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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SELFCONCEPT AND ENGLISH SPEAKING

ABILITY OF THE LEARNERS OF


PRIMAGAMA ENGLISH COURSE
SAMARINDA

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Posted February 19th, 2009 by andi syakir


Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
abstraks:
The success of English learning is seen generally through the speaking ability. Nowadays,
although learners have learned English for years, many of them are still incapable to use
English orally. These may be caused by the limitation of opportunity to practice, lack of
vocabulary, or psychological factors which more concern to the fear of making mistakes
when speaking English. This fear feeling comes up from the low self-concept they have.
Someone with low self-concept is believed to be unconfident, while confidence is needed by
learners to present their English orally (Coopersmith in Bintang Bangsaku: 2008). This
psychological factor influenced the learners ability in speaking.
Based on the problem above, the writer would like to find out learners self-concept and
speaking ability, and whether there is a correlation between self-concept which is one of
psychological factor and their English speaking ability of Primagama English for students
class.
The design of this research was correlational study. This study tried to find out the correlation
between self-concept and English speaking ability. The writer took 30 learners of the
Primagama English for students class as research subjects. The data were obtained through
the self-concept test that has been adapted from A test of a multi faceted, hierarchical model
of self concept by Dr Russell F. Waugh and the speaking test was held by the instructor.
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Speaking is an important aspect in language learning. By speaking, we can convey
information and ideas, and maintain social relationship by communicating with others.
In addition, a large percentage of the worlds language learners study English in order to be
able to communicate fluently. It is strengthened by British Councils report (1998) which
states that more than two billion people use English to communicate. Some people often
think that the ability to speak a language is the product of language learning. They assumed
that speaking is a crucial part of language learning process.
Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. That
is why the main purpose of language learning is to develop proficiency in speaking and
communicative efficiency. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire

and asses their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication.


On the contrary, for most people, speaking is the most difficult part when they learn a foreign
language. There are many obstacles in mastering English. For people who wants to be
competent in communicating with English, they must change and expand identity as she or he
learns the culture, social, and even political factors of English, that needed to speak
appropriately with a new voice, it is as Englishman (Hughes, 2002 in Fitriana 2004:1).
Besides changing and expanding the identity, they also need bravery and confidence to
present their English well. Bravery and self confidence are included in non linguistic aspect
which directly indicated ones self concept that can determine ones successful or failure in
speaking English.
There were several reasons why the writer was interested in investigating the correlation
between self-concept and English speaking ability. First, people who have learnt English for a
long time in Indonesia, sometimes rather hesitate when they should speak with native
speakers. They are not sure with their English. They are often embarrassed or shy to say
anything when they do not understand what others speak or when they realize that others do
not understand them. Sometimes, they just listen in silence while others do talking. In this
case, they just lack confidence in their ability to participate successfully in oral interaction.
This self-confidence factor is quite related to the self-concept of the people. Because selfconcept is just one factor among many that have an impact to ones self-confidence.
Second, some people sometimes do not have enough bravery to speak in front of people even
in their own language. They always feel nervous when they speak up in public. They are
afraid of making mistakes because they are worry if other people will laugh at them. Actually,
feeling some nervousness is natural and healthy. It shows people care about doing well. But
too much nervousness can be detrimental. According to Wijaya (2007) deliver a speech in
public is not easy but also is not difficult to do. We should believe that the ability to speak in
front of people is not innate but a skill that can be learned.
The last reason was the common situation which happened in general speaking class. Most of
students are often particularly reticent when it comes to speaking activity in their classroom.
They got nervous when require to speak English in front of the class. Sometimes, they also
avoid this chance by giving many excuses. They usually say I am shy and I cannot do that.
Or even they did what the teachers instruction but their voice was slower and softer than
usual, so the teacher could not hear their voice clearly. Actually, to be able to speak English in
their speaking class, students are not expected to have a great ability in grammar, vocabulary,
or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use their English in front of others.
In this study self concept is what one understands about his/her self. It may include ones
social character or abilities, physical appearances and body image, and the way of thinking
and behavior. Each person can change his/her self concept to be more positively to get a good
achievement but it depends on what one sees and understands on his/her feeling, belief and
attitude. Better ones self-concept, it will be higher self-competence can be developed
(Pudjijogyanti: 1991).
Referenced on illustration above, it is clear that psychological factor like self-concept will
give some contributions in successful of learning especially speaking. Moreover, the teachers
have an important role in developing learners self concept by giving more attention to
motivate them in order to they are more active and brave to use their English orally.
If they always think that they are going to be failed in speaking English, they will not be able
to speak well. This situation shows that this fear indicates they have low or even negative self
concept. In other word, it could be say that if learner has no idea about what to say, she or he
may lose confidence, feel no comfortable, and make mistake.
Based on the description above, the writer was interested in investigating the correlation of
self-concept and speaking ability of the learners of Primagama English for students class

where it is a new comer as an English course with a small number of learners which is
focusing on how to improve their English speaking ability.
1.2 Research Questions
Concerning the background of the study, the writer formulated the problem of the study, as
followed:
1. How is the self-concept of the learners in the Primagama English for students class?
2. How is the English speaking ability of the learners in the Primagama English for students
class?
3. Is there any correlation between self-concept and English speaking ability of the learners in
the Primagama English for students class?
1.3 Purposes of the Study
Based on the background and problems above, the purposes of the study were as follows:
1. To know the self-concept of the learners in the Primagama English for students class.
2. To know the English speaking ability of the learners in the Primagama English for students
class.
3. To know whether there is a correlation between self concept and English speaking ability
of the learners in the Primagama English for students class.
1.4 Significances of the Study
This study was conducted in the hope that the result would give some usefulness as follows:
1. For helping teachers to teach conversation or to increase students speaking ability.
Therefore, teachers may have a real expectation to his students with low self-concept to have
a proficiency in speaking English.
2. For helping teachers in understanding psychological factors, such as self-concept that
influences learners when learning to speak English.
3. After knowing the influence of having a high self-concept upon English speaking ability,
the teacher can motivate the students to improve their self-concept.
4. For helping students to be aware about their self-potential and personality and to maintain
their self-concept in order to get a good achievement.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
In order to get focus in conducting this study, the writer limited the scope of the study as
follows:
1. This study focused on the self-concept and the English speaking ability.
2. The subject of this study was the learners in the Primagama English for students class.
3. Independent variable of this study was the learners self-concept and the dependent
variable of this study was learners English speaking ability.
4. The writer used direct and close questionnaire to measure the students self-concept. It
consisted of twenty questions. It is determined according to Likert Scale.
1.6 Hypothesis of the Study
It is necessary for the writer to formulate the hypothesis of the study as follows:
1. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha):
There is a significant correlation between self-concept and English speaking ability of the
learners in the Primagama English for students class.

2. Null Hypothesis (Ho):


There is no significant correlation between self-concept and English speaking ability of the
learners in the Primagama English for Students class.
1.7 Definition of Key Term
To clarify what the writer wanted to achieve in this study, it was better to formulate the
operational definition as follows:
1. Self-concept is what someone sees or understands about his/herself. It is about how a
person perceives himself; how a person regards himself; what he thinks of himself; how he
values himself; and how he attempts through various actions to enhance or defend himself.
2. English speaking ability is an ability of someone to speak, to communicate, to express idea
and feeling in English as foreign language.
3. English learner is a person who gains knowledge, comprehension or mastery in English
through experience or study. His purpose is to gain English skills, such as speaking, reading,
writing and listening skills.
4. Primagama English is an institute that focuses on English subjects which was established
on 14 July 2008. It is located on Jln. KH. Wahid Hasyim No.22B Samarinda. It offers three
English programs, they are English for children, English for Students, and General English.
5. English for Students class is a special class for students both of elementary and high school
who want to improve their English achievement in school.
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Self-concept is about how you see yourself. How people perceive you will affect your own
self image and will affect how they relate to you. It will affect your relationship either
positively or negatively. And, your view about yourself shaped your unique thoughts and
belief. You will see yourself in positive and negative ways and both will be biased. Then,
your view will influence your self concept because our general belief about ourselves can
have a powerful effect upon our self confidence across many situations.
To know weather the self concept of learners has relationship with their English speaking
ability or not, the writer would like to explain the concept as follows:
2.1 Self-Concept
Self concept theory firstly comes from Carl Rogers theory about self. He introduced an entire
system of helping built around the important of the self. The entire theory is built on a single
force of life. He calls the actualizing tendency. It can be defined as the built in motivation
present in every life form to develop its potential to the fullest extent possible (Purkey, 1988
in http://www.ericdigest.org/pre-9211/self.htm).
In Rogers view, the self is a social product, developing out of interpersonal relationships and
striving for consistency. He maintained that there is a basic human need for positive regard
both from others and from oneself. He also believed that in every person there is a tendency
towards self-actualization and development so long as this is permitted and encouraged by an
inviting environment (Purkey:1988).
So, Rogers (1959) in Pesticelli (1998) defines self concept as the organized concept that
composed of perceptions of the characteristics of I or me and the perception of the
relationships of the I or me to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values
attached to these perceptions. In other words, ones self concept influences the way of how
one regards both oneself and ones environment. According to him, a strong self concept is
flexible and allows a person to confront new experiences and ideas without feeling

