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A).

COMPUTER LAB RULES


(PENGURUSAN MAKMAL KOMPUTER)
1/. COMPUTER LAB REGULATIONS.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
DATA

USER

SECURITY

EQUIPMENT

PANDUAN AM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

PANDUAN PENGGUNA
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6
KESEDARAN

2. PENGETAHUAN

3. INTERAKSI

3.
2.
1.

Mengubah
kepada

2/. LAB ORGANIZATION.

COMPUTER LAB TIME


TABLE

ORGANIZATION CHART

THE USAGE
OF LOG BOOK
THE USAGE ?

STUDENTS LOG BOOK


1.

SKETCH THE ORGANIZATIAN


CHART !

2.
3.
4.
5.

TEACHERS LOG BOOK


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6

6.

WHAT IS LOG BOOK ?

TYPES OF LOG BOOK


1.
2.

3/. ETHICS IN USING COMPUTER.


ETHICS

UNETHICALS

THE EFFECT OF COPYRIGHT


VIOLATION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
ETHICAL USE OF COMPUTER
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.

7.

THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF


COMPUTER ETHICS

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

GUIDELINES ON THE E-MAIL AND INTERNET


USAGE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10

ETIKA KOMPUTER
9

KOD ETIKA
HARTA INTELEK
JENAYAH KOMPUTER
KEBERSENDIRIAN
(PRIVACY)
UNDANG-UNDANG

10

B) COMPUTER HARDWARE
11

1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
The features of the generations of computers.

GENERATIONS

YEARS

CIRCUITRY

FIRST

SECOND

THIRD

FOURTH

FIFTH

12

DEVICES

PROCESSORS

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differentiate between a single user system and a multi user system.


SINGLE USER SYSTEM

MULTI USER SYSTEM

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

4.

4.

5.

5.

THE FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPUTERS :


13

B) COMPUTER HARDWARE
14

2. COMPUTER PARTS & COMPONENTS


2.1 OVERVIEW OF THE COMPUTER STSTEMS

MAIN COMPONENTS COMPUTERS :

6.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE MAIN COMPONENTS :

15

DATA PROCESSING CYCLE OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM


16

PLEASE COMPLETE THE FIGURE BELOW .

WHAT HAPPEN TO THAT UNIT ?

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

STORAGE

2.2 SYSTEM UNIT


17

41

81

10

i)

11

Inside view of system unit.

18

ii). Front view of a system unit.

19

iii). Back view of a system unit.

20

21

LET SEE

22

FUNCTIONS OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE


MOTHERBOARD.
23

CPU
(Centre
Processi
ng Unit )

Read
Access
Memory
(RAM)

24

FUNCTIONS OF THE MAIN COMPONENTS OF A


SYSTEM UNIT
DVD ROM DRIVE
POWER SUPPLY
ZIP DRIVE

DVD / CD RW
DRIVE
POWER BUTTON
HARDISK DRIVE

INPUT OUTPUT
PORT
CD ROM DRIVE
MOTHER BOARD

RESET BUTTON
FLOPPY DRIVE

No Component Functions
.
s
1
2
3

7
8

A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so that the
peripheral can send data to or receive information from the computer.
To start on computer
Kick of soft boot, instructing the computer to go through the
process of shutting down, which would clear memory and reset
devices to their initialized state. It simply removes power
immediately.
Main circuit board of the system unit, which has some electronic
components attached to it and others built into it.
Convert standard electrical power into the form that computer can use. If a
power supply is not providing the necessary power, the computer will not
function properly.
A device that reads DVD-ROM, also can read audio CDs, CDROMSs, CD-Rs and CD-RWs.
A device that reads audio CDs, CD-ROMs, CD-Rs and CD-RWs.
It is a combination drive that reads DVD and CD media, it also
writes to CD-RW media. This drive also allows watching a DVD or burn a
CD.
A high-capacity disk drive that reads from and writes on a Zip disk.
25

10
11

A device that reads from and writes on a floppy disk


Type of storage device that contains one or more inflexible, circular platters
that store data, instructions and information. Also called a hard disk.

26

27

28

29

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2.3 PERIPHERALS

1.
2.
3.

PERIPHERAL

TYPES OF
PERIPHERALS

FUNCTION OF PERIPHERALS

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32

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2.4 INPUT DEVICES


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2.5 OUTPUT DEVICES


2.6 STORAGE DEVICES

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1.

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1.

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PRIMARY STORAGE

SECONDARY STORAGE

1.

1.

2.

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3.

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4.

4.

5.

5.

37

38

39

40

BIT

BYTE

KILOBYTE

MEGABYTE

GIGABYTE

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3. BASIC MANTAINANCE
3.1 HANDLING INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICE.

