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[J Burlington Books

VIEWPOINTS
For Bachillerato

STUDENT'S

Elizabeth Grant
Kevin Payne

BOOK

[) .Burlington Books

VIEWPOINTS
For Bachillerato

STUDENT'S

Elizabeth Grant
Kevin Payne

BOOK

READING

VOCABULARY

GRAMMAR

Star for a Day

Fame
Verb collocations
Suffixes

Present Perfect
Continuous
Past Perfect Continue
Gerunds and i nfi n itiv

The environment
Phrasal verbs

Modals
Modal perfects

\dioms

should I had bet

Computers
Verbs and prepositions
Verb collocations

The Passive
The Ca usa =

The senses

Reported sp==-

Ll

Review
5

page

Fame
9

page

The G reat Pacific


Garbage Patch

Going Green
page

Predicting content
G u essing meaning from
context

Reading for general

u nderstanding
G uessing meaning from
context

21

S m ile- You're on
Google Street View

Online World
page

Identifying the
main idea
G uessing mea n i ng from
context

33

What's That S mell?

4 Sense It
-

page 45

Families
page

57

6 A Good Buy
page

i nformation
G uessing meaning from
context

Idioms

The Kite Run n e r

Fam i l ies
Word fam i l ies
P h rasal verbs

Relative cla uses

Consu merism
Col locations
Phrasa l verbs

Cond itionals
I mperatives, modals
and time clauses
Wish clauses

Listening Practice

Speaking Practice

Pronoun reference
G uessing meaning from
context

Exan1 Preparation
:age

Phrasal verbs

Burning of the Brands

69

Scanning for specific

Making inferences
G uessing meaning
from context

Exa 0rac 1ce

Ei

Appendices

Gra m m a r A p p e n d i x

Pron u nc i a t i o n Practice

:a;;e SS

oage 121

Glossa ry

P h r a s a l Verbs

page 123

page 130

Prepos i t i o n s

page 131

I rreg u l a r Ver bs

page 132

"

AR

LISTENING

SPEAKING

WRITING

A rad i o tal k

Ta l k i ng about a picture

A for and against essay


Connectors of addition,
contrast and exam ple
I m p rove You r Style:
Ru n-on sentences

A personal statement

A conversation

Reac h i n g a decision

A formal letter I e-mail


Formal and i nformal
la nguage
I m p rove Your Style:
Para l lel construction

PowerPoi nt presentations

A conversation

Personal i nterviews

An opinion essay
C o n nectors of cause, result
and pu rpose
I m prove You r Style:
The apostrophe

A debate

A report

Comparing pictures

A description of a n event
Adjectives a n d adverbs
I mprove Your Style:
M isplaced modifiers

British etiquette

Personal accounts

Expressi n g an opinion

A narrative
Expressions of time and
sequence
I m prove You r Style:
Verb agreement

A job interview

A rad i o progra mme

Role play

A summary
Paraphrasing
I m p rove Your Style:
Writing concisely

Phone messages

nti nuo
1fi nitivE

mer

dais
s

:e

eview of Read i n g Strateg i e s

;ge 134

."/rit i n g G u id e
=ge 135

SKILLS

READING
1. Read the dialogue between Denise (A) and Carl ( B). Where are they?

A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B
A
B

H i , ea rl !
H i , Denisel Hey, good to see you ! You look great !
You too ! How have you been?
I ' m al right, but it's hard bei ng back.
I know what you mean . . . I hate getting up so early.
it's not just that . . . I ' m nervous about all the exams we' l l
b e having this year.
Me too ! Still, it's n ice to see everybody. it's been a pretty
boring summer. Everybody was away at one time or another
. . . except m e !
Did you stay at home a l l summer7
Yes, I was worki n g . I'm going to ta ke a gap year next year,
so I need the money.
Where did you work?
I was a waitress i n a cafe. I know it doesn 't sound
very exciting, but I earned lots of money.
That's great !
So what did you do7
I went to Fra nce for th ree weeks.
You ' re so l ucky ! Did you go with you r family?
No, I was at a summer school i n Marse i l les. I lived with
a French family - it was brilliant !
You ' re doing French this year, are n 't you 7
Yes, and we've got a huge ora l exam this year, so I
wanted to improve my spea k i n g .
Did it help?
Oh, yeah I Before the summer school, I'd never really spoken
to French people.
Did you meet a nybody i nteresting!
Wel l, a friend of the guy I was staying with . . . her name's Marianne . .
How romanti c ! lt looks l i ke you' l l be practising you r written French too !
You ' re rig ht. We chat every day ! And what about you ? Are you
and Tom sti l l together?
Actua l ly, I have n 't seen m uch of him lately. The last time I phoned, he
was surfing with his friends . . . Oh, that's the bel l . I'd better go.
Yeah, I 'll see you around.

2. Answer the questions.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Why is it difficult for ea rl to go back to schoo l ?


What did Den ise do a l l summer?
Why did ea rl go to a summer school i n Fra nce/
Why did ea rl enjoy his trip so m u c h ?
How do ea rl a n d Marianne keep i n touch?
6 . What was Tom doing when Den ise phoned?

3.

The adjectives below are used in the dialogue.


Use five of them to describe the following
events and your feelings about them.
h a rd

b ri l l i a nt

n e rvo u s

l ucky

boring

excit i n g

i nterest i n g

g reat

1 . you r summer holiday


2. returning to school
5

2. Choose the correct answer.

GRAMMAR
PRESENT TENSES
-

IIIJ

1 . Look at the verbs i n bold i n the paragraph


below. Identify the tense of each verb.
We usually spend the first day of school arranging
our timetables. Our school offers lots of courses,
so it isn't easy. At the moment, we're discussing
what subjects to study. Tomorrow we're starting our
normal classes.
2.

Wh ich verb a bove describes ... ?

1. somet h i n g that i s h a p p e n i n g now

1 . Susan went to school after she was eati n g I


h a d eaten breakfast.
2 . What was T h o m a s wea r i n g I h a d T h o m a s
w o r n when you saw h i m ?
3 . John looked so silly that we l a u g h e d I
were l a u g h i n g when he ca me i n .
4. D i d you s p e a k I H a d you s p o k e n to the
neighbo u rs last n i g ht!
5. I told him the news because he h a d n't h e a rd I
d i d n 't h e a r it.
6 . The storm began wh i l e we w e r e d r i v i n g I
d rove home.
7. By the time I arrived at the pa rty, everyone l eft I
h a d l eft.
8.

Could you repeat that? I

3.

Complete the sentence i n several ways, using


the words given. Use present and past tenses.
Add any necessary words.
B renda bought shoes . .
while I she I tou r I Italy
after I she I save I enough money
and I she I wear them I the next day
and I now I she I wea r them
but I she I never I wear them
although I they I be I expensive

2. a fut u re p l a n

3 . a reg u l a r ha bit o r routine


4 . a general fact
3.

Why is the Present Continuous not used in the


sentence below?

I w a n t to go shopping for my school books now.

1.

Look at the verbs i n bold i n the paragraph


below. Identify the tense of each verb.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

w a s n 't l i sten i n g

h a d n 't l istened .

The students were still doing the test


when the bell rang. The teacher gave them
more time. She collected the papers after
thev had finished.
2.
1.

Which verb/s a bove describe ... ?

a n action that took place before a n oth e r action

2. a com p l eted action in the past

3. a n i ncom p l ete action i nterru pted by a n other


action

1. Complete the sentences with the verbs in


brackets. Use the Present Simple or Present
Continuous.
1 . Ms Rivers is busy at the moment. She . ........ (teach)
2. Now 1 . ..... . .... (remember) h i m' We met h i m at E m i ly's.
3 . What time ........... you ........... (leave) ton ight?
4.
.. Mr Hall usually ........... (give) lots of homework!
5. We've got paper, so we ......... .. (not need) to buy any.
6. H1, Just1n . What .. ....... you ........... (do) here7
7. Ben
. (not study) geography this year.
8. Kath ... ..... (p1ay) basketball twice a week.

4. Complete the passage with the verbs in


brackets. Use present and past tenses.
Then listen and check your answers.
At the moment, I 1 ........... (consider) doing a
first-aid cou rse. I 2 .......... . (want) to be prepared
because of something that happened to my friend,
C h ris. He 3 . .... . . (look after) his you nger brother
when suddenly the child began to choke on a
sweet. C hris 4 . .. . .. . .. . . (not panic). He knew exactly
what to do because he 5 ........ . .. (do) a fi rst-aid
course at h is school last year. C h ris 6.
(manage) to save his brother's
l ife. Whenever people ask
him about his experience,
he 7 ..... .... . . (recommend)
the cou rse. When I heard
what 8 .. . .... (happen) to
C h ris, I real ised how
i m portant it is to
learn fi rst aid.

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE AND


PAST SIMPLE

1 . Look at the verbs in bold in the paragraph below


and identify the tense of each one.
I've loved dancing since I was a child, and I've finally
decided to have lessons. I signed up yesterday.
2.
1.

Which verb above describes ... ?

u nt i l now
3. a com p l eted act1on that took place at a specifi c
t i m e i n the past
FUTURE TENSES

I,_

.H

..

.H .

. H .

a n action that took place a t a n u nspecified t i m e 1 n


t h e past a n d is releva nt t o t h e present

2. a n action that began i n the past a n d contin ues

1.

5. Complete the sentences with the verbs in


brackets. Use the Present Perfect Simple or the
Past Simple.
1 . Bil l
(start) work when he was very youn g .
2 . ..... .. . you .. ..... (see) m y wallet/ I can't find it.
3. I'm sorry. M s Witkin
(j ust leave).
4.
you
(go out) with Jason last night?
5. I ' m sorry. I .... .... (not mean) to insult you
yesterday.
6. We ........... (not do) the was h i n g u p yet.

Read the sentences. M atch the sentence i n I to


its use i n 11.
I'm going to work hard this year.

6. Write sentences with the words i n brackets.


Use the F uture Simple or be going to. Make
any necessary changes.
1 . Is my ca r blocking the road ? (I I move I it).
2. I love Don 's parties ! (he I have one I this year)?
3. Rina n ever wears pink. (I' m sure I she I not like I
this sweater).
4. Your passport is falling out of your pocket. (You I
lose it) !
5 . Don 't worry about me. (I I be I fin e) !

2. I'm sure we will enjoy this course.

3. Don't worry. Here, I'll help you.


4. This exam is going to be difficult because there's so
much material.

11

H .

a . a p l a n ned future action


b. a sponta neous decision

c. a future even t based o n p resen t evi dence


d. a pred i ction
2.

7. Complete the sentences with the verbs in


brackets. Use the F uture Perfect or the Future
Continuous.
1 . By M a rch, we ........... (finish) five u nits of our book.
2 . At this time tomorrow, she
(have) d i nner
with her fam i ly.
3 . I'd l i ke to post the package tomorrow.
you
........... (prepare) it by then?
4. They
(not wait) for us when we arrive at the
train station.
5 . We' l l need our garden chai rs on Friday. I hope
that our neigh bours ........... (ret u rn) them by then.
.

Look at the verbs i n bold in the sentences below.


Wh ich verb is in the Future Perfect? Which is in
the Futu re Continuous?

HO

This time next year, I'll be studying engineering.


By the time I finish my degree, I'll have learnt a lot.
3.

Wh ich verb i n Exercise

1.

a n actio n i n p rog ress at a certa i n future t i m e

describes ... ?

2. a n action com p l eted at a certa i n fu ture t i m e

Grammar Appendix, pages

107-108

8. Choose the correct answers. Then listen and


check your answers.

NI] ITIORE TE XT8001Lt5 i='

University students 1 always carried I have always carried


bags full of heavy books. However, some experts predict that
computers 2 w i l l soon make I a re soon going to make
textbooks a thing of the past. Northwest Missouri State
University 3 a l ready bega n I has a l ready beg u n to make
this prediction a real ity. Last year, they 4 gave I have g iven
their students electronic readers containing the textbook
material . During the coming year, students 5 w i l l be u s i ng I
w i l l have used these "e-readers" to read, take notes and
even do interactive qu izzes.
Some students 6 have criticised I criticised the move, saying
they 7 a ren't going to stop I won't be stopping using
textbooks, which are better for studying large amounts of
materia l . However, the president of Northwest says that within
five years, e-books and e-readers 8 a re g o i ng t o replace I
w i l l have replaced textbooks completely - at Northwest and
in universities around the world.
7

....

SKILLS
LISTENING G
1 . Tom calls Denise after school. Listen to their
conversation. What's the problem? Who
wants to solve it and how?
2. Read the questions. Then listen again and

choose the correct answers.


1 . Tom says that when they meet, . . . .
a . he'll tell Denise about h i s trip to Brighton
b. he'll explain his behaviour
c. they'll talk about surfing
2. When Tom tried to contact Denise . . . .
a . she told him that she cou l d n 't tal k
b. s h e sent h i m a text message
c. she d i d n 't answer his messages
3. Denise is u pset because . . .
a. Tom has not given her enough attention
b. Tom has said something she doesn't l i ke
c. Tom has gone out with a nother girl
4. Den ise is sure that in a week or two . . . .
a . she will be able to forgive Tom
b. she will have found another boyfriend
c. she will have forgotten Tom
5 . Denise feels that seeing Tom
a . is going to change thi ngs
b. i s going to be useless
c. is better than talking on the phone
6 . At 8 . 00, Denise . . . .
a. will be shopping
b. wi ll be watching TV
c. will be tal king to Tom

SPEAKING
3.

Look a t the following expressions. Which d o


you u s e ... ?
1. when g reeting someone
2. when d i scussing the sum mer holidays
3. when pa rting

b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
1.

And what about you ?


D i d you meet anybody interesting?
How a re you doing'
Good to see you !
Have a n i ce day.
Did you have a good time7
I ' l l see you a ro u n d .
What did you do this s u m mer?

4. Think of another expression for each


category in Exercise 3.
5. lt's the first day of school, and you haven't
seen your partner a l l summer. Greet each
other and discuss your summer holidays.
Tell your partner any goals you have for
the new school year.

Unit Objective-;
fn

Pc'>ll

rel'(tlliUO'l'i

P" Pc fttt Cm
dll

(,,

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dl

V\rr t n
c

Fame

'>kll

nd lt

to

1 J
1

r or

JLon

11

dl

\ P,

Pl
d

The Byrds
So you waVIt to be a rock 'VI' roll star?
TheVI listcVI MW to what I s ay.
Just qct aVI electric quitar
ThcVI take SO/MC titMC
ltm;f fcarVI how to play.
ltVId with your hair swuVIq riqht,
ltVId your paVIts too tiqht
lt's qOVIVIa be all riqht.
TheVI it's titMc to qo dowVItOWVI
Where the aqcVIt tMaVI woVI't let you dowVI.
Se(( your soul to the COtMpaVIy
Who arc waitiVIq there to scff plastic wares .
.AVId iVI a week or two
If you Make the charts
The qirls'ff tear you apart.
The price you paid for your riches aVId fatMc,
was it all a straVqc qatMc?
(ou'rc a little iVISaVIc.
-he tMOVIcy, the fatMc, aVId the public accfaitM,
'OVI't forqct who you arc,
ou'rc a rock 'VI' roll star.

What do you think are the advantages and

disadvantages of being famous?


WEB EXTRA

Read about rock 'n' roll schools at:


uuu.burllll[JIOI/booh.es,' eupolllh2

L re

\t.;, iJ c;t

'it't ;

,.4 Listen to the song and read the lyrics. Then answer the q uestions.
1 . What advice does the si nger g ive to anyone who wants to be a sta r?
2. What does the singer say are the benefits of being a star?
3. Does the si nger t h i n k there are disadvantages to bei ng famous?
H ow do you know?

SO YOV Wlf:NT TO B lt ROCI< N ROLL STltR?

vt'i

R.ullo le lk
I <.s,v

I '-.tak'1Jc1 t

READING
1 . Pred icting Content: Look at the title of the
text and the pictures. What do you thin k the
text will be about?
2. Read the text and check whether your

prediction i n Exercise 1 was correct.


3.

Guessing Meaning from Context: Find the


following words in the text. Read the enti re
sentence and try to g uess each word's
meaning .
snapping ( l i n e 2) uproar ( l i n e 9 )
harmless ( l i n e 29)
IH

EXAM FOCUS
HOW TO ANSWER TRUE / FALSE QU ESTIO NS
1. M a ke sure you understand the meaning of the
statement.
2.

Look for keywords, synonyms and opposites to help


you find the relevant pa rts of the text.

3.

Compare the statement with the text and decide if


it is true or fa lse.

4. J ustify you r a nswer by quoting the relevant part of


the text.
Exa m p l e Question
Is the fol lowing statem ent true or fa lse?
Passers-by knew that Vaz and Hill were not
really famous.

Answer Ana lysis

The keyword
l i nes 4-5.

The sentence te lls us that the passers-by were


i m p ressed -they took photos a n d asked Vaz and
Hill w h o they were. We can assu m e from t h i s that
they thought Vaz a n d Hill were fa m ous.

The statement is therefore fa lse.

passers-by

appears in the sentence i n

4. Are the following statements true or false?


Find evidence in the text to support your
answers.
1 . Vaz was su rprised by the papa razzi.
2 . In the beg i n ning, H i l l reacted negatively to the
papa razzi.
3. The personal papa razzi service is very popu l a r.
4. For Ronda Rivl ing, fame and fil m sta rs a re more
i m po rtant than the environ ment or the
economy.
5 . Lindsay C hapin believes that personal paparazzi
services are harmless fun.
5. Complete the sentences according to the
information in the text. Remember to use
your own words.
1 . Vaz and Hill went to a n i g htcl u b after they .
2 . The paparazzi were followi ng the couple
because . . . .
3. At the n i ghtclub, the cou ple d i d n ' t have to .
4. Ronda Rivling says that because of reality
shows, . . . .
5 . According to Professor Gamson, you can be
someone only if . . . .
6 . The paparazzi compan ies say that having a l ittle
fun .

6. Choose the best answer according to the text.


Fro m paragraph 3, we understand that . . . .
a . the service is too expensive for most people
b. the service requires a bodyguard
c. the del uxe treatment is preferable
d. the services provide different packages
F ind words i n the text that mean:
made a loud, sudden sound (paragraph 1 )
directly (paragraph 2)
a person h i red to protect someone (paragraph 3)
fashion (paragraph 4)
perform i ng, imagi ning (paragraph 5)
6 . obsession (paragraph 6)

7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Would you hire a personal paparazzi service?

Why or why not?

10

U n it 1

...
popped as the couple were
;e orters, who began snapping photos and asking them personal questions. Flashes(,1...).
HI"l\l.
ha ll the way to a nightclub, where they were met by a crowd of adoring fans who had been waiting for hours
\1110tp
C::5 Q.;)t: "

As Struan Vaz and Paige Hill emer g ed from a theatre in Austin, Texas, they were surrounded by photographers
"011:15. ... ,i)i'l.)

\.)

to_atch sight of them. Passers-6y, impressed by all the action, took photos with their camera phones, while others
asked the two who they were. "We're nobody," said Yaz.
He was telling the truth. They weren't celebrities at all and the adoring fans were, in fact, Yaz's friends. As a
surprise for his fiancee, Yaz had hired a company called Celeb 4 A Day, which provides personal paparazzi to
(!o4'> : >o. DO

follow people around town. Hill was so overwhelmed by all the attention that she tried to run away at first, though
she soon began to enjoy it. W hen they got to the club, the owners, fooled by the uproar,
gave them VIP entry, letting them walk right past the queue and straight in.
With this new kind of service, anyone can feel what it's like to be a star. A typical price
list:

$300 buys you the basic package of four personal paparazzi who will pursue

you for up to

30 minutes. For $2,500, you get the deluxe treatment- two hours

with six paparazzi, including limousine service and your very own bodyguard .
.-\re people actually willing to spend that much for some time in the spotlight?
.-\bsolutely! S ince these services started, their phones have been ringing non-stop.
ome social scientists despair at this new trend, calling it celebrity culture gone wild.
nfortunately, fame and film stars have become more important than the environment

. r the economy. And reality shows make everyone think that they can be an instant star,"
'ays Ronda Rivling, pop culture analyst. According to Professor Josh Gamson, who studies
,ociety and mass media, "We live in a culture where . . . if you don't have people asking who
. ou are, you're nobody."
The paparazzi companies, on the other hand, wonder what's wrong with
..1

little fun. "People are really excited when they call," says Lindsay

Chapin of Private Paparazzi in San Diego, California. "It's this whole


;antasy they're playing out in their mind, and they want to experience
H for one night."

this new phenomenon a worrying reflection of society's infatuation

ith fame, or just a harmless escape from the worries and pressures
f life? It all depends on your point of view. W hatever your opinion,

.; you see a crew of cameramen following a celebrity down the


reet, don't be surprised if you have no idea who the big star is.

False friends
excited (line 24) means entusiasmada
ot excitada

11

VO CABULARY

VERB COLLOCATIONS

Words from the Text

4. Which of the words can be used to form


collocations with the verbs in colour?
1 . catc h sig ht of, a chance, a bus, a cold, someone's eye,
a friend, fire, one's breath
2. ta ke a photo, for granted, one's time, a wedding ,
pride i n , charge, happi ness, someone b y surprise
3. g o wild, talking, mad, abroad, m issi ng, strong,
blind, bald, fat

1 . Choose the answer that best explains the


meaning of the fi rst sentence. Pay attention
to the words in colour.
1 . Shopping on-line is a growing t r e n d .
a. A lot of people do it.
b. it's a great idea.
2. Elaine is always wi l l i ng to help.
a . She a lways needs help.
b. She is a helpfu l perso n .
3. The singer was a n i nsta nt sta r.
a . He worked h a rd to reach the top .
b. He beca me a celebrity very q u ickly.
4. We d rove stra i g h t to the theatre after work.
a . We did n 't stop on the way.
b. The road to the theatre had no turns.
2. The following sentences do not make sense.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

3.

Make them logical by replacing each word in


colour with a word in colour from a d ifferent
sentence.
He bought h i s p a sser-by a dia mond rin g .
There was a large crew demonstrati n g outside
Pa r l iament.
The rabbit slowly p u rsued from its hole.
We asked a crowd for directions.
The pol icemen emerged the thief until he was
fin a l ly caught.
A f i a n cee of construction workers was h i red to
restore the old buil d i n g .

---.- see Grammar Appendix, page

5. Complete the sentences with collocations


from Exercise 4. Make any necessary changes.
1. My parents nea rly ........... with worry when I was
in hospita l .
2 . T h e building .
because a resident h a d been
smoking in bed .
3. There's no hu rry. Please ..
4. The pol ice fou n d the c h i l d who ........... the
day before .
5 . Patricia loves to paint and she ..
her work.
6 . If you h u rry, you ' l l ... ...... the 5 o ' clock
H

Com plete the passage with the words and


phrases below. Then listen and check your
answers.
fool

overw h e l med

p ressu re
f\-T- ::=
V
-<

s u rro u n ded

bodyg u a rds

in

i nfat u a t i o n

the spot l i g h t

....
--.,.. ::
._. ... ::
-....

o..../

Mich ael Jackson


1958-2009

.______
::-_
::_
....

