & saw, around transmission
machinery like gears & pulleys, falls on stairs, ladders & walkways and hand tools &
electrical equipments.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

56

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Causes of Accidents
3.

Certain jobs are inherently more dangerous for example, a bookkeeping department
usually has fewer accidents than a shipping department.

4.

Work schedules and fatigue accident rate increases faster than the increase in the
number of hours worked and especially often during night shifts.

5.

Workplace psychology strong pressure to meet deadline, high seasonal layoff, existence
of hostility among employees and blighted living conditions.

6.

Temporary stress factors high temperature, poor illumination and congested workplace.

7.

Unsafe acts throwing materials using unsafe procedures in loading, placing, mixing or
lifting improperly.

8.

Accident proneness though its situational, some employees are more accident prone
than others. People with poorer motor skills or impaired vision face higher risk of accident.
People who are more fatalistic, negative, and cynical were more likely to exhibit violent
behavior on the job.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

57

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Preventing Accidents
1. Reducing unsafe conditions is always an employers first line of defense.
i. Safety engineers to design jobs to remove or reduce physical hazards.
ii. Supervisors and managers play a role in reducing using unsafe conditions.
iii. Use self-inspection checklist to identify and remove potential hazards
iv. Use computerized tools to design safe equipment. Eg; Designsafe
facilitates hazard analysis, risk management, identification of safety control
options and help designers to identify workers behaviors associated with them.
It has a list of devices such as adjustable enclosures, presence-sensing devices
and personal protective equipment.
v. Use preventive material or protective gear/ equipment slip reducing floor
coating, floor mats, better lighting, a system to quickly block off spills, slip
resistant footwear, cut resistant gloves, etc.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

58

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Preventing Accidents
vi. Ensure protective gear are reliable barrier protection, durability and
wearability (fit properly, easy to maintain & repair, flexible, light weighted,
comfortable, reduce heat stress, have rugged construction, easy to put on &
take off and easy to clean, dispose & recycle)
vii. Include employees in safety and health program
viii.Reinforcing appropriate behaviors
2. Reducing unsafe acts by:
i.

Emphasizing safety supervisors responsibility to set the tone and to


promote safety climate so subordinates want to work safely.

ii. Screening during selection & placement the aim is to isolate the trait (eg;
visual skill) that might predict accidents on the job in question, and then screen
candidates for this trait.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

59

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Preventing Accidents
ii. Screening during selection & placement:
 Use ERI (Employee Reliability Inventory) measures reliability dimensions
such as emotional maturity, conscientiousness, safe job performance and
courteous job performance.
 Ask related question during the selection interview such as What would
you do if your supervisor gave you task but didnt provide any training on how to
perform safely?
 The Disability Act make it unlawful to ask applicants workers compensation injuries and
claims or whether they have a disability or require applicants to take tests that tend to
screen out those with disabilities.
 However, the firm can ask whether the applicant has the ability to perform the job or ask
any reason why the applicant is not able to perform the various functions of the job the
firm is seeking.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

60

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Preventing Accidents
iii. Training instruct employees of safe practices & procedures, warn them of
potential hazards and work on developing a safety-conscious attitude.
 Training alone is not enough, employee must be able to do certain things as a
result of the training they receive.
 Bilingual training is important if employees are diverse.
iv. Motivation posters (awareness), incentive (recognition award, commemorative
silver coin, windbreaker, etc for demonstrating safety & health proficiency),
programs and positive reinforcement (show accident related video, explain the
impact and show the graph for accident and prevention)
v. Behavior based safety identify worker behaviors that contribute to accidents
and then training workers to avoid these behaviors. Eg; eyes on task instead of
chatting while operating complicated machinery.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

61

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Preventing Accidents
vi.

Conduct safety and health inspection use employee safety committee to routinely carry
out inspection by using checklists and investigate all accidents and near miss.
 Committee activities include evaluating safety adequacy, monitoring safety audit findings
and suggesting strategies for improvements.

vii. Safety beyond the plant gate organized programs to reduce off the job injuries and for
those who work from home.
viii.