42

43

44

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3.2 COMPUTER SETTING.


( Refer KPM ICTL Form One Module )
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C). COMPUTER SOFTWARE


1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SOFTWARE.

1.
2.

47

1.
2.

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SYSTEMS SOFTWARE
OPERATING SYSTEM

APPLICATION
SOFTWARE

UTILITY PROGRAMME

1.

1.

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2.1 INTRODUCTING TO OPERATING SYSTEMS.


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OPERATING SYSTEM

UTILITY PROGRAMME

1.

1.

2.

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1.

2.

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3.

5.

4.

WARM
BOOT

1.
2.

COLD
BOOT

2.2

OS Interface Environment

3
52

1.
2.

3
.

The Differences Between Dos And Windows


Display

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DISK OPERATING SYSTEM


(DOS)

WINDOWS

1.

1.

2.

2.

3.

3.

GUI

ALLOWS

.
1.
2.
3.

2.3 FILE MANAGEMANT


Manage Folders & Subfolder
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Create Folders
Rename Folders
Move Files.

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MICROSOFT WINDOWS

Satu siri perisian system kendalian yang dikeluarkan oleh


Microsoft.
Versi pertama windows telah diperkenalkan pada Disember
1985.
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Sebagai tambahan kepada MS DOS sebagai tindakbalas


terhadap minat pengguna pada GUI (Graphical User Interface)
yang sedang meningkat.
Windows membenarkan pengguna menjalankan pelbagai
aplikasi bergrafik pada satu masa secara multi tugas koperatif.

ANTARAMUKA PENGGUNA WINDOWS


1. Dekstop
- Gambar latar belakang skrin Windows.
- Ianya adalah keseluruhan ruang kerja anda.
- Dipanggil desktop kerana Windows menggunakan analog
skrin dengan cara yang sama anda menggunakannya untuk
permukaan meja anda.
2. Task Bar ( Bar Tugas)
- Sebaris bebutang yang kebiasaannya terletak di bahagian
bawah Dekstop.
- Apabila sesuatu aplikasi dibuka, bebutang aplikasi tersebut
dipaparkan pada Bar Tugas.

CONTOH : Satu Tetingkap bernama Computer yang memaparkan


kandungan komputer berkenaan.

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3. Ikon
-Symbol grafik yang mewakili sesuatu dalam computer anda.

DEKSTOP

IKON

TASK BAR
(BAR TUGAS)

Semua versi Windows mempunyai objek atau elemen yang sama


iaitu :1. Bar Tajuk
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2. Bebutang Windows.

BAGAIMANA MENJALANKAN PROGRAM

FAIL DAN FOLDER

BAGAIMANA MENBINA FAIL BARU

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COMPUTER SOFTWARE

WORD PROCESSING

SOFTWARE
THE USAGE OF WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE :
1. Menjimatkan masa menyunting text.
2. Boleh menambah, memadam dan menyusun semula teks.
3. Boleh mengira bilangan perkataan dengan cepat, memeriksa
ejaan, memasukkan Jadual, memasukkan gambar kepilan atau
memasukkan gambar digital.

HOW TO START ? ARRANGE the numbers STEP BY STEP.


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All Programs
Microsoft Word
Microsoft Office
Start Button

FEATURES IN WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE :

SKRIN MICROSOFT WORD 2007 (YANG BIASA KELIHATAN)

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5
9
6
10
7
11
8
15

16

13

12

1
4

1. Bebutang Office Buka menu arahan berkaitan fail


dokumen.
2. Quick Access Toolbar (bar alatan capai cepat)

MEMASUKKAN TEKS
Terdapat 2 cara :
o Menekan kekunci yang berkaitan pada kekunci.
o Menyalin teks dari aplikasi lain. Proses ini dikenali sebagai
salin dan tampal atau copy and paste.
MEMILIH TEKS.
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Beberapa cara melakukannya :


1. Memilih satu perkataan
Dwi klik pada perkataan tersebut atau
Menyeret penunjuk tetikus ke atas perkataan yang
akan dipilih.
2. Memilih satu baris
Klik pada Bar Kawalan ( ruang putih kosong di kiri
baris yang akan dipilih ) atau
Menyeret penunjuk tetikus di atas baris tersebut.
3. Memilih satu perenggan
Dwi klik pada Bar Kawalan atau
Klik 3 kali pada perenggan yang ingin dipilih atau
Menyeret penunjuk tetikus ke atas semua perkataan
dalam perenggan tersebut.
4. Memilih semua teks
Klik 3 kali pada Bar Kawalan atau
Tekan Ctrl+A.