12

Ill

: ...:; ... a-_._


. -------------------

A victim offame?

U n it 1

Topic Vocabulary
11

4. Complete the sentences by adding suffixes to


the words in brackets.
1. Many famous ........... (perform) live i n
(luxury)
homes.
2. The .. . .. (offend) behaviour of the paparazzi is
often more
(disg race) than the stories they
cover.
3. Critics ag reed that E llen Page's ........... (perform) i n
Juno was ........... (marvel).
4 . Most tabloids focus on celebrities from the
world of .. .. (entertai n), but they also gossip
about ........... (politics).
5. Madonna 's ........... (impress) career and i n credible
(popu lar) has made her a n icon i n the pop
world.

FAME

:;e

1 . Match the beginning of each sentence in


I with its ending i n 1 1 . Pay attention to the
words in colour.
1 . The daughter of very rich parents
2 . Brad Pitt's donations to charity
3. The gala pa rty was
4. Why do so many people today
5. Amy Wi nehouse is a great singer,
6 . Celebrities who take drugs
7. There's Tom C ruise' Let's
8. The teenage girls waited outside

11 a . get a lot of positive


b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

p u b l i c i ty.

ask h i m for his a utog r a p h !


the most l av i s h event i n the city that nig ht.
are very bad role m o d e l s.
but her behaviour is o ut r a g e o u s.
to catch sight of their i d o l .
is a n h e i ress.
wors h i p celebrities?

2. Choose two possible answers to complete each

sentence. Pay attention to the words in colour.


If you are wea lthy, you have probably got a lot
of m o n ey I property I rela t i ves.
People often goss i p about c e l e b r i t i es I
t h e m s e l ves I t h e i r n e i g h bo u rs .
A ta l e nt scout spotted her and got her a job as
a m o d e l I s i n g e r I d octor.
Some celebrities a re n oto r i o u s for h e l p i n g the
poor I atta c k i n g pa p a razzi I be i n g a rrog a nt .
If you have d rive, you a re a m b it i o u s I l a zy I
determ i n ed .

spoi lt

g e n e rous

I selfish I

i n consi d e rate.

5. Complete the passage with the words below.


Then listen and check your answers.

h e i ress
goss i p

wea lthy

d rive

outra g eo u s

n ot o r i o u s

spoi lt

tabloid

Paris Hi/ton- Famous for Being Famous?


.

Peop l e l ove to

the pa rty-h o p p i ng

a bo u t Pa r i s H i l to n,
2.

... .. ... . to the H i l to n


.
l . ... . . . .. for her

H o tel fortu ne. Pa ris i s

m a ny boyfrie n d s, her-

c l othes

and her s c a n d a l o u s b e h a v i o u r. She


c o n sta n tl y c reates s e n s a t i o n a l

s .

head l i n e s . Cri t i c s c l a i m th at s h e's fa m o u s


s i m p ly for b e i n g fa b u l o u s l y

..

a n d p o s i n g for p h otogra p hers a t


c e l e b ri ty p a rties. They s a y s h e's
a

r i c h g i rl with no rea l

ta l e n ts . H owever, with severa l


fi l m roles, h e r own s u c c e s s f u l

usually report s e n sat i o n a l


I sca n d a l s .

n ews

best-se l l i n g book, s h e h a s
proved that s h e h a s got

A sta r athlete m ight be a co ntrovers i a l f i g u re


beca use of his h i g h s a l a ry I r u d e re m a rks I
Ta b l o i d s

T V s h ow, a s o l o C D a n d a

person is probably

plenty of

a. .

... .. ... .

l t l ooks

l i ke Pa r i s H i lton is h e re

g reat a c h i ev e m e nts .
"'

to stay!

fin a n c i a l issues

SUFFIXES
_
__.
._ see Grammar Appendix, page

3.

111

In your notebooks, write the words below in


two groups: nouns and adjectives. Use the
suffixes to help you.

confidence
promotion

outra geous

p o l i tical

d e l i g htfu l

p u b l icity

fash ionable

si n g e r

expensive

a mazement

m u si c i a n

a p peara nce

Complete the sentences. Make them true for you.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I am usually willing to . . . .
Something I take for granted is . . . .
If I were wealthy, I . . . .
I wou l d never ask a passer-by . . . .
When I was young, my idol was . . . .
I t h i n k it's disgraceful that . . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 5 8 - 5 9

13

GRAMMAR

1 . Complete the sentences with the verbs in


brackets. Use the Present Perfect Continuous
or Past Perfect Continuous.
1 . We ........... (follow) h i m all day, but we haven 't got
a good photo yet.
2 . Don't worry, 1 ........... (not wait) long .
3. Everyone was miserable beca use it .. .. (ra i n) for
days.
4. Helen 's eyes a re red . ........... she ........... (cry)7
5. The waiter did n 't come, a lthough we .. .. (ca ll)
him for half a n h o u r.
6. There you a re I I ........... (look) for you !
7. H e plays the piano very wel l . H ow long .. .. he
........... (have) lessons/
8 . They decided to vote since they ........... (discuss) the
issue all morn i n g .

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS


PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

Read the exam ples and answer the questions.


a. Since these services opened, their phones have been
ringing non-stop. (Present Perfect Contmuous)
b. They were met by fans who had been waiting for
hours. (Past Perfect Continuous)
1.
1.

Which sentence tal ks about ... ?

an action which continued u p to another past action

2 . a n action that sta rted in the past and conti n u es in

the p resent
2.
1.

2. Complete the sentences with the verbs below.


Use a perfect tense (simple or continuous).

Com p lete the rules.

We u se have I has + .. .... .... . + verb


the Present Perfect Conti n uous.

2. We u se

.. ... . . .

been

.... +

.. .. ...

ing to

... . to form

cry

form the Past

NOTE:

We do not usually u se stative verbs such as


a n d want i n the Perfect Con t i n uous.

know

He has wanted to be a film star since he was a child.

If the n u mber of ti mes somet h i n g has h a ppened


can be cou nted, we don't use the Perfect
Con t i n uous.
He has been trying to call Celeb

4 A Day all day.

He has tried to call Celeb 4 A Day five times today.

3.

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

1 . Read the examples and answer the questions.


a. Would you recommend hiring paparazzi?
b. Vaz felt like surprising his fiancee.
c.

Getting so much attention can be frightening.

d. I've always dreamed of being a celebrity.


e. At first, Hill tried to run away.

f Are people prepared to spend that much?

1 . In w h i ch sentence a bove does the gerund .. . ?

fol low a verb fol low a p re position


fol low a n expression a ppea r as the s u bj ect

2. I n w h ich sente nce a bove does the i nfi n itive . . . ?

fol low a verb

l
14

2.

fol l ow a n adjective

Look at the examples below. I n wh ich pair of


sentences i s there a change in mean i n g ?

a. The paparazzi began snapping photos.


The paparazzi began to snap photos.
b. She stopped to sign her autograph for fans .

n ot h ave

l ose

n ot see

do

practise

1 . Where's D i a n a ? I . .. her all day.


2 . The baby fell asleep after he ... for an hour.
3. Rona ld felt ready for the concert as he ...
for weeks.
4. None of the work is finished I What ........... you
........... all day'
5. N icole was upset beca use she ........... her
contact lens.
6 . I'm tired. I ........... enough sleep.

Perfect Conti n uous.

Complete the passage with the verbs in


brackets. Use the Past Simple or a perfect
tense (simple or continuous). Then listen and
check your answers.

THE RIGHT TO

PRIVACY

People assume that if you are a celebrity, every de


of your life belongs to the public. In the past 20 yea
this trend

..

(become) more extreme. Lately, howe'

L ..

celebrities

(fight) for the right to some level

privacy. One of the most impotiant cases


in 2004, when a judge
tabloid,

Campbell

to

"

pay

4...

supermodel

1...

(ace:

(order) T h e Mirror, a Brit


Naomi

Campbell

3,5'

(take) the tabloid to court for publishi

a photograph of her leaving a Narcotics Anonyme


meeting. According to the paper, Campbell 6...
cocaine for years. Before this. Campbell

7 ........

(u

always ...

(claim) that she never touched drugs, but apparently

H.

(hide) the truth all that time. The judge decid

that the newspaper had a right to print the facts, but tl


publishing the photograph was a violation of Campbel
privacy.

U n it 1
,, 4.

6. Complete the sentences. Use the Present


Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Conti nuous,
an infinitive or a gerund.
1. I ca n't stand .
2 . My feet ached beca use
3. I don't remember .
4. This weekend, I plan
5 . Recently, I ...
6 . I speak English wel l . I . . . .

Complete the passage with the verbs in


brackets. Use gerunds or infinitives. Then
listen and check your answers.

ARE CELEBRITIES' SALARIES TOO HIGH?


Can you i ma g i n e

(ma ke) 250,000 for one

week's work? That's the s a l a ry Cristi a n o Ron a l d o


ca n expect

2 .... . .

.. ...

(get) every week that he plays

football for Real Mad r i d . And , n o d o u bt, Joh n ny


Dep p was very pleased

3.

(ea r n ) $60 m i l l io n

for h i s latest Pirates o f the Caribbean fil m . Som e


peop l e feel it's t i m e t o stop

4:..

(pay) top

athletes a n d fi l m stars so m u ch. Others th i n k that


they d eserve h i g h salari e s for

5 . ... . . . . . .

REWRITES: CHANGE OF TENSE

(enterta i n )

I n rewrites that i nvolve a cha nge of tense, additional


changes a re sometimes necessa ry, such as changing
the time expressions.

fa n s a n d a u d i e n ces. They a lso point out that


m a ny cel e b rities decide

6 .. .......

(use) their fa m e

a n d m on ey t o h e l p oth ers. I n a ny case, it's no


u se

7 .... H

S.._begt.r

(co m p l a i n ) a bout the h i g h salaries o f

fa m o u s people.

8. . .. . .. . ..

(be) rich i s n 't s o m eth i n g

that cel e b rities a re l i ke l y 9...

.. .

___

'1"'

.u.rs nine years ago

rl

She has been actmg in tilms for nine years

(g ive u p)!

Rewrite the fol lowing sentences starti ng with the


words g iven. Do not change the orig i n a l mea n i ng
of the sentences.
1. I got my driving licence when I was 17.
I've . . . .

HOO"'' "'''

8 0 , ,_.,_.,, ,

2.

We studied all afternoon . Then we decided to take a


break.

After . . . .

3. I haven't heard from Charles in two weeks.


Oprah

George
Lucas

Madonna

Celine
Dion

Beyonce

Dr Phil

'early income in millions of dollars

WEB E XTRA

Read more about actors' lives at:


11'11'11'. bu rl i ngtoubooks. es/1iellpoi 11 r.Q

deta
yea r

w ev
vel

(occu
Britis
:3,50

l ishir

ymoc.
(us
IS

ly si
ecid
lt the

pbell

5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
:J.

6.

7.

The last time . . . .

4. This is his first acting role.


He's never .. . .
5.

When did you start to work in this company?


How long . . . .

6. He started playing for Chelsea when he left


Hull City.

Rewrite the following sentences with the


words in brackets. Use gerunds and infinitives.
C harles played tennis as a boy, but now he
doesn't play any more. (stopped)
We cou l d n 't move the bookcase beca use it
was too heavy. (tried)
I shouldn't have asked Thomas to come with
me. (regret)
Susan does n 't think that she borrowed you r
book. (remember)
We took a break and had l u n c h . (stopped)
I thought I mig ht l i ke swi m ming, but I fou nd it
bori ng. (tried)
We are sorry, but we m u st i nform you that
you have not been accepted . (regret)
I ' m glad you thought of leaving me a note.
(remembered)

He has ....

Grammar Review D
7. Rewrite the following sentences using the
words in brackets. Do not change the original
meaning.
1 . I met Rachel two yea rs ago. (for)
2 . He sang for five m i n utes. Then the judges told
h i m to stop . (had)
3 . I ca n't wa it to meet you . (looking forward to)
4. The boy wi l l be taller by the end of the summer.
(grown)
5. Sue broke her a rm d u ring the h i ke. (wh i le)
Extra gra m m a r exe rc i s e s at:
ho1k1 es
11 11

1c

11

15

(
l

SKILLS
LISTENING
A RADIO TALK
1 . Look at the pictures and answer the questions.
1. What are the people doing ?
2 . Where do you thin k they are?
3. What do you thin k they have in com m o n ?

2. Listen to the first part of a radio talk and choose


the correct answers.
1 . G reg says that . . . .
a . you can become fa mous faster today than i n the past
b. today, you have to work hard to become fa mous
c. reality TV and the I nternet have become very popular
d . being a celebrity today depends on talent
2. On M a g i bo n 's clip, she .
a . tells viewers about herself
b. spea ks fluent Japanese
c. does al most noth i n g
d . demonstrates g reat ta lent
3. Magibon .
a . is Japanese
b. is fa mous in America
c. has n ever been to Japan
d . is loved by the Japa nese
3.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Susan B oyle

Listen to the second part of the talk and decide if the


following statements are true or false.
Matt's clip shows h i m dancing in va rious places.
Matt's pu rpose was to become famous.
A chewi ng-g u m company paid for his second trip .
Matt is making money from his fame.
Matt is a professional dancer.

4. Listen to the third part of the talk and fi l l in the m issing


information.
1 . Wit h i n 24 hours of her appeara nce, Susan Boyle
2 . Her clip was seen by ........... people.
3. The speaker compares Boyle's voice to the voice
4. Boyle proves that you don't need ........... in order to
become fa mous.
5 . According to the speaker, you still need
to become famous.
no n

Do you think it's too easy to become famous nowadays?

Why or w hy not?

16

1\larr Harding

U nit 1

SPEAKING
TALKING ABOUT A PICTURE
1. Read the description of the picture below.
Which part of the description ... ?
1 . describes what is probably happen i n g i n the
picture
2 . discusses how the people feel and what might
happen next
3. g ives a physical descri ption of the people,
objects and background

:::

2
_

4. Work with a partner. Partner A: Choose


a picture below and describe it. Use the
expressions in colour from Exercises 1 and 2.
Partner B: Describe the other picture.

people camping out.


They've got tents and sleeping bags. They look
q u ite happy. They seem t o b e i n a city street as
you can see the pavement in the foregrou nd.
lt cou l d be t h a t they ' re waiting to buy tickets
for a concert or a sporting event. I i ma g i n e that
they plan to spend the night there.
I'd say t h at they're probably a bit uncomfortable,
but it l o o ks l i ke they ' re having a good time
a nyway. They' l l p r o b a b l y wa ke up very early to
buy the tickets.
Th i s p i ct u re s hows

Which sentences below express speculation by


the speaker?
You c a n te l l t h at they're quite you n g .
P e r h a ps they're big footba ll fans.
s u p pose they're outside the place where
1c ets are sol d .
T h i s is a p i ct u re of people lying on a pavement.
Look at the expressions in colour in Exercise 2.
Which of them cou ld replace one or more
expressions in colour in Exercise 1 ?

TALKING ABOUT A PICTURE


Descri b e w h a t you see - peo p l e , o bjects and
b a c k g ro u nd .
Specu l ate a b o u t w h a t i s h a p pening o r w h a t h a s
j u st h a p pene d .
Specu l ate a b o u t h o w t h e p e o p l e fee l and w h a t w i l l
h a p pen next.
R e m e m b e r, t h e re a re no r i g h t or w rong answe rs.
Just interp ret t h e p i ct u re in yo u r own w a y.

17

WRITING
A FoT and Against ssa-y
EXAM FOCUS
In a for a n d agai nst essay, we p resent two opposing views of an issue a n d
conclude by supporting one of the views.
W h e n you w rite a for a n d a g a i nst essay:
1. Present the issue.
Read the title and the first paragraph of the essay below. What issue does the
essay deal with?
2.

Present arguments supporting each view.


Read the rest of the essay b elow. What argum ents does the writer use to su pport
each view? Where does he I she write them?

3.

Give your opin ion supporti ng one of the views.


Which view does the writer of the essay below support?
Where does h e I she say this?

. :

Celebrities as Role Models


Many young people worship and imitate celebrities. However, we should ask
ourselves whether these are the people we want as role models.
On the one hand, it is natural to look up to talented people, such as f1lm and
sports stars, who have achieved great success. Celebrities are fabulously
wealthy and constantly surrounded by adoring admirers. They are also very
good-looking. What more could anyone want?
On the other hand, celebrities are a symbol of the superficial values of the
entertainment world, where physical appearance and money are the most
important things in life. Moreover, celebrities are notorious for their short, stormy
relationships, their outrageous behaviour and their abuse of drugs and alcohol.
This makes them very negative role models.
In conclusion, despite the talent, success and wealth of celebrities, I believe
that they generally make poor role models. This is because of the values they
represent and the way they conduct their personal lives.

CONNECTORS OF ADDITION, CONTRAST AND EXAMPLE

CON N ECTORS OF ADDITION AND CONTRAST

Connectors of addition a re used to connect similar ideas. Connectors of contrast a re


used to connect opposing ideas.
In the basic package. you ge rou papa.a

Celeb 4 A Do is very popular in spite of r,, for

also

>vtde. you .vth a bodyguard.

ts yutte expenstve.

CON N ECTORS OF EXAMPLE

Connectors O exa mo1e 1f


pie,
exa m p l es that !IIJ)trate CJ rnam 1dea

for mstar,ce, sucf, al

.1e u'-d to

trorlJce

There are many celebnties who help others For instance Oora;, vVmtrey ou;tt '1 chool

tn South Afnca.

18

U nit 1

1.
1.
2.
3.

In the model, find:


two con nectors of addition
th ree connectors of contrast
one connector of example

Your Task
Write a for and against essay on the

topic

Being Famous - Advantages and

Disadvantages.

2. Choose the correct connector.

1 . Celebrities are often seen as selfish. F o r exa m p le, I


H oweve r, I I n a d d it i o n , many of them contribute a
great deal to charity.
2 . A l t h o u g h I Despite I I n contra st TV is enjoya ble, you
shouldn't watch it all day.
3. Before my trip, my mother bought me a g u i debook
a s we l l a s I a l so I a l t h o u g h a new suitcase.
4. Many people ca n 't manage without their mobile phones.
O n t h e oth e r h a n d , I As we l l a s I F u rt h e r m o re, they're
addicted to thei r computers.
). Celebrity ma rriages don't usually last M o reover, I
N evert h e l ess, I For i nsta n ce, Jenn ifer Aniston and
B rad Pitt broke u p after five years.
o.
People at h i g h-tech firms work long h o u rs.
In contrast, I Desp ite th is, I Even t h o u g h govern ment
workers are often home by 5 . 00 .
Celebrities s u c h as I a l so I i n s p ite of Bruce Willis and
H u g h G rant have been known to hit paparazz i .
3 . S o m e people are rea l ly obsessed with footba ll players.
For exa m p l e, I M o reover, I Desp ite t h is, my friend's
room is fu l l of And res lniesta posters.

WRITING A FOR A N D AGAINST


E S SAY
1 . M ake sure you understand the issue.

2. Brainstorm the two sides of the issue.


Write a l ist of pros and cons or
advantages and disadvantages.

Look at the ideas below. Which are


advantages? Which are disadvantages?
- lack of privacy, papa razzi fol lowi ng
you a round
- fans who love you
- wea lth
- a glamorous l ifestyle
- tabloid gossip about you r private l ife
- assistants and bodyguards
- competition and jealousy

Add your own ideas to the list.


3.

3.

Rewrite the sentences in two ways. Use the words


in brackets.
C h ristina Agu i lera has sold more than 42 m i l lion a l bu ms.
In addition, she has won several G rammy awa rds. (a lso)
2. While Amy Wi nehouse is a marvellous singer, she has a
very trou bled personal l ife. (yet)
3. Despite o u r heavy backpacks, we managed to wal k very
quickly. (although)
All planets move in an orbit. I n contrast, the sun and
other sta rs are i m mobile. (wh i le)
) . India is known for its fascinating cultures. lt is also
fa mous for its varied la ndscape . (as well as)

Write 1 00-1 50 words.

Decide which view you support. Then


decide which of the ideas above to include
in your essay.

4. Organise your ideas using the Exam Focus


and the model on page 18 to help you.
C H ECKLIST
.I I followed

the. steps for lit for litl1.d qJiitiVI.ft

esslity.

.I I VSed
.I

lit Vlitriety of COii!JitUtOrs of itdditiovt-,


covt-tmst litl1.d VCiitwtple.
I checked my 3rlitwtwtlilr, spellivt.3 litl1.d
puvttl{Q(tio vt-.

.I I

litVOided ruvt;-Ovt- sevt-tevtes.


--

Writing Guide, page

1 40

Improye Your Style


Avo i d i n g R u n - o n Sentences

R u n -o n sentences a re two or more sentences that a re


mcorrectly written as one sentence. They should be divided by
a fu l l stop a nd a capital letter or by a con nector.
cJ,,a K,cked the ball hard, si-Je d'dn'' se._. _ _ __ Jf X
G,r,r, K,ckca tne brJI! nard, t,J t 5h0 cNJro t \f'Ore a qoa/ ./

C'hr,r/es ran t,ome from choo! ryrod chccke1 the r-ost nryrJ he
found the letter and opened it nervC''''r X
('l;r,m' ran home trorn ,noo/ rynd ct.ccke1 th" po ,t
'.;r,cn 1-,f found tne letter he openeJ 1t nerVt'lAS,'r ./

Correct the run-on sentences below. Use a full


stop and a capital letter or a connector.
1 . No one is going out ton ig ht, we have a n
exa m tomorrow
2 . A stra nge man came into our garden last n i ght
and he fel l over a chair and we heard h i m .
3. We h a d heard it was cold there, w e brought
coats.
4. I wasn't ang ry, I was a l ittle h u rt
5 . The sky was clear and it was a beautiful day
and Nora decided to explore the area .

19

....

SKILLS

A PERSONAL STATE M E NT
You a re going to practise writing a perso n a l statement.
Read the web page and the t i ps and a n swe r the Task Questions below.

Are you hoping to apply for higher education in the UK?

When you apply, you'll need to i nclude a personal statement.


A persona l sta tement is an essay about yourself, focusing on your

in terests a n d abilities. The goal of a personal statement is to state

why you are a suitable candidate for the course you wan t to study.

TASK QUESTIONS
Look at the fol l owing excerpts from a perso n a l statement written by

Your statement should show:


A. Why the course

a n a ppl ica nt to the Department of Perform i ng Arts a n d a n swer the


q u estions.

interests you .

Do you feel that the a ppl icant is enthusiastic? Does he help the

Be enthusiastic about the


subject. Show how much you
love it and why.

reader u ndersta nd why he l oves act i n g ?

B. You r background i n

I have always wanted to act. O n the stage, I feel ! have magical powers!
By transforming myself, I transport my audience to another place
and time.

2.

Wh ich sentence below shows how the writer's pa rtici pation in pl ays

the subject.

has contri buted to h i s u n d e rsta n d i n g of the theatre?