threatened.
Besides Rogers, there are many definitions of self concept from other psycholinguists. The
writer will present a few to know more about the meaning of self concept. Hubber and
Runyon (1984) in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) state that self concept is an internal perception of
ones competencies, virtues, and feeling value. Murphy (1947) in Bintang Bangsaku (2008)
defines it as the individual as known to the individual. According to Symonds (1951) in
Bintang Bangsaku (2008) it is the way or manner in which the individual react to himself. He
spells out four aspect of self: how a person perceives himself; what he thinks of himself; how
he values himself; and how he attempts through various action to enhance or defend himself.
In addition, Purkey (1988) defines self concept is the totality of a complex, organized, and
dynamic system of learned beliefs, attitudes, and opinions that each person holds to be true
about his/her personal existence. Marsh (1990) in Burnet (1999) states that self concept is a
persons perceptions regarding him/herself; these perceptions are formed through experience
with and interpretations of ones environment. They are especially influenced by evaluations
by significant others, reinforcements and attributions for ones own behavior.
Furthermore, Bracken (1992) in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) mentions that self concept is a
context that depends on learned behavioral patterns that reflect an individuals evaluation of
past behavior and experiences, influence an individuals current behavior, and predict the
individuals future behaviors. Furhman (1990) in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) states that self
concept is all about ones perception and assessment about ones self through physic, sex,
cognitive, behavior, competence, performance, motivation, and emotion.
Other definition about self concept is from Cooley (1992) in Bintang Bangsaku (2008). He
defines self concept as a concept is formed from learning process about norm, attitude, role,
and identity in the interaction process with society. Stuart and Sudeen (1998) in Salbiah
(2003) state that self concept is all ideas, thinking, and belief is known by someone about
his/herself and influence one in interaction process.
In this study, self concept is what someone understands about his/herself that develops
through experience, education, socialization and interaction process as long as human life. It
is about how a person perceives himself; how a person regards himself; what he thinks of
himself; how he values himself; and how he attempts through various actions to enhance or
defend himself.
2.1.1 Aspects or Sub Scale of Self Concept
According to Brook (Bintang Bangsaku: 2008), the aspect of self concept is divided into
three. They are as follows:
1. Academic Self Concept
It is related to individuals perception about his capability, achievement, and self confidence
in academic life. And the students perception itself is influenced by others perception
toward him especially teachers and classmates. If the teacher believes to the students
capability, the students also trust with their capability. Then, they may feel others accept
themselves. Unconsciously, there is a high motivation and desire inside the students self to
get a good achievement.
In addition, Jones and Grieneeks (Pudjijogyanti: 1991) say that self concept is the best nonintellectual factor to determine students achievement. Many observations showed that
individual perception about his capability will influence his motivation to get a good
achievement. In brief, it shows that the importance of self confidence, self regard, and self
acceptance in determining the successfulness.
2. Social Self Concept
It is related to ones social role, his perception toward its role, and the ability to make
relationship with others people. This aspect focuses on ones role as a social person in the

family and society and how the family and environment treat someone and influence ones
self concept.
3. Personal Self Concept
It is related to individuals perception about his property like physical appearances, the way
of thinking, and feeling value toward himself which relates to ones characteristic or trait
personality like attitude, value, and belief such as self confidence, honesty, and trustworthy.
2.1.2 Level of Self Concept
Mostly, self concept is divided into two levels (Bintang Bangsaku: 2008). They are high self
concept and low self concept. Furthermore, it is divided into three levels. They are high, fair
and low. High self concept is the condition when you are sure about yourself, appreciate your
self, trust to your potential, feel accepted, make friend easily, and another happy feeling that
make you confident and deserve to have a better life. Fair self concept is the condition when
you have a fairly self concept. You feel accepted, praised and other happy feelings that make
you be confidence, but in another situation, the feeling can be change of the opposite.
Although he or she has high self concept, but it is not high enough to be called high concept,
because there is still another room to be improved to have high self concept. Low self
concept is the condition of your feeling when you have a poor self image caused by your
experiences during childhood, and that feeling cannot go through when you are growing up.
You feel lonely, depressed, having social anxiety and alienation even in crowd situation.
Coopersmith in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) states that the characteristic of people who have
high self concept are free to give opinion, have high motivation to reach aim, can actualize
self potential, and have ability to adapt with environment. In addition, Brook and Emmert in
Bintang Bangsaku (2008) mention that high self concept is signed by trusting ones
competence to solve problem, having equal role with others, accepting praise, being aware
that not all people are accepted certainly by society and always improving his/her personality.
John Robert Power (1977) in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) states that people have high self
concept when they know themselves deeply both strength and weakness, accept all their self
potential and feel confidence to develop it optimally, and have a strong motivation to learn
and become a success person.
In this study, if the learners have high self concept on English speaking, they will speak
English confidently and fluently. Because by having high self concept, students will have
strong motivation to learn and to develop their competence in speaking and be active in
English speaking class. They are also brave to take risks of making mistakes and make
decision about what to say and how to express their ideas in English. Briefly, the learners
who have high self concept will regard themselves and can reach the aim easily.
Fair self concept almost has the same characters with high self concept. But, it is unstable. A
person with fair self concept is easy distracted by the condition and situation. And it is easy to
make them feel inferior or not confidence when they are in unusual condition and do
something difficult or they never done before. Sometimes they are enable to overcome the
unusual situation, but sometimes not.
Low self concept is signed by having no knowledge about self, lack confidence, afraid to
make mistakes and to try a new thing, afraid to refusal, lazy to learn, easy feeling failure,
always blaming situation and others, sensitive to others criticism, hypercriticize, responsive
to others praise, and pessimistic.
Coopersmith in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) states that low self concept is characterized by
insecure feeling and lack self acceptance. Furthermore, Fitts in Bintang Bangsaku (2008)
mention that people have low self concept when they do not regard themselves, have no self
image yet, have difficulty to define their own self, easy to be influenced with environment,
and feel strange in his/her own environment because of their bad experiences.

By having low self concept, learners are hampered to speak English well. Because they tend
to be inactive, ashamed to express their idea, afraid to make mistakes and do not know what
and how should they express their idea in English. If the learner keeps this low level of self
concept during he or she learns to speak English, the writer thinks that it will take a long time
for them to be success in English speaking. Here is needed the teacher or instructors role in
improving their self concept on English speaking ability because it is not always so easy to
recognize whether the learners have low self concept or not.
There are some consequences of having low self concept that can devastate. It can create
anxiety, loneliness, and increase the likelihood for depression. It can cause problems with
friendship and relationship, can impair academic and job performance seriously, can lead to
under achievement and increase vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. These negative
consequences can take a person into a downward spiral of lower self concept and increasingly
non productive or even actively self destructive behavior (The Counseling and Mental Health
Center, 1999, in Fitriana 2004:18)
2.1.3 Self Concept Development
Self concept is not innate and heredity. It develops by continuing self learning process. Burns
(1979) in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) states that self concept always develop as long as human
life. Furthermore Cooley in Bintang Bangsaku (2008) mentions that self concept is formed
through learning process.
Self concept develops through out our lives as we build a self image through our experiences
with different people and activities. Experiences during childhood play role in shaping our
basic self concept. The way we are treated by families, teachers, friends, and society, and the
way we face our success and failure when we are growing up, give a contribution to create
our self concept.
As Hurlock (1980) states that the development process of self concept started from when
human was born, continue until his/her age is 6-8 months old, and when his/her age is 3-5
years old, the person starts to identify him/her self about age, body size, sex, and other. In this
face which Allport (Sarason: 1972, Bintang Bangsaku: 2008) called as early self face,
someone also tries to give simple respond to others.
The process is more complicated in schooling age. It is because of socialization, and
interaction process with others. And the most complex face is adolescent. Hurlock (1980)
mentions that adolescent face is the important face to find out and set up ones self concept. If
someone receives positive perception or regards from others, he/she may regard his/her self
highly which also can shape his/her positive self concept.
In brief, self concept is formed from learning process through feed back from others and
environment, experience (both childhood and growing up), education, interaction and
socialization process.
2.2 The Concept of English Speaking Ability
According to Webster Dictionary (1984:256) speaking is to utter words, to express thought by
words, to utter speech, discourse, or narague, to talk, to make mention, to tell by writing , to
communicate ideas in any matter. Horn (1980:76) in Andriany (2004:7) implies speaking also
means to use a language in ordinary, not in singing. Above theories emphasize that speaking
is an effort to use language freely, being able to speak which puts more emphasis on
interaction, communication and understanding each other. If it related to particular language,
such as English, according to Ratih (2002), speaking is the form of oral language that is
inevitably used to communicate ideas and feelings, no matter what the language is.
Based on definition above, speaking includes some components which should be mastered:
structural accuracy, vocabulary, pronunciation, fluency and comprehension for oral