MENJAJAR PERENGGAN
Terdapat dalam 4 jajaran :Sila Klik pada Bebutang berkenaan Bebutang ini terletak pada
reben Paragraph di dalam Tab Home. Word akan menjajar semula
perenggan yang diplilih.

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1.
2.
3.
4.

Jajar Kiri
Align Text Left (Ctrl+L)
JajarTengah
Center (Ctrl+C)
Jajar Kanan
Align Text Right (Ctrl+R)
Jajar Kiri dan Kanan serta memberi tambahan ruang diantara
perkataan jika perlu Justify (Ctrl+J).

MEMFORMAT TEKS
Format penting sebagai satu kaedah bagaimana cara teks
dipaparkan. Menukar format teks bermakna anda menukar cara teks
dipaparkan.
Pilih bebutang / arahan berkenaan yang berada dalam reben Font di
dalam tab Home.

BOLD

CONDONG

UNDERLINE

1. Teks Tebal (BOLD).


Teks yang dipilih akan ditebalkan.

Ctrl+B

2. Teks Condong (Italic).


Teks yang dipilih akan dicondongkan.

Ctrl+I

3. Teks Bergaris Bawah (Underline).


Ctrl+U
Teks yang dipilih bertukar menjadi teks bergaris bawah.
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MENUKAR JENIS FONT


Pelbagai jenis Font boleh diset dan ditukar bagi dokumen anda.
Cara cara :
1. Klik pada teks untuk memilihnya.
2. Pilih bebutang opsyen Font Type yang terletak dalam reben
Font di dalam tab Home.
3. Senarai jenis Font akan dipaparkan.
4. Klik pada jenis Font pilihan anda.
5. Hasilnya anda akan perolihi jenis teks yang baru pada
dokumen anda.

MENUKAR SAIZ FONT


Pelbagai saiz Font boleh diset dan ditukar bagi dokumen anda.
Cara cara :
1. Klik pada teks untuk memilihnya.
2. Pilih bebutang opsyen Font size yang terletak dalam reben
Font di dalam tab Home.
3. Senarai size Font akan dipaparkan.
4. Klik pada size Font pilihan anda.
5. Hasilnya anda akan perolihi sizes teks yang baru pada
dokumen anda.
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SIZE FONT

MENUKAR WARNA FONT


Cara cara :
1. Klik pada teks untuk memilihnya.
2. Pilih bebutang opsyen Font Color yang terletak dalam reben
Font di dalam tab Home.
3. Senarai warna Font akan dipaparkan.
4. Klik pada warna Font pilihan anda.
5. Hasilnya anda akan perolihi warna teks yang baru pada
dokumen anda.

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MEMASUKKAN WORD ART


Word Art adalah satu program yang dikepilkan barsama Microsoft
Word dan lain-lain Microsoft Office. Ia digunakan untuk membina
teks berhias.

Cara untuk memasukkan teks berhias Word Art ke dalam dokumen

1.
2.
3.
4.

Klik pada tab Insert untuk papar kandungannya.


Klik pada Bebutang WordArt dalam reben Text.
Word akan memaparkan satu senarai opsyen teks berhias.
Klik pilihan anda.

MENUKAR STAIL WORD ART


MENYUNTING TEKS WORD ART
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MEMASUKKAN GAMBAR KEPILAN (CLIPART)


MEMASUKKAN GAMBAR
MEMASUKKAN STAIL GAMBAR
MEMASUKKAN BENTUK GAMBAR
MEMASUKKAN KESAN GAMBAR
MEMASUKKAN BENTUK
MEMASUKKAN GRAFIK SMART ART (SMART ART GRAPHICS)
MEMASUKKAN CARTA
MENUKAR JENIS CARTA
MEMBINA SENARAI BERPELURU (BULLETS)
MENUKAR STAIL SENARAI BERPANDU
MEMBINA SENARAI BERNOMBOR (NUMBERS)
MENUKAR FORMAT NOMBOR PADA SENARAI BERNOMBOR
MEMULAKAN SENARAI BERNOMBOR DENGAN NILAI SELAIAN
DARI 1.
MEMASUKKAN JADUAL TIDAK BERFORMAT
MEMASUKKAN JADUAL MENGGUNAKAN KEKOTAK DIALOG
INSERT TABLE.
MEMASUKKAN JADUAL BERFORMAT.
MENYUSUN TEKS
MEMASUKKAN JADUAL ISI KANDUNGAN SECRA AUTOMATIK.
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Ethical Use of Computers


Honesty is the underlying principle for all computer use. At one extreme, significant violations of Academic Integrity may result in
penalties including dismissal from the University. More generally, common sense civility and respect for another's rights and
computer property is as important to our CSE community as proper treatment of our equipment. Adapted, with permission, from
Computer Literacy, by Helene G. Kershner:
1.