Don't just list what you have


done. State how the experience
contributed to your knowledge
of the subject.

I've performed in a wide range of theatre productions. My roles have


included Vladimir in Wa iti n g for Godot and Rosencrantz in H a m l et.
This experience has taught me how to see the world through
someone else's eyes.

C. You r hobbies, work

3. W h i c h is better, a or b? Why?

and i nterests.

a.
b.

D . You r future plans

4.
a.

a n d a m bitions.

Be specific about how studying


will help you achieve your goals.
Emphasise your strong points
and achievements. Provide
evidence if you have it.

I am a keen sports player and a member of my school athletics team.


When I was 1 6, I won a city-wide competition in the long jump.

Show how your hobbies and


work experience have helped
you develop the skills that you
need for the course.

I am a keen sports player and a member of my school athletics team.


I believe that the teamwork and dedication required in sport are also
essen tial in putting on a thea trical performance.
Wh ich of the fo l lowi ng is best to i n c l ude? Why?
I am sure that the challenging learning experience and stimulating
environment of a drama course will give me the tools I need to become
a professional actor.

b.

My ambition is to be a professional actor. I would like to act both on the


stage and in film, and one day I hope to see my name up in lights.

USE YOUR SKILLS


I m a g i n e that you w o u l d l i ke to a p p l y for u n ivers i ty i n the U K . Th i n k
o f a c o u rse you w o u l d l i ke a n d wr ite yo u r own perso n a l state m e n t .

Ul'it
1 t

Objunve-;
, ron 1

..11

Going Green

'1 1

( (

,J

1 . Look at the cartoons. M atch each cartoon to a caption below. Explain the i dea
behind each cartoon.
a. What the future holds.
b. " I 've been coming to this spot for 25 years, and the fishing keeps getting worse. "
c. " Anywhere with ice . . . a lot of ice. "

2. Which of the following problems does each cartoon illustrate?


water p o l l u t i o n

defo restation

g l o b a l wa r m i ng

a i r p o l l ut i o n

What do you do in your everyday life to help the environment?

Which of your actions contribute to harming the environment?


WEB E XTRA

Read about a family who took recycli n g to an extreme at:


ll'll'll'. bu rii HgtoHbooks. es/I'Ieupolllls2

READING
1 . Reading for General Understanding: Read the
text quickly, ignoring d ifficult words. Then try
to answer the questions below.
1 . What problem does the writer describe?
2. What sol u tion does he suggest?

2. G uessing Mea n i ng from Context:


Find the following words in the text.
As you read the text again, try to g uess each
word's meaning.
endless (line 4) tang led up (line 2 5)
wiped out (line 34)

EXAM FOCUS
HOW TO ANSWER M U LTI PLE CHOICE QU ESTIONS
1. Read the q uestion and a l l the answer options. M a ke
sure you u n dersta nd each option.
2. Find the releva nt parts of the text by looking for

keywords or their synonyms.


3. Compare each option with the text and decide if it
is correct or not. Don't decide on a n a nswer before
considering a l l of the options.
Example Question
Choose the best a nswer accord i n g to the text.
While crossing the Pacific Ocean, Captain Moore ... .
a. saw a rainbow
c. participated in a race
b. enjoyed the view
d. saw something which
shocked him
Answer Analysis

Option a: I ncorrect. Moore saw rai n bow-coloured


plastic frag ments.

O ption b: I ncorrect. The text doesn't say that


Moore enjoyed the view.

Option c: I ncorrect. Moore had a l ready com peted


in a race and was on his way home.

Option d: Correct. Moore saw an endless amount


of floati n g rubbish, i n what should have been a clear
b l ue sea (line 3). What he saw was u nexpected, and
therefore, shocki ng.

3.

1.

2.

3.

4.

Choose the best answer according to the text.


The a rea descri bed i n paragraph 2 is
a. popular a mong fishermen
b. dangerous to sa i lors
c. very big
d . near t h e African coast
The debris i n the G reat Pacific Ga rbage Patch . . . .
a. is carried there by ocean currents
b. comes mainly from the USA
c. includes every piece of plastic waste from Asia
d. eventu a l ly moves to other pa rts of the world
The pu rpose o f Moore's latest trip was t o . . . .
a . document t h e va rious types of debris
b. d iscover the main locations of the debris
c. find out what creatu res i n habit the area
d . show how wildl ife i s affected by t h e debris
The main pu rpose of the text is to . . . .
a. describe Capta i n Moore's research
b . make us awa re o f an environ mental d isaster
c. wa rn us that many fish contai n toxins
d . persuade u s to join a n environmenta l
orga nisation

4. Answer the q uestions in your own words.


1 . What did Moore decide to do after discovering
the plastic7
2 . Plastic is not biodegradable. What effect does
this have on the G reat Pacific Ga rbage Patch?
3. I n what way does the G reat Pacific Garbage
Patch affect h u ma n health?
4. What a re two reasons that the particles cannot
be vac u u med u p ?
5 . How do you know it will take a long time t o
solve t h e problem?
5. Which of the following would be a good
a lternative title for the article? Explain your
choice.
a. Wa r n i n g - Poisonous Fish
b. A Disaster in the Ocean
c. The Research of C ha rles Moore

6. Find words or phrases i n the text that mean


the opposite of:
1 . has got (paragraph 2)
2 . s h r i n k i n g , getting smaller (paragraph 4)
3 . huge (paragraph 6)
4. u nwanted (paragraph 7)
5 . increase (paragraph 8)

In what ways could people cut down on their

use of plastic? Do you think that there should


be laws forcing people to do this?
22

by Charl es Moore

a
I

In l997, Captain Charles Moore took a short cut while crossing the Pacific Ocean on his way home
from a yacht race. During his voyage, he discovered something that would change his life. Day after
day, as he looked out at what should have been a clear blue sea, Moore found himselffloating in an
endless ocean of rainbow-coloured plastic fragments. Since his discovery, he has devoted himself to
researching this environmental nightmare.

There is a large part of the Pacific Ocean, about halfway between California and Japan, that no one
ever visits and only a few ever pass through. Sailors avoid it because it lacks the wind they need
to sail. Fishermen know they should stay away because its lack of nutrients makes it an
oceanic desert. Surprisingly, this is the largest ocean realm on our planet. It's about
o the size of Africa - over 1 0 million square miles.
Circular ocean cutTents here spiral into a centre, bringing with them debris
from all over the world. This includes every piece of plastic left on the
beaches of the Pacific Ocean, and all the trash that washes down rivers of
Asia and North America to the sea. This is where the debris stays. This
5 is the place now refetTed to by oceanographers as the Great Pacific
Garbage Patch.
The problem is that it's not a patch - it's the size of a continent, and
it's still growing. This is because plastic doesn't biodegrade. Instead, it
photodegrades: it is broken down by sunlight into smaller and smaller
20 pieces, but it never disappears. On some beaches of Hawaii, there are
now more multi-coloured plastic particles than there are particles of
sand.
On my latest voyage, we spent weeks documenting the effects of this
floating plastic on the creatures that inhabit this area. Our photographers
: 5 captured rare, endangered monk seals hopelessly tangled up in bits of plastic
nets, and delicate, transparent jellyfish with colourful plastic fragments in their
bellies that they aren' t able to digest. The stomach contents of dead albatrosses
looked like a convenience store, full of toothbrushes, cigarette lighters and combs.
There is an even darker side to plastic fragment pollution. As these fragments float around in
30 the ocean, they accumulate huge amounts of DDT and other man-made poisons. These are ingested by tiny
organisms, which are then eaten by fish - fish which eventually make their way to our dinner tables.
I am often asked why we can't vacuum up the particles. This might have been possible when the area
was smaller, but today it would be more difficult than vacuuming every square inch of the entire United
States. In any case, great numbers of organisms would be wiped out in the process. Only elimjnation of
35 the source of the problem will result in an ocean nearly free from plastic, and the desired result will only
be seen in the distant future.
The battle to change the way we produce plastics, and cut down the amount we consume, has just
begun. I believe that we must fight this battle now, and we had better win if we are to survive.

VO CABULARY

PHRASAL VERBS WITH MULTIPLE


MEANINGS
---- see Grammar Appen d i x , page

Words from the Text

3.

1. Replace the words in bold with the words and


expressions below.

belly

s h o rt cut

wi ped o u t

debris

voyage

trash

devote

cut down

1 . The sq u i d had a large nu mber of fish i n its


sto m a c h .

2 . G reen peace activists d e d icate themselves to


protecting the environ ment.
3. We should try to red uce the amount of energy
we use.
4. M uch of the average family's r u b b i s h can be
recycled .
5 . E m i ly kept a journal of her long sea t r i p .
6 . All the sea ls i n the a rea cou l d be k i l l e d .
7 . The q u i c k e r route to school is m uddy in the
winter.
8 . B ro ke n p i eces from the crashed plane covered
the field.

2. Complete the passage with the words below.


Then listen and check your answers.

i ngest
i n h a bit

n i g ht m a re

h a l fway

made t h e i r way
a mo u nt

l ack

avoid

I N VA S I O N OF THE JUM B O S Q U I D
It's every fisherman's 1 . .. . ... . . .. : giant Humboldt
squid are invading. Wherever they go, these
fierce, two-metre-long predators 2 . . ..... . huge
numbers of fish, while the fish that aren't
eaten try to 3 . . ... ...... the squid by abandoning the
area. Previously limited to the warm waters
near Mexico, the squid were found 4 . H up
the California coast in 2002, and today they
have 5 .... . .. as far north as Alaska. According to
researchers, the reason is global warming. As the
water gets warmer, the 6 .
of oxygen it holds
decreases. Oxygen-poor areas, normally found
only near the equator, have expanded northward.
Unlike most fish, the squid actually like the 7 .
of oxygen, so they can move north as well. This
is just one example of the damage climate
change is doing to the ocean and
the marine animals that 8 . .H . it.
.

. .

..

113

Read the sentences and match each phrasal


verb to the correct definition.
1 . 1 . Plastic is broken d own by s u n l ight.
2. Thei r car may have b r o k e n d own on the
way to the wedding.
3 . She b r o k e d o w n when she heard the news.
a . stop working
b . begi n to cry
c. d ivide into small parts

2 . 1 . You should n 't have b ro u g ht that u p now it's a sensitive issue.


2 . My father was b r o u g h t up on a fa rm.
a . start to tal k about somethi n g
b . look after a child u ntil he I she is a n a d u lt
3. 1 . We'll p i c k you u p i n half a n hour.
2 . B usi ness is defin itely p i c k i n g u p this month .
3. Where did you p i c k u p your French 7
a . learn a new language or skill
b . collect someone who is waiting
c. i mprove after a bad period

4. Complete the sentences using the correct form


of a suitable phrasal verb from Exercise 3.
1 . Could you please ........... me ........... after schoo l ?
2 . He ........... and cried when s h e refused to
marry h i m .
3 . What poi nts a re you pla n n i n g t o . . H at
the meeti ng?
4. I was H . to believe that ed ucation
is i m portant.
5. We' l l have to cal l a tec h n icia n . The was h i n g
machine h a s ........... aga i n .
6 . S h e . H swim m i n g q u ite easily d u ring their
summer at the lake last year.

U n it 2

IDIOMS

Topic Vocabulary
113

3.

THE ENVIRONMENT

h a r mf u l

e nv i ro n m e nt a l ly frie n d ly
d estroyed

2.
3.
-.
).

5.

used u p

po l l ut i o n

G rains and vegeta bles g rown on farms


a re . . . .
Poisonous substances i n the a i r, land and
water cause . . . .
When something is pro h i bited, it is .
A substance burned to provide heat or
power is a .
If something ca uses damage, it is . . . .
Someth ing that doesn't damage the
environ ment is
We are running out of o i l ; soon it wi ll
be . . .
Many ra inforests have been cut down
and . . . .

d own to e a rt h

1 . You can buy whatever you want.

!
He's very practical and ..
We don't want a ny trouble, so don't
it's not that serious. You ' re ..
These problems a re only ........... . There's a lot we
don't even know a bout.
6 . After those boring speeches, Jane's fascinating
presentation was l i ke
7 . I ca n 't find my keys a nywhere . How could
they j u st .. . .. ?
8 . O u r efforts to stop g lobal wa r m i n g a re j ust
Much more needs to be done.
H

2.
3.
4.
5.

'4 4. Complete the letter with the words and phrases


below. Then listen and check your answers.
fuel

g ree n house effect

carbon d ioxide

renewa b l e

carbon foot p r i n t

a . solar energy
b. oil
2 . What does the g re e n h ouse effect do?
a. lt creates ideal conditions for plants
to grow.
b. lt traps heat from the s u n .
3 . What i s you r ca r b o n foot p r i n t !
a . the negative i m pact you make on
the environment
b. the mark you make with you r foot
Where does l og g i n g take place?
a. in the ocean
b. in the forest
5 What do motor veh i cles e m it ?
a. fresh a i r
b. green house gases
What is a l a n d fi l l ?
a . a place to put rubbish
b. an a rea where a lake has dried up
What do trees do with ca r b o n

a d ro p i n t h e ocea n

m a k i ng a m o u nta i n out of a m o l e h i l l

e n e rgy/

t h e t i p of t h e i ce be rg

v a n i s h i nto t h i n a i r

2. Choose the correct answer.

What is an example of

t h e sky's t h e l i m it

crops

b a n ned

a b reath of fresh a i r
m a ke waves

1 . Complete the sentences with the words


or expressions below.
fuel

Complete the sentences with the idioms below.

e m it

b a n n ed

h a rm f u l

po l l ut i o n

Stop 4x4s
Dear Editor,
People who drive 4x4 vehicles should know that they
burn much more

. HO

per kilometre than small cars, increasing the

amount of gases such as 2

.. .. . in the atmosphere. This causes the


..... ... , which traps heat from the sun, leading to global warming.
Another 4 . . ..... effect: 4x4s s ... . ... . twice as much toxic carbon
3

..

..

..

..

. .

monoxide as smaller cars, causing dangerous smog and

.H

In short, every 4x4 owner has got a giant-sized

4x4s are meant for farmers and foresters, not for driving to the
office. In my opinion, they should be

H O

from our cities!

A concerned citizen

WEB EXTRA

Read more abou t the 4x4 debate at:


ll'll'll'. burlill{IIOilbooks.cs,'l'ieup o l l l ts2

d io x i d e ?

a. They a bsorb it, slowing global


wa rming .
b. They convert it to carbon monoxide,
causing poll ution.
What is the source of l itter?
a. car engines
b. people

Complete the sentences. Make them true for you.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

I'd l i ke to cut down on .


I'd l i ke to protest agai nst . . . .
One of my worst nightmares is . .
I usually try to avoid . . . .
I was brought up to . . . .
I devote m uch of my time to
Vocabulary Builder, pages 6 0 - 6 1

, 25
'---

....

1 . Complete the sentences with the modals and


semi-modals below.

GRAMMAR

1.

MODALS

Modals a re usua l ly the same for a l l persons.


Sem i-modals a re not. Wh ich words in the cha rt
are semi-moda ls?
Modals
Uses
can I cou l d I a b i l ity
be able to
inabi l ity I
can't
d isbe l i ef I

formal
request I
offer
must I have to obl igation I
necessity
need to

Modals
must

m ustn't

sha l l

Uses
strong
belief
prohibition

offe r

MODAL PERFECTS

Read the exam ples a n d answer the questions.


a. We should have kept h e sec le"'
b. Moore must have felt terib/e wnen h e s a w all the
plastic

c He would have sailed


to take act on.

I e Vacuun' ng may I migh t have been po s1ble wntn


1
the area was smaller
Tha t b1rd couldn 't have swallowed a ooth brush'

g. You needn't have checked Moo f. s s, ory it's tr e.

Which modal perfects are used to express ... ?


1.

7.
8.

2. Choose the correct answer.


1. Don't carry so many plates ! You m i g ht d ro p I
m i g ht h a ve d ro p ped the m !
2 . I u nderstand. You need n 't exp l a i n I
n eed n 't h a ve exp l a i ned a ny more.
3. They look rel i eved . They m u st so lve I
m u st h ave s o l ved the problem.
4. My computer has a vi rus. I s h o u l d n 't o p e n I
s h o u l d n 't h a ve opened that e-ma i l .
5 . M a y I h e l p I M a y I have h e l ped you ?
6 . Why d idn't you come? You co u l d j o i n I
co u l d have j o i ned our protest.
7. I ' m going to the new park. You s h o u l d come I
s h o u l d have come !

er, hut !Jcre was YJO wmd.

d. He could have ignored 'e problem b u t he creoded

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

certa i nty that someth i n g was true

8 . I don't have my wa l let. I m i g ht


m i g ht have l eft it at home.
3.

1.
2.

2 . poss i b i l ity that someth i n g was true

3. a b i l i ty to d o someth i n g w h ich i n the end


was not done

3.

4. d es i re to d o someth i n g w h ich in fact cou ld


not be done

4.

5. criticism or reg ret after a n eve nt


6.

5.

a n u n necessa ry past action

7. d isbe l i ef

6.

SHOULD / HAD BETIER


Read the exam ples and answer the q uesti on.
a. You should

c Kt

b. You had better

Which sentence ...


IS a cv r r
2. g ives adv1ce

26

m u stn't ought to would m i g ht


be a b l e to shall don't have to can't
I ' m not angry. You ........... apologise.
........... you please help me with my suitcase?
You ' re jo k i n g. You ....... ... be seriou s !
You ........... cheat during a n exa m .
I hope I will .. ... .... finish t h e project next week.
I ' m not sure, but we .. ....... have a flat tyre . Let's
get out and check.
I know you l i ke Pete . I th i n k you ........... ask h i m
o u t on a date.
........... I get you somet h i n g to d r i n k !

7.

8.

l eave

Complete the sentences with a modal or


modal perfect affirmative or negative, using
the modal and the verb i n brackets.
Could you please move over a bit? I .. ....... (can I
see) a thing.
I fa i l ed the exa m . 1 . . .... (should I revise) the
material more.
Come in and sit down . You ........... (must I be)
t i red.
There were no cars i n those days. Travel ..
(m ust I be) very slow.
M ichael didn't congratulate me. He . .. ... (might I
hear) that I won .
I did n't know Beth had been i n town. I ..
(would I ca ll) her.
Kyle is t h i n k i n g of ordering tickets on the
I nternet. ........... he ........... (be able to I find) cheap
ones/
(may I forget) o u r
Va l d i d n 't turn up. She
meeti n g .
H

U n it 2

4. What would you say i n each situation


below? Write a sentence using a modal
perfect, affirmative or negative. There may
be more than one correct answer. Use each
modal once.
1. I 've eaten three pieces of cake. Now I feel i l l .
2 . Kathy didn't answer t h e phone last night.
3 . Sharon is q u ite wealthy. Why did she buy
such a cheap car?
4. The meat has disappea red, and the dog looks
quite happy !
5 . The floor was clea n . Why did you wash it?
6. I wrote this by hand beca use my pri nter
isn't work i n g .
7 . S h e c l a i m s s h e did the j o b a lone, but I don't
believe it.

5.

Kingsnorth Six

.u

7. Complete the sentences. Use should or


had better, affirmative or negative.
1 . There's a hu rrica ne com i n g . We . . . .
2 . There's no l ifeg uard here. You . . .
3 . A new fa mily has moved i n next door. We
4. My bus leaves at exactly 5 . 00 . I . . . .
5 . That colour doesn't suit her. She .

-------

2007, six activists climbed the inside of the

ryey of Kingsnorth power sta tion in Kent, England, to protest


'1St the plant's carbon emissions. However, things didn 't go
dmg to plan.

- - six had expected to find a spiral staircase, but instead they


ere able to

I had to climb up a ladder. Using a staircase, they

ould finish I would have finished the climb in two hours, but

::ad it took them nine. They soon realised that they


e brought

bother forget touch read stop


1 We a re destroying o u r own planet. We .. ...... !
2 . Vera is i n a bad mood . You
her.
3 . I ' l l need my C D tomorrow. You ........... to bring it.
4. This i nstruction manual is i m portant. You .. ....... it.
5. That dog is dangerous. We .. . ... it.

Choose the correct answer. Then listen and


check your answers.

Sth October,

6. Complete the sentences. Use had better,


affirmative or negative, and the verbs below.

uld n't go

should

I should bring more food and water, but they

I can't go back. Worst of all, they were arrested

REWRITES: M O DALS A N D MODAL PERFECTS

I n rewrites that i nvolve modals, check the tense of the


original sentence. The present o r future tenses usually
change to a modal + infinitive, while the past tense
usually changes to a modal perfect.
Perhaps Jack is at the protest. (Jack may be at the
protest.)
Perhaps lac was at the protest. (Ja K may have been at
prate .)
Rewrite the sentences with the words i n brackets.
Do not change the original meaning of the sentences.
1. I'm certain that Fran is glad you 're here. (must)

::n they got back down . In the end, however, their trial proved

2.

e a blessing - and not just because they won. Without the

3. it's possible that Van Gogh didn 't paint this. (may)

city, people all over the world


: ... the protesters' message: we

must

must have reduced

I may not have heard


I must

it's a good idea to bring a camera. (should)

4. it wasn 't necessary for you to try so hard. (needn 't)


5. it was wrong of Paul to say that. (shouldn 't)

:l u c e carbon em issions to slow climate change. Perhaps in

'e. people

should listen

I should have listened more to

<:t environmentalists have to say. We certainly 8 needn't allow I


., t allow ourselves to ignore their warnings.

e of the
gs11orth
i1ists

Grammar Review IIJ


8. Rewrite the following sentences with the words
in brackets. Do not change the original meaning
of the sentences.
1. I ' m not in the mood to go out. (feel like)
2 . She began talking on the phone an hour ago. (been)
3 . Don 't spend any more money ! (had better)
4. I doubt that she's in love with h i m . (can 't)
5 . I expected h i m at 9 . 00 . He finally a rrived at 1 2 .00.
(waiti ng)
6 . I ' m sure that Carl gave me his address. (must)

Ext r a g r a m m a r exe r c i s e s a t :
11
I I I ll /J O G ' { ' l' i l li'Ji O i ll tS 2

27

SKILLS
LISTENING G
A CONVERSATION
1 . What do you know about the Amazon
rainforest in Brazil? Why is it i mportant
even to people who do not l ive near it?

4.

2. Listen to the fi rst part of a conversation


between a Greenpeace activist and a nother
student. Answer the questions.
1 . Where is Jason going7
2. What is Anne's attitude to what he is doing?
3. Who a re the people i n the chicken costumes/

1.

3.

Listen to the second part of the conversation.


Complete the flowchart of events by filling
in the m issing information.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Read the statements below and try to decide


whether they are true or false. Then listen to
the third part of the conversation and check
your answers.
The protesters were trying to make people
awa re that fast food is u nhea lthy.
People wrote to McDonald's to complain
about the protesters.
McDonald's began to work with G reenpeace .
McDonald's ag reed not to buy soya grown
in the rai nforest.
The soya growers refused to stop deforestation.
The ca mpaign was a success.