communication in the classroom context. The speaking component in a language class should
encourage acquisition of communication in and out the classroom. Those components will be
used as measurements description in order to check the correctness in terms of non-using the
score.
The writer can conclude that speaking is the ability to use the language in ordinary way by
speech. It is not only matter of transferring some messages to other person but is also
communication, which needs more that one person to communicate with.
Meanwhile, Webster Dictionary (1986:2) defines ability as a genetic word represents the
term capacity, capability, intelligence, competence, mind power and others. It also relates to
skill, knowledge to do something, proficiency, aptitude, faculty, expertise, talent, facility,
qualification, and strength. Based on the definition above the writer define English speaking
ability as an ability or skill that the learners have to communicate, to convey meaning, and to
have a meaningful conversation in English.
In learning English, the main goal is to able to speak well so they can use it in
communication. Speaking skill believed as important aspect to be success in English
speaking. The success of learning English can be seen and measured from their performance
in speaking and how well they present their English in communication.
English as the target language should be mastered well, either its language skill or language
area. In acquiring second language, learners should be involved into a meaningful interaction
of the target language that only found in natural communication. Learners learn to speak and
concerned to the message that they are conveying and understanding. Ratih (2002) explained
that when people speak, they construct ideas in words, express their perception, their feelings
and their intentions, so that interlocutors grasp meaning of what the speakers mean. If the
learner does not have speaking skill, does not understand the English words that saying by the
speaker, does not acknowledge the language, they cannot grasp meaning of the speakers
mean. In that condition, they cannot be said success in learning English, because they did not
have a meaningful interaction of English conversation. So, for people who want to speak
English well, besides learning the knowledge of the language, they need to practice it.
Because it is impossible to be able speak English without practice it.
Speaking skill requires two aspects, namely linguistic and non-linguistic aspect.
1. Linguistic aspect is the main requirement that the English learner should possess in order
to speak it well. It involves comprehension, pronunciation, grammar and word order,
vocabulary, and general speed of speech, sentence length and etc.
2. Non-linguistic aspect is an aspect to support learners to achieve a success in acquiring
speaking skill. This aspect involves personality dimensions, such as self esteem and
extroversion.
To be success in English speaking, learners should master the linguistic aspect and posses the
non-linguistic aspect. They both correlate each other. So, English speaking ability here not
only focuses on the knowledge of language that the learners have, but also focuses on the
personality dimension that will affect them in presenting their knowledge of English and they
know how and when to present it.
2.2.1. Pronunciation
The way of speaking the language is called pronunciation. Hornby (1984:670) explains that,
pronunciation is a way in which a language is spoken, persons way of speaking a language
or words of a language. Whereas, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English
(2001:1130) states pronunciation as the way in which a particular language is pronounced, a
particular persons way of pronouncing a language, the way in which a word is usually
pronounced.
The writer concluded that pronunciation refers to the way of person in speaking a word that is
pronounced.

2.2.2. Vocabulary
In Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (Hornby, 1984:461) vocabulary is defined as the
total number of words in a language, the words known to a person and a list of words with
their meanings, especially at the back of a book used for teaching a foreign language.
Vocabulary in this study covers the selection and the use of varied words that used by
students. In short, the writer concluded that vocabulary is a total number of words which has
meaning in a particular language which is necessary for students to use in speaking and
writing.
2.2.3. Structure
The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001:1437) defines grammar as (the
study and practice of) the rules by which words change their forms and combined into
sentences.
According to Pooley in Olfah (2004), grammar describes the way of language work. English
grammar tells how English works in communicating ideas. Ideas are generally expressed in
sentences. Sentences are made by grouping and arranging words. Therefore, grammar is also
the study of words in sentences.
Structure in this study covers the appropriateness of using words correctly in sentences orally.
The writer concluded that grammar is the way of language works through words in speaking
or writing so a language will be understood clearly.
2.2.4. Fluency
Longman Dictionary (2001:541) defines fluency as mode expressing thought in a language,
whether oral or written, especially such use of a language in the expression of thought as
exhibits the spirit and faculty of an artist, choice or arrangement of words in discourse,
rhetorical expression.
Further, according to Bryne in Andriany (2004) the main goal in teaching the productive skill
of speaking will be oral fluency. Fluency as a part of speaking indicates how well or how
smooth a speaker expresses ideas in terms of sentences. Fluency in speaking is the quality of
being fluent and it needs the intensity or practices, talent, habit and proper speech.
Perfect fluency will be identified by limited pause of utterance. Speaker with imperfect
fluency will stop and start to talk in uttering the sentences. Refers to the typical speaking, the
more pauses subject performs a speech the more indicates that he has poor fluency in uttering
sentences in terms of explaining the information within. In this regard, when student
performs speech, he might think for a while to find the other words to continue the whole
explanation to get the information clear.
The writer concluded that fluency in speaking is the ability of speaker in expressing or
uttering ideas in terms of sentences with limited pause of utterance.
2.2.5. Comprehension
Comprehension is the power of understanding an exercised aimed at improving or testing
ones understanding of a language in written or spoken (Hornby, 1984). Moreover, it defines
as the ability to understand completely and be aware of understanding whatever said by
speaker or toward the topics that are discussed during having conversation.
Comprehension is one of many components that should be paid attention to increase students
speaking ability in order to speak better. There are pronunciation, structure, vocabulary and
fluency. Yet, speaking means making up a language in ordinary way that involving those
components.
Basically, there is a number of different ways of getting students to speak, ranging from
asking students a set of questions to request them to give a detailed presentation. This way
aims to get the students to speak in order to improve his or her comprehension.
From the explanation above, the writer concluded that comprehension is the students ability

to understand a task given by a teacher. Comprehension is how the students respond correctly
and appropriately toward the task given.
2.3 Self Concept in English Speaking Ability
The main goal in learning English is to speak English fluently. To communicate in English
needs confident that is reflected through our general self concept.
In addition, Schutz (2005) explained, according to Krashens Affective hypothesis, in
acquiring second language, learner is affected by some variables including motivation, self
confidence, and anxiety. Krashen claims that with high motivation, self confidence, a good
self image, and a low level of anxiety, learner will be better for success in second language
acquisition. Furthermore, low motivation which relate to the low self concept and debilitating
anxiety, can form a mental block that prevents comprehensible input for language acquisition.
It means that when the learner has low self concept, any efforts to acquire second language as
well will be disturbed, and she/he might failed to acquire English as second language. As the
writer explained above, low self concept may affect their self confidence and motivation to
learn. So, high self confidence and motivation are needed to present our English in
communication.
There are some factors that influence self confidence and motivation in speaking English
(Ratih: 2002). They are:
Lack of vocabularies and limited opportunity for practice
expectancy to success and self efficacy (Weiner, 1986 in http:pscheirder@socal.rr.com)
Personal valuing of his/her ability in speaking (self perception ability-related to self esteem)
Having anxiety during performance or having fear of failure (Eccles and Wigfield, 1991 in
http:pscheirder@socal.rr.com)
The difficulty of tasks whether they are able to do one similar to it before or called as self
competency belief (Wigfield, 1994 in http:pscheirder@socal.rr.com)
As the writer explained above, some aspects influence English speaking ability. From Nonlinguistic aspect, the writer concludes that the factors influencing English speaking ability
are:
Self concept which relates to the self confidence and motivation to learn speaking English
Extroversion has seven indicators that will determine the success of learning to speak. They
are activity (active to speak), sociability (be sociable and easy to adapt a new atmosphere to
gain the skill earlier), risk taking (is not afraid to make mistakes in producing utterances),
impulsiveness (be able to respond spontaneously), expressiveness, responsibility (has less
responsibility for avoiding in making mistakes when practice speaking), and reflectiveness.
2.4 Review of Previous Research Findings
In this study, the writer reviewed earlier studies which have similarity with research
conducted to give more information about the variable under study.
Fitriana (2006) conducted a study on Self Esteem in English Speaking Ability by the
Learners of LPIAs Conversation Class. The design of this study is descriptive. The purpose
of the study is to find the correlation between self esteem and speaking ability of the students.
She took 27 students of LPIAs conversation class as her subject of study. And to collect the
data, she used self esteem questionnaire to obtain the students self esteem and speaking test
to know the students speaking ability. The last, she analyzed the score both of self esteem
and speaking test by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 11. The result of her
study was she found a positive correlation between self esteem and English speaking ability.
In her study, self esteem defined as ones subjective appraisal of himself as intrinsically
positive or negative to some degree. If the learner believes and regards himself, he may have
a good self esteem and could behave confidently in speaking English.
Based on previous research above, the writer found out that speaking ability was influenced