Respect the privacy of others. Do not in any way examine or change files or passwords belonging to others.
Do not violate the privacy of individuals or organizations.

2.

Respect the integrity of the computing systems. Do not develop or use programs that invade, damage, or
alter computing systems or software. Do not in any way harass other users.

3.

Always identify the user accurately. Never use someone else's account. Do not use fraudulent means to avoid
accounting for the use of computing services.

4.

Respect copyrights and licenses. To copy a licensed computer program is illegal; it is indeed theft.

5.

Respect the intellectual property of others. Individual programming assignments are expected to be done by
individual students; do not take another's work or ideas to call your own.

6.

Exhibit responsible, sensible use of computer hardware, software, and data.

What is Computer Science?

Computer Science is the systematic study of algorithmic methods for representing and transforming information,
including their theory, design, implementation, application, and efficiency. The discipline emerged in the 1950s from the
development of computability theory and the invention of the stored-program electronic computer. The roots of computer science
extend deeply into mathematics and engineering. Mathematics imparts analysis to the field; engineering imparts design.

The main branches of Computer Science are


the following:

Algorithms is the study of effective and efficient procedures of solving problems on a computer.

Theory of Computation concerns the meaning and complexity of algorithms and the limits of what can be computed in
principle.

Computer Architecture concerns the structure and functionality of computers and their implementation in terms of
electronic technologies.

Software Systems is the study of the structure and implementation of large programs. It includes the study of
programming languages and paradigms, programming environments, compilers, and operating systems.

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Artificial Intelligence concerns the computational understanding of what is commonly called intelligent behavior and
with the creation of artifacts that exhibit such behavior.

Other important topics in Computer Science include Computer Graphics, Databases, Networks and Protocols,
Numerical Methods, Operating Systems, Parallel Computing, Simulation and Modeling, and Software Engineering.

Computer Ethics
Ethics deals with placing a value on acts according to whether they are good or bad. Every society has its rules about whether certain
acts are ethical or not. These rules have been established as a result of consensus in society and are often written into laws.
When computers first began to be used in society at large, the absence of ethical standards about their use and related issues caused some
problems. However, as their use became widespread in every facet of our lives, discussions in computer ethics resulted in some kind of a
consensus. Today, many of these rules have been formulated as laws, either national or international. Computer crimes and computer fraud
are now common terms. There are laws against them, and everyone is responsible for knowing what constitutes computer crime and computer
fraud.
The Ten Commandments of computer ethics have been defined by the Computer Ethics Institute. Here is our interpretation of them:
1) Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people: If it is unethical to harm people by making a bomb, for example, it is equally bad
to write a program that handles the timing of the bomb. Or, to put it more simply, if it is bad to steal and destroy other peoples books and
notebooks, it is equally bad to access and destroy their files.
2) Thou shalt not interfere with other people's computer work: Computer viruses are small programs that disrupt other peoples computer
work by destroying their files, taking huge amounts of computer time or memory, or by simply displaying annoying messages. Generating and
consciously spreading computer viruses is unethical.
3) Thou shalt not snoop around in other people's files: Reading other peoples e-mail messages is as bad as opening and reading their
letters: This is invading their privacy. Obtaining other peoples non-public files should be judged the same way as breaking into their rooms
and stealing their documents. Text documents on the Internet may be protected by encryption.
4) Thou shalt not use a computer to steal: Using a computer to break into the accounts of a company or a bank and transferring money
should be judged the same way as robbery. It is illegal and there are strict laws against it.
5) Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness: The Internet can spread untruth as fast as it can spread truth. Putting out false
"information" to the world is bad. For instance, spreading false rumors about a person or false propaganda about historical events is wrong.
6) Thou shalt not use or copy software for which you have not paid: Software is an intellectual product. In that way, it is like a book:
Obtaining illegal copies of copyrighted software is as bad as photocopying a copyrighted book. There are laws against both. Information about
the copyright owner can be embedded by a process called watermarking into pictures in the digital format.
7) Thou shalt not use other people's computer resources without authorization: Multiuser systems use user ids and passwords to
enforce their memory and time allocations, and to safeguard information. You should not try to bypass this authorization system. Hacking a
system to break and bypass the authorization is unethical.
8) Thou shalt not appropriate other people's intellectual output: For example, the programs you write for the projects assigned in this
course are your own intellectual output. Copying somebody elses program without proper authorization is software piracy and is unethical.
Intellectual property is a form of ownership, and may be protected by copyright laws.
9) Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you write: You have to think about computer issues in a more general
social framework: Can the program you write be used in a way that is harmful to society? For example, if you are working for an animation
house, and are producing animated films for children, you are responsible for their contents. Do the animations include scenes that can be
harmful to children? In the United States, the Communications Decency Act was an attempt by lawmakers to ban certain types of content
from Internet websites to protect young children from harmful material. That law was struck down because it violated the free speech
principles in that country's constitution. The discussion, of course, is going on.
10) Thou shalt use a computer in ways that show consideration and respect: Just like public buses or banks, people using computer
communications systems may find themselves in situations where there is some form of queuing and you have to wait for your turn and