Controlling workers compensation costs:


Before accidents take all safety steps such as communicating written safety and
substance abuse policies to workers and strictly enforcing those policies.
After accidents focus on return to work program and the worker to become a
productive member of the company again instead of a victim on benefits.
 Analyzing claims use a claim tracking software (eg; CompWatch) to understand whats
driving (analyze claim trends through previous claims) workers compensation claims.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

62

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective

Health and Safety: Preventing Accidents


3. Safety and TQM TQM concepts are applicable to safety awareness program:
i.

Safety as a product that demands continuous improvement

ii. A strong organizational culture stressing no tolerance for unsafe practices


iii. Employee empowerment allows employees to participate in forming safety
policy and in-field safety decisions.
iv. Safe management based on information, measurement, data, and analysis.
4. Communication role of supervisor emphasizing safety through orientation,
procedures, training, ensure understanding and listening.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

63

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
1. Alcoholism and substance abuse may cause grievance, damages, accidents,
decline in quality & quantity of work, absenteeism, efficiency decline. Morale of other
workers drops as they have to shoulder to work of their alcoholic peers.
a. Managing measures include:
 Supervisors to be train to observe behavioral patterns that indicate alcohol related
problems. Though supervisors are the companys first line of defense in combating
workplace drug abuse and alcoholism, they should avoid become detectives or
medical diagnosticians. A normal procedure would be read early symptoms, make
written report which is followed by proper actions and if necessarily refer troubled
workers to the companys employee assistance program.
 Substance abuse testing for detection.
 Traditional prescriptions disciplining, discharge, in-house counseling and referral
to an outside agency.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

64

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective

Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies


 Company policy state the managements position on alcohol and drug abuse and
on the use and possession of illegal drugs on company premises. It should also list:
The methods (eg; urinalysis) used to determine the causes of poor performance,
State companys views on rehabilitation
Workplace counseling
Specify penalties for policy violations
 Conduct workplace inspections searching employees for illegal substance
 Use undercover agents as the last resort

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

65

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
b. The law:
i. The federal Drug-Free Workplace Act requires employers with federal government
contracts or grants to ensure drug-free work place by taking a number of steps such as:
 Publish a policy prohibiting the unlawful manufacturing, distribution, dispersing, possession or
use of controlled substance in the workplace.
 Inform employees that they are required, as a condition of employment, not only to abide by
employers policy but also to report any criminal convictions for drug-related activities in the
workplace.
ii. The US Department of Transportation set rules require random breath alcohol tests as
well as pre-employment, post accident, reasonable suspicion and return to duty testing for
workers in safety sensitive industries including aviation, interstate motor carrier, railroad,
pipeline and commercial marine.
 Legal risk employees may sued for invasion of privacy, wrongful discharge, defamation
and illegal searches, thus employers really need to be careful when implementing the above
programs.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

66

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
2. Job stress overwork, relocation, problems with customers that could lead to
pathological reaction such as drug abuse and alcoholism.
a. Factors leading to stress work schedule, pace of work, job security route to
and from work, noise, personal qualities, personal crisis, emotional problems or
family issues.
b. Consequences to human anxiety, depression, anger, illness, accidents, etc.
c. Consequences to company reductions in quality & quantity of job
performance, increase absenteeism & turnover, increased grievance & healthcare
costs.
d. Stress is not necessarily dysfunctional some people are more productive as
deadline is approaching, stress lead to better career or greater creativity in
projecting new ideas.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

67

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
e. Reducing job stress (personal, colleagues, employees, employers):
 Commonsense remedies getting more sleep and eating better
 Get a suitable job, getting counseling
 Planning & organizing each days activities
 Build rewarding, pleasant, cooperative relationships with colleagues and employees
and boss.
 Negotiate for realistic deadlines and important projects.
 Limit interruptions and reduce unnecessary noise
 Do not procrastinate or put off dealing with distasteful problems
 Reduce personal conflicts on the job
 Have open communications between management and employees
 Provide worker more control over their jobs empowerment & participation
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

68

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
3. Burnout the total depletion of physical and mental resources caused by excessive
striving to reach an unrealistic work-related goal.
a. Symptoms:
 You are unable to relax.
 You identify so closely with your activities that when they fall apart, so do you.
 The positions you worked so hard to attain seem meaningless now.
 You are a workaholic and exclude almost all outside interest.
b. Remedies:
 Break your patterns. The more well rounded your life is, the better you are.
 Get away from it all periodically and have mini vacation or rest periods during workweek.
 Reassess your goals in terms of their intrinsic worth.
 Have a balance of life and work.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