by self esteem. Furthermore, the writer was interested investigating whether self concept also
influences the speaking ability or not.
CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The research methods concern: i) Research design, ii) Research subject, iii) Data collection
technique, and iv) Data analysis technique.
3.1 Research Design
The design of this study was correlation. It was because of the aim of this study is to find out
the relationship between two variables (self-concept and English speaking ability). Hopkins
and Wallace (1998) in Fitriana (2006:29) state that if the research aim is to determine how
one thing (a variable) affects another in a population, then it is a correlation.
In conducting the research, the writer prepared a self concept test to measure the self concept
variable symbolized as X variable and an English speaking test to know the English
speaking ability symbolized as Y variable. Then, the result of self-concept test and English
speaking test were correlated by using Pearson Product Moment formula which was
computed with SPSS 16.
3.2 Population and Sample
Population is the whole units to be searched. Warsito in Maisaroh (2004:15) states that the
population of the study is the whole objects which consist of human beings. A group of
students or a group of scores as a source of data and has certain characteristics. Moreover
Antorowati (2003:25) states that the population is the human, people, thing, or others. They
can be a set of source for the study. In addition, Hornby (1995:201) in Antorowati (2003:25)
says that the population is a group of people, country or special section of them. Furthermore,
Johnson in Maisaroh (2004:15) says that population is the entire group of entities of persons
to which the result of a study are intended to apply. Based on the opinion above, the writer
can conclude that the population is the human, things, or others that can be used as subjects in
taking data sources in the research. In this case the population of the study was the learners in
the Primagama English for Students class. There were five classes especially for high school
students with the total number of 30 learners.
Sample is a sub group of the population. This group represents the characteristic of the
population. In terms of finding the sample for this research, the writer orientated to Arikunto
(2002:72) who states that:
1. if the population are under 100, the writer can take all of them
2. if the population are more than 100, the writer can take 50 % and
3. if the population are more than a thousand, the writer can take 15 to 25 % as a sample.
The writer also orientated to Koenker (1981:54) who states that in general practice, it would
not be advisable to calculate a correlation with less than 30 cases.
According to the opinions above, the sample of this study was 30 learners in the Primagama
English for students class. Most of learners were from high school. The ages ranged from 12
16 years old.
3.3 Research Instrument
To collect the data, the writer used a self concept test and an English speaking test as the
instrument. Self concept test was used to obtain data of learners self concept and the English
speaking test was used to measure their English speaking ability.
a. Self Concept Test
In this study, the writer did not develop her own self concept test. The writer adapted from a

paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Conference which
held in Melbourne, Australia. The title is A test of a multi faceted, hierarchical model of self
concept by Dr Russell F. Waugh at Edith Cowan University which has been adopted into
Spanish by Elexpuru (1992) and Cambra and validated by Gonzaless Torres, Touron, and
Graviria (1994).
The writer did not try the test out because the validity of the test was guaranteed. It was
because of the validation process has been done before. Each statement of the test consists of
five-option answer that had different scale. The test consisted of twenty statements (10
positive statements and 10 negative statements) divided into three components of self
concept. They were academic self concept (7 items), personal self concept (6 items), and
social self concept (7 items). And, here was the description of the scale:
Positive Statement Item:
a. Strongly agree or most of the time : 5
b. Agree or quite often : 4
c. Somewhat agree or sometimes : 3
d. Disagree or rarely : 2
e. Strongly disagree and almost never : 1
Negative Statement Item
a. Strongly agree or most of the time : 1
b. Agree or quite often : 2
c. Somewhat agree or sometimes : 3
d. Disagree or rarely : 4
e. Strongly disagree and almost never : 5
The classifications of the scores of the following criteria are:
1. High Self Concept : M + 1 SD and over
2. Fair Self Concept : From (M 1 SD) until (M + 1 SD)
3. Low Self Concept : M 1 SD and under (Sugiyono: 2004)
Note : M : Mean
SD : Standard Deviation
In addition, each statement in the self concept test represents some of sub scale of self
concept. It could be described as follows:
Table 3.1 The Variable Sub Scale and Components of Self Concept
No Sub Scale of
Self Concept Components No. Items
1 Academic Self Concept Capability
Perceptions of achievement
Confidence in Academic Life 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
2 Social Self Concept Environments self concept
Family self concept 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14
3 Presentation of Self
(Personal Self Concept) Physical self concept
Personal confidence self concept
Honest/trustworthy self concept 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
b. English Speaking Ability
To obtain data about students English speaking ability, the writer joined with the instructor of
the class to make any appropriate speaking test. Before making the speaking test, we should
know the level of learners and the basic types of speaking test in order to make an appropriate
test. There are five basic speaking tests, as follows:

1. Imitative speaking. Here the learners learn about imitating a word or a phrase. The kind of
test is Word repetition task.
2. Intensive speaking. In this type, the learners learn to produce short stretches of oral
language. Directed Response Task, Reading Aloud task, and Sentence Completion can be
used as the assessment task in this type.
3. Responsive speaking. Learners get involved in meaningful interaction that asked their
comprehension but it is limited for the level of very short conversation, question and answer,
standard story telling, standard greetings and small talk, and simple request and comment.
Assessment for this type involves brief interaction with an interlocutor.
4. Interactive speaking. Learners involve to longer and more complex interaction like
interview, role play, discussion and conversation, and games.
5. Extensive (monologue) speaking. The task includes speech, oral presentation, and story
telling. During which the opportunity for oral interaction from the listeners is either highly
limited (perhaps to non-verbal responses) or ruled out together.
Based on the characteristic of each type of speaking test, the level of the learners, and the
material given in English for Students class, the writer decided to take the responsive
speaking test (story telling) about themselves and family (the simple topic taken from their
book/McGRAW HILL hand book) that can be done spontaneously.
There are many speaking assessments available, such as: Oral Proficiency Scoring Categories
from Brown (2001), and Oral English Rating Sheet from David P. Haris (1969). But for
scoring speaking test, in this study the writer used an Evaluation of Language Proficiency by
descriptive sentences by The American Foreign Service Institute Proficiency Description in
Testing for Language Teachers book, 1989, and Language Proficiency Interview Testing in
Methodolody in TESOL, 1982 in Olfah (2004) which is also available in (Hughes:1991: 110)
because this scoring system is more appropriate to score the responsive test, quite easy to use
and has a clear explanation that the writer took as a means in scoring.
This speaking assessment also requires the raters to pay attention to A, B, C, D, E, and F
scale for each of the following: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and
comprehension. Those components are weighted and totaled in order to analyze the criteria
levels.
Table 3.2 Speaking Proficiency Description Checklist
Proficiency Description
Pronunciation, Accent, Rhyme
A. Pronunciation is so bad, frequently unintelligible and foreign accent is too heavy.
B. Frequent gross error and a very heavy foreign accent make understanding difficult, require
frequent to repeat.
C. Foreign accent requires concentrated listening, and mispronunciation lead to occasional
misunderstanding and apparent errors in grammar or vocabulary.
D. Foreign accent is still marked, occasional mispronunciation, which do not interfere with
understanding.
E. No conspicuous mispronunciations, but still does not like native speaker.
F. Native pronunciation with little or no trace of a foreign accent.
Grammar Forming Words
A. Grammar almost entirely inaccurate, except for few frequently repeated phrases.
B. Constant errors showing control of very few major patterns and frequently preventing
communication.
C. Frequent errors showing some major patterns uncontrolled and causing occasional
irritation and misunderstanding.