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generally be nice to other people in the environment. The fact that you cannot see the people you are interacting with does not mean that you
can be rude to them.
See http://www.ccsr.cms.dmu.ac.uk/resources/professionalism/codes/cei_command_com.html for further comments on the ten
commandments.

ADDITIONAL READING:
The following email message was sent to the instructor as a response to the ten commandments mentioned in this page:

Your 10 commandments contradict the hacking


communities constitution:

1. We believe: That every individual should have the


right to free speech in cyber space.

2. We believe: That every individual should be free


of worry when pertaining to oppressive governments
that control cyber space.

3. We believe: That democracy should exist in cyber


space to set a clear example as to how a functioning
element of society can prosper with equal rights and
free speech to all.

4. We believe: That hacking is a tool that should and


is used to test the integrity of networks that hold
and safe guard our valuable information.

5. We believe: Those sovereign countries in the world


community that do not respect democracy should be
punished.

73

6. We believe: That art, music, politics, and crucial


social elements of all world societies can be achieved
on the computer and in cyber space.

7. We believe: That hacking, cracking, and phreaking


are instruments that can achieve three crucial goals:
a.

Direct Democracy in cyber space.

b.

The belief that information should be free to all.

c.

The idea that one can test and know the dangers and

exploits of systems that store the individual_s


information.

8. We believe: That cyber space should be a governing


body in the world community, where people of all
nations and cultures can express their ideas and
beliefs has to how our world politics should be
played.

9. We believe: That there should be no governing


social or political class or party in cyber space.

10. We believe: That the current status of the


internet is a clear example as to how many races,
cultures, and peoples can communicate freely and
without friction or conflict.

11. We believe: In free enterprise and friction free


capitalism.

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12. We believe: In the open source movement fully, as


no government should adopt commercial or priced
software for it shows that a government may be biased
to something that does not prompt the general welfare
of the technology market and slows or stops the
innovation of other smaller company_s products.

13. We believe: That technology can be wielded for


the better placement of man kind and the environment
we live in.

14. We believe: That all sovereign countries in the


world community should respect these principles and
ideas released in this constitution.

Written by the hacking group Xanatomy.

Five Unethical Uses of Computers


X

By Sarah Elizabeth, eHow Contributor

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Print this article

A computer

Computers and the Internet have given society as a whole vast accessibility and power to do
much that was previously impossible. Surfing the Internet is only one such example of the
many activities available through the computer. While education and communication have
been facilitated, not everything about computers are positive. In fact, they harbor many
unethical uses that are becoming increasingly available to the general public.
Other People Are Reading

Unethical & Ethical Behavior in the Workplace

Ethical & Unethical Issues

1.

Pornography
o

Distribution and use of pornography has been greatly facilitated with the use of the computer. Not only is the
use of adult pornography widespread with the use of computers, but so is child pornography. Child pornography is one
of the most, if not the most, unethical uses of the computer today.

Cyber-bullying
o

Bullying online is another form of unethical computer use. It is widespread and getting increasing coverage in
the media as it becomes a larger problem. Sitting in front of a computer screen takes away the need to bully and harass
someone in person and thus makes even worse actions and harassment possible. Additionally, the use of social
networking on the computer as a tool for cyber-bullying is growing.

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Plagiarism
o

Plagiarism is another unethical use of the computer. By going online, it is becoming increasingly easy to find
material for plagiarism. The computer also facilitates writing articles through plagiarism by the use of writing programs
and simply copying and pasting the words onto a document and taking credit for the work.

Cheating
o

Cheating in relationships is made easier through social networking online or the use of emails. Everything is
password protected, making users able to be unfaithful in their relationships and even engage in cyber sex without
anyone catching on.

Identity Theft
o

Theft of someone's identity is facilitated by the computer, making it yet another unethical use. If criminals are
knowledgeable enough at computer hacking, then it is easy for them to gain access to the personal and financial
information of other people and proceed in stealing their identity and ruining their lives.

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