1 . I n 2003, people from G reen peace looked


at
of the ra inforest.
H .

2 . They noticed l a rge areas of new .

.H

28

were destroying

Where i n your country has development

caused damage to the environment? Do you


think that this is ever justified or acceptable?

U n it 2

SPEAKING
REACHING A DECISION
e
0

1 . Look at the website for environmentally-friendly schools.


Are any of these projects done in your school?
J.lorn
These are some projects you can try to make your school environmen tally friendly

l.

Recycli ng water:
Reuse water for washing floors, flushing toi l ets a n d watering plants.
Bicycle campaig n :
Encourage students t o ride bicycles t o school. No more cars or buses !
Wind turbine:
I nstall a wind turbine to provide energy for you r schoo l .
Solar panels:
I nstall solar panels on your roof for hot water and electricity.
Vegetable garden:
G row all you r own vegetables for school lunches.
Recycl i ng campa i g n :
Begin a recycling programme for t h e paper a n d plastic bottles used i n you r schoo l .
Banni ng plastic bags:
Bring your lunch in reusable contai ners !

3.

About u

Look at the expressions in colour in the


dialogue in Exercise 2. Which expressions
are used to ... ?
disagree
agree
reach a decision

4. You and your partner are on the school


environment committee. You have been
chosen to select two projects that will make
your school greener.
a . Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
each p roject on the website above.
b. Decide on two projects.
In your discussion, use the expressions in
colour from Exercise 2 .
._ -iii..
i
.o1

R EACH I N G A DECISION

W h en you r p a rtner spea ks, l i sten c a ref u l ly and d o

n o t i nterru pt h i m

h e r. Ta ke notes i f necessa ry.

Respond to w h a t you r p a rtne r says. Say w h et h e r you


a g ree o r d isag ree, and g ive reasons.
W h en you h ave fini s h ed d iscussing the i te m , move
on to the next item.
M a ke a fina l d ec i s i on t h a t you a g ree on.

29

("

WRITING
A Formal Letter I E -mail
1.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Find the following in Gwen's letter:


the date
the greeting
Gwen's address
the final statement
the address of the person she is writing to
6. the closing

I n a formal l etter or e-mail , we usually wish t o a p p ly


for a job or course, ask for i nformation o r m a ke a
complaint. I n a letter o r e-mail of com p laint, we often
ask for action to be taken.
When you write a formal l etter of complaint:
1 . State the pu rpose of your letter.
Read the first paragraph of the letter below. W hat is
the writer's pu rpose?
2.

G ive information and deta i l s.


Read the rest of the letter. What is the problem? Why is
the write r concerned about it?

Request I demand action.


What action does the writer want taken? W here does
she say this?
3.

27 Walnut Lane
!fiel d , Sussex
30th November 2010
Town Planning Department
Town Hall
Dear Sir or Madam,
I am writing to express my concern regarding the

proposal to build a new motorway around our city.


I realise that the motorway is meant to reduce

traffic jams , but it would cause terrible damage to


our environment.
First of all , a large area of what is now beautiful ,
green open space would be covered in asphalt.
Forests and plants would be destroye d , as would
the area's wildlife .
To make matters worse, the motorway would
encourage the use of cars , burning more fuel and
increasing global warming . More cars would also
increase the amount of air pollution and noise in
our area.
I strongly urge you to reject this irresponsible

idea . I suggest using the money to improve public


transport and build bicycle lane s .
I look forward to your reply.

Yours faithfully,

FORMAL AND INFORMAL


LANGUAGE

When writing a formal letter or e-mail, it is


i mporta nt to use the a ppropriate lang uage and
correct punctuation.

2. Read the following and decide which refer to


formal writing.
conta ins very short or i n complete sentences
conta ins col loq u i a l expressions or slang
(you 're into, righ t now, gonna, etc.)
does not contai n contractions (don 't, isn 't, etc.)
is usually written to someone the writer
does not know
conta i n s personal q u estions to the reader
ends with Yours sincerely I Yours faithfully
does not conta i n excla mation marks
makes frequent use of the passive
3.

Gwen wrote an e-mail to her friend. Find the


formal expressions in her letter of complaint
that can replace the expressions in bold.

Hi A l i c e !

How's everyt h i n g ' I know you ' re i nto the


env i ron ment, so I thought I'd tell you what I heard.
I n case you d i d n 't know, they ' re pla n n i ng to build a
new motorway a round the city. C a n you believe itl
So yesterday, I wrote to the town planners to te l l
t h e m t h at I ' m rea l ly worried a bout it.
I ' m gonna get everybody I know to write to them.
H ow a bout if you do that too? Maybe getti n g
h u n d reds o f e-mails and letters would convi nce
them to d rap the idea !
W r i te b a c k soo n !

Gwen Hamilton

See you,
Gwen

U n it 2
4.

5.

.,

Divide the expressions below into formal and informal


language.
I would a ppreciate a prompt reply.
I u rge you to . . .
U n bel ievable as it may sound, . . .
I rea lly t h i n k you should . . .
I was glad to receive you r last letter.
it was g reat hearing from you !
G u ess what?
I strongly disagree.
Can 't wait to hear from you !
I can't believe you sa id . . .
Decide whether each sentence is from a formal or a n
i nformal letter. Then complete it with a n expression
from Exercise 4. Not all the expressions are used.
Hey, Maya . ........... I 've finally passed my maths exams l
I feel that this serious matter deserves you r i mmediate
attentio n . Therefore, ..
........... reconsider you r accepta nce of the proposa l .
Write back soon - .
I know you don 't l i ke Jack, but ........... those awful things
about h i m .
.
there a re no p u b l i c parks with i n wa l king dista nce
of o u r home.
M r Smith claims that enough has been done, but ..
... .... . break up with her.
.

3
S

..

Your Task
Write a letter of complaint to your local

counci l. Write 1 00-1 50 words.

WRITING A LETTER OF COMPLAINT


1 . Brainstorm to decide on a n issue.
Which of the fol lowing issues are
relevant i n your area?
a. building on and destruction of g reen areas
b. overuse of water in city pa rks
c. i nsufficient public transport I cycle paths
d. too m uch l itter I pollution

2. Decide what you want to say. Think about


the following questions:
- Where does the problem exist!
- What effect does it have on the environment?
- Why does it bother you personally/
- What action should be taken ?
3. Think of a way to convince the reader that
the problem is i mportant. For which issue
in Exercise 1 could each of the following
sentences be used?
1. If we do not change our attitude, our taps will
run dry.
2 . Reducing ca r em issions has become a priority
a round the world.
3. O u r city belongs to a l l of its citizens - not j ust
to private bui lders.
4. We all have the right to breathe clean air.

4. Organise your i deas using the Exam Focus


and the model on page 30 to help you.
CHECKLIST
.I I followed
.I I

the pl-t-for forWlPtl Letter.

used forWlPtl LotJ1!3uor.Je .

.I I

c.l1.e.c.ked my spelliJ1!3, 3rotwt.WlPtr otf'l.d


pV(.ft-C-tW'Ctio -t-.
riting Guide, page

141

Improve Your Style


Para l l el Con stru ction

If you a re expressing parallel or similar ideas,


u se the same structure for both ideas.
baking a to taste
baking a 1c tasting

H qat

prize tor leading

at I bake X
'1

t I boke. ./

tuoent council

ood l 1s hard work X


fie qo J nze c r his leadership o. he tuden t
col.lr,c,l c IG his hard work

Correct the sentences below so that they use parallel


structures.
1. Using a com puter is faster than to write by hand.
2. Ronda has got a sense of h u mo u r, a lovely personal ity and is
ta lented.
3 . Ja net's marks a re h igher than Ellen .
4. I have to feed the dog, tidy my room and my homework.
5. He's been a g reat role model, a true friend and taught us
fantastica l ly.
6 . To speak wel l and writing well a re i m po rtant language skills.
31

SKILLS

POWE R PO I NT PRE S E NTATI O N S


You a re going to learn how to create effective sl ides for a PowerPoi nt
presentati o n . Read the t i ps on prepa r i n g PowerPoi nt sl ides. Then a n swer
the Task Questions bel ow.

TIPS

The pu rpose of a PowerPoint presentation is to

su pport a spoken presentation.

within 40 years.

Don t repeat what's wntten on the s l 1 des - exp l a 1 n


what's on the Sdde or a d d to 1t

The text o n each sl1de s h o u l d b e written in pomt

There s h o u l d be no more t h a n

The rainforests once covered 1 5 % of the


Earth's surface. Now they cover only 7 % .

form - avo1d fu l l sentences .

4 or 5

1 . 5 acres of rai nforest are lost every second.


If this continues, the rainforest will disappear

lt is estimated that w e lose over 1 00 species of


animals a day due to rainforest destruction.

po1 nts on a

sl1de

Every s l 1 d e s h o u l d have a title.

The backgro u n d co l o u r of you r s l 1 de should


contrast with the font - d o n ' t use patterns wth
lots of colours

Yo u r font s 1ze s h o u l d n ' t be s m a l l er t h a n 1 8 poi nts,


otherw1se people at the back of the room won 't

be a b l e to read 1t.

WE S f. N D G R E E N H O U S E" G AS E S
I NTO T H E A I R W H E N WE . . .

The best way to show statist1cs or trends 1 s

Watch TV

w1th a graph

Use the

Use a h a " rdryN

M 1uovv ve

TASK QUESTIONS

t r condttioner
m ea l

Look at the s l i d es from v a r i o u s Power Po i nt


p rese ntat i o n s. D i scuss t h e g ood poi nts a n d b a d
p o i nts of each s l i d e, accord i n g to the t i ps.

USE YOUR SKILLS


Create a n d p resent a Powe rPo i nt p resentati o n .

Rese a rc h a n issue re l ated t o t h e e n v i ro n m e n t a n d


p l a n a n o r a l p re se n t at i o n .

C re a te a Pow e r P o i n t p rese n tation to go w i t h y o u r


o r a l p resentat i o n .

32

G ive y o u r p resentation i n front of t h e c l a s s .

c
A mo u nt of G l a ss Recycl e d
in the U K

2005 - 5 6 5, 000 t o n n es

2006 - 580,000 t o n n es

2007 - 6 1 5,000 t o n n es

Unit Objectives
C o t t p ltcr-.
I }!(' Pass

VL'

rhe c. ausat 1 \ ('

I istcn i n g to a C o n versa tion

Pers o n a l I n trrvnws

Writi n g <I n Opi n i on Essay

Life 5 k i l b : '\ Debate

Online World

t/

You use computers all the time, but how much do you really know about them?
Do the quiz and see ! Then go to page 1 47 to check your answers and see what
your score means.

Computer Quiz
1 . What d oes USB stand for?
a. Upload Software Button
b. U lti mate System B rea kdown
c. U n iversal Serial Bus

5. What kind of file is a ZIP file?


a . a compressed file
b. a n a n i mation file
c. a system fi le

2. What key com ma n d w i l l q u it


a n y program ?
a . Alt + F4
b. Alt + Tab
c. Control + Z

6. When did Sony m a nufacture the

3. W hich of the fol lowing w a s the


first I n stant Messa g i n g program ?
a . M S N Messenger
b. Yahoo ! M essenger
c. ICQ

7 . W hich of the following is the

4. When was Twitter l a unched?


a . 2009
b. 2007
c. 2005

8. What was the first ful l-length


computer-generated f i l m ?
a . T h e l ncredibles
b. Toy Story
c. The Lion King

first com mercial CD?


a. 1982
b. 1 97 2
c. 2002

l a rgest measurement of m e mory?


a. a kilobyte
b. a g i gabyte
c. a megabyte

What can you do on your computer that you

couldn't do five years ago?

W E B E XTRA

Find out about the first computer-generated film at:


WII'W. bu rl i ngto nbooks. es/l'iewpoi 111s2

33

READING
1 . Identifying the Main Idea: Read the first
sentence of each paragraph in the text.
In which paragraph/s will you find the
answer to each of the following questions?
1 . Why a re some people against Street View?
2. How is Street View produced ?
3. What do people use Street View for7
4. What photographs may have upset people7
5 . What does a Google veh icle look l i ke ?
6 . How does Google justify Street View?
7 . What is the writer's opin ion of Street View?

2. Read the text and check your a nswers to


Exercise 1 .
3 . Guessing Meaning from Context: Find
the following words in the text. Read the
entire sentence and try to guess each word's
meaning.
stroll (line 1 2) pasted (line 2 5) blurs (line 47)

.. EXAM FOCUS
SENTENCE COM PLETION
1. Read the part of the sentence that you h ave been
g iven and identify keywords. Find the relevant part
of the text by looking for keywords or synonyms.

4. Complete the sentences according to the


information in the text. Remember to use
your own words.
1 . France is an example of a cou ntry .
2 . People have criticised Street View because
they . .
3. Vil lagers in England feared that burglars . . . .
4. One picture showed a man cl i m b i ng a fence.
He m ight . . . .
5 . You can cl ick on a l i n k if you want Google to . . . .
6 . People want to satisfy their curiousity in spite
of .
5. Choose the best answer according to the text.
1 . Google Street View . . . .
a . is available i n every cou ntry
b. shows streets and the outside of houses
c. shows the i nteriors of people's homes
d. was fi rst started in G reat B rita i n
2 . Street View cameras . . . .
a . snapped 35,998 pictu res of B ritish roads
b. take 3-5 pictu res every second
c. take video i mages of streets and houses
d. use sophisticated tech nology
3. The a n g ry husband . . . .
a . rea l ised that his wife was i n nocent
b. cli mbed a fence to get i nto his house
c. was a contractor
d. photographed his wife with another man
4. Google claims that . . . .
a . people can ask not to be photographed
b. many people ask to have i mages removed
c. nothing shown on Street View is private
d. Street View does not photograph faces
5. Street View ca n be used by travellers to .
a . start a travel blog
b. view their desti nations
c. decide whether to buy a house
d. find out hotel prices

2. Read that part of the text a nd decide what


information is n eeded to compl ete the sentence.
3.

Complete the sentence. Use the words i n the text,


but remember to m a ke the necessary g ra m matical /
structural changes.

Exam ple Questi on


Complete the sentence using your own words.
If the Street Vie w vehicle photographs your house,
anyone ... .
Answer Ana lysi s

The releva nt part o f the text is i n l i nes 5-7

The g iven sentence is a Fi rst Cond ition a l , so yo u r


a nswer should use t h e Future S i m ple.

In the g iven sentence, the subject I S anyone.


Therefore, the structu re of the rest of the sentence
m ust be changed.

Answ e r : If the Street View veh c e photog ra phs you r


ho use, a nyone w i l l b e a b l e t o see 1t o n t h e I ntern et.

34

WEB EXTRA

6. Find words or expressions in the text that


mean:
1 . going slowly (paragraph 1 )
2 . equi pped (paragraph 3)
3. very happy (paragraph 4)
4. responds to an accusation (paragraph 6)
5. stronger (paragraph 7)

Would you mind if a photograph of you or

your home appeared on Goog le Street View?


Why or why not?

Find

out about the Google logo at:


www. bu rl i 11gtonbooks. es/viewpoi 11 ts2

U n it 3

If you see a stra nge-looking car crawling down

30

i n southeast Engla nd, residents fo rmed a h u m a n

h u rry a n d tidy u p you r garden. The car is the Goog l e

c h a i n t o prevent t h e vehicles from entering, fea ring

Street View vehicle, a n d p e r h a p s you r home i s being

the i mages wou l d be used by b u rg l a rs. Parents a re

photog raphed right now. If it is, soon close- u p views of

said to be especi a l ly concerned a bout pictu res of their

yo u r home will be ava i l a b l e on the I n ternet for anyone

35 c h i l d ren outside schools.


There have been plenty of i ncidents where people

to see. And by t h e way, if you were outside when the

were caught on camera i n emba rrassing situations.

cam era passed by, then you're i n the pictu re, too.
10

With Goog l e Street View, you can now explore

One woma n, for exa m p l e, was p h otog raphed a s she

h u nd red s of cities and towns a l l over the world. You

was leaning out of her window with a m a n . When her

j u st zoom i nto a ny street, look a round, a n d then take

40 a n g ry h u sband confronted her, it tu rned out t h e man

a virtual stro l l t h rou g h the neig h bou rhood, viewing

was only a contractor. A n other i mage shows a man

hou ses, trees, cars a n d peo p l e as if you were t h ere.

c l i m b i n g a fence. I s h e a burglar, o r d i d h e just fo rget

Street View beg a n i n the U n ited States in May


15

and was l a u nched i n Great Brita i n in M a rc h

2007,
2009.

it's now a va i lable in other countries, i n c l u d i ng the


N etherlands, France, Italy, Spain, Japan, Austra lia and

his keys?
Goog le retorts by saying that what you see on
45

New Zea l a n d .

they c a n n ot be recog n i sed. Every image also conta i n s

3 5,998 kilometres of British roads. Fitted

with panoramic camera s using adva n ced imag i ng

50

have an i mage removed, a n d it w i l l be taken off a s


q u ickly a s possible.

3-5

There's no denyi ng that Street View can be usefu l ,

seconds. Then t h e tens of m i l l ions of individual images

whether y o u a re looki ng for a h o u s e t o buy, a re

tech nology, each camera sna pped a picture every


25

a l i n k w h i c h can be clicked b y a nyo ne w h o wants to

a year a n entire fleet of Goog le vehicles d rove


down

Street View is exactly what you'd see walking down


the street. Mo reover, s pecial Street View tec h n o l ogy
automatica l l y b l u rs fa ces a n d licence plates so t h at

H o w i s it d o n e ? I n t h e U K, for i n sta nce, for nearly


20

property exposed for a l l to see. In one affl uent village

your street, a long pole protruding from its roof, then

they had captured were "pasted" together d i g itally to


Si nce

being

l a u nched, Street View

i ntensely criticised

as

an

i nva sion

p l a n n i ng a t r i p a n d want to see t h e hotel you'll be


55 staying at, or feel l i ke having a nosta l g i c look at you r

s i m u late a continuous jou rney.


has

been

of privacy. lt

seems that not everyone i s overjoyed at having their

child hood home. I n t h ese days of bloggi ng, YouTube


and Face book, it seems the urge to sati sfy our cu riosity
i s more pressing t h a n our desire for privacy.

affluent ( l i n e 30) means odinerado n ot ofluente


retort ( l i n e 44) means replicor not retorcer
removed ( l i n e 50) means quitodo n o t removido

35

VO CABULARY
Words . from
the Text
.
,

, .

...

1 . Are the statements true or false? Pay


attention to the words in colour. Correct the
false statements.
1 . If something is ava i l a b l e in shops, you can find
or buy it.
2. If you have an u rg e to do something, you feel
you need to do it very m u c h .
3 . A b u r g l a r is usual ly an i nvited guest.
4 . If someth ing has been removed , it is no
longer there.
5 . If you d e ny somet h i n g , you i nsist that it ha ppened.
6 . If something t u r n s out i n a particular way, it
began that way.
7 . If something is press i n g , it is u rgent.
8 . If you expose someth i n g , you h ide it.

VERBS AND PREPOSITIONS


4. Complete the sentences with the
prepositions below.
of

for

at

on

1 . You ca n sea rch ........... a n y i nformation you need


on G oog le.
2. They accused Street View ........... i nvad i n g their
privacy.
3 . This mobile phone doesn 't always work.
I can 't rely
it.
4. We depend .. .. ... tech nology for nea rly
everything.
5. Their diet consists mainly .. . fruit and
vegetables.
6. Vera i nsisted .. .. opening the window despite
the col d .
7 . I ' l l b e staying
a friend's house for the next
two nig hts.
8 . I nearly died ........... a heart attack when C h ris
walked i n !
. H

2 . Choose two possible answers for each

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

question. Pay attention to the words in colour.


How can you use a p o l e 7
a . to hold a flag
b. to help you j u m p h igh
c. to write a letter
Where could you find a cl ose-u p 7
a . on the radio
b. on TV
c. in a newspaper
Where is a fence usually built!
a . between two houses
b. a round a farm
c. across a road
What could a f leet have in it?
a . trucks
b. com puters
c. s h i ps
Which of the following crawls ?
a . a b i rd flying slowly
b. a car going slowly
c. a baby before it learns to wa l k
What c a n be l a u nched ?
a . a new prod uct
b. a rocket
c. a well-known prod uct

5 . Complete the sentences, using the


prepositions given for each group.
1 . hear of I a bout I from
a. Donna said she'd write, but I haven't hea rd
........... her.
Street View before I
b. I had never heard
read this a rticle.
c. Have you heard ........... Nancy and G reg? They ' re
a couple now l
H .

2 . t h i n k of I a bout
a. You look worried . What a re you
t h i n k i n g ........... ?
the new shop?
b. What do you thi n k . .
HO

3 . arrive i n I at
a . What time are you a rriving .. ....... New York?
b. We were the first to a rrive .
the wedding.
H

4 . complain a bout I of

a . He's been complaining


headaches
for several days.
this product.
b. I ' d l i ke to complain
H

Name two ... .


places that should be t i d i e d u p regularly
events where people feel overjoyed
things that only a ff l u e nt people do
4. objects that you can l e a n on
5. t h i ngs that a re p revented by law

5. apply for I to
a. I 've applied
several u niversities.
b. I ' m going to apply . ........ a schola rsh i p .
H

3.
1.
2.
3.

6. remind a bout I o f
a . Please rem i nd me
t h e meeting.
b. Paul reminds me .. ....... his father.
H

U n it 3

Topic _V()abula:r.y .

4.

Complete the passage with the correct form


of the words below. Then listen and check
your a nswers.

COM PUTERS

access

1 . Complete the sentences with the words and


phrases below.
device

googled

p assword

onl ine

device

porta b l e

u ser-f r i e n d l y

u pd ated

onl ine

soci a l netwo r k i n g s ites


d e l ete

google

c rashed

file

resta rt

With a new i nv e n t i o n from the Ma s s a c h u setts I n stitute

1 . Amazon is a site where you can order books ..


2 . Some e-mail programs require a ........... to get i n .
3 . A U S B flash drive is a small .. .. ... which i s used to
tra nsfer data from one computer to another.
4 . We ........... h i s name and found out who he was.
5. Do you use .. ..... such as Facebook and MySpace?
6. You ' d better save that........ or you may lose it.
7 . Why did you ....... all those photos? I wanted to
keep them I
8. You r computer has .......... . You ' l l have to .. . ... it.

you're at a books h o p, for exa m p l e . You point to a book,

2. Read the sentences and choose the correct

you i f t h e re a re a n y d e lays. Sixth Se n s e i s l i g ht a n d

a nswers according to the meaning of the


words in colour.
1 . A program that provides i n st r u ct i o n I
enterta i n me n t is a tutori a l .
2 . This com p l icated website i s I i s n 't very

i t 's a l s o s i m p l e to o p e rate, m a k i n g it very

o f Tech n o l o g y ca l l ed Sixth Sen se, you ca n be p e r m a nently

. J u st p o i nt at a n y o bj e ct , and t h i s a ma z i n g

wh i ch you wea r a ro u n d you r neck a n d fi n g e r s , wi l l "read"


yo u r s i g n a l and

a n d Sixth Se n s e

....... . ... t h e

i n fo r m a t i o n you want. Let's say

its n a m e . lt t h e n p rojects revi ews

o f the book onto a n y n e a r by s u rfa ce. N ow you k n ow


whet h e r or not to b u y it! Or p e rh a p s you're o n y o u r way
to t h e a i rport. J u st p i ck u p y o u r ti cket a n d Sixth Se n se
wi l l p roject s . .. . ..... i n fo r m ation a bout yo u r fl i g ht, te l l i n g
6

u s e r-f r i e n d l y.