D. Occasional errors showing imperfect control of some forms and structures but no
weakness that causes misunderstanding.
E. Few errors, with no repeated pattern of failure.
F. No more than one or two grammatical errors during a fairly briefly conversation.
Vocabulary
A. Vocabulary inadequate for even the simple conversation.
B. Vocabulary limited to basic personal and survival areas (such as time, food, transportation,
family, etc).
C. Choice of words sometime inaccurate, limitations of vocabulary prevent discussion of
some early common topics connected with types of work and relationship in society.
D. Professional vocabulary adequate to discuss special interest; general vocabulary allows
discussion of any non technical subjects with some circumlocutions.
E. Professional vocabulary broad and precise; general vocabulary adequate to cope with
complex practical problems and varied social situations.
F. Vocabulary apparently as accurate and extensive as that of an educated native speaker.
Fluency of Speech
A. Speech is so halting and fragmentally that conversation is virtually impossible.
B. Speech is very slow and uneven, except for short or routine sentences.
C. Speech is frequently hesitant and jerky; sentences may be left uncompleted.
D. Speech is occasionally hesitant, with some unevenness caused by rephrasing and grouping
for words.
E. Speech is effortless and smooth, but perceptibly non-native in speed and evenness.
F. Speech on professional and general topics is virtually as effortless and smooth as a native
speakers.
Comprehension
A. Understands too little for the simplest type of conversation.
B. Understands only slow, very simple speech on common social and touristic topics; he/she
require frequent repetition and rephrasing.
C. Understand careful, somewhat simplified speech when engaged in a dialogue, but may
require considerable repetition and rephrasing.
D. Understands quite well normal educated conversation, when engaged in a dialogue, but
requires occasional repetition or rephrasing.
E. Understands everything said in normal educated conversation, except for very colloquial
or low-frequency items, or exceptionally rapid or slurred speech.
F. Understands virtually everything in both formal and colloquial speech to be expected of an
educated native speaker.
How to weight and convert A-B-C-D-E-F Marking of Language Proficiency
No. Total Score Level Prof. Description
(Weighted)
1 > 34 I Novice Normal
2 35 - 44 II Novice Advance
3 45 - 55 III Novice High
4 56 - 66 IV Intermediate Normal
5 67 - 77 V Intermediate Advance
6 78 - 88 VI Intermediate High

7 89 - 99 VII Proficient Normal


8 100 - 103 VIII Proficient Advance
9 104 - 107 IX Proficient High
10 108 < X Educated/Native Speaker
Source: Testing for Language Teachers book, 1989, and Language Proficiency Interview
Testing in Methodolody in TESOL, 1982 in Olfah (2004)
Table 3.3 The Scoring Sheet for English Speaking Ability
Rater 1/2 :
No. Name Proficiency Description
Pronunc. Grammar Vocab. Fluency Compre. Total Score Level Description
In order to avoid bias, the writer was helped by two raters for scoring the speaking test. They
were Dra. N. R., S.Pd and N. N., S.Pd. In the writers consideration, the two raters were
qualified to measure the learners speaking ability because they had experiences in teaching
English more than ten years, had experiences in teaching conversation class more than three
years, had graduated from university (minimally S1) in English major, and their TOEFL score
was above 450. Before the raters assessed the students speaking ability, both raters had
already discussed about the speaking proficiency description checklist to be use, to make sure
that they had the same understanding in using the checklist. The writer used two raters as the
requirements to make the result more reliable, since scoring the speaking is highly subjective.
The classifications of the speaking score are:
1. High : M + 1 SD and over
2. Fair : From (M 1 SD) until (M + 1 SD)
3. Low : M 1 SD and under (Sugiyono: 2004)
Note : M : Mean
SD : Standard Deviation
3.3.1. Interrater Reliability
A test is reliable if it measures what it supposed to be measured or if it measures it
consistently (Hadley and Mort, 1999).
According to Hadley and Mort (1999) there are three major categories of reliability for most
instruments: test-retest, equivalent form, and internal consistency. Test-retest measures
consistency from one time to next. Equivalent form measures consistency between two
versions of an instrument. Internal consistency measures consistency within the instrument.
Related to this study, a fourth category (scorer agreement) is often used with performance and
product assessment. Scorer agreement is the consistency of rating a performance or product
among different judges whom are rating the performance or product, this is called as inter
rater reliability. Hadley and Mort (1999:1) states one important issue which needs
consideration when creating oral tests is that of interrater reliability.
Interrater reliability, as defined by Weir in Hadley and Mort (1999) measures the consistency
of scoring between different raters. As it is related to this study, interrater reliability is the
degree of correlation between two or more examiners, with the goal of determining whether
they are using the same set of criteria when testing the oral proficiency of learners. If the
level of reliability between two or more examiners reach the level of significance (0.80 at low
proficiency), this may indicate that students in different classes are receiving fair treatment in
terms of testing.
As speaking is highly subjective measurement, the great weakness of oral ratings is their
tendency to have rather low reliability, and to see the consistency of rating of that subjective

measurement, then the interrater reliability is used as it related to this study.


Interrater reliability is used as the requirement to make the score more acceptable. In
interrater reliability; two raters or more will evaluate a group of students products and the
correlation between the ratings can be calculated (Siegle, 2004).
Interrater reliability makes an important contribution to test reliability. Bachman (Olfah:
2004) says that rating should be concerned with enhancing the agreement between raters by
establishing explicit guidelines for conducting the rating.
The formula stated by Miles and Huberman in Olfah (2004) is as follow:
Reliability = Number of Agreement X 100%
Total number of Agreement + Disagreement
Where: The agreement is the score which is agreed by two raters
The disagreement is the different score between the two raters
The minimal ideal to make the score acceptable or fair is 80% or up to 80%.
3.4 Data Collection Techniques
The data collection was done at basic conversation class in Primagama English. To collect the
data, the writer used some steps. The steps were as followed:
1. Coming to the course owner and instructors of the class and asking for permission to make
an observation about learners English speaking ability.
2. Getting the sample of population. The writer took five English for Students classes
especially teenager class which consists of 30 learners.
3. Preparing the items of self concept questionnaire and English speaking test
4. Giving the self concept questionnaire to the whole learner.
5. Conducting the speaking test and recording the results. The recorded results were rated by
two raters.
6. Scoring and categorizing the test based on the speaking proficiency description of
descriptive sentence adapted from Foreign Service institute level proficiency in Olfah (2004).
7. Finding out the reliability using interrater reliability.
8. Scoring the answer sheet of self concept questionnaire
9. Analyzing the score of self concept questionnaire and speaking test by using Statistical
Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16 by using pearson product moment.
10. Verifying the hypothesis by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16.
3.5 Data Analysis Techniques
The purpose of this study was to find out the relationship between self concept and speaking
ability of the learners of Primagama English for students class. Before correlating the two
variables, the writer counted the scores of the self concept questionnaire and classified them
into three categories (high, fair, and low self concept).
After data were collected, to find the classification, the writer found out the mean and the
standard deviation.
To count the mean, the writer used this formula:
=
Where:
= Mean of the self concept scores
=The total score of self concept test
=The amount of population (Arikunto, 2002)
Then we should find the standard deviation by using this formula:
S=
Where:

S = Standard deviation
X = Score of self concept test
= Mean of the self concept score
N = the amount of population (Sugiono, 2004)
The mean and standard deviation were used to determine the classification of the self concept
as follows:
1. High Self Concept : M + 1 SD and over
2. Fair Self Concept : From (M 1 SD) until (M + 1 SD)
3. Low Self Concept : M 1 SD and under (Sugiyono: 2004)
Note : M : Mean
SD : Standard Deviation
Then to account the score of the English speaking ability, the writer used this calculation:
Y = ? Total score
Where:
Y = The total score of speaking ability for the leaner
Moreover, to find the classification of the score, the calculation is the same with the
calculation to find the classification of self concept score. Here is the description:
To count the mean, the writer used this formula:
=
Where:
= Mean of English speaking score
?y = The total score of English speaking test (total score of whole learners)
N = The amount of population (Arikunto, 2002)
Then the writer found the standard deviation by using this formula:
S=
Where:
S = Standard deviation
y = Score of English speaking score
= Mean of English speaking score
N = the amount of population (Sugiyono, 2004)
The mean and standard deviation were used to determine the classification of the English
speaking ability as follows:
1. High : M + 1 SD and over
2. Fair : From (M 1 SD) until (M + 1 SD)
3. Low : M 1 SD and under (Sugiyono: 2004)
Note : M : Mean
SD : Standard Deviation
After the data were collected, the next step was to find out the correlation between Selfconcept (variable x) and the English speaking ability (variable y).
To find the coefficient correlation (r), the writer used this formula, as follows:
rxy= (Arikunto: 2002)
Then, to find out the criterion of the hypothesis acceptance, the writer used this formula, as
follows:
t = (Arikunto: 2002)
But in this study, the writer used Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 16 for
analyzing the data to facilitate the computing process.