69

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
4. Asbestos exposure at work/ indoor air quality asbestos is one of the source of
occupational respiratory diseases, besides silica, lead and carbon dioxide.
Engineering control such as walls and special filters are required to maintain an
asbestos level that complies with OSHA standards.
5. Computer related health problem eye problems, backaches, neck aches, carpal
tunnel syndrome (motion disorder by repetitive use of hands and arms at
uncomfortable angles), and psychological distress like anxiety, irritability & fatigue.
NIOSH recommends:
 Give employees rest breaks
 Design maximum flexibility into the work station
 Reduce glare with devices
 Place devices / equipment at the right angle, proper support and correct positions that is
comfortable to employees.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

70

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
6. AIDS sample of AIDS policy from www.shrm.org/diversity/AIDSGuide:
 The company will not tolerate discrimination (during interview, selection or single out an
employee for AIDS test) or harassment.
 The company will attempt to reasonably accommodate employees such as refrigerator
access for storage of medicines and periodic daily medical breaks.
 Medical information will remain confidential.
 HIV-positive employees can continue to working as long as they can safely and effectively
perform the essential functions of their jobs.
7. Workplace smoking employer incur higher cost derive from higher health & fire insurance,
greater risk of occupational accidents, higher absenteeism rate and endanger co-workers
inhaling secondhand smoke and that might sue their employers. Remedies:
 Prohibiting smoking but hard to implement smoking restriction in a facility where you
already have smokers.
 Smoking policy collective bargaining with the union and compromise between smoker &
nonsmoker.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

71

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
8. Violence at work assault, robbery, violence related injuries, bullying, abusive behavior,
threats, intimidation and can manifest itself in sabotaging the firms property, software or
information database.
a. Employee-victim may sue employer for negligently hired or retained someone the employer
should have known could be violent.
b. Remedies:
i.

Heighten security measures improve external lighting, install silent alarms &
surveillance cameras, provide staff training in conflict resolution & nonviolent response,
weapon policy at workplace that prohibit firearms, dangerous or deadly weapons onto the
facility, openly or concealed, regardless of their legality.

ii. Workplace violence training offer video training programs that explain what workplace
violence is, identify its causes & signs, and offer tips on how to prevent it and what to do
when it occurs. Also train supervisors to identify the clues that would precede violent
incidents such as verbal threats, physical actions, frustration and obsession. Another way is
to create a workplace culture emphasizing mutual respect and civility.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

72

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
iii. Improve employee screening screen out potentially explosive employees and applicants.
Solicit an applicants employment history, educational background & references. Include
personal interview & testing, review & verification of all information. Red flags include:
Unexplained gap in employment
Incomplete or false information on the resume
A history of depression, drug & alcohol abuse or harassing & violent behavior.
iv. Enhanced attention to employee retention/ dismissal employer should watch out for
behavior such as an act of violence on or off the job, over confrontational or antisocial
behavior, sexually aggressive behavior, overreact to criticism, possession of arm weapon, etc.
v. Dismissing violent employees use caution when firing or disciplining potentially violent
employees. Analyze and anticipate what kind of aggressive behavior to expect. Have a
security guard or violent expert present when the dismissal takes place.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

73

Chapter 5:
Health and Safety Aspects from an HR and Legal Perspective
Health and Safety: Employee Health Problems and Remedies
vi. Occupational Health Services and Welfare covers both physical and emotional well being
supported by medical officer, occupational health nurse and welfare officer, in lager
organization located away from centres of population especially in industrial plants.
vii. Dealing with angry employees make eye contact, stop what you are doing & give your fill
attention, speak in calm voice, be open & honest, let the person have his say, be careful to
define the problem and listen.
viii. Legal constrains on reducing workplace violence not an easy tasks.
 States policy encourage the employment & rehabilitation of ex-offenders
 Some states limit the use of criminal records in hiring decisions.
 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act 1964 restrict employers from making employment decisions
based on arrest records.
 Developing a violent employee profile could end up merely describing a mental
impairment and thus violates the Disabilities Act.
Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall / Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

74

Precedent: Stress
Case: Walker v. Northumberland County Council (1995)
A social worker in charge of a team of field workers had reported his stress, arising out of a greatly increased workload. On his
return to work he was given to understand that he would have an assistant to ease his workload, but it turned out that this assistant
was only intermittently available. He suffered a second breakdown and had to retire.
This case established the precedent that an employer can be held liable for mental injury to an employee caused by work-related
stress. This judgement underlined the employers duty of care to provide safe systems of work in respect of occupational stress as
well as other hazards, and to take steps to protect employees from foreseeable risks to mental health.