3 . Docu ments ca n I ca n 't be put i nto a f o l d e r.


4. This computer is too s ma l l I b i g to be p orta b l e .
5 . A blog that is u pd ated contains n e w I o l d
i nformation.
6. When you l o g o nto Facebook, you usually
give you r use r n a m e I a d d ress.
7. You need a modem I p r i nter i n order to
a ccess the I nternet.

VERB COLLOCATIONS
3.

1.
2.
3.
4.
::> .

Which nouns can be used to form col locations


with the verbs in colour?
enter - you r age I a web page I you r password
forwa rd - an e-ma i l I an attachment I a website
d own l o a d - a printer I a film I a song
post - a message I i nformation I a laptop
c h a rg e - a mobile phone I a keyboard I a la ptop

Complete the sentences. M ake them true

1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

for you.
This school yea r has turned out . . . .
My parents try to prevent me from . . . .
I t h i n k people should insist on . . . .
I usually charge my phone . . . .
I someti mes have the urge to . . . .
I was overjoyed when . . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 6 2 - 6 3

37

GRAMMAR
THE PASSIVE

USE AND FORM


Read the exa m ples and answer the q u estions.
a. Perhaps your home is shown on Street View.
b. Street View blurs faces so they cannot be recognised.
1 . When do we use the passive?
2. How is the passive formed?

D I RECT AND I N D I RECT OBJECTS


Read the exa m ples a n d com plete the rule.

1 . Complete the sentences. Use the correct


passive form of the verbs in brackets.
1 . Google ........... (start) by two students in 1 998.
2. The computer com petition ........... (hold) next
Easter.
3 . The site ........... (ta ke off) the I nternet before
I had a chance to look at it.
4. Thousands of items ........... (can I pu rchase)
on eBay.
5 . At this moment, the I nternet ........... (use) by
m i l l ions of people.
6 . Nowadays, most plane tickets ........... (reserve)
on l i ne.
7 . My blog ........... (visit) 4,23 5 ti mes si nce I started it.
8. We cou ldn't use the website while it
. .......... (update)

Active: We sen t these photos to our friend.


Passive:

1.

2.

(d1rect object]

(indirect object)

These photos were sen t to our friend.


Our friend was sent these photos.

When a n active sentence has got two objects, either


the d i rect o r the i n d i rect object can become the ..
of the passive sentence. The second form is more
common.

2. Complete the sentences with the correct


active or passive form of the verbs below.

1.

NOTE:

Common verbs wh ich take two objects a re send,


tell, give, show, sell, lend a n d pay.

2.
3.
4.

SPECIAL FORMS
Some verbs i ntrod u ce a n opinion, thought o r belief.
Read the examples and com p l ete the rules.

5.

Active: Critics say Street Vie w is an invasion of privacy.

6.

Passive

1:

it is said tha t Street View is an in vasion of


privacy.

Structure: it + be + past participle + .. .


Passive 2: Street Vie w is said to be an invasion of
privacy.
Structure: Subject + be + past participle + ...

[
o

mon verbs fr these structu res a re say, think,


believe and cons1der. (Consider IS used only _1n the
second structu re.)

THE CAUSATIVE
-

--

Read the explanation a n d the exa mples a n d


complete t h e rule.

When focu s i n g o n a n action, we sometimes use the


causative structu re. This structure is a lso used to talk
a bout a rra n g i n g for things to be done for u s by other
people.
a. He wan ts to have his picture removed.
b. Google got their vehicles fitted with special
cameras.

t participle.

I n the causative, we use ........... or ........... + object

Wf!,,!,.f!Eil.!.lt
ti
i!lil!iJitJII.

should I keep i nj u re damage


d iscover not tidy up exa m i n e
O u r school computers ........... b y vandals
last night.
Don't come i n . We ........... yet !
Sara
by the doctor when I a rrived.
Hopefully, scientists ........... a c u re for cancer
i n the nea r future.
H u n d reds of people ........... in ca r accidents
every day.
This j uice ........... in the fridge u ntil we d r i n k it.
p p

3. Write sentences with the words in brackets.


Use the passive form of the verbs.
1 . This blog is very popular.
(it I visit I daily I by thousands of people)
2. We've bought a new computer.
(it I i nsta ll I tomorrow)
3 . No one knows where the treasure is.
(it I bel ieve I h ide I i n the desert)
4. This pasta is too soft.
(it I should not I cook I for so long)
5. Don 't worry.
(the problem I a l ready I solve)

4. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.


Omit the agent where possible.
1 . We haven't i nvited Alice to our party.
2 . W i l l they show the paintings at the
gal lery next wee k ?
3 . You mustn't reveal our secret .
4. What time do they del iver the post?
5. Soya farmers a re cutting down
the ra inforest.

U n it 3
Complete the passage with the correct active
or passive form of the verbs in brackets. Then
listen and check your answers.

PEOPLE'S ENCYCLOPEDIA

----'--
- ago, when you ........... (give)
E

I.

jlj ..:... 1 A. V
11

')Ol project, you would


your local library
\.\ )' a
e the encyclopedia.
( ) '>
you would probably
.r -0\ ikip dia. Since it
'1\
(create) i n 200 1 ,

'
al
.
, _:----\- .

*
on lme en yeI ope d'w
{
(grow) into one of the
= t websites on the Intemet. With over
13
on article in 262 language , it 4 ...... . .. (attract)
ni llion visitors a month. Unlike the article. in
r library's encyclopedia, Wik ipedia articles
(write) by ordinary people from all o er the
Id. What' n1ore, a Wikipedia article 6 ...........
I edit) by anyone with I nternet access,
n
uding you. Thi is great, because the aiticles
constantly ........... ( update). The di ad antage is
ome articles may contain mi takes. However,
en there i an enor, it 8 . . ... ... .. u ually ...... . . (correct)
-y quickly by another u. er.
n

"'

'

t, (()....,__>.., \.J
.

6.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Rewrite each sentence using two passive


structures.
We' re sending you a new password .
They've g iven some old computers to our
school.
He should have shown h is essay to the teacher.
Everyone knows that computer games are
addictive .
Users t h i n k that I nternet ads are a nnoyi n g .
People believe that paying t h rough the I nternet
is unsafe.

7. Complete the sentences w ith the verbs below.


Use the correct causative form.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

paint delete wash deliver


take repair
I don't l i ke dirty cars, so I ........... m i n e ..
quite often .
N igel .. .. .... a new computer ........... tomorrow
We .. . ... o u r name . ........ from the l ist last week.
I .... ..... my mobile phone .... . .... yesterday.
I tried to smile wh i l e I ........... my picture ..
Please excuse the mess I We . ........ the
kitchen

8. Complete the sentences using the causative.


1 . O u r pri nter is working aga i n . We .. . ... . (repa i r)
2 . All o u r pictures a re on the computer. We never
........... . (develop)
3. " My tooth h u rts . "
" You should ... . . " (check)
4 . I ' m not buying my wedd i n g d ress in a shop. I
........... . (ma ke)
5. " I don't feel l i ke going out to get the pizza . "
" O K . Let's .. ........ . " (del iver)
=

EXAM FOCUS

REWRITES : ACTIVE AND PASSIVE

When cha n g i ng a sentence from active to passive,


you may h ave to remove the agent w h e n it is
i rreleva n t o r u n necessa ry. I n cha n g i ng passive to
active, you may have to add a n agent. The added
agent i s often neutra l ( you, they, someone, anyone).
Your password should not be shown.
You should not show your password.
Rewrite the sentences starting with the words
g iven. Do not change the original m ea n i ng of the
sentences.
7.

You have to finish the job by tonigh t.


The job ... .

2.

Your essay may have been copied from the In ternet.


You ... .

3. They don't pay the bills on time.


The bills ... .
4.

The package had been opened before we received it.


Someone ... .

5. The new game is going to be launched next year.


They ... .
6. Has the cat been fed?
Have ... .

Grammar Review IIIJ


9.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Rewrite the followi ng sentences using the


words in brackets. Do not change the original
meaning.
I started revising for the test at 1 1 .00. (since)
When will your roof be repai red? (have)
lt was wrong of you to spend so m uch money.
(shouldn't)
Experts believe that this is a dangerous virus. (lt)
it's a bad idea to buy a cheap netbook.
(had better)
The meal had been served before we arrived .
(They)
E x t r a g ra m m a r e x e r c i s e s a t :
w w w. b u r l i n g t o n b o o k s . e s / v i e w p o i n t s 2

39

SKILLS
LISTENING G
A CONVERSATION
1 . Look at the websites. What have they got i n common?
What can you do on these websites?
flmyspace.

lff>m

Jllol (1 >

P 0f o

I"

J< o

"

-''

V dt>

Mr o

-- c;;;;g.;:

II
hM
P <

""!
l>h >\"<'

<;oQn O<;t

Y..ht's on your mind?


UVSTRONC IS regtstenng .an t'lent for UVESTRONG Day 2009'
http "t;ny.cCifbxtL

M,1r<h 13 .11:
,l'

J<.mes MitcheJI Arsenal, Win or dr<w and you're through ...


= "OIU

J.L C:ro"'p
lfj C:ofts

Britney Spears NYC .Here I comeu

2. Listen to the first part of a conversation between two friends,


Brad and Nicole. Decide whether the statements are true or
false.
1 . N icole is s u rprised that Brad doesn't u se Twitter.
2 . Twitter is newer than B rad thought.
3. Brad does n 't wa nt to hear about Twitter.
4. You need to be near a computer to use Twitter.
5 . People who write tweets a re called 'followers ' .
6. Brad would not enjoy receiving freq uent text messages.
3.

Listen to the second part of the conversation. Who . . . ?


1 . t h i n ks 1 40 characters is not too sho rt
2 . keeps i n touch with fa ns on Twitter (two people)
3. does the tweeting for celebrities
4. used Twitter to get votes
5. got i m porta nt i nformation t h rough Twitter
.

Do you use social networking sites? If you do, which do you

use and how often? What do you enjoy about these sites?
If you don't use social networking sites, why not?

401

. .

IOV

In a te.lle"

U nit 3

SPEAKING
PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
1 . A social networking site is i nterviewing young people about their l i ves, i nterests and opinions.
Read some of the interview questions and match them to the answers people gave.

S u rvey Q u esti ons

Answe rs

1 . H ow l o n g h ave you l ived i n

a. I go to the beach with my


friends, and in the wi nter we
go s k i i n g .
b. A few times a week. W e h a n g
around a t friends' houses or go out.
c. I t h i n k it's made l ife better. Medicine is
more advanced, and it's easier to travel .
d . Yes, I have. I ' m on Facebook.
e. Reality TV program mes and MTV.
f. Yes . I n my opinion, they should help
other people or do somet h i n g for
the environment.
g. Since 2 0 0 7 .
h . Yes, I do. Al most every day
I ' m addicted .

B i rm i n g h a m ?
2.
:

,.. ..
c .

3.

get together
do 7
Do you ever play computer
ga mes? How often 7
I n y o u r o p i n i o n, has tech nology
made l ife better or worse?
H ave you ever used social
networking s ites? Which ones?
What types of TV program mes
do you enjoy?
H ow d o you u s u a l l y spend you r
weekends7
Do y o u th i n k students should do
vol u nteer work? Why or why not?
H ow often d o you

with friends?

4.

..

..

5.

"""'"' c..
AJd I r

6.
KUl'\o C.lo

7.

8.

What d o you

2. What else do you think the website m ight ask?

Write five more questions for the survey. Use the expressions i n colour in Exercise 1 to help you.
3.

Interview your partner about his I her interests and opinions. Use five questions from the survey
above and the five of your own .

.__..,..,_ I NTERVI EWS


sten c a refu l ly to the q u est i o n s you a re a s k e d .
i\ s k t h e i n te rv i e w e r t o re p e a t o r c l a r i fy q u es t i o n s you d o n ' t u nd e rsta n d .
Jeve l o p you r a nswers a nd a d d i nfo rmation w h e n a pp ro p r i a te - try n o t t o a nswer i n just o n e o r two words.
3e s u re to k e e p y o u r c o m m e n ts re l eva n t.

Pronunciation Practice, pages 1 21 -1 2

41

WRITING
An Opinion Essay
-=:

EXAM FOCUS

In an opinion essay, we w a n t to convmce readers that o u r opinion is correct.


When you w rite an o p i n 1 o n essay
1 . Present the issue and you r opinion.
Read the title and the first para g raph of the essay below. What issue does the
essay deal with? What I S the writer's opinion?

2. Present reasons, facts and exam ples to support you r opin ion.

Read the rest of the essay below. What a re the main a rg u ments that the w riter
uses? What exa m ples does h e I she g ive?
Restate you r opinion a n d I or make a suggestion.
Read the last paragraph agam. What suggestion does the w riter make?

3.

PersoVttl 131oqqiVq - Crood or 13ttd?


MttVy teeVttqcrs use bloqs tts pcrsoVttl dittries . This seet1.1s like ttVI excel/eVt
wtty to express thouqhts ttVd feeliVqs, but I believe it htts tftlttVy disttdVttVtttqes .
First of tt/1, tftl il/iOVS of people CttV rettd your bloq. For this rettSOV!, it is
VOt ttpproprittte to write ttbout your pcrSOVttl ttHttirs . Do you rettl/y wttVt
your pttreVtS, your tettchcrs ttVd tftlil/iOVS of strttVqcrs to kVow thttt you're
iV love or thttt you're uVhttppy with your socittl /ife ?
SeCOVdly, bloqqiVq ttbout your privttte life could ttHect your future.
This is due to the fttct thttt the iVfortftltltiOV CttV be used by future
et1.1ploycrs or UVivcrsity ttdtftliSSiOVS oHices . Moreover, you probttbly
write ttbout whttt you do ttVd where you qo. CoVseq.ueVtly, dttVqcrous
critftliMIS t1.1iqht be ttble to locttte you.
-lr/1 iV tt/1, I thiVk thttt the IVtcrVet is the wroVq plttce to discuss
your perSOVttl /ife. Tell tt loyttl fricVd iVstettd, or use ttV
old-fttshioVed pttper dittry - ttVd theV hide it so thttt V!O OVe
CtlVI fiVd it.

CONNECTORS OF CAUSE, RESULT AND PURPOSE

Connectors of cause tell us why something happened or what caused it.


<;

l0

because of

' errJct

Con nectors of result show the consequences of an action or event.


"

Therefore

Connectors of pu rpose tell us the pu rpose of an actio n .


'{ {

in order to

42

---- -- -- --

y crt tt CI ,ed

tt

1.
1.
2.
3.

In the model, find:


one con nector of ca use
two connectors of result
one connector of
pu rpose

2. Choose the correct connector.

You ca n 't use you r mobile phone here beca use I


beca use of I as a res u lt there's no reception.
.., Jason is a n educated m a n . S i nce I T h e refore, I I n order
to he wants a h igh-level job.
3 D u e to I B eca u se I As the h i g h price of petrol, we try to
ride o u r bicycles.
The teacher told us not to write i n our books
in order to I therefore I so that we could sell them.
J
There are few jobs i n villages. Beca use of I As a resu lt of I
For this reason, many villagers have moved to the city.
:J
We looked on the Internet i n order to I so that I
for t h i s reason find her phone n u m ber.
3.

Complete the passage with the connectors below.


Then listen and check your a nswers.
a s a res u lt

T H I EVES CA

In Septem

s i nce

in o rd e r to

so that

GHT 0

22 9n !!T
in

Holland, dragged a 1 4-year-old boy off his bicycle

so

d u e to

.,

IEW.l
.

..

Jnd robbed him of 1 65. The boy went to the police 1 .. . .. . . . report
the incident. No one knew the thieves' identities, 2 . . . . . they were

not caught. However, the fol lowing March the boy contacted the
;->olice again ,

. .. . . . the fact that he had seen an i mage of himself

- and the two men fol lowing him - on Google Street View. The
ol ice sent a special request to Google for the original photos

.. .

.. . ... people's faces are blurred on Street View. After the police
had explai ned that the photos were needed 5 .. . .. . . they could
'olve a crime, Google agreed to send them.

6 ..

. . . . . . , the police

\ ere able to find the twin thieves and arrest them.

Your Task
Write an opinion essay a bout t h e following

statement:

Online socialising has a bad effect

on real communication.

Write 1 00- 1 50 words.

WRITING AN OPINION E SSAY


1 . Make sure you understand the issue.
2. Decide if you agree or disagree with the
statement.
3. Brainstorm ideas you can use to support
your opinion. Look at the points below.
Which could be used by someone who agrees
with the statement a bove? Which could be
used by someone who disagrees?
- spend more time a lone with computer
- can com m u n icate more often
- can stay in touch with old friends
- face-to-face com m u nication - deeper,
more mea n i ngful
- ca n get message to several people at one time
- avoid dea l i n g with d ifficult issues face-to-face
- meet new people
- i m personal and su perficial
- have a bigger circle of friends
4. Decide which ideas to include in your essay.
Think of facts, details and exa mples to
support your arguments .
5. Organise your ideas using the Exam Focus
and the model on page 42 to help you.

CHECKLIST
./ I followed

4.

Complete the sentences in a logical way.


We can access i nformation easily beca use of
2 . I gave my credit card n u m ber onli ne . As a result, . . . .
3 . You need a password so t h at . . . .
.1 She doesn't use Facebook, s i n ce . . . .
5. You should copy all your photographs i n order not to

U nit 3

tl-te- steps for &'111- opi.l1io11- esse>y.

./ I

used oi1J1.Utors of e>use e>M result, e>M


Oit!J1Utors of pvtrpose.
./ I ked my spelli.f13, 3re>mme>r e>M
pvtttL011.-.

. . ... .

... .

Improve Your Style


The A postro p h e

Choose the correct a nswers.

Apostroph es ca n be used to :
show w he re l etters have been o m i tted i n contractions.
it's [it is} time to eave not<

1 . What were peop l e's I peop l es' reactions to


the speech?
2. It's I I t s strange that the restau rant had
m istakes i n i t s I it's English men u .
3 . You r I You ' re breathing slows down when
yo u r I you're asleep .
4 . This does'nt I doesn't make any sense.
5 . They're I T h e i r getti ng ready for they' re I
t h e i r holiday.
6 . We could hea r t h e g i r l 's I g i rls' voices in the
next room .

show possession.

'

singular nouns (' + s) : my mother's parents


p l u ra l nouns (s + ) : the students' lockers
p l u ra l nouns n ot ending i n s (' + s) : women 's righ ts
Do n ot use a postrophes with possessive personal
pronouns:
The hotel had all of its ooms patnted.

43

t t

SKILLS

A D E BATE
You a re going t o l e a r n how t o cond u ct a debate a n d how t o j udge t h e
spea kers. Read t h e t i ps on prepa ring a debate. Then a nswer t h e Task
Questions bel ow.

TIPS
In a debate, one speaker speaks in favour of a proposal or
statement w h i le the second speaker speaks a g a i nst the proposa l
or statement.

Remember:
1 . Yo u r presentation

should be based o n

research a n d structured logical ly.

2. F i n d expert o p i n i o n s and statistics to

s u p port your view

3.

Don't i g n o re evi d e nce su pport i n g the


opposite point of view I n stea d , use it
to pred i ct what your opponent will say.

4.

Keep your speech short a n d be persuasive.

5.

Yo u should a lso use logic and general


k nowledge to persuade you r a u d i e n ce .

You m u st present the view you are g iven, even if you don't
a g ree with it!

TASK QUESTIONS

1.

2.

Which tip a bove do you th i n k is the most i m portant?


Listen to extracts from a debate on the proposa l : There should be a law banning the use of mobile
phones in cars.

a . What a rg u ments does each spea ker use to support thei r view?
b. Which speaker uses rea l evidence?
c.

Which speaker uses logic and genera l knowledge?

USE YOUR SKILLS


H ave a debate on a current issue. Use the t i ps above to prepare your debate .
Te l l the cl ass to vote for the best spea ker. Before vot i n g , read the notes below.
H ow to J udge a Debate

Vote for the best spea ker. (Th is may not be the spea ker that you agree with ! )
Was the presentation wel l organised, with a n i ntroduction, body and conclusion?
Did the spea ker use rational and persuasive a rguments?
Did the speaker u se expert opi nions, statistics, logic or general knowledge?
Did the speaker establ ish eye contact and spea k loudly and clearly?

Unit

Objectives

The Srnses

Repo11rd Speech

Comparing Pictures

.. Listrn i n g to

a Report

Wri t ing a Description of an Evem

Li fe Skil l s : British Etiquettr

Sense It
1 . The five traditional senses are sight, hearing, taste,
smell and touch. Can you think of any other senses?
2. How much do you know about the senses? Read the

sentences below and decide whether they are true or


false. Then check your answers on page 1 47.

Ama z i n g Fa cts
Tr u e

or

Fa l s e ?

1 . See i ng red ca n d i stu rb yo u r con centration.


2. The h u m a n nose ca n detect d a n ger.
3 . A mother's h u g ca n re l ieve her ch i l d's pa i n .
4. lt i s h a rder t o ba l a nce on o n e foot
if yo u c l ose you r eyes.
5. Men a re m o re sensitive than women
to smel l a n d taste.
6. H u m a n s have got a b l i n d spot.
7. All h u m a n s ca n feel pa i n .
8 . S o m e peo p l e ca n ta ste words or see m u sic.
9 . When yo u h o l d a sea s h e l l next to yo u r ear,
you h e a r the sound of yo u r b l ood
fl owing thro u g h your ear.

Which of the five senses do you think is the


most i mportant? How do you think your life
would change if you lost it?

Find out how colours affect us at:


www. b u rl i ngto nbooks. es/viewpoi 11 ts2

READING
1. Scanning for Specific Information: Scan the
text to find the fol lowing information.
1 . the na mes of two businesses in the U K
2 . the n u mber of perfumes made by Demeter
Fragrances
3 . the yea r that the Jorvic Viking Centre contacted
Dale Air
4. the location of the Natural History M useum
5 . the yea r that smoking was banned i n B ritish
pubs
2. Guessing Meaning from Context: Find the
following words in the text. As you read the
text, try to guess each word's meaning.
mouth-watering (line 1 5) pu mped (line 1 8)
stench ( l i n e 53)
R e d 1 r q Strategies, rqe

1 34

EXAM FOCUS

ANSWERING OPEN QUESTIONS


1.