3.6 The Criterion of the Hypothesis Acceptance


After finding the correlation between self concept and English speaking ability, the writer
should find out the criterion of the hypothesis acceptance. To determine whether the
hypothesis is accepted or rejected, the writer used SPSS 16 (pearson product moment) for the
calculation. The criterion acceptance is:
Ho = tcomputed < t table Note : t table for N = 30 is 1.701
Ha = tcomputed > t table
Explanation:
Ho = the Null hypothesis is accepted if the tcomputed is lower than t table
Ha = the Alternative hypothesis is accepted if the tcomputed is higher than t table.
CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION
After conducting the research to the learners of Primagama English for students class, the
writer found the results of learners self-concept and their speaking ability. The results of the
test in this study were presented as follows:
4.1 Data Presentation
4.1.1 The Result of Learners Self-Concept
The data were collected by giving the self-concept questionnaire to the sample and the result
can be seen in the following table:
Table 4.1 The Self Concept of Learners
Learners Number Total Score Qualification
1 80 Fair Self-Concept
2 76 Fair Self-Concept
3 80 Fair Self-Concept
4 84 High Self-Concept
5 81 High Self-Concept
6 68 Fair Self-Concept
7 72 Fair Self-Concept
8 75 Fair Self-Concept
9 74 Fair Self-Concept
10 71 Fair Self-Concept
11 60 Low Self-Concept
12 79 Fair Self-Concept
13 69 Fair Self-Concept
14 69 Fair Self-Concept
15 58 Low Self-Concept
16 75 Fair Self-Concept
17 58 Low Self-Concept
18 78 Fair Self-Concept
19 79 Fair Self-Concept
20 75 Fair Self-Concept
Table 4.1 (Continued)
Learners Number Total Score Qualification
21 78 Fair Self-Concept
22 66 Low Self-Concept
23 82 High Self-Concept

24 68 Fair Self-Concept
25 83 High Self-Concept
26 80 Fair Self-Concept
27 68 Fair Self-Concept
28 76 Fair Self-Concept
29 73 Fair Self-Concept
30 77 Fair Self-Concept
Total 2212 Fair Self-Concept
Mean 73.73
Note : For further information about the score for each item, can be seen in Appendix 5
4.1.2 The Score of English Speaking ability
The data were collected by giving speaking test to the sample and the results of the test were
assessed by two raters as the requirement in scoring the speaking test. The score given by
each rater can be seen in the following table:
Table 4.2 Learners Speaking Score from the First Rater
Learners' Number Proficiency Description
Pronunc. Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre. Total Level Description
1 C 6 C 18 C+ 14 D 8 D 17 63 IV Inter. Normal
2 B+ 4.5 C 18 D 16 C+ 7 D 17 62.5 IV Inter. Normal
3 C+ 7.5 C 18 D+ 18 D 8 D 17 68.5 V Inter.Advance
4 C+ 7.5 C+ 21 D+ 18 D+ 9 D+ 19 74.5 V Inter.Advance
5 C+ 7.5 C 18 D 16 D 8 D+ 19 68.5 V Inter.Advance
6 B 3 B 12 B 8 B+ 5 C 13.5 41.5 II Novice Advance
7 B+ 4.5 B+ 15 B 8 C 6 C+ 15 48.5 III Novice High
8 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C+ 15 46.5 III Novice High
9 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 C 6 C+ 15 47.5 III Novice High
10 B 3 B 12 B 8 B 4 C 13.5 40.5 II Novice Advance
11 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
12 C 6 B 12 C 12 C 6 C+ 15 52 III Novice High
13 B+ 4.5 A+ 9 B 8 C 6 C 13.5 40.5 II Novice Advance
14 B+ 4.5 B+ 15 C 12 B+ 5 C 13.5 50 III Novice High
15 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
16 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 45 III Novice High
Table 4.2 (continued)
Learners' Number Proficiency Description
Pronunc. Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre. Total Level Description
17 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
18 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 C 6 C 13.5 46 III Novice High
19 B+ 4.5 B 12 C 12 C 6 C+ 15 49.5 III Novice High
20 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 45 III Novice High
21 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 45 III Novice High
22 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
23 C 6 C 18 D 16 D 8 C+ 15 63 IV Inter. Normal
24 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 C 6 C 13.5 46 III Novice High
25 C+ 7.5 C+ 21 D 16 D+ 9 D 17 68.5 V Inter.Advance
26 C+ 7.5 B+ 15 C+ 14 C 6 C 13.5 56 IV Inter. Normal
27 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B 4 B+ 12 42.5 II Novice Advance
28 B+ 4.5 B 12 C 12 C 6 C 13.5 48 III Novice High

29 B+ 4.5 A+ 9 B+ 10 C 6 C 13.5 43 II Novice Advance


30 C 6 B 12 C 12 C 6 C 13.5 49.5 III Novice High
TOTAL 147 399 342 177 431.5 1495 III Novice High
MEAN B+ 4.9 B+ 13.3 B+ 11.4 C 5.9 C 14.38 49.8333
Table 4.3 Learners Speaking Score from the Second Rater
Learners' Number Proficiency Description
Pronunc. Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre. Total Level Description
1 C 6 C 18 C+ 14 D 8 C+ 15 61 IV Inter. Normal
2 C 6 C 18 D 16 C+ 7 C+ 15 62 IV Inter. Normal
3 C+ 7.5 C 18 D+ 18 D 8 D 17 68.5 V Inter.Advance
4 C+ 7.5 C+ 21 D+ 18 D+ 9 D 17 72.5 V Inter.Advance
5 C+ 7.5 C+ 21 D+ 18 D+ 9 D 17 72.5 V Inter.Advance
6 B 3 B 12 B 8 B+ 5 B+ 12 40 II Novice Advance
7 B+ 4.5 B+ 15 B 8 C 6 C 13.5 47 III Novice High
8 C 6 B+ 15 B+ 10 C 6 C 13.5 50.5 III Novice High
9 C 6 B 12 B+ 10 C 6 C 13.5 47.5 III Novice High
10 B+ 4.5 B 12 B 8 B+ 5 B+ 12 41.5 II Novice Advance
11 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B+ 5 B+ 12 37 II Novice Advance
12 C+ 7.5 B 12 C 12 C 6 C+ 15 52.5 III Novice High
13 B+ 4.5 A+ 9 B 8 C 6 B+ 12 39.5 II Novice Advance
14 B+ 4.5 B+ 15 C 12 C 6 C 13.5 51 III Novice High
15 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
16 C 6 B 12 B+ 10 C 6 B+ 12 46 III Novice High
17 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
18 C 6 B 12 C 12 C 6 C 13.5 49.5 III Novice High
19 C 6 B 12 C 12 C 6 C+ 15 51 III Novice High
20 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 45 III Novice High
21 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 45 III Novice High
22 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
Table 4.3 (continued)
Learners' Number Proficiency Description
Pronunc. Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre. Total Level Description
23 C 6 C 18 D 16 D 8 D 17 65 IV Inter. Normal
24 B+ 4.5 B 12 C+ 14 B+ 5 C 13.5 49 III Novice High
25 C+ 7.5 C+ 21 D 16 D+ 9 D 17 70.5 V Inter.Advance
26 C+ 7.5 B+ 15 C+ 14 C+ 7 D 17 60.5 IV Inter. Normal
27 B+ 4.5 A+ 9 B+ 10 B 4 B+ 12 39.5 II Novice Advance
28 B+ 4.5 B 12 C 12 B+ 5 C 13.5 47 III Novice High
29 B+ 4.5 A+ 9 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 42 II Novice Advance
30 C 6 B 12 C 12 C 6 C 13.5 49.5 III Novice High
TOTAL 159 402 350 181 418.5 1510.5 III Novice High
MEAN B+ 5.3 B+ 13 B+ 12 C 6 C 14 50.35
To know the reliability of the score in this study, the writer used interrater reliability as stated
by Miles and Huberman (1992:100) in Olfah (2004:35) and Hadley (1999). To find out the
interrater reliability, the writer classified the learners scores into proficiency level and its
description based on speaking proficiency level of Foreign Service Institute adapted from
Testing for Language Teachers (Hughes:1989).
The proficiency level and description of each learner from both two raters can be seen as