Precedent: Personal liability of executives


Case: Case Law - J. Armour v. J. Skeen (1977) Procurator Fiscal
A workman fell to his death while repairing a bridge over the River Clyde. The director of roads for the regional Council, Armour, was
responsible for supervising the safety and health of his road workers but had failed to produce a written safety policy. Accordingly he
was prosecuted under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974.

Precedent: Occupiers' liability to trespassers


Case: British Railways Board v. Herrington (1972) House of Lords
A six-yer-old child (Herrington), walked onto a rail track through a fence the Board had not maintained. The House of Lords held that
the Board, as occupiers of the railway premises, owed a duty of care even to trespassers and this was extended in the Occupiers'
Liability Act 1984.

NEBOSH: National Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health


http://nebosh-revision.blogspot.com/

75

Bus operator sentenced over death of young employee


Date:27 June 2014 / http://press.hse.gov.uk (HSE: Health and Safety Executive)

Regional bus operator West Midlands Travel was today fined 150,000 after an employee died when he was crushed between two
buses.
Lee Baker, a 24-year-old assistant mechanic, was working a night shift at the companys depot in Carl Street, Walsall, when the
incident happened in the early hours of Saturday 22 October 2011.
Wolverhampton Crown Court heard that he was attempting to move a double-decker bus to get access to a pit, but the reverse gear
wouldnt work. He and a colleague attempted to push it backwards to get it past a single-decker parked ten feet away and sideways on
to the double-decker.
Mr Baker, who had worked with the company since 2006, went into the cab of the bus, which has an automatic safety device engaging
the parking brake when the doors are open. He intended to put the gearbox in neutral but inadvertently left it in drive.
As a result, when he got off and closed the doors, the parking brake automatically disengaged after three seconds and the bus moved
towards the two men who were then in front of the bus ready to push. Although his colleague managed to jump out of the way, Mr
Baker didnt and was crushed between the two vehicles.
Mr Baker, who lived in Walsall with his partner, Donna Perigo, and their-then 20-month-old daughter, Katie, died in hospital some
three-and-a-half months later on 12 February, having never regained consciousness.
A Health and Safety Executive (HSE) investigation found that no supervisor was on duty at the time of the incident and that West
Midlands Travel, a subsidiary of the National Express Group, had failed to perform a suitable assessment of the risks inherent in
moving buses manually.
HSE also found that employees had not been trained in a safe system of work for moving buses not under their own power and had
allowed the practice of workers pushing them during the night shifts. The company had a recovery agency to tow broken down
vehicles both to the depot and within it, but prior to the incident only supervisors had been briefed in relation to calling them out.
The lack of both a clear, safe system of work and a supervisor had led to Mr Baker attempting to devise his own way of dealing with a
problem that was preventing him from getting on with his work.
West Midlands Travel Ltd, which employs 5,000 and runs 1,500 buses a day in the region, had earlier pleaded guilty to one breach of
the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 and a separate offence under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act
1974. The company, of Bordesley Green, Birmingham was fined a total of 150,000 and ordered to pay costs of 35,119.
76

Speaking after the hearing, HSE inspector Eve-Marie Edwards said:


This was a dreadful tragedy and was devastating to Lee Bakers family. It is clear that the failings of West Midlands Travel contributed
significantly to this young mans death.
There was no supervisor on duty to advise Mr Baker or to ensure that no attempts were made to move a bus without somebody at
the wheel, or advise him to call the recovery agency to move it.
The company has since introduced a number of safety measures to prevent a recurrence. It is a pity a young man, who should have
had his whole life ahead of him, had to die in what was an avoidable incident for that to happen.
Donna Perigo said:
Nothing will ever bring Lee back. My main aim has always been to prevent something like this happening again. I do not want anyone
else to be in the position that Im in now in tragic circumstances that could have been prevented.
Lees death has been tough on all of us. We will never forget what has happened but now we can at last put it to one side and focus
on the future.
Notes to editors
Section 2(1) of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 states: It shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is
reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his employees.
Regulation 3(1)(a) of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 states: Every employer shall make a suitable
and sufficient assessment of the risks to the health and safety of his employees to which they are exposed whilst they are at work.