Read the question carefu lly and see what type of


i nformation (reason, example, pu rpose, etc.) you
have to provide. Use the q uestion word s to help
you.

2. Look for keywords and synonyms to l ocate the


relevant parts of the text.

3. Note the tense in the q uestion. You r a nswer will


genera l ly u se the same tense.
4. Write the a nswer in your own words whenever
possible. Do not add u n n ecessary i nformation or
g ive you r opinion.
5. Check for errors i n la nguage, spel l i ng a nd
punctuation.

Example Question

3. Answer the questions.


1 . Why does the Thomson travel agency use a
coconut smell i n its offices?
2. What possible objection cou l d be made to scent
marketi ng?
3 . I n what way a re the perfu mes at Demeter
Fragrances different from most perfumes?
4. How do you know that 1 984 was a significant
year for Dale Air?
5 . What is the purpose of the ashtray scent
produced by Dale Air?
4. Are the following statements true or false?
Find evidence in the text to support your
answers.
1 . Smells, emotions and memories come from the
same place i n the bra i n .
2 . T h e chocolate smell a t Su perdrug is artifici a l .
3 . Most customers real ise that businesses u se
smel l .
4. it's d ifficult t o manufacture Pu ppy's Breat h .
5 . T h e smells made b y D a l e A i r are used to
i nfluence customers to make a p u rchase.
5. Choose the best meaning for each word or
phrase according to the text.
1 . setting off (line 2 )
c. blocking
a. changing
d. evoking
b. i nfluencing
2 . tantalising ( l i n e 1 3)
c. i ncredible
a . wea k
d. u nwanted
b. tempti ng
3 . s u btle (line 2 1 )
c. delicate
a . obvious
b. strong
d. u n usual
4. accurate (line 3 2 )
c. strong
a . exact
d . l uxurious
b. i nexpensive
5. tou g h (line 40)
c. i m possible
a . easy
d. difficult
b . enjoya ble

Why is smell useful to some businesses?

Answer Analysis

The word why i n dicates that you n eed to provide a


reason. You r a nswer should therefore include the
word because or to + i nfi nitive.

The keyword is businesses.

Different busin esses a nd the way i n which they use


scents is d iscussed i n paragraphs 1 and 2.

Answer: Scents a re useful to some businesses because


they a re u sed to h e l p promote and sell p rod ucts.

46

Do you think that scent marketing

is a leg itimate sales tactic? In what


ways are other senses used to make
customers spend more?

U nit 4

Of all the senses, sme l l is the most powerfu l for


bringing back memories and setting off emotions. This
is because smells are processed in the limbic system,
which is both the emotional centre of the brain and
the place where long-term memories are stored. Many
businesses have discovered this amazing power and are
currently using artificial smells to trigger a purchase,
evoke an emotion or create a realistic experience.

Dollars and Scents

A pleasant scent in a shop puts you into a positive

mood, making you rel ax, stay longer - and spend


more. This concept, call ed scent marketing, is all the
rage. The tantalising coconut aroma in Thomson's UK
travel agencies, for example, puts you in the mood
for a tropical holiday. The mouth-watering smell of
chocolate in London's Superdrug on Valentine's Day
isn 't really coming from the boxes on sale - it's being
pumped into the building's ventilation system. But it
will sti l l remind you to buy some chocolate for your
girlfriend.
The scents are subtle and almost imperceptible not enough to irritate people, but enough to form a
particular association in their minds. The question
remains whether this tactic takes advantage of
innocent customers, who are quite unaware that it is
being used.
.\.1emory

in a Bottle

.-\ smell can bring back a memory so intensely that you


feel you are going back in time. Could we somehow
bottle these memories, to be used whenever we wish?
That's exactly what perfumers at Demeter Fragrances
of New York do. They make over 200 amazingly accurate
- grances, such as Rain, Christmas Tree, Thunderstorm,
Chocolate Chip and Glue. According to the company,
their goal is for each scent to transport the user back

40

to a special place or time, such as a childhood on the


family farm. But not every smell can be easily copied.
The company said that many customers had requested
Puppy's Breath, which is so chemically complicated
that it's very tough to capture.
The question is, would you really like to smell of
black pepper or turpentine on your next date?

Weird Whiffs

45

5o

55

6o

Dale Air started out as an air-freshener firm.


However, things changed in 1 984, when the company
was approached by the creators of the Jorvik Viking
Centre, a replica of a British village at the time of the
Viking invasions. They asked company founder Fred
Dale whether he could manufacture nasty smells as
wel l as pleasant ones, explaining that they wanted to
add smell to make their exhibits more realistic. So the
company manufactured the odours of fish, burning
logs, a marketplace, and even the stench of a Viking
toilet!
S ince then, Dale Air has produced aromas such as
Egyptian Mummy for the City M useum of Stockholm,
Sweaty Feet for the inside of a submarine at the
I mperial War Museum and Dinosaur Breath for the
Natural H istory M useum in London. Since the 2007
ban on smoking, one of their most popul ar products
has been the scent of ashtrays, supplied mainly to
pubs. I t seems customers miss this smell, which is so
much a part of the pub experience .

Fa l se friends
currently (line 7) mea n s actualmen te not corrientemente
supplied (line 61 ) means suministrado not suplido

I
--

VO CABULARY

PHRASAL VERBS
3. Read the sentences and choose the logical
continuation for each one.

Words from the Text


1. The following sentences do not make sense.
Make them logical by replacing each word i n
colour with a word i n colour from a d ifferent
sentence.
1 . I saw a fantastic
yesterday.

mood

3 . They'll a pp roach here after the party to help

tidy up.
a l l the r a g e .

5 . Seeing a n old photo can re m a i n happy

memories.
6. This maths problem is too accu rate for me.
8 . She works for a large financial

exh i b it .

9 . He's afraid to t r i g g e r his boss about a


sa lary rise.

2. Complete the passage with the correct form


of the words and phrases below. Then listen
and check your answers.

mouth-water i n g
n a sty

p u rchase

scent

store

a. I 've never seen one.


b. I 've a lways wanted my own blog.
5 . Her speech set off angry reactions i n the

aud ience.
a . People began to shout.
b. Everyone calmed down .

7 . This b r i n g s b a c k my fi rst day of school .


a . I don't remember it very wel l .
b. I remember exactly how I felt.
8 . Ja net brought Dennis a l o n g to the party.
a . I t h i n k he enjoyed h i mself.
b. He ca me with E m i ly.

we i rd

t a ke advantage of

THE SMELLDPHDIE

Imagine sending someone you love


the fragrant 1
of a rose or the
2
aroma of a cinnamon bun from
your mobile phone. This may sound
1
but it will soon be possible.
The Tokyo Institute of Technology
has invented a device that can record
smells just as a video camera records
pictures. It then 4
the smells in its
memory and they can be played back
later. Aside from personal messages,
there ' 11 be plenty of other ways to
5
this amazing new technology:
you could smell pizzas before
deciding what to order, or
sample
petfumes
before
making an online 6
It sounds fun, but it might
have some disadvantages:
what if someone sends
smell ?
you a 7
,

4. I ' d l i ke to set u p a blog.

6. This is going to set us b a c k .


a . it's rea lly u nfortu nate .
b. We' re very lucky.

so don't bother me.

firm,

a . We' re doing very wel l .


b. We've made too many mista kes.
a . She's j ust h i red two employees.
b. She got the job yesterday.

2 . Flora l perfu mes are tou g h this yea r.

7. I'm i n a bad

2. We' l l have to sta rt over .

3 . She's started up a graphics compa ny.

at the m useu m

4. I don't think you r i nformation is

1 . He started o ut as a sa les assistant.


a . He stil l enjoys the job.
b. Now he owns the shop.

4. Complete the sentences with the correct form


of the phrasal verbs in Exercise 3.
1 . Fa mous actress Jennifer Lopez . .. ... . as a dancer
i n the ea rly 1 990s.
2. I ca n 't believe that Dad actual ly ........... his work
........... to the beach .
3 . We' re thinking of . . . a new theatre gro u p .

Would you l i ke t o join ?


4 . I f I ' d had enough money, 1 ........... a h i g h -tech

business.

5. That song always . . memories of my

childhoo d .
6. W h y a re y o u late? Now w e have t o ........... t h e
game ........... aga1n.

7. Several staff members left, which ........... the project


........... by severa l weeks.
8. In the last 24 hours, the new laws ..
protests.

.. violent

U n it 4
5. Complete the passages with the words below.
Then listen and check your answers.

Topic VgbJa.. r.y


THE SENSES

sta re

savoury

f la vo u rs

pale

p l easant

b r i g ht

tasty

stroke

Choose the correct answer.


Which kind of food do people usually enjoy?
a. b i tter food
b. t a sty food
Which colour is lighter?
a. a b r i g ht colo u r
b. a p a l e colour
3 . Which kind of smell do people enjoy?
a. a p l ea s a nt smell b. a d i sg ust i n g smell
Which sound is louder?
a . a fa i nt sou n d
b. a d e a fe n i ng sound
J . What type of texture does silk have?
a. a smooth texture b. a rou g h texture
2. Divide the words below i nto categories of
sight, hearing, smell, taste

odour
rhyt h m
3.

savo u ry

whisper

sti n k

and

sta re

touch.

stroke

Thinking of pa i nting your room yellow? Thi n k again !


Strong, L . . ... colou rs such as yel low reflect a lot of
light, which sti m u l ates the eyes. You should therefore
never 2 . .... .. . at a yellow wall as it might g ive you a
headache. On the other hand, a soft, 3 ... . . ...... yellow can
m a ke a dark room look lighter and more cheerful.
. . ...

. .

How about a cou rse i n baby massage? You ' l l learn


how to 4 . .......... your infant gently for a com plete a n d
relaxing treatment. T h e results are a mazing, from
i mproved sleep to better health. In any case, both you
a n d your baby a re sure to find it a 5 . . ... . . experience.
. .. .

Ice cream is a lways sweet, isn't it? Not accordi n g to ice


cream maker Peter Arendsen, whose 6 ... . . . .. include
several types of 7 . . .. . .. . . ice cream, such as cheese and
bacon . Sou nds wei rd, but his products m ust be 8 .... ... .. they're sold i n several top restaurants !
.. .

flavour

pattern

Complete the sentences using words from the


list in Exercise 2.

1 . This song has a g reat .. .. .. . Let's dance!


2 . You r shoes .. . ..... . Why don't you wear socks?
3. Strawberry's my favou rite .. . . What's yours?
4. Don't .. . .... at people. lt isn't polite!
5 . I ' d love to ........... your dog. Does it bite?
6 . This herb has a horrible taste and a strong
7 . We' l l have to . . ... . . I don't want to wake my
parents.
8. I feel l i ke someth ing . .. . Have you got any
crisps?
9 . This carpet has a beautiful . . .. . Is it from India?

IDIOMS
4. Complete the sentences with the words below.
taste

ear

touch

sense

see

W E B E XTRA

tooth

Read about a tasteful job at:


www. bu rli ngto11books. es/viewpoi 11 ts2

1 . If you l i ke lots of sugar, you 've got a sweet

2 . If someone ignored what you were saying, it


went i n o n e ........... a nd o u t the oth e r .

3 . If you treat someone as badly as they have


treated you, you ' re g iving them a . .. ... of t h e i r
own medicine .

4. If you agree with someone, you .. ...... eye to eye .


5 . If you don't want to lose contact with someone,
you keep i n
6 . I f you act logically, you ' re using you r
.

c o m m o n ...

Complete the sentences. Make them true

for you.
1 . Some savoury foods I l ike are . . . .
2 . This year, . . . is I a re all the rage at my school.

3. If I ' m i n a bad mood, I . . . .


4. I find it pleasan t to . . . .
5 . I t h i n k it would be tough to . . . .
6 . I often don't see eye to eye with . . . because . . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 64- 6 5

49

GRAMMAR
REPORTED SPEECH

Read the exa m ples a n d a nswer the q uestions that


follow.
Statements
"Many customers have requested Puppy's Breath, " he
explained.
He explained that many customers had requested
Puppy's Breath.
1.

What happens to the main verb in a reported sentence?

2. What other words change in a reported sentence?


Questions
a. "Can you create nasty smells?" they asked Fred Dale.
They asked Fred Dale ifI whether he could create
nasty smells.

b.

"What perfume are you buying today?" Laura asked me.

1 . Complete the sentences with the correct form


of the verbs.
1 . " I 've been looki n g for you si nce yesterday. "
An ita insisted that she ........... for me si nce the day
before.
2. " Do you understa nd the answer now? "
The teacher asked me if I ........ .. . the answer then.
3 . " We may go abroad next summer. "
My pa rents mentioned that they ........... abroad the
followi ng s u mmer.
4. " Do n 't let the dog out ! " Dad sai d .
D a d o rdered u s ........... t h e dog out
5. " How did you m a ke this sa lad ? "
E l len i n q u i red how we . ........ that salad.
6. " O K, I'll come with you, " sa id my sister.
My sister agreed ........... me.
7 . "I think we should cancel o u r lesson today. "
My teacher suggested ........... o u r lesson that day.
8. What perfume a re you wearing?
Robert wondered what perfu me I

Laura asked me what perfume I was buying tha t day.

What word/s do we add in a reported yes I no question?


2. What happens to the word order in a reported question?
1.

O rde rs

2. Look at the reporting verbs i n Exercise 1 .


Which are used for questions? Which are used
for statements?

a. "Turn on the aroma generator, " her boss told her.


Her boss told her to turn on the aroma generator.
b. "Don't tell anyone my secret formula, " ordered Fred.
Fred ordered me not to tell anyone his secret formula.
1. W h ich form of the m a i n verb do we use i n
reported o rd ers?
2. What do we add to the verb in negative
reported o rd e rs?
Suggestions
"You should try our famous Rain fragrance, " suggested
the shop assistan t.
The shop assistant suggested tha t I try their famous
Rain fragrance.
The shop assistant suggested trying their famous Rain
fragrance.

For report i n g suggestions w i th the verbs suggest and


recommend, we u se tha t + subj ect + the base form
of the verb. What other verb form can we use w h e n
reporting a suggestion or reco m mendation?
Reporting Verbs w ith Other Structures

a. He prom sed to produce c 1 ashtray s e


b. The compan, de 1 ed taking

rantaqe of customers.
.
7
' e L L ,V

c George a :sed "7e to buy so e

What structu res a re u sed with the fo l l owing reporting


verbs?
1 . p rom ise, a g ree, refuse
3. advise, rem i n d , warn
2. de ny, a d m i t
Note: T h e verbs promise, deny a n d admit a l so u s e the
reg u la r form for reported speech ( that + clause).
Da1e promsed wt 1e vowd 'duce a 1s, ay scent.

3. Lau ra Sinclair is a psychic. She uses her sixth


sense to help solve crimes. A reporter asked
her the following questions. Write them in
reported speech.
1 . " How did you find the m issing g i rl last yea r? "
2 . " Have you ever solved a m u rder case? "
3 . " Do you ask people to pay you for you r help? "
4. " Are you working on a ny i m portant cases
now? "
5 . " C an you use you r sixth sense for other t h i n g s
as wel l ? "

4 . Write the sentences in reported speech.


1 . "I haven't been feeling well lately, " complained
my g ra ndmother.
2 . "Are you going to return my books today? "
Maggie asked me.
3. " Don't touch any of these t h i n gs ! " warned the
detective.
4 . " You should see this film tomorrow, "
recommended Pamela .
5 . " My students did most of the work an h o u r
ago, " clai med t h e teacher.
6 . " What were you doing d u ring the match
yesterday? " asked J o h n .
7 . " I u s u a l l y swi m on Wednesdays, " A n d i told me.
8 . " You should n't get u pset about it, " my sister
advised me.

lfii,U.rfilb.!.Hf8itli#iilijllfM

U n it 4
5. Write the sentences in direct speech.
1 . My dad wanted to know whether Tim had got a
h i g h mark.
2. Sam explai ned that they had discussed that the
day before.
3. My brother suggested that we go camping.
4. My coach asked me whether I could run faster.
5 . The woman wondered how long I had been
waiting.
6. Harriet rem i nded me not to mention the pa rty.
7 . The boy said that he had never ridden a bicycle.
8. I asked my neighbour where the post office was.

6.

Complete the passage with the correct form


of the verbs in brackets. Then listen and check
your answers.

The Sound of Silence


ti h composer Mike Batt was sued for including
minute of complete silence in his album
ical Graffiti. The John Cage Trust claimed
(plagiarise) a 1 952 work by famous
: Batt 1
"l.poser John Cage, which consisted of 4.33
(copy) the
ute of silence. Batt admitted 2
(not expect)
from Cage, but he said that he 3
ued.
ever, Batt's lawyers wondered whether Cage's
4
(be) really a musical work. They added
(not support) the Cage case,
opyright law 5
h re were no actual musical notes in the piece.
e end, Batt agreed 6
(pay) a large sum of
y in compensation. He said that he 7
(make)
ayment out of respect for Cage.

7. Imagine that M i ke Batt was interviewed by

a reporter. Using the i nformation i n Exercise


6, write 2-3 of the reporter's questions and
Batt's answers. Beg i n your sentences with the
following or similar words.
A reporter asked Batt . .
Batt explai ned that . . .

REWRITES: D I RECT SPEECH TO REPORTED SPEECH

When rewriting sentences that i nvolve changing d i rect


speech to reported speech, first identify the type of
sentence (statem ent, q uestion, order, etc). Then check
the sentence for words that are l i kely to change. Don't
forget all n ecessary changes i n word order, tense,
pu nctuation, t i m e expressions and p ronouns.
Rewrite the sentences using the words i n brackets.
Do not change the orig i n a l m ea n i n g of the
sentences.
7.

2.

"I didn't steal the money, " said Jim. (denied)


"Have you ever seen an opera?" Chloe wanted to
know. {whether)

3. "I won't be at home tonight, " Cart said. (told me)


4.

"What are you looking for?" asked the shop assistant.


(me)

5. "/ won't speak to anyone here," said Mark. (refused)


6. "Let's go out for coffee, " Jenna said. (suggested}

- t was the point of Cage's original idea?


. xplained that each future live performance
(be) quite different, depending on the sounds
by the audience.
..

Jo hn Cage

Grammar Review '1'1'


8. Rewrite the following sentences using the
words in brackets. Do not change the original
meaning.
1 . " Phone me when you get home tonig ht, " my
father said. (remi nded)
2. lt is said that the world is getting warmer. (to)
3 . They have a l ready del ivered the package. (has)
4. lt wasn't necessary to help h i m . (needn 't)
5. "Where did you get this beautiful dress? " asked
Anna. (me)
6 . Mark started running an hour ago, and he's
sti l l r u n n i n g . (for)

Extra grammar exercises a t :


11' 11' 11' . b 11 r l i 11 [J I 0 11 b o o k s . e s / 1 i c ll' p o i ll l s 2

51

LLS
L I STENING
G
.
.

..

. . .. .

... . ...

. ............

.. .

. ....... . . . .

. ..

. .. .

A REPORT
1 . Look at the screen below. Can you see a pattern i n the numbers? Look for a shape. How long does it
take you to find it? If you are having difficulties, look at the coloured screen o n page 1 47.
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

2
5

5
5

2. Listen to the first part of the report and

choose the correct answer.


1 . People with synesthesia . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

have sharper senses than others


experience two o r more senses together
are q u ite rare
have highly developed i mag i nations

2 . Sarah Turner m ixes . . . .


a . taste a n d sight
b. hearing and touch
c. sight and hearing
d. sight and taste

5
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

2
2

5
5

5
5

5
5

5
5

3. Read the statements below. Then listen to

the second part of the report and choose the


correct a nswer.
1. The reporter saw the pattern i m med i ately I
after a wh i l e .

2 . The colours a synesthete associates with each


n u m ber a re constant I somet i m es c h a n g e .
3 . The resu lts of the tests are a lways I usu a l l y
val i d .
4 . Bra i n scans show d i fferences I s i m i l a rities
between a synesthete's brain and a n ord i n a ry
bra i n .
5 . Scientists believe that there i s a psych o l og ica l I
g e n et i c cause for synesthesia.
6. The majority of synesthetes a re confused by I
e nj oy their a b i l ities.

Would you like to be a synesthete?

Why or why not?

U n it 4

SPEAKING
COMPARING PICTURES
1 . Look at the pictures. Where are the people? Which of the five senses are they using? G ive examples.

2. M atch each beginning in I to a logical ending i n 1 1 .

11

I
1 . The two p i ct u res a re s i m i l a r beca use

a . that both places

2.

A n ot h e r t h i n g t h ey've g ot i n common i s

b.

3.

H owever, i n s o m e ways t h ey a re very d i fferent.

4. I wou l d i m a g i n e that t h e peo p l e i n p ictu re A

ca n probably smell popcorn and other foods,


6.

crowded and noisy.

w h i l e i n p i cture B, it's q u ite l i ke l y that

they're l istening to loud m usic.


c.

ca n hea r the cheers of the fans,


5. A n ot h e r d i fference i s that in pict u re A the people

seem to be

they ca n probably smell


beer and cigarette smoke.

whereas i n p i ct u re B ,

d . go to a pub.
e.

F o r exa m p le, the people in picture A are


watching the game, w h i l e the people in picture
B have come to social ise.

f.

t h ey b o t h show

Pers o n a l ly, I ' d rather

places of entertai n ment.

3. Which of the expressions in colour in Exercise 2 describe ... ?

a . what the pictures have i n com mon


4.

b . the differences between the pictu res

In pairs, compare and contrast the pictures below. Use the phrases in colour in Exercise 2 to help you.

COMPAR I N G PICT U R ES

D i sc uss t h e pictu res' s i m i l a ri t i es.

D i sc u ss t h e d i ffere n ces betwe e n t h e p i ctu res.

Discuss the atmosphere in each p i c t u re.

Ta l k a bo u t w h i c h s i t u a t i o n

p l a ce

Specu l ate a bo u t how the people feel a n d what t h ey can see and h e a r.

a ct i v i ty you w o u l d p refer.

.:.,.

Pronunciation Practice, page

122

53

WRITING
A Description of an Event

.:

EXAM FOCUS

When describing an event, we want to g ive readers a clear p ictu re of what we experienced.
When you w rite a description of a n event:
1.

State what the event was, and when a n d where it took place.
Give a personal opinion.
Read the first paragraph of the model description below. What event d i d the writer attend? When and
where d i d it take place? I s the writer's opinion positive or n egative?
2.

Describe the event in deta i l . Exp l a i n what happened, how you felt, and what you saw
heard I smel l ed I tasted.
Read the rest of the d escri ption. Which of the senses a re d escribed?

3.

Sum u p the event and you r opinion.


Did the w riter enjoy the event?

Pleasant Surprise

Last night, I went t o a jazz concert a t Mike's Club. I'm not a huge jazz fan, s o I
wasn't expecting much, but it turned out to be a fantastic evening.
The club was dark, quite tiny and extremely crowded. A strong smell of cigarette
smoke hung in the air. More and more people came in, talking excitedly and
laughing. My friends and I ordered Mike's famous salty chips and sour pickles -

delicious!