follows:
Table 4.4 The Proficiency Level of Each Learner from Both Raters
Learners' Number First Rater Second Rater
Level Description Level Description
1 IV Inter. Normal IV Inter. Normal
2 IV Inter. Normal IV Inter. Normal
3 V Inter.Advance V Inter.Advance
4 V Inter.Advance V Inter.Advance
5 V Inter.Advance V Inter.Advance
6 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
7 III Novice High III Novice High
8 III Novice High III Novice High
9 III Novice High III Novice High
Table 4.4 (continued)
Learners' Number First Rater Second Rater
Level Description Level Description
10 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
11 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
12 III Novice High III Novice High
13 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
14 III Novice High III Novice High
15 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
16 III Novice High III Novice High
17 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
18 III Novice High III Novice High
19 III Novice High III Novice High
20 III Novice High III Novice High
21 III Novice High III Novice High
22 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
23 IV Inter. Normal IV Inter. Normal
24 III Novice High III Novice High
25 V Inter.Advance V Inter.Advance
26 IV Inter. Normal IV Inter. Normal
27 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
28 III Novice High III Novice High
29 II Novice Advance II Novice Advance
30 III Novice High III Novice High
Reliability = Number of Agreement X 100%
Total number of Agreement + Disagreement
= 100 X 100%
100 + 0
= 100%
The minimal ideal to make the score acceptable or fair is 80% or up to 80%. From the
computation above, the writer found that the reliability of the score was 100%. It means that
the score was acceptable.

4.2 Data Analysis


To see the result of this research in detail, the writer presents and analyses the data in the
following steps:
4.2.1 Analysis of Learners Self-Concept
From the table 4.1, the average of the self-concept score was 73.73, the lowest score was 58
who were reached by learners number 15 and 17. The highest score was 84 who was reached
by learners number 4.
Four learners (13.3 %) were considered having low self-concept because based on the result
of the questionnaire, they were lack of confidence, afraid to make mistakes, feeling failure
easily, had low motivation to learn and pessimistic.
And four learners (13.3 %) were considered having high self-concept because they were
confident and brave to make mistakes, and had strong motivation to learn and develop their
self-competencies.
While others twenty-two learners (73.4 %) were considered having fair self-concept because
they were still easy to distracter by condition and situation, sometimes they feel inferior and
not confident to overcome the problem but sometimes not.
The classification of the self-concept level would be analyzed as in the following table:
Table 4.5 Rate Percentage and frequency of Learners scores on Self-Concept
No. Interval Score Criteria Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
1 80.67-over HIGH 4 13.3
2 66.79-80.66 FAIR 22 73.4
3 under-66.78 LOW 4 13.3
TOTAL 30 100%
The criteria of the score above is based on the classification below:
Classifications:
High self-concept: M + 1 SD and over = 80.67 and over
Fair self-concept: From (M 1 SD) until (M + 1 SD)= between 66.79 and 80.66
Low self-concept: M 1 SD and under = 66.78 and under
Data source : Table 4.1
4.2.2 Analysis of Learners Speaking Ability
The following tables respectively showed the speaking ability of Primagama English learners.
Table 4.6 The Average Students Speaking Score from the First and Second Rater
Leaners' number Proficiency Description
Pronunc. Grammar Vocab Fluency Compre. Total Level Description
1 C 6 C 18 C+ 14 D 8 C+ 16 62 IV Inter. Normal
2 B+ 5.25 C 18 D 16 C+ 7 C+ 16 62.25 IV Inter. Normal
3 C+ 7.5 C 18 D+ 18 D 8 D 17 68.5 V Inter. Advance
4 C+ 7.5 C+ 21 D+ 18 D+ 9 D 18 73.5 V Inter. Advance
5 C+ 7.5 C 19.5 D 17 D 8.5 D 18 70.5 V Inter. Advance
6 B 3 B 12 B 8 B+ 5 B+ 12.75 40.75 II Novice Adv.
7 B+ 4.5 B+ 15 B 8 C 6 C 14.25 47.75 III Novice High
8 B+ 5.25 B 13.5 B+ 10 B+ 5.5 C 14.25 48.5 III Novice High
9 B+ 5.25 B 12 B+ 10 C 6 C 14.25 47.5 III Novice High
10 B 3.75 B 12 B 8 B 4.5 B+ 12.75 41 II Novice Adv.
11 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4.5 B+ 12 36.5 II Novice Adv.
12 C 6.75 B 12 C+ 12 C 6 C+ 15 51.75 III Novice High
13 B+ 4.5 A+ 9 B 8 C 6 B+ 12.75 40.25 II Novice Adv.
14 B+ 4.5 B+ 15 C+ 12 B+ 5.5 C 13.5 50.5 III Novice High
15 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Advance
16 B+ 5.25 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5.5 B+ 12.75 45.5 III Novice High

17 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Adv.
18 B+ 5.25 B 12 B+ 11.5 C 6 C 13.5 48.25 III Novice High
19 B+ 5.25 B 12 C+ 12 C 6 C+ 15 50.25 III Novice High
20 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 45 III Novice High
21 B+ 4.5 B 12 B+ 10 B+ 5 C 13.5 45 III Novice High
22 B 3 A+ 9 B 8 B 4 B+ 12 36 II Novice Adv.
23 C 6 C 18 D 16 D 8 C+ 16 64 IV Inter. Normal
24 B+ 4.5 B 12 C+ 12 B+ 5.5 C 13.5 47.5 III Novice High
25 C+ 7.5 C+ 21 D 16 D+ 9 D 17 70.5 V Inter. Advance
26 C+ 7.5 B+ 15 C+ 14 C 6.5 C+ 15.5 58.5 IV Inter. Normal
27 B+ 4.5 A+ 10.5 B+ 10 B 4 B+ 12 41 II Novice Adv.
28 B+ 4.5 B 12 C+ 12 B+ 5.5 C 13.5 47.5 III Novice High
29 B+ 4.5 A+ 9 B+ 10 B+ 5.5 C 13.5 42.5 II Novice Adv.
30 C 6 B 12 C+ 12 C 6 C 13.5 49.5 III Novice High
TOTAL 153 400.5 346.5 179 425.25 1504.25 III Novice high
MEAN B+ 5.1 B 13.35 B+ 11.55 B+ 5.967 C 14.175 50.1417
Table 4.7 The Frequency and percentage of the Students Level Proficiency from Speaking
Performance
No Total Score Level Description Frequency Percentage
1 > 34 I Novice Normal 0 0
2 35 - 44 II Novice Advance 9 30.00%
3 45 - 55 III Novice High 13 43.40%
4 56 - 66 IV Intermediate Normal 4 13.30%
5 67 - 77 V Intermediate Advance 4 13.30%
6 78 - 88 VI Intermediate High 0 0
7 89 - 99 VII Proficient Normal 0 0
8 100 - 103 VIII Proficient Advance 0 0
9 104 - 107 IX Proficient High 0 0
10 108 < X Educated/Native speaker 0 0
TOTAL 30 100%
Data source : Result of the research
Based on the table above, there were 9 students in the novice advance level (30%), 13
students in novice high level (43.40%), 4 students in intermediate normal level (13.30%), and
4 students in intermediate advance level (13.30%). So, most of the students were in novice
high level.
The classification of the English speaking ability level would be analyzed as in the following
table:
Table 4.8 The Classification, Rate Percentage and frequency of Learners scores on English
Speaking Ability
No. Interval Score Criteria Frequency (f) Percentage (%)
1 61.04-Over HIGH 7 23.3%
2 39.25-61.03 FAIR 19 63.4%
3 Under-39.24 LOW 4 13.3%
TOTAL 30 100%
The criteria of the score above are based on the classification below:
Classifications:
High : M + 1 SD and over = 61.04 and over