77

Chapter 6

Training and
Development and
Learning Theories

78

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development: Definition and Scope of Training
 Development is the growth or realization of a persons ability and potential through
the provision of learning and educational experiences. (ACCA, BPP manual)
 Training is a planned and systematic modification of behavior through learning
evens, programs and instruction which enable individuals to achieve the level of
knowledge, skills & competence/ ability (KSA) to carry out their work effectively and
efficiently. (ACCA, BPP manual)
 Training role nurturing and strengthening employees competencies and coping with
the rapid changing environment. (Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western)
 The Learning Organization an org that facilitates the acquisition & sharing of
knowledge, and the learning of all its members by gathering & sharing knowledge,
tolerating experience & solving problems analytically (Pedler, Burgoyne& Boydell, ACCA BPP manual)
79

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning from Experience : Learning Cycle (David Kolb)

Experience
(action)

Active
Experimentations
(apply)

Observation
& Reflection
(analyze)

Abstract Concepts
& Generalizations
(understand/ suggest
principles)

Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

80

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning Styles (Honey & Mumford)
 Theorists (Coaching) seek to understand basic concepts & principles. They take an
intellectual, hands-off approach based on logical argument. Prefer programmed &
structured, concept and analysis. Good at integrating different pieces of information
and building models of the way things operate.
 Reflectors (Review) observe phenomena, think about them and then choose how to
act, slow, non participative and work at its own pace.
 Activists (Doing) deal with practical, active problems and do not have patience with
theory. Excited about participation & pressures and take risk in the real environment.
 Pragmatists (Planning) use whatever they learn and will always work out how they
can apply it in a real situation. They will value information/ ideas they are given only if
they can see a direct link to real, practical problems.

Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall/ ACCA, BPP manual

81

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning Curve

Employee Production

High

Plateau

Low
Time (weeks)

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

82

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning and Training : A Systematic Model / Approach

Environment
Identify
development
need

Business strategy
People development strategy

Design
development
activity

Evaluate
development

Carry out
development

83
Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment
a. Purpose to identify the kinds, where, who and which method of training are
needed.
b. Types of analysis:
i. Organization analysis examination of environment, strategies and resources of
the organization to determine where training emphasis should be placed.
 For eg; changes in economic (tax) or public policy, merger & acquisition,
technological change, restructuring, downsizing, empowerment, etc.
 Need to closely examination of resources such as technology, financial and human
that are available to meet training objectives. Data required include direct &
indirect labor cost, quality of goods & services, turnover, number of accidents and
the availability of potential replacements.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

84

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment
 Where cost cutting occurs & training budget is constrained, managers will have to
plan efficiently by doing more with less instead of cutting training. For eg; safety
training can be standardized for all rather than customize for various group or
moving toward computer based training rather than classroom format.
ii. Task analysis the purpose is to determine the exact content of the training
program by reviewing the job description and specification to identify the activities
performed in a particular job and the KSAs needed to perform them.
 In addition, for superior performance, jobs change and more is done in team,
competency assessment is use because it is more flexible and durable.
 Competency assessment analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for
decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

85

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment
ii. Person analysis determining which employees required training and equally
important, which do not. Often, performance appraisal information and the agreed
improvements between manager and employee is used here.
 It helps manager to determine what prospective trainees are able to do when they
enter training so that the programs can be designed to emphasize the areas in
which they are deficient.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

86

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 2: Designing The Training Program
The success of training program depend on the organizations ability to identify training
needs and focus on the following related issues:
a. Instructional objectives it describe the skills or knowledge to be acquired and/or
the attitudes to be changed. Use the performance-centered objective because of its
unbiased evaluation of results. It stated clearly just what one intend the results of that
instruction to be.
b. Trainee readiness & motivation
i. Readiness refers to trainees maturity & experiences. It can be identified from
questionnaires about why they are attending training & what they hope to
accomplished.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

87

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 2: Designing The Training Program
ii. Motivation trainee must recognize the need for new knowledge or skills & maintain
the desire to learn. Managers can give encouragements by using the following six
strategies:
 using positive reinforcement
 eliminate treats & punishment
 be flexible
 have participants set personal goals
 design interesting instruction
 break down physical & psychological obstacles of learning.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