On stage, the shiny gold trumpets and saxophones made an impressive sight, and
when the musicians began to play, I was immediately captivated by the powerful
sound. The music had a lively rhythm, and soon the walls were shaking from both
the music and the audience's enthusiastic applause.
All in all, the concert was a great experience. From now on, if there's a jazz band in
town, I'll be the first to buy tickets!

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Adjectives a re u sed to describe nou ns.


disgusting smell

tasty food

Adverbs of manner and fre q uency mod ify a verb.


v. 1

slowly

often play

Adverbs of degree can modify a nothe r adverb or a n


adjective.
quite qu1c y

sligh tly

Using a variety of adjectives and adverbs w i l l make


you r descriptions more interesting.

1 . look at the adjectives and adverbs in the


model description. Find:
1 . adjectives that describe what the writer sees,
hears, smel ls, tastes
2. adjectives that describe the writer's opi n ion of
the event
3 . adverbs that modify verbs
4. adverbs that mod ify adjectives

U n it 4
I adverbs below that have got a
similar meaning to the word in colour in each sentence.

2. Find all the adjectives


p roperly

d is a p p o i n t i n g

overpowe r i n g

successfu l ly

d e l i g htfu l

c a re l essly

powerf u l

Your Task
Write a description of an event that you

wonderfu l

have attended. Write 1 00-1 50 words.

d i sco u ra g i n g

outsta n d i n g

W RITING A DESCRIPTION

poorly

1 . Last night's a rt festival was g reat.

1 . Brainstorm your description.


Think of an event that you would like
to write a bout. The following are some
possibilities:
- a wed d i n g or birthday celebration
- a concert or show
- a festival or fa i r
- a contest o r sports event

2 . We were upset to hear the b a d news.


3. The new employee has done his work we l l .
4 . The strong smell of petrol filled the room .
5 . I 've never seen h e r play s o b a d l y.
3.

Divide the adverbs below into two categories adverbs of frequency and adverbs of degree.
a bit

usu a l ly

not at a l l
a bsol ute ly
seldom

q u ite

pretty

c o m p l etely

often

rare l y

f a i rly

a lways

freq uently

n ever

h a rd l y

Think of aspects of the event that you can


describe. Which of the following aspects
could you describe for each event above?
- the players
- the competition
- the food
- the g uests
- the acting
- the atmosphere
- the audience
- the spectators
- the m usic

Think of the opinion you want to express


a bout the event. Use positive or negative
adjectives.

s l i g htly

ter r i b l y

4. Choose the correct adverb to complete each sentence.


1. I ' m com p l etely I a bit lost. I have no idea where we a re.
2 . Peter is f a i rly I extre m e l y ta lented, but he's not the best.
3. Don't worry. I ' m very I n ot at a l l i nsulted .
4. it's terri b l y I s l i g htly hot outside. Let's stay indoors.
5. it's h a rd l y I rathe r expensive, but I ' m going to buy it.
5. Add one adverb of degree and one adverb of
frequency to each sentence below. Do not use the
same adverb more than once.
1 . We buy our pizza at Luigi's beca use it's delicious.
2. Janet goes to the gym a n d is i n bad shape.
3. While many cats are u nfriendly, this one is affectionate.
4 . His doctor was shocked to learn that he smoked .
5 . I was happy to hear that Kath visits her a unt.

2. Organise your ideas using the Exam Focus


and the model on page 54 to help you.

CHECKLIST
./ I followed

the pl17tl't for

17tl't evel'tt.

l7t

desuiptiol't of

used l7t rick V17triety of 7tdjutives 17tM


7tdverbs.

./ I
./ I

6. Describe the following in one or two sentences.


Use at least one adverb and one adjective.
3 . your neighbou rhood
1 . your school
2 . your favourite singer

./

e-kuked my 3r17tWt.W!-17(r, spelliV!!f 17tM


p Lil'lt1A.Pftio 11,,
I used 7tdverbs 17tM 7tdverbil7tl pkr17tses
e-orrutly.
Writing Guide, page

I mprove Yqur Style


M i sp l aced Mod ifi e rs

Be carefu l to place mod ifiers such as only, just, almost and


nearly close to the words that they modify.
I only tasted the coffee. (but I d i d n 't d ri n k it)
I tasted only the coffee. (not the othe r d r i n ks)
A/ice nearly earned 50. (but a nother person g ot the JOb)
A/ice earned nearly 50. (she ea rned 49.95)

B e careful with adverbi a l p h rases (phrases that say when o r


where something happens). These c a n often be p u t at t h e
beg i n n i n g o f t h e sentence.
The boys found a dead deer walking through the woods. X
Walking through the woods, the boys found a dead deer. ./

1 43

Correct the sentences below by moving the


words in bold.
1 . Many people came to watch the match from
fa r away.

2.

M y father has been urging m e to g o to the


dentist every d a y .

3.

We o n ly had the dessert because we


were late.

4.

I heard that there has been an accident

o n the

eve n i ng news.

5.

You can a l most fi nd a ny paint i n this art shop.


6 . I ' m hungry. I j u st h a d a sandwich for lunch.

55

SKILLS

B RITI S H ETI Q U ETTE


You are goi n g to f i n d out how m u c h you know about B ritish
cu lture a nd etiq u ette. Do the q u iz. Then check you r a nswers
in the Task Questions below.

it's g reat to travel to the U K, but how l i kely a re you to m a ke e m ba rrass i n g m istakes
in soc i a l situations? Choose the correct a nswers.

1 . When a rriving for a business meeting, . . . .

a . it's acceptable to be up to 3 0 m i n utes late


b. it's i m portant to be on time
c. you shoul d arrive 1 5 m i n utes early
2. The main meal in Britain is eaten . . . .
a . at about 6 pm
b. at about 2 pm
c. at about 9 pm
3. If you wa nt to smoke in a restaurant . . . .
a . ask the person next to you if you may smoke
b. go a head and smoke
c. don't l i g ht u p ! You may not smoke i n
restau ra nts i n the U K
4. When you greet an acquaintance i n Brita i n , . . . .
a . kiss them on both cheeks
b. don't kiss them - just say hello
c. hug them

5.

When waiti ng at a bus stop, . . . .


a . go to the back of the queue
b . go to the front of the q ueue
c. stand next to the q ueue
6 . When going t o a n i g htcl u b or d iscotheq u e, . . . .
a . you can wear whatever you want
b. formal dress is requ i red
c. you should check the d ress code
7 . When speaking to someone, . . . .
a . be friendly and stand close to them
b. stand far apart from them
c. use your hands as you speak
8. When you ask for something in a
shop, say . . . .
a . " G ive me . . . "
b . " Could I please have . . . ? "
c. " l want . . . "

TASK QUESTIONS
The cu lture t i ps wi l l te l l you whether you a nswered the q u iz q u estions correctly.
Match each t i p to a question in the q u i z, then check you r answers.

TIPS
a. The British don't touch very much. H ugging and kissing are reserved for fam ily or very close friends.
b. In some British nig htclubs and discos, jeans and trai ners are not a l lowed.
c. No matter how long a q ueue is, always go to the back.
d. Punctuality is considered very i mportant in Britain; if you are going to be delayed (even by five minutes),
you should phone ahead.
e. The British usually have a light l unch at about 1 2- 1 pm. The main meal is dinner, eaten at about 6 or 7 pm.
f. Personal space is very i mportant to the British . Don't stand too close and keep hand gestures
to a m i n i m u m .
g . Smoking i s now banned in a l l public places in the U K .
h . it's i m polite t o tel l someone d i rectly t o g ive you something, s o use t h e polite req uest form .
USE YOUR SKillS
Beverley is a B ritish student who plans to spend a yea r wo rking in you r city. Read her e-m a i l and write a
reply. Use the i nformation in the q u i z for i deas.

Hi!
M y job begins i n August, so I ' l l be arriving i n m id-July. Thanks for offering to take m e round looking for a flat
that'd be ever so helpful .
I was wondering if there's anything I should know about Spanish culture a n d etiquette. C o u l d you give m e
some tips? I don't want t o make a n y s i l ly m istakes !
Looking forward to seeing you !
Beverley

'

Unit Objectives
F a m i l ies

Rel ative C l <1 uses

,, L i s t l' n i n g to Perso n a l AlToums


L x pre,sing <1 n O p i n i o n

V\n t i n g a N a rratiVL

L i re Skill s : \ Job i n terview

Families

1 . listen to the song and read the lyrics. Then answer the questions.
1. What sort of father is the singer? How do you know?
2 . What happens to the relationship between father and son when the boy gets older?
3.

Gat's in the Cradle

Harry Chapin

A child arrived just the other day,

Chorus

He came to the world in the usual way.

Wel l , he came from college just the other day,

But there were planes to catch, and bills to pay.

So much like a man I just had to say,

He learned to walk while I was away.

"Son, I ' m proud of you . Can you sit for a while?"

And he was talking 'fore I knew it, and as he grew,

He shook his head, and he said with a smile,

He'd say, " I ' m gonna be like you , Dad.

"What I'd really like, Dad, is to borrow the car keys.

You know I ' m gonna be like you . "

See you later. Can I have them please?"

Chorus:

Chorus

And the eat's in the cradle and the silver spoon,


Little boy blue and the man in the moon.
"When you coming home, Dad?" "I don't know when,
But we'll get together then.
You know we'll have a good time then . "

I've long since retired and my son's moved away.


I called him up just the other day.
I said, " I ' d like to see you if you don't mind . "
He said, " I ' d love to, Dad, i f I could find the time.
You see, my new job's a hassle, and the

M y son turned ten just the other day.

kid's got the flu,

He said, "Thanks for the ball, Dad, come on let's play.

But it's sure nice talking to you , Dad.

Can you teach me to throw?" I said, " Not today,

lt's been sure nice talking to you . "

I got a lot to do. " He said, "That's OK. "

And as I hung u p the phone, it occurred

And he walked away, but his smile never dim med,


Said, "I'm gonna be like him, yeah.
You know I'm gonna be like h i m . "

to me,
He'd grown up just like me.
My boy was just like me.
Chorus

In your opinion, is the problem described in

the song a common one? How could it be solved?

WEB EXTRA

Find out about a source of advice for teens and their


parents at: www. b u rlillgtollbooks. es/Piewpoillfs2

;:..:

READING

EXAM FOCUS

HOW TO FIND SYNONYMS / ANTONYMS


1.

1 . Making Inferences: The following sentences


appear in the text. What can you infer from
them? Choose the correct answer below.
"You know, sometimes you are the most
self-cen tred man I know, " Rahim Khan said
He was the only person I knew who could get
a way with saying something like that to Baba.

a . Rah i m K h a n often criticised Baba.


b. Baba did not easily accept criticism.
R

==

If possi b l e , dete rm i n e the part of speech of the


word given. Use p refixes a n d suffixes as well as the
posi tion of the word in the sentence to h e l p you.

2. Read t h ro u g h the text. As you read, pay attention


to words that a re the sa m e part of speech as the
word g iven .

3. W h e n y o u t h i n k y o u h ave fou n d the correct


synonym, replace the word in the text with the
word g iven to see i f i t m a kes sense.
Exa mple Question

p q

1 34

2. Guessing Meaning from Context: Find the

fol lowi ng words and phrases in the extracts.


Read the entire sentence and try to guess the
meaning of each one.
muttered (line 6) cheered ( l i n e 1 6)
yelped (line 1 6) shuffling (line 2 2)
shot back (line 40)
3. Read the extracts and answer the questions.

Find a word or expression in extract 1 that


means rival.
Answer Ana lysis

rival is a noun, m ea n i n g a person who is com peting


with someone e lse for a position o r p rize.

In extract 1 , l i nes 2-3, we read a d escri ption of the


ru l es of Sherjangi:
You recited a verse from a poem and your opponent
had sixty seconds to reply ...
From the context of this sente nce, we u n de rsta nd
that rival has the sa m e m ea n i ng as opponent.

1 . How d i d Baba feel about Amir's ta lent at


Sherjangi?

2.
3.
4.
5.

What did Baba's trip to Tehran show a bout h i m ?


Why d i d Am i r fake an interest i n footbal l ?
Why did Ra h i m K h a n ca ll Baba " self-centred " 7
What bothered Baba about Ami r's behaviour on
the street!

4. Complete the sentences using your own


words.
1 . The game of Sherjangi consisted of . . . .
2 . For Baba, writing poetry was even worse
3 . Baba wanted Amir to share his . . . .
4. When he saw that Am i r had no football talent,
Baba wa nted h i m . . .
5 . Even though t h e study door was closed, Ami r
managed . . . .
5. Choose the best answer according to the text.
In his com ment about colouring books (Extract 4,
line 26), Rahim Khan means that . . .
a . not a l l c h i l d ren are talented
at art
b. parents should never influence
their children
c. books a re j ust as i m porta nt
as sport
d. pa rents m ust accept their
children the way they a re

_ ...._

-_

58

6. Find words or expressions in the extracts


that mean:
1 . com peted agai nst (extract 1 )
2 . i m a g i ned (extract 2 )
3 . evoke (extract 2 )
4. a s ma l l a mount (extract 3)
5 . depressing (extract 3)
6. moved to a different position (extract 4)

Do you think that parents should expect their

children to be similar to themselves? Why or


why not?

Unit 5

The Kite Runner is the story of Amir, a young Afghan who flees war-torn Kabul in the 1 980s and then

Immigrates to the U nited States. T he events in these extracts take place during his childhood, before the war.
Ext ra ct 1

In school, we used to play a game called She1jangi, or "Battle of the Poems." The Farsi teacher

moderated it and it went something like this: You recited a verse from a poem and your opponent had sixty
seconds to reply with a verse that began with the same letter that ended yours. Everyone in my class wanted
me on their team, because by the time I was eleven, I could recite dozens of verses from Khayyam, Hafez, or
Rumi 's famous Masnawi. One t i me, I took on the whole class and won. I told B aba about it later that night, but
he just nodded, muttered, "Good."
Extract

Of course, marrying a poet was one thing, but fathering a son who prefetTed burying his face in

poetry books to hunting . . . well, that wasn' t how Baba had envisioned it, I suppose. Real men didn't read
poetry - and God forbid they should ever write i t ! Real men - real boys - played soccer just as B aba had
when he had been young. Now that was something to be passionate about. In

1 970, B aba took a break from

the construction of the orphanage and flew to Tehran for a month to watch the World Cup games on television,
ince at the time Afghanistan didn ' t have TVs yet. He signed me up for soccer teams to stir the same passion
111

me.

E x t ract

When it became abundantly clear that I hadn't inherited a shred of his athletic talents, he settled

for trying to turn me into a passionate spectator. Certainly I could manage that, couldn ' t I? I faked interest for
as long as possible. I cheered with him when Kabul's team scored against Kandahar and yelped insults at the
referee when he called a penalty against our team. B ut B aba sensed my lack of genuine interest and resigned
himself to the bleak fact that his son was never going to either play or watch soccer.
Extract

Later that night, I was passing by my father's study when I overheard him speaking to Rah i m

Khan. I pressed my e a r t o the closed door.

- grateful that he's healthy," Rahim Khan was saying.


] know, I know. But he's always buried in those books or shuffling around the house like he's lost in some
dream."
And?"
I wasn ' t l i ke that." Baba sounded frustrated, almost angry.
Rahim Khan laughed. "Children aren' t colouring books. You don 't get to fill them with your favourite colours."
- r m telling you," B aba said, "I wasn't l ike that at all, and neither were any of the kids I grew up w i th."
You know, sometimes you are the most self-centred man I know," Rahim Khan said. H e was the only person
I knew who could get away w i th saying something like that to B aba.
It has nothing to do with that."
..
ay?"
Nay."
Then what?"
I heard the leather of B aba's seat creaking as he shifted on i t . I closed my eyes, pressed my ear even harder
against the door, wanting to hear, not wanting to hear. "Sometimes

look out this window and I see h i m

playing on the street w i th the neighbourhood boys. I see h o w they push h i m around, take his toys from
him, give h i m a shove here, a whack there. And you know, he never fights back. Never. He just. . .
drops his head and . . . . "
so he's not v iolenr. Rah i m Khan said .
.
.. That's not what I mean. Rahim. and you know it . . Baba shot back. 'There is something missing
i n that boy."

VO CABULARY

WORD FAMILIES
3. Complete the chart by filling in the missing

words.

Words from the Text


1 . Choose the correct answer according to the
meaning of the words in colour.
1 . The issue has not h i ng to do with you . You
a re I a re n 't i nvolved.
2. In my house, we usually g et to do what we
want. Our parents are very l i be r a l I str i ct .
3 . Let's ask the referee . He's on o u r s i d e I
n eutra l .

4. I

t h e i r conversation. They were I


weren 't ta lking to me.
5 . We decided to flee . We had to g et a way I
ove r h e a rd

stay wh ere we were.

6. They

the treasure so that n o one I


cou ld see it.
7. George nodded his head in a g reement I
b u ried

everyo n e

d is a g reement.

Verb
manage

construction
interest

4.
sense
frustrate
lose

5.

6.
loss

7.

4. Complete the sentences with the correct form


of the word in brackets.
for a change?
1 . Why don't you do something
(construct)
2. Dogs can ........... fear in h umans. (sense)
3. My hair is more
when it's short. (manage)
4. He could hardly hide his
(frustrate)
5. Having a fa m i ly is
to being alone. (prefer)
6. O h , no I I 've
my wedding ring ! (lose)
7. I ' m sorry, but I don't find these deta ils
(interest)
8. A h i g h percentage of .
end in d ivorce. (marry)
H

8 . Pa ula

a secretarial job. lt was I


her first choice.

settled for

w a s n 't

H.

H O

.H .

2. Match the beginning of each sentence i n


I with its ending in 1 1 . Pay attention t o the

words in colour.

H O H

6.
7.
8.

I
She's done a lot for you, so
Don't let anyone
When our team scored a goal,
You 've been working hard , so
You a re extremely selfish
You ' re talented, but I ' m not sure
If that boy hits you again,
I know you don't like her cooking, but

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

everyone c h ee red .
you should be g ratef u l .
a n d s e l f-centred .
you ca n ta ke a b r e a k now.
I can t u r n you i nto an a rtist.
p u s h you a ro u n d .
you' l l have to f a k e it or she'll be i nsu lted .
you should f i g ht b a c k .

1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

5. Complete the passage using the correct form


of the words below.

11

Zekeria Eb rah i m i and Homayoun Ershadi


in th e film version of The Kite Runner

HO

sense

i nterest

frustrate

prefer

Sofia Akrami, Amir's mother, was both


beautiful and well-educated. She and
She died
B aba had a happy 1 .
when Amir was born. so Baba had to
bring up his son alone. Amir turned
chil d who
out to be a delicate, 2
was not the least bit athletic or '
in
football . Baba often found this
quite .
, and would have
5
a son who was
more like himself.

marry

U n it 5

To pi <:: Yo<:: .a..l.? J.a:r.Y


...

4. Complete the passages with the correct form


of the phrasal verbs in Exercise 3 .

. ..

FAMILIES

I 've always 1 . . . . . . . . my m u m because she's a talented


m usician and a g reat person too. S i n ce I 2 . . . . . . . . her,
she hopes I ' l l be a m usician as wel l . I hope I ca n
3
her expectations - and my own !
.

. . .

1 . Match each word to its correct definition.

sibling
n iece

cou s i n

n e ph ew

g reat-g ra ndfather

r)

single

widow

a n o n ly c h i l d

brother-i n-law

spouse

1 . you r g ra ndfather's father


2. a woman whose husband has d ied
3. you r brother's I sister's daughter
4 . anyone in you r fa m i ly
:J . the brother of your h usband o r wife
6 . an u n married person
7. brother or sister
8 . a person with no brothers or sisters
9. you r a u nt's I u ncle's child
J . h usband or wife
your brother's I sister's son
2. Complete the sentences. Pay attention to the

meaning of the words in colour.


A couple that is e n g a g e d plans to . . . .
2 . A woma n who is p reg n a nt is going to . . . .
3 . People may i n h erit certai n tra its from . . . .
..1 C h i ldren are often jea l o u s of . . . .
:J . There is usually a strong b o n d between parents
and . . . .
5. C h i l d ren a re usually ra i se d by . . . .

PHRASAL VERBS
3.

H .

rel ative

Choose the correct definition for each


phrasal verb.
I d i d n 't know his parents were divorced .
When did they b r e a k u p ?
b. get ma rried
a . sepa rate
it's a pity that my sister and I have g rown a pa rt .
a . become older
b. become less close
He gets a l o n g with h is brother.
b. They don't fight
a. They fight a lot.
much.
Trevor l o o ks u p t o his o l d e r brother.
b. is shorter than
a . admires
That c h i l d ta kes afte r her father. They ' re
both stubbor n .
a . is s i m i l a r to
b. is different from
:J.
Many pa rents expect their ch i l d ren to l i ve up to
their expectations.
a . change
b. fulfil

lt happens all the time: couples get married beca use


they have fa llen i n love, but after a few years they
real ise that they have 4 . . . . .. . . . . If they eventually find
that they real ly don't 5 .
with each other, they
may even decide to 6 .
.

5. Complete the passage with the correct form


of the words and phrases below. Then listen
and check your answers.
o n ly c h i l d

p reg n a nt

raise

jealous

sibling

single

O n e- C h i l d

bond

g e t a lo n g

Fa m i l i e s

I n the Western world today, m ore a n d m o re couples


a re I .
only o n e c h i l d . Why? For o n e thing, people
frequently stay 2
until thei r 30s and 40s, so that
women get m arried and becom e 3
at a later age.
I n addition, women today a re often i nvolved i n thei r
careers. So what's it l i ke to be an 4
? Resea rch
shows that it has several adva ntages, despite the
negative stereotype that only c h i l d ren a re s p o i l e d .
B rothers and sisters can be g reat b u t they m ay not
5
. .
and they're often 6 . . . . .. . . of each other. Without
this competition, only c h il d ren d evelop plenty of self
confidence. I n addition, a special 7
i s formed
between c h i l d and parents . O n ly c h i l d ren also tend to
be h i g h a c h i evers, probably because thei r pa rents don't
have to d ivide their tim e , attention and m o n ey a mong
severa l 8 . . .
.H

.. . . .H.

... .. ....

Complete the sentences. Make them true for you.

1.
2.
3.
4.

I ' m qu ite sensitive about . . . .


I get along well with . . . .
I a m someti mes jealous of
I never get to . . . .
5 . I once overheard . . .
6 . I wou ld never settle for . . . .
Vocabulary Builder, pages 6 6 - 6 7

61

GRAMMAR

1 . Complete the passage with the correct relative


pronouns. Then listen and check your answers.
There may be more than one correct answer.

