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Fenomenul globalizrii este manipulat de evolutia tehnologica, schimbariile pe

plan social dar si pe planul economic. Acest fenomen solicita performane


suplimentare din partea fiecrei companii, pentru a rmne pe pia.
O serie de strategii pentru a performa m acest domeniu sunt urmtoarele:
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Utilizarea sistemelor informatice, pentru integrarea produciei logisticii n


scopul creterii calitii servirii clientului.
Folosirea unor metode de manipulare, transport i depozitare a mrfurilor
prin intermediul unor canale de distribuie mai lungi, acesteea vor depaii
graniele naionale.
Realizarea unor aliane strategice pentru aprovizionarea cu materii prime
i pentru producie.
Raionalizarea i coordonarea faclitiilor de producie n vederea reducerii
costuriilor i a maximizrii gradului de utilizare a activelor.

Conceptul de logistic a evoluat continuu astfel c o serie de autori (precum i


Aptel 2000) identific trei stadii de maturitate ale evolutiei acestui termen:
1. stadiul logisticii fragmentate, specific aniilor 60 si 70, caracterizat prin
fragmentarea responsabilitii fluxurilor ntre serviciile de achizitie, producie,
vnzare, distribuie evident cu consecine negative asupra costurilor
2. stadiul unei logistici centralizare corespunztoare integrrii interne (la nivel de
firma)
3. corespunztor sfritului aniilor 80 cand se poate vorbi de logistica integrate
sau managementul logistic
Principalele obiective urmarite, ca urmare a implementarii sistemelor informatice
pentru conducerea activitatiilor logistice, sunt urmatoarele [Managementul
logisticii i distribuiei, Ed. Teora Bucureti, 1999.]
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Reducerea cisturilor ca urmare a cresterii productivitatii


Creterea calitii servirii clienilor datorit unor livrri prompte
Creterea calitii decizilor prin utilizarea unor date de intrare cat mai
exacte.

Problema minimizrii timpului necesar pentru ncrcarea containerului aflat n


spaiul de depozitare pe vapor este numit PROBLEMA TRASEULUI
TRANSTAINERULUI transtainer routing problem.
Dupa ce determinm ca problema este o problem liniar NP-Complete,
problema este formulat ntr-un program ntreg.
Este folosit metoda de rezolvare prin ramificare i limitare branch-and-bound,
fcndu-se posibil rezolvarea liniar, plecndu-se de la un nod i parcurgnd
toate soluiile. Unele limitri sunt fcute pentru a limita ramificarea mriind astfel
complexitatea programului.
Programul returneaz totalitatea rezultatelor ntr-un timp inferior sau cel mult
egal unui timp necesar de rezolvare a unui algoritm de tip polinomial.
[Udatta S. Palekar University of Illinois, Urbana]

The problem of minimizing the time taken to load the containers from the
container stack yard onto the ship is called the transtainer routing problem. We
first do a theoretical investigation of the problem to understand the structural
properties of the problem. We then use these results to prove that the problem is
NP-Complete. The problem is then formulated as an integer program. A branchand-bound based enumerative method is developed to obtain an exact solution
to the problem. An algorithm to solve the matching problem on a line at the root
node of the branch-and-bound tree is developed. --Several lower bounds to
prune the size of the tree are also developed. --A result which states that there
cannot exist a polynomial time heuristic with a bounded worst case unless P =
NP is proved. Based on this result, an enumerative heuristic with a worst-case
performance ratio of 1.5 is designed. Computational tests on randomly generated
problems are conducted to evaluate the exact and heuristic algorithms
Un terminal de containere este un instrument unde containerele cu marfuri sunt
transbordate ntre diferite vehicule de transport sau moduri de transport. Astfel
nct, transbordarea poate fi ntre vapoare pentru transportul containerelor i
autocamioane specializate n acest sens sau vagoane tip transcontainer sau n
oricare combinaie din cele menionate anterior.
Portul Newark-Elizabeth, din golful Newark, n portul din New York i New Jersey
este considerat primul terminal de containere din lume. n 26 aprilie 1956, ntr-un
experiment, un camion a fost modificat pentru a putea transporta ncrcturi
standardizate compatibile cu asiul camionului depozitate anterior m Portul
Newark. Pe data de 15 august 1962, autoritiile porturiilor New York i New
Jersey au deschis cel mai mare port Elizabeth Marine Terminal.[ "History". Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved 2014-12-23.]
Terminalele de transport maritime au tendina de a aparine unui port mai mare,
astfel nct, cele mai mari terminale vor fi ntlnite n apropierea celor mai mari
porturi. n zonele continentale, terminalele de containere, tind s fie localizate n
sau n apropierea metropolelor sau a megalopolelor, avnd o conectiune
feroviar catre un terminal de transport maritim.