Fair : From (M 1 SD) until (M + 1 SD) = between 39.25 and 61.03


Low : M 1 SD and under = 39.24 and under
From the data above, it was found that the average of learners score in English speaking
ability was 50.14. It was in novice high level. The lowest score was 36 who were reached by
learners number 15 and 17 and the highest score was 73.5 who was reached by learners
number 4.
There were four learners with low level of speaking ability (13.3%). It was because their
pronunciation was bad, grammar was almost entirely inaccurate, vocabulary was inadequate,
speech was very slow, and comprehension was little for the conversation.
And, there were seven learners with high level of speaking ability (23.3 %). It was because
their pronunciation was good enough, grammar was good, vocabulary was adequate, speech
was just occasionally hesitant, and comprehension was quite well for the conversation.
The others nineteen learners had fair level of speaking ability (63.4%) and). It was because
their pronunciation was still frequently repeated some word, grammar was still showing
errors, vocabulary was limited, fluency was slow and uneven, and comprehension was still
understandably.
To know the increase and descent of self-concept score and English speaking ability score,
the writer provided the following graphic:
The graphic above showed the increase and descent of self-concept and English speaking
ability. The blue line showed the increase and descent of the self-concept of learners. The
pink line showed the increase and descent of English speaking ability of learners.
When we pointed the graphic of learner number 4, we can see that both blue and pink lines
are going up. It was because he got 84 (high) for self concept and 73.5 (high) for English
speaking ability. The other example, when we pointed the graphic of learner number 15, we
can see both blue and pink lines are going down. It was because he got 58 (low) for self
concept and 36 (low) for English speaking ability.
In general, from the movement of the lines, it can be seen that the graphic shows both blue
and pink lines have similar pattern. If the self-concepts line was increase, the English
speaking abilitys line was increase, too. While the self-concepts line was descent, the
English speaking abilitys line was descent, too. In other words, the better someones self
concept, the better his/her English speaking ability.
4.2.3 Analysis on Learners Self-Concept and Their English Speaking Ability
As what has been explained in chapter 3, the writer used SPSS 16 for the calculation to know
the correlation between self-concept and English speaking ability. The following table would
show the computation result of the two variables.
Table 4.9 The Value of Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Correlations
YX
Pearson Correlation Y 1.000 .818
X .818 1.000
Sig. (1-tailed) Y . .000
X .000 .
N Y 30 30
X 30 30
From the table above, X variable represented self-concept and Y variable represented the
speaking ability. Based on the result of computation by using SPSS 16 (Pearson Product
Moment Correlation), the writer found the coefficient correlation (r) was 0.818 (strong

correlation).
To know whether there is significant correlation between self-concept and English speaking
ability or not, the computation would be continued by t-test.
Table 4.10 The Value of Regression Test
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change
1 .818a .670 .658 6.48888 .670 56.759 1 28 .000
a. Predictors: (Constant), X
Based n the computation above, the writer found that the value of R Square (coefficient
determination) = 0.670. It means that the influence of self-concept through English speaking
ability is 67% while other 33% is influenced by other factors outside this study.
Table 4.11 The Value of t-test
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) -44.654 12.638 -3.533 .001
X 1.286 .171 .818 7.534 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Y
Based on the computation above, the writer found that tcomputed was 7.534. This result is
compared to the ttable (see appendix 7) on degrees of freedom (df) = 28 (30-2) at p=0.05 or
alpha=95%. Using the criteria, the writer found that the ttable = 1.701. The result showed that
tcomputed (7.534) > ttable (1.701). It means that there is a significant correlation between
self-concept and English speaking ability.
4.3 Interpretation
From the calculation above, the hypothesis formulation is stated as follows: There is a
significant correlation between self-concept and English speaking ability of the learners in the
Primagama English for students class.
In addition the problem statement that proposed in the chapter 1 is representatively answered
as the following:
The first question How is the self-concept of the learners in the Primagama English for
students class? was answered fair low self-concept, since the mean score was 73.73 that was
in fair category.
The second question was How is the English speaking ability of the learners in the
Primagama English for students class?. The mean score of 50.14 answered this question.
Most of the English learners were in fair category especially in novice high level.
The third questions Is there any correlation between self-concept and English speaking
ability of the learners in the Primagama English for students class? It is answered by the
result of coefficient correlation (r) = 0.818 (strong correlation). It means there was a
significant correlation (67%) between self-concept and English speaking ability since the
result of tcomputed was 7.534 higher than ttable (1.701).
The research finding had showed the correlation between self concept and English speaking
ability specifically. When someone is lack of confidence, afraid to make mistakes, have low
motivation to learn, feeling failure easily, inactive, and pessimistic, he or she may have low
level of English speaking ability. While, someone who is confident, brave to make mistakes,
and have strong motivation to learn and develop their self-competencies, he or she may have

high level of English speaking ability.


By having low self-concept, learners are hampered to speak well. They tend to be inactive
and ashamed to express their idea in English orally. While by having high self-concept,
learners will have strong motivation to learn, be brave to take a risk of making mistake, and
know how to express idea in English.
This research finding supported Jones and Grieneekss (Pudjijogyanti: 1991) opinion that self
concept is the best non-intellectual factor to determine students achievement because
individual perception about his capability will influence learners motivation to get a good
achievement. In addition, Krashen (Schutz: 2005) claims that learners are affected by some
variable including motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety. Learners with high self-concept
and self-confidence, and low level of anxiety, will be success in second language acquisition.
So, it means that not only self esteem, as Fitriana (2006) said, but also self-concept plays
important role in developing speaking skill. Because self-concept and academic achievement
like speaking ability go hand in hand, they feed each other. Further, this study expected that
the teachers should put more attention to the self-concept of the learners as a psychological
factor that may influence their achievement especially their ability in speaking English.
CHAPTER V
CLOSING REMARKS
This chapter presented conclusion, the implication of the study and suggestion. The
conclusion was made in reference to the result of the study and the purpose of the study. The
implication of the study was made in accordance with the finding research. Suggestions were
made in line with the scope and limitation of the study and significance of the study.
5.1 Conclusion
Based on the description on the previous chapter, the writer comes to the following
conclusion:
1. The average score of learners self-concept is 73.73 where it is in fair category (score
between 66.79 until 80.67). It means that sometimes they were lack of confidence, afraid to
make mistakes, have low motivation to learn, feeling inferior and failure easily, tend to be
inactive, ashamed to express their idea, and pessimistic but sometimes they can overcome
these all situation. In other word, there is still another room to be improved to have high selfconcept.
2. The level of learners English speaking ability is in novice high level where the
pronunciation is frequent gross error, difficult to understand, and require frequent to repeat
(B), the grammar is still showing errors (B), the vocabulary is limited (B), the fluency is very
slow and uneven (B), and the comprehension is understandably (C).
3. The statistical analysis of Self-concept and English speaking ability showed that the value
of coefficient correlation (r) =0.818 and there was a significance correlation (67%) between
self-concept and speaking ability which was showed by the result of tcomputed (7.534) >
ttable (1.701). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the Null Hypothesis (Ho) is
rejected and the Alternative Hypothesis (Ha) is accepted.
5.2 The Implication of the study
Considering the research finding, where there was a strong correlation between self-concept
and English speaking ability, the teachers are expected to put more attention to the selfconcept of the learners as a psychological factor that may influence their ability in speaking
English. Besides teaching the knowledge of English skill especially speaking, they should
motivate the learners with low self-concept to improve their self-concept.

5.3 Suggestions
Based on the result of the study, the writer proposes some suggestions concerning the
research findings as follows:
1. For teachers, besides teaching the material about speaking, they also should be aware to the
psychological factors, like self-concept. Therefore, teachers may have a real expectation to
his students with low self-concept to have a proficiency in speaking English or they can give
different treatment for teaching low self-concept students or even create interesting
atmosphere in teaching and learning process. So, the learners will feel safe, not afraid to
practice speaking English and finally can get a good achievement.
2. The teachers should be able to use every single chance for doing speaking practice in the
class. For example, the teachers may use English when they teach or even just give the
instruction, in order to the learners have a chance to improve their linguistic aspect (like
vocabulary, fluency, pronunciation, etc) and to practice their English too.
3. For students, besides preparing idea to be conveyed when speaking, they also need to have
a high self-concept. By having a high self-concept, they will increase their confidence and
bravery and also be active when joining the conversation class and enable to speak well. To
improve their self-concept, the writer also suggests to apply some tips that can be tried; settle
up your self image, be objective and honest to identify your self, regard your self, dont
blame your self, and always have positive and rational thinking.
4. For future researcher, they can use this thesis as a literature to guide them when they want
to do the similar research. Although this study has been done but because of limited time it
still has many weaknesses. Therefore, any researchers interested in the same field are
suggested to do deep analysis and focus on academic-self concept in order to give a big
contribution in academic life.
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