FI FTY FI N G ERS

RELATIVE CLAUSES

1 . Match each rel ative pronoun to the type of


noun that it refers to.

when

who

that

w h ose

w h ich

w h e re

The Browns are an amazing family of five brothers and sister


.H .

are all top-class piano virtuosos. They love playing togethe

so they've formed a quintet 2

plays in concert halls all over thE

1. people

world. Each of them fell in love with the piano at the age of three

2. thi ngs

........... they had their first lessons. As children, they practised fo


4

3. places

six hours a day in their Utah, USA home,

4. time

than five enormous grand pianos. They were the first five sibling

5. possession
DEFI N I N G AND NON- DEFI N I N G RELATIVE CLAUSES
2.

Read the exa mples. Then choose the correct


option to complete the rules.

a Baba didn 't wan t a son who read poetry. (defimng)


b. Amir admired Rahtm Khan, who could get a way wth
criticising Baba (non defining)

.... . ... . ..

Music,

H .

they had no les

ever studied together at New York's Juilliard School c


6

. ... ... .
.

only the world's most talented students ar=

accepted . The Browns are modest, optimistic people

.H .

goa

is to introduce classical m usic to the widest possible audience especially young people,

.. ......

.. love to hear them play. Obvious

their talent's in their genes, but they all say it was their parents
encouragement and support

1 . A defi n i n g I non-defi n i ng relative cla use is essenti a l


t o t h e m ea n i ng o f t h e sentence.

... ....... helped


.

them the most.

Desiree, G reg, Deon dra, Ryan and Melan ie Brown

2. A defi n i n g I non-defi n i ng rel ative clause adds non


essential i nformation a bout the n o u n it describes.

3. We use com m as to se parate d efi n i n g I non defi n i n g


relative cla uses from t h e rest of t h e sente nce.
FORMAL AND I N FORMAL STRUCTURES
3.

Read the explanation and exam ples a n d choose


the correct answer.

There a re two ways to form a re l ative clause when the


verb i n the relative cla use is fol l owed by a p re position
(on, to, for. with).
a Amir was not the son for whom Baba had wished.
{formal}
b. Amir was not the son (who} Baba had wished for.
(informal}

WEB EXTRA

2. Complete the sentences with the correct

1. I n the fo rmal / i nformal structure, the p re position


comes before the re la tive pronoun.

1.

2. In the fo rmal / i nformal structu re, the preposition


comes after the verb.

2.

3. I n the fo rmal / i nfo rmal structu re, we use the


rel ative p ronoun whom i nstead of who.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

relative pronouns. Add commas where


necessary.
The Kite Runner is a novel ........... m i l l ions of people
have read and loved.
The story beg ins d u ri n g Ami r's c h i l d hood ....
Afg han istan was a peaceful country.
The story is about A m i r and Hassan ........... was a
servant i n Ami r's house.
The two boys loved Kabul's kite fighting
competition ........... took place every year.
The boy .
kite stayed in the air the longest
was the winner of the competition .
Because of the war ........... broke out when Amir was
a teenager, he and his father became refugees.
Eventually they i m migrated to the U nited States
........... they built a new l ife.
They never forgot their country and the people
they had left beh i n d .
H

62

Find out about other talented families


11'11'11'. bu rl i 11gto 11 books. es/1 ieupo i 11 ts2

U n it 5
3.

Look at your answers to Exercise 2. In which


sentences can you omit the relative pronoun?
R E LATIVE P R O N O U N S - In d e fi n i n g

e ative c l a u ses, we c a n o m i t t h e rel a t ive p ro n o u n s

. ho, which, tha t a n d when i f t h ey a re not t h e


: ... bject of t h e c l a u se.

8. Write a sentence using a relative clause about


three of the fol lowing topics.

a cousin or sibling

a recent fam i ly event

a place you r fam i ly went to on holiday

a tradition i n your fa mily


someth ing your fam i ly did during you r c h i l d hood

4.

::

Combine the sentences with defining or nondefining relative clauses. Add commas where
necessary. Leave out the relative pronoun
where possible.
The boy beca me my boyfriend. I met h i m on
Facebook.
The engi neer is a brilliant man. H i s plan was
chosen.
3. This is the neighbourhood . I grew up here.
J. ea t's in the Cradle was written i n 1 9 74. lt
discusses the relationship between a father and
his son.
) . We all love the cakes. You bake the m .
5 . I am grateful t o m y parents. They have always
done their best for me.
7 . We l i ke to go on holiday i n August. it's n ice and
warm then .
8 . The lamp is broken aga i n . You fixed i t yesterday.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Combine the sentences using the formal


structure.
We are finally having the holiday. We have been
drea ming of it.
The woman is m y mother. You are staring a t her.
Matters are often ignored . C ustomers complain
about them.
There are several people here. I haven 't been
i ntroduced to them.
You have done me an enormous favour. I thank
you for it.
You r spouse is the person. You will share you r l ife
with h i m .

6. Combine the sentences from Exercise 5 again,


this time using the i nformal structure.
7. Choose one option and complete the
sentences so they are true for you.
1 . I n my fam i ly, m e a l s I h o l i d ays are a time
when . . . .
2 . We l ive I d o n 't l i ve i n a street where . . .
3 . My g ra nd pa re nts I p a re nts are people who
4. My parents rarely I often say thi ngs that . . . .
5 . I d i s l i ke I e nj oy visiting m y relatives, whose . . . .

EXAM FOCUS
REWRITES : RELATIVE CLAUSES

In rewrites that i nvolve relative cla u ses, fi n d the


n o u n o r p ronoun that the relative p ron o u n is
replaci n g . B e carefu l n ot to repeat it.
Th1s IS a photograph My m o ther took it ( h a t)
./ Th1s 1s a photograph that my m o ther took.
X This is a photograph tha t my mother took 1 t.

Rewrite the sentences with the words i n brackets.


Do not change the orig i n a l mea n i ng of the
sentences.
7.

The ring had belonged to my great-grandmother.


I found it. (that)

2.

We recently found a photo album. We enjoy looking


at it. {which)

3. The place was quiet. He lived there.


(where)
4.

Thomas is a friend. I can always rely on him.


(whom]

5. I can 't wait till summer. I can go surfing then.


(when)
6. I opened the door for my brother-in-law. He had
come to help me. (who}

Grammar Review 'l*l'i


9.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

Rewrite the sentences with the words in


brackets. Do not change the original meaning.
"We went to visit our g randpa rents last week, "
the twins told me. (that)
The baby sta rted crying when you left. (has)
I ' m s u re that Robert forgot to post the letter.
(must)
" You should buy tickets as soon as possi ble, "
my sister suggested. (that)
I want to eat in the restau rant. We had d i nner
there last month. (where)
The council is putting up sculptures a l l over the
city. (by)
E x t r a g r a m m a r e x e rc i s e s at:
IL' /1'11' . b u r/ i 11 g 1 o 11 b o o k s . e s/ t i e u p o i 1 1 r s 2

63

c
-

SKILLS
LISTENING G
PERSONAL ACCOUNTS
1 . An Internet website is doing a survey on
family relationships. They are asking young
adults to vote for the topics they think are the
most important or i nteresting. Which of the
fol lowing would you choose?
relationships with parents
discipline
relationships with siblings
aunts I uncles I cousins
parents' attitudes to boyfriends I girlfriends
parents' expectations

2 . listen t o three young adults that were

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

interviewed. Read the statements below and


decide if they are true or false.
The atmosphere i n spea ker 1 's house was
relaxed .
Spea ker 1 's parents were q u ite strict.
Speaker 2 hasn't got any sibl i ngs.
Spea ker 2 wasn't good at science and maths.
Speaker 3 's siblings live a t home.
Speaker 3 gets too much attention from her
mother now.

3 . Read the statements below. Which speaker


{1, 2 or 3) would make each statement? Then

listen again and check your answers.


1 . I th i n k my dad is d isappoi nted with me.
2. I'm worried a bout my parents.
3 . I would have l i ked more g u ida nce.
4 . l t was great having older s i b l i ngs t o look after
me.
5. I'm more l ike one parent than the other.
6 . There were n 't many ru les i n my home.

Do you think you were spoiled by your

parents or older siblings?

U n it 5

S PEAKING
XPRESSING AN OPINION
Read the following statements about families. Which statements do you agree with?
Which do you disagree with?
Young chi ldren should always obey their parents.
Pa rents should not try to i nfluence their c h i l d ren's decisions i n l ife .
it's good to have lots of brothers and sisters.
- Women a re natura lly more su ited to ca ring for childre n .
Teenagers need ru les and l i m its.
V
it's wrong to have a child i n such a violent I pol l uted world.

2.

Complete the d ialogues with expressions from below. There may be more than one correct answer.
I agree that . . .
That's exactly what I think.
I know what you mea n .
You 've got a point.

I disagree.
That's not the point.
That's not the way I see it.
You can't be serious !
H ow can you say that?

As far as I ' m concerned, . . .


Don 't you think that . . . ?
What I mean is . .
You 've got to a d m it that . . .
I ' d say that . . .
I realise that, but . . .
lt seems to m e that . . .

A: 1 . . ........ a woma n should stay at home to take ca re of the chi ldren.


B : 2 .
?3
women should also develop their ca reers !
A: Yes, but 4 .. ... .. one of the parents has to be at home.
H

A:

..

it's wrong to have a child when there a re so many problems i n the world.
I The world wi l l never be perfect !
B: 6
A: 7 .. . .. , with g loba l wa rming, our c h i l d ren may not have a very good future.
H

. H

.. .

...

A: 8 . . .... c h i l d ren have to do what their parents expect. 9


everyone has to make their own choices i n l ife.
. . But 1 1 .
B: 10
sometimes it's difficult to avoid parents' p ressure .
12
.
A:
..

. H.

3. Add a few more lines to each dialogue, using other expressions from the l i st.

4.
a.
b.
c.

With your partner, choose three statements from Exercise 1 and discuss them.
Express and explain you r opin ion about each statement.
Say whether you agree or disagree with you r partner's opinion.
Try to persuade your partner that you are rig ht.
EXPRESS I N G AN O P I N I O N - D o n 't s i m p l y a g ree o r d i sa g ree, g ive reas o n s. T h e reaso n s can be

facts or p e rso n a l o p i n i o n s. Listen ca refu l l y to you r pa rtn e r's o p i n i o n a n d respo n d to h is

h e r sta te m e n ts.

Try to p e rs u a d e yo u r pa rt n e r to see t h i n g s you r way. If you c a n 't, at least try to m a ke h i m

h e r u n d e rsta n d

yo u r p o i n t o f v i ew.

..Pronunciation Practice, page 1 22

65

WRITING
A Narrative
When we write a na rrative, we tell a story. We often include a problem or conflict, which may or may
n ot be resolved i n the story. We may include dia logue to make the story more d i rect and personal.
When you w ri te a n a rrative :
1.

Describe the setting a n d introduce the main cha racters.


Read the first paragraph of the story below. Who is it a bout? Where and when does it take place?

2.

Relate the events i n the story, including a problem or conflict.


Read the rest of the story. What problem does the main cha racter have?

3.

Tel l how the story ends.


I n the story below, is the problem resolved? If so, how is i t resolved?

Too c/o.se for cow,fort


My older brother A: lex usually iqltlores We, except for teasiltlq We soWctiWes .
WheY! he weltlt away to ultllverstty I was really happy, as I filtlally had the
house, altld Wy pareltlts, to Wyself. But three years later, A: lex caWe back
hOW!e
Of course, I'd beeltl usiltlq A:lex's rooW while he was away, because it was

larqer thaltl W!tltle altld had a brq bed CJY!d a TV. Now I had to qo back to W y

sWall rooW, which Wade We pretty altlqry.

We were q.uarrelliltlq about this OY!e eVeltliltlq wheY! suddeltlly our WOther CCJW!e
rltlto the rooW. "6rraltldpa hasltl't beeltl well lately altld he's COWiltlq to live with
us for a few WOY!ths/' she told us. "You'll both have to share f<eviltl's rooW,
so stop arquiltlq " We stood there opeltl-WOuthed as she walked out
Sure eltlouqh, 6rraltldpa caWe altld A:lex W!OVed iltlto WY rooW . A:t first, it
was awful, but eveltltually it qot easier CJY!d Y!OW we eVeltl have deCeltlt
COY!Verscrrrons OY!Ce if/1 a while. I'd still like a rooW - eveltl a SWall OY!e - to
Wysclf W 1 pity , didltl't appreciate Wy rooW whrle I still had it!

r;

r-;-

PR SSIONS

0 TIME AND SEQUENCE

x p ressions of t i m e a n d seq u e nce h e l p u s to clanfy w h e n events occur, a n d i n what o rder.

Time ex pressions show w h e n someth i n g ha ppens a n d someti mes d escribe the atmosphere:
On a cold and stormy night, a stYJo/. cm lv scr iJ,, the f1re 1 1

"

r cobtn.

Seq uence expressions show the o rder of events in a na rrative.


In the beginning, the n e w baby seemed l1ke a toy to three-year-old C1ndy. Then sh realised that h e

would demand much of her parents' a tten tion

Some seq uence expressions g ive an idea of how fast or slow somet h i n g happens:
As time wen t on we all gor used

re

n e lA house

All of a sudden my s1ster appeurt'ri net to me

4.

In the model on page 66, find five expressions of time


or sequence.

U n it 5

Your Task
Write a narrative about family matters.

Choose the correct answer.


I rented my own flat event u a l ly I t h e n I as soon a s
I h a d fou n d a job.
N ext, I At f i rst, I As t i m e went o n , we began to l i ke
each other.
My mother was waiting i n the kitchen w h e n I t h e n I
w h i l e I got home.
- O u r grand pa rents' visit went wrong rece ntly I f i n a l ly I

Write 1 00-1 50 words.

WRITING A NARRATIVE
1. Brainstorm the events i n your narrative.
Try to include a problem or confl ict.
a. U se you r own experience: Think of
something i nteresti n g that happened i n
your fam i ly or someone else's fami ly.
or

from t h e sta rt .

We stayed at our cousi n 's house u n t i l I w h i l e I


by t h e t i m e our house was being pai nted .
- Larry went on a short tri p . Two d ays l ater, I J ust t h e n , I
F i n a l ly, he ca me home.
The bride was a l ready dressed two h o u rs before I after I
d u r i n g the wedd i n g .

b. Make something up.

Try the following ideas:


- a funny or s i l ly event
- a sad or joyfu l event
- an argu ment or confl ict in the fa mily
- a fa mily trip, adventu re or celebration
- relationships between fam ily members

3.

Complete the story using expressions of time and


sequence from Exercise 2. There may be more than one
correct answer. Do not use the same expression twice.
ad disl i ked my boyfriend M ichael 1
, and things got
o.orse 2
. He j ust felt M ichael wasn't good enough for
"le, and I d i d n 't know what to do about it.

2. Decide whether or not the problem will be

resolved. If so, how? If not, how will your


story end?

...........

..

... . .

, one stormy nig ht, the telephone ran g . it was Dad.


Janie? Listen, my car's stuck on the motorway. "
.'Je took M ichael's ca r and went to collect Dad . 4
I was
aiting with Dad in o u r car, M ichael stood in the pouring
a n , looking at Dad's engine. 5 .
the towing service
arrived, he had solved the problem I
O H

..

3 . Organise your ideas using the Exam Focus

and the model on page 66 to help you.

. ....

CHECKLIST

Well, M i ke, thanks very much, " said Dad


1ome.
Hey, no problem, " answered M ichae l . 7
:'ley shook hands.
d i d n 't know if t h i ngs would change 8
: certa i n ly looked as if they m ight.

..

...........

........ ..

we got

they parted,

this incident, but

./

I followed tl-te- pLti!vt-for

lif

Mrrt!ftive.

lif Vt!friety of ex:prusiOJII.S of tiVVLe


t!fvt-J SUfi{OUe.

./ I z..t.Jut
./ I

e-huk.ed my 3rt!fwt.wt.lifr, spelli1113 ti!vt-d


pI{!:_Utl{t!ftiO V!-.
ritin Guide, page

1 44

I mprove Your Style


Verb Ag ree m ent

The verb always ag rees with the subject of the sentence.


Mr ster'

t1 o r

e '

is

Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time.


is

eur
Ne. her o+ my oare

l/

a wY +

t
knows

f d W'rJ'{S
,r

vver

nq J

Two singular subjects joined by r or , r are singula r. H owever,


if one of the subjects is p l u ra l , the verb agrees with the n o u n
closest t o it.
f'Jr nq

a necklace makes a

"'' )

t1 y

Choose the correct answer.


1 . Neither my brother nor my sister was I were
at home.
2. Fifty pounds i s I a re a high price to pay.
3 . Each of the children was I were bought a gift.
4. A chair a n d two tables n eed I n e e d s to be
moved .
5 . My parents or my u ncle a re I is taking us
shopping.
6 . Every one of these shops i s I a re owned by
M r Jones.
7. The majority of the students l ive I l ives in
the city.
67

SKILLS

A J O B I NTE RVIEW
You a re g o i ng to practise a nswe r i ng q u estions i n a job i n terview.
Read the advert a n d a n swer the Task Questions below.

Cyprus Sonesta International Family Resorts


is now hiring Chi ldren's Entertainers.
Accommodation and airfare provided.
Knowledge of English necessary
Apply to: jobs@cyprussonesta. com

TASK QUESTIONS

1.

You have a n swered the advert and have been i nvited to a job i nterview. Below i s a l ist of q uestions
you may be asked . Wh ich do you th i n k wou l d be the most d ifficult to answer?

1 . What are you r special talents?


2. What experience have you had?
3 . Are you good at tea mwork? G ive an exam ple.

2.

4. How good are you at dea l ing with pressure?


5. Why do you think that we should h i re you ?
6 . What wou ld you say a re your weaknesses?

Listen to a job i nterview for the position at Cyprus Sonesta resort. Which criteria below does the
candidate fulfi l ? Do you th i n k the ca nd idate wi l l get the job? Why or Why not?

a. experience working with children


experience in sport, singing, dancing or a rt
c. enth usiastic and friendly
b.

d. doesn 't get annoyed easily


e. good at working with other people

USE YOUR SKILLS


Role play a job i nterview for one of the jobs below. Student A is applying for the job. Student B is
the i nterviewer. Then swap roles a n d role p l ay an i nterview for the other job. Use the q u estions i n
Exercise 1 to h e l p you .

Wanted: A u Pair

Mobile Phone Company seeks


Customer Service Representative
D uties i nclude answering customer
enquiries, solvi ng customer problems and
encouraging customers to purchase new
products. Computer skills and excellent
telephone com m u nication skills requ i red.

British fam ily seeks au pair to ca re for


active children, ages 4 and 1 Y2 .
Non-smoking.
D riving l icense required.
Some l ight housework.

T i ps for job i nterviews


Arrive 5-1 0 m i n utes early.
D ress neatly - no shorts, sleeveless shirts,
short skirts or fli p-flops.
Don't chew gum or smoke.

When you wal k in, smile and give your fi rst name and
surname.
Wait until you are offered a chai r before you sit down .
E mphasise your good poi nts and achi evements.

Unit Objectives
*

c onsumcrism

Condirionab

.
,
. 1v
'11Hhl.-,
and Tmw
C l ,l u sc.,
* l m pera t l. \, es.
'
* W ish C l a u ses

* L i sten i ng t o a Rad i o P rogra m nH


* Ro l e P l a y

* Wri t i ng a S u m m a ry
*

l. i fe S k i l l s : Phone Messages

A Go o d Buy
.

ook at the followmg log os for world-famous brands .

. ?
ones do you recogmse . What products are made by
?
e companies they represent .

, h i eh

3 3 3 - 99093

----
-..- .

--4

t\

o ;;;;;; c
eo
ex
----

Find out about two brands tha fought a " w ar" at.

www. bu rl i ngtol!books. es/viewpo ' " ts2

READING

4. Are the following statements true or false?


Find evidence in the text to support you r
answers.
1 . Boorman's popularity g rew when h is parents

1. Pronoun Reference: Read the text. Decide who


or what the following pronouns refer to.
1 . them (line 3 )
2 . Th is (line 1 4)
3 . them (line 1 7)
4. it (line 2 2 )
2. Guessing Meaning from Context: F i n d the

following words in the text. Read the entire


sentence and try to guess each word's
meaning.
loveable (line 6)
staged (line 24)

out of bounds (line 1 5)


tr

EXAM FOCUS
GEN ERAL EXAM TIPS

W h e n you get you r exa m p a per:


1 . Read the title of the text.
2.

Read the q uestions, i d e ntify keywords a n d m a ke


predictions about the content of the text.

3.

For general u n d e rsta n d i n g , read the entire text


q u i ckly, ig noring d iffi c u l t words.

4. Sca n the text looki n g for the a reas w he re keywords


a ppear. Pay a tte ntion to capital l etters, n u m be rs
a n d sym bo ls.
5. Answer the q u estions that a re clear to you first.
Then a nswer the m ore d i ffi cult q u estions.

bought h i m the correct trai ners.


2. Boorman was sorry that he had n 't given his
thi ngs to charity.
3 . After h is experiment, Boorman rema ined
dependent on brands.
5. Answer the following questions in your own
words.
1 . Why did Boorman feel he needed brands?
2 . What were two negative effects of Boorm a n 's
addiction ?
3 . Accord ing to the article, i n what way has
consumer cu ltu re da maged people's l ives?

6. Complete the sentences using your own


words.
1.

Boorman went to second-hand shops in order


to . . .
2 . Boorman's fina ncial situation i m proved a s a
result of . . . .
3 . Boorman felt a bonf i re was a good way to . . . .
7. Find words or expressions in the text that

mean:
1 . change for the better (paragraph 2)
2. i nstead of (paragraph 3)
3. advantages (paragraph 5)
4. ach ieved, completed (paragraph 7)

5 . pu rpose, objective (paragraph 7)

3 . Choose the best answer according to the text.

1 . As an a d u lt, Boorman . . .

a . beca me obsessed with brands


b. spent less money on brand-named goods
c. contin ued his c h i l d hood addiction
d . blamed his pa rents for h is obsession
2. From l i nes 2 5-29, we ca n infer that Boorman
a. feels advertisi ng's message is i m portant
b. th i n ks people should work h a rd to improve
their l ives
c. bel ieves we will feel better if we buy more
d . t h i n ks we consume more than we should

70

Do you agree with the point Boorman was

making about today's consumer culture?

'
\;

BURNING OF THE B RANDS

U nit 6

...

'

'

Do you wish that you were more popular? Are you convinced that owning famous brands of clothing
would help? Young journalist Neil Bom-man thought so. Then one day, he took all his brand-name
possessions -

20.000 wo11h of expensive designer gear - and destroyed them in a bonfire in central

London.
From fashions l i ke Adidas trainers to gadgets l ike B lackberry phones, Boorman threw it all into the
pyre. "From an early age, I have been taught that to be accepted, to be loveable, to be cool, one must
have the right stuff," he says. At school , he had tried to make friends w i th the popular kids. but was
teased for not having stripes on his trainers. He nagged his parents to buy h i m the "right"' shoes. and
the instant improvement in his social l i fe triggered a l i fe-long obsession . A s an adult, stil l dependent
on these status symbols for his self-esteem, he spent most of his i ncome on brand-name items.
As his debts began to grow, he realised that