Att terminalele de containere maritime ct i cele continentale, pun la dispozitie


spatiu de depozitare att pentru ontainerele goale ct i pentru cele ncrcate.
Containerele ncrcate sunt depozitate pentru perioade de timp relative scurte,
avnd prioritate n procesul de expediere, fa de containerele goale care sunt
depozitate pn n momentul cnd devin necesare. n general containerele sunt
stivuite pentru depozitare pe o nlime de maxim 6 containere pentru siguran.

Both maritime and inland container terminals usually provide storage facilities for
both loaded and empty containers. Loaded containers are stored for relatively
short periods, whilst waiting for onward transportation, whilst unloaded
containers may be stored for longer periods awaiting their next use. Containers
are normally stacked for storage, and the resulting stores are known as container
stacks.
In recent years methodological advances regarding container terminal operations
have considerably improved. For a detailed description and a comprehensive list
of references see, e.g., the operations research literature.[2][3]
A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped
between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. ---The
transshipment may be between container ships and land vehicles, for example
trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime container
terminal. Alternatively the transshipment may be between land vehicles, typically
between train and truck, in which case the terminal is described as an inland
container terminal.
Port Newark-Elizabeth on the Newark Bay in the Port of New York and New Jersey
is considered the world's first container terminal. On April 26, 1956, the Ideal X
was rigged for an experiment to use standardized cargo containers that were
stacked and then unloaded to a compatible truck chassis at Port Newark.The
concept had been developed by the McLean Trucking Company. On August 15,
1962, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey opened the worlds first
container port, Elizabeth Marine Terminal.[1]
Maritime container terminals tend to be part of a larger port, and the biggest
maritime container terminals can be found situated around major harbours.
Inland container terminals tend to be located in or near major cities, with good
rail connections to maritime container terminals.
Operaiuniile terminalelor de containere sunt adevrate afaceri de
infrastructur ns au urmtoarele caracteristici:
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Dificulti de executare datorit capitalului uria de investiii,


investiii periodice dar i o suprafa limitat a spaiului e
depozitare.
Transport naional conex, guvernul fiind receptiv la dezvoltare.
Construcia unui nou terminal de transport sau extinderea unuia
deja existent fiind adesea ngrdit de restriciile locale de
construcie.
Durat indelungat de execuie a unui astfel de proiect datorat
implicrii multor investitori implicai.
Lipsa competiiei datorat restriciilor geografice.

Competivitatea terminalelor de containere este determinat pe lng


facilitiile terminalului de transport de infrastructura extern. Un terminal
de containere este o legatur esenial n structura unui lan logistic.
Transporturile pe apa, feroviare, rutiere sunt servicii logistice puse la
dispoziia porturilor, incluznd depozitarea i serviciile vamale, alctuiesc
lanul logistic (logistic chain) n care opereaz porturiile. n plus, aceste
terminale de containere reprezint un element important n succesul unui
terminal de transport.

Container terminal operations are pure play infrastructure business and


have some of the following key characteristics:

High barriers to entry due to the high capital requirements, regulatory


requirements and limited land availability

Coordinated hinterland transportation connections requiring local


governments receptive to development

New terminal development often constrained by local planning procedures


and regulations

Long lead times for project execution due to the involvement of many
stakeholders in the process

Limited competition partially due to geographical constraints

The competitiveness of container terminal's operations is determined not only by


the terminals' facilities but also its the external infrastructure. A container
terminal is a crucial link in the wider logistics chain. The water, rail and road
hinterland connections and logistical services provided in the port, including
warehousing and customs processing, make up the logistics chain in which the
ports operate. Additionally, high quality inland transport links is a key element in
the success of a container terminal.
Container terminal operators have long-term relationships with their customers.
While contracts between shipping lines and container terminals typically have a
duration of one year, in practice these relationships generally last much longer,
even decades.