88

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 2: Designing The Training Program
c. Principles of learning consider the characteristics of training program that help
staff grass new material, make sense of it in their own lives and transfer it back to the
job. Following are the principle of learning to be incorporated into training program:
 Goal setting
 Meaningfulness of presentation
 Modeling pictures, video, demo
 Individual differences
 Active job practice and repetition
 Whole-versus-Part Learning: if task can be
broken down successfully, the learning
facilitation should be broken down as well,
otherwise, it should be taught as a unit.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

 Massed-versus Distributed learning: the amount


of time devoted to practice in one session
 Feedback and knowledge of progress can be
determine by test or other records to plot the
learning curve.
 Rewards & reinforcement - by using the
behavior modification, where behavior that is
rewarded will be exhibited more frequently in the
future, whereas behavior that is penalized will
decrease in frequency.
89

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 2: Designing The Training Program
d. Characteristics of instructors:
 Knowledge of subject active intelligence
 Adaptability match to the trainees learning ability
 Sincerity patient & de tactful
 Sense of humors fun and can be made with a story or anecdote
 Interest keen interest in the subjects
 Clear instructions accomplish training quickly and better retention
 Individual assistance for training with more than one trainees
 Enthusiasm dynamic presentation and vibrant personality
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

90

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 3: Implementing The Training Program
a. Training methods for non-managerial employees:
i. On-the-job training where employees are given hands-on experience with
instructions from their supervisor or other trainer.
ii. Apprenticeship training where worker entering the skill trades (such as
machinist, laboratory technician or electrician) is given thorough instructions and
experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical aspects of the job.
iii. Cooperative training training that combines practical on-the-job experiences with
formal educational classes.
iv. Internship programs programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and
other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience
while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

91

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 3: Implementing The Training Program
v. Governmental training sponsor training programs for new and current employees
to improve their work and communication skills, build self esteem, clarify life goals,
and have opportunities to practice employment skills for permanent and sustaining
jobs.
vi. Classroom instructions enable the maximum number of trainees to be handled
by the minimum number of instructors. Information can be presented in lectures,
demonstrations, films, videotapes, audiotapes or computer instruction.
vii. Programmed instruction use of books, manuals or computers to break down
subject matter content into highly organized, logical sequences that demand
continuous response on the part of trainee. Suitable for allowing individuals to work
at their own pace.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

92

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 3: Implementing The Training Program
viii. Audiovisual method Using camcorders to view an on-the-spot recording and to
get immediate feedback about progress toward learning objectives. Suitable for
teaching skills and procedures for many production jobs to illustrate the steps in
procedure.
ix. Computer-based training (CBT) encompasses two techniques:


Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system that delivers instructional material directly


through a computer terminal in an interactive format. It can provide drill and practice, problem
solving, simulation, gaming forms of instruction and certain very sophisticated forms of
individualized tutorial instruction.

Computer-managed instruction (CMI) computer to generate and score tests and to


determine the level of trainees proficiency. It can track trainees performance and direct them
to appropriate study material to meet specific needs. Often use together with CAI, it takes on
the routine aspects of training and frees the instructor to focus on course development or
individualized instruction.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

93

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 3: Implementing The Training Program
x. Internet instruction web pages can be revised rapidly, thereby making it easier
and cheaper to revise training curricula and save travelling & classroom costs.
 Advantages are it requires users become adept at searching, comparing, and
making sense of a large amount of information. This skills are important to build
other skills such as troubleshooting, problem solving, and analytical thinking.
 Downside is internet user tend to surf and lost focus.
xi. Simulation method emphasizes realism in equipment and its operation at
minimum cost and maximum safety. Suitable when its impractical or unwise to train
employees on the actual equipment used on the job.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

94

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 3: Implementing The Training Program
b. Training methods for managerial development:
i. On-the-job experiences managers acquiring experiences through actual practice
to perform under pressure and to learn from their mistakes. It should be well
organized, supervised and challenging to the participants. Methods include:
 Coaching continuing flow of instructions, comments and suggestions from the
manager to subordinate
 Understudying assignments groom an individual to take over a managers job
through handling important functions of the job.
 Job rotation broadening knowledge through a variety of work experience
 Lateral transfer horizontal movement along with upward movement
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

95

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 3: Implementing The Training Program


Special projects and junior boards opportunity to study current organizational


problems and in planning and decision making activities

Action learning release managers to work full time with others in the organization,
combine with classroom instruction, discussions and conferences.

Staff meetings exposing managers to the ideas and thinking of other managers

Planned career progressions

ii. Seminars and conferences classroom instruction, use to communicate ideas,


policies, or procedures and raising points of debate or discussing issues that have no
set of answers or resolutions. Often use for attitude change.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

96

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 3: Implementing The Training Program
iii. Case studies using documented examples where managers learn how to analyze (take part)
and synthesis (put together) facts, to become conscious of the many variables on which
management decision are based to improve their decision making skills.
iv. Management games where players are faced with the task of making a series of decisions
affecting a hypothetical organization. Can also be customized into computerized simulation.
However, it need extensive preparation, planning and debriefing to realize the potential benefits
of this method.
v.

Role playing assuming the attitudes and behaviors of others who are involved in a particular
problem. Participants can improve their ability to understand and cope with others and learn
how to counsel others by helping them see situations from a different point of view.

vi. Behavior modeling approach that demonstrates desired behavior and gives trainees the
chance to practice and role play those behaviors and receive feedback.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

97

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 4: Evaluation The Training Program
It is to determine the effectiveness of training. There are 4 criteria to evaluate training:
a. Reactions happy trainees most likely want to focus on training principles and to utilize the
information on the job. They can give insights into the content and techniques they found most
useful. They can critique the instructors or make suggestions and feedback.
b. Learning carry out knowledge & skills test before and after training to find out whether or not
trainees actually learn anything.
c. Behavior transfer of training is use to ensure effective application principles learned to what
is required on the job. Trainer must design training program must come as close as possible to
those on the job and focus on general principles where jobs change & work environment cannot
be matched exactly. Once the trainees are back to work, managers must ensure the work
environment supports, reinforces, and rewards the trainee for applying the new skills or
knowledge.
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

98

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : A Systematic Model / Approach
Phase 4: Evaluation The Training Program
d. Results some results based criteria includes increased productivity, fewer employee
complaints, decreased costs and waste and profitability. Thus many organization begin to think
of utility of training programs.


Utility refers to the benefits derived from training relative to the costs incurred. Based on the
calculation of dollar payoff, if the cost of training is high and the benefits are low or if employees
leave their jobs for others ones, the utility of training may be low. This is a payback calculation
where organizations expect return for their investments.

However, many organizations are using the pay-forward view, where training provides
knowledge and skills that create competitive advantage.

Some organizations uses benchmarking developmental services and practices. Its a process of
measuring ones own services and practices against the recognized leaders in order to identify
areas for improvement.

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

99

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : Other Topics in Training and Development
1. Orientation training a formal process of familiarizing new employees with the
organization, their jobs and their work units. It emphasis on the why and designed
to influence employee attitudes about the work they will be doing and their role in
their organization.
Advantages

Orientation checklist

 Lower turnover

 Introduction to other employees

 Increased productivity

 Outline of training

 Improved employee morale

 Expectations of attendance, conduct and appearance

 Lower recruiting & training


costs

 Conditions of employment such as pay periods, hours, etc

 Facilitation of learning

 Safety regulations

 Reduction of new
employees anxiety

 A list of chain of command

 Explanation of job duties, standards & appraisal criteria

 Explanation of organizations purpose & strategic goals

Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

100

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : Other Topics in Training and Development
2. Basic skills training such as literacy training is becoming essential occupational
qualifications.
3. Team training program may focus on:
a. Technical learn a variety of job skills
b. Interpersonal skills listening, conflict resolution, influence & negotiation
c. Team action leadership, management of meetings, team roles, group dynamics and problem
solving.

4. Diversity training awareness of the variety demographics of the workforce. There


are two types of diversity training:
a. Awareness building helps employees appreciate the benefits of diversity
b. Skill building provides the KSAs for working with people who are different
Sherman, Bohlander & Snell, Managing Human Resources, South-Western

101

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : Other Topics in Training and Development
5. Mentoring:
 Informally mid and senior managers voluntarily help less experienced employees by
giving them career advice and help them to navigate political pitfalls and increase the
opportunities for networking and interactions among diverse employees.
 Formally employer pair protgs with potential mentors or provide instructional manuals.

6. AIDS education to reduce anxieties and maximize the chances that the
employees will be able to work together as a team by removing fear, prejudices and
discrimination.
7. Training for global business to avoid losing business due to cultural
insensitivity, improving job satisfaction and retention of overseas staff and enabling
a newly assigned employee to communicate with colleagues abroad.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

102

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Training and Development : Other Topics in Training and Development
8. Customer service training focus on how to deal with and solve problems for
unhappy customers and offer service beyond requirements.
9. Lifelong learning providing continuing training from basic remedial skills to
advanced decision making techniques throughout the employees career.
10. Self-development where individuals analyze their strengths and weaknesses
and then set their development goals and plans.
 Employees can also experience natural learning from everyday experiences
through conscious effort and learning cycle.
 Often focus on specific skills development that extends to attitude development
and personal growth.

Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall

103

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories

Learning Organization: Definition


Organization that acquires knowledge and innovates fast enough to survive and
thrive in a rapidly changing environment. Learning organizations:


Create a culture that encourages and supports continuous employee learning,


critical thinking and risk taking with new ideas.

Allow mistakes and value employee contributions.

Learn from experience and experiment

Disseminate the new knowledge throughout the organization for incorporation


into day-to-day activities.

http://www.businessdictionary.com/

104

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning Organization: Three Levels of Organizational Learning
Principles

Insights

Rules

Behavior

Outcomes

Single loop improvement outcome


Double loop renewal outcome
Tripple loop development outcome

Levels or loops or organizational learning by Argyris and Schon (1978):


a. Level 1: Single loop learning learning about how we can do better thus improving what we
are currently learning. This is seen as learning at operational level or level of rules.
b. Level 2: Double loop learning focus on why questions in relation to what we are doing rather
than doing the same things better. Questioning if we should be doing different things. Requires
developing knowledge and understanding sue to insights and can result in strategic changes and
renewal.
c. Level 3: Triple loop learning focus on the purpose or principles of organization, challenging
whether these are appropriate.
Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

105

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning Organization: Characteristics of Organizational Learning (Pedler et al.)
1. Strategy:
a. Learning approach to strategy strategy formation, implementation, evaluation,
improvement are structured as learning experiences by using feedback loops.
b. Participative policy making by organization & stakeholders to appreciate the differences
of opinions and vales that are seen as productive tensions.

2. Looking in internal orientation


a. Informating using technology to empower and inform employees and ensure information is
made widely available.
b. Formative accounting and control designing accounting, budgeting and reporting
systems to assist learning.
c. Internal exchange involves all internal units seeing themselves as customers and
suppliers of each other.
d. Reward flexibility to address the issue why some receive more money than others and
recommend alternatives.
Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

106

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning Organization: Characteristics of Organizational Learning
3. Structures suggest roles are loosely structured to allow personal growth and
experimentation. Eg; project groups and transient structures help break down barriers between
units, provide mechanism for spreading new ideas and encourage the idea of change.

4. Looking out:
a. Boundary workers as environmental scanners role of all workers in contact with
external stakeholders in data collection.
b. Inter-company learning joining external stakeholders in training experiences, R&D and
job exchanges. Benchmarking can also be use to learn from other companies.

5. Learning opportunities:
a. Learning climate encourage experimentation and learning from experience, questioning
current ideas, attitudes and actions and trying out new ideas. Suggest that feedback from
others is continuously requested, made available and is acted upon.
b. Self-development opportunities requires resources and facilities for self-development
for employees to be available to support individuals in their learning.
Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

107

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning Organization: 5 Dimensions in Building Organization (Peter Senge, 1990)
1. System thinking understanding of the interrelatedness between things, seeing
the whole rather than just a part and concentration on processes.
2. Personal mastery underlines the need for continuous development and individual
self-development.
3. Mental models expose the current theories in use in organization to unblock
change and adoption of new ideas.
4. Shared visions need for common purpose or vision to inspire employees and
break down barriers and mistrust.
5. Team learning a productive process where different views and perspectives come
together.

Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

108

Chapter 6:
Training and Development and Learning Theories
Learning Organization: Productive Conditions of Learning Organization
(Popper & Lipshgirtz, 2000)
1. Valid information complete, undistorted and verifiable information
2. Transparency to reduce self deception and helps to resist pressures to distort
information.
3. Issues oriented rather than personal oriented information is judged on merits
and relevance to the issue at hand rather than on the status or attributes of the
individual who provides the information.
4. Accountability hold oneself responsible for ones own actions and their
consequences and for learning from these consequences.
 Turnaround the above points, it can become criticisms or ineffective learning
organization.
Torrington, D and Hall, L. Human Resource Management. Prentice Hall

109