Container shipping was first introduced in the 1950s and since the late 1960s has become the
most common method for transporting many industrial and consumer products by sea.

Container shipping is performed by container shipping companies that operate frequent


scheduled or liner services, similar to a passenger airline, with pre-determined port calls,
using a number of owned or chartered vessels of a particular size in each service to achieve an
appropriate frequency and utilisation level.
Container shipping has a number of advantages compared with other shipping methods,
including:

Less cargo handling. Containers provide a secure environment for cargo. The contents
of a container, once loaded into the container, are not directly handled until they reach
their final destination.

Efficient port turnaround. With specialised cranes and other terminal equipment,
container ships can be loaded and unloaded in significantly less time and at lower cost
than other cargo vessels.

Highly developed intermodal network. Onshore movement of containerised cargo,


from points of origin, around container terminals, staging or storage areas and to final
destinations, benefits from the physical integration of the container with other
transportation equipment such as road chassis, railcars and other means of hauling the
standard sized containers. A sophisticated port and intermodal industry has developed
to support container transportation.

Reduced shipping time. Container ships can travel at speeds of up to 25 knots, even in
rough seas, thereby transporting cargo over long distances in relatively short periods
of time.

Growth in global containerisation


In 2010, world container traffic comprised 541,784 thousand TEUs, according to Drewry. The
compound average growth rate (CAGR) of world container traffic from 2000 to 2010 is
estimated at 8.6% compared with a global real GDP CAGR of 2.6% for the same period,
according to Drewry. Key drivers that contributed to the growth in global container
throughput over this period were sustained growth in global trade, increased global sourcing
and manufacturing, a shift from transporting cargo in bulk to transporting cargo in containers
and growth in transhipment volumes. In 2013, world container traffic growth amounted to
3.0%, flat with global GDP growth of 3.0%, according to IMF.

Intermodal Transport
Why choose Intermodal transportation?

Intermodal transportation is the movement of goods in one and the same loading unit or road vehicle,
using successively two or more modes of transport without handling the goods themselves in changing
modes (ECMT/UN Definition).
How does it work
Combined transport techniques include following modes:

Road-rail

Rail-maritime

Rail-waterway

Rail-air

An example for intermodal transportation would be the transport by ship to a port, from which the
containers are either loaded directly on the wagons or are transported by truck to the rail terminal. The
containers are transported to the nearest hub by rail and are then transported to the final destination. In
general, the major part of the European journey is by rail, inland waterways or by sea and any initial
and/or final legs are carried out by trucks.
More details
Activitatea transportului combinat este domeniul cu cea mai rapida cretere comparativ cu alte
afaceri cu mrfuri. ntre anii 1988 i 2008, transportul internaional combinat a nregistrat o
cretere de 215% i ntre 2002 i 2015 este estimat o cretere de 135%.
Transportul intermodal, este o afacere concentrat care este susinut de anumite coridoare
selectate. 10% din toatalul serviciilor acoper 80% din totalul volumului transportat i 16% din
totalul serviciilor acoper 90% din volumul total.
[Source: Study on Infrastructure Capacity Reserves For Combined Transport by 2015]
The combined transport segment is the segment which is growing most rapidly compared to the other
freight businesses. Between 1988 and 2008 international unaccompanied combined transport (in
tonnes) increased by 215% and between 2002 and 2015 it is expected to grow by 135% (Source: Study
On Infrastructure Capacity Reserves For Combined Transport By 2015).
The intermodal transport is a concentrated business which is mainly carried out on a few selected
corridors. 10% of all services cover 80% of the total transported volume and 16 percent of the services
cover 90% of the total volume (Source: Study On Infrastructure Capacity Reserves For Combined
Transport By 2015).

The Railway operators offer two types of intermodal transport: Accompanied transport and
unaccompanied transport. The difference is that with accompanied transports is the whole truck loaded
on the railway wagon meanwhile the unaccompanied transports loose units (e.g. container or semitrailer).
Accompanied transport is also known as "rolling road" and is used in countries such as Switzerland
and Austria mainly to cross the Alps. In 2005, unaccompanied accounted for 92.5% of the overall
volume for combined transport in terms of tonnes (Source: Diomis, Report on Combined Transport in
Europe in 2005).
For more information about combined transport, please visit UICs combined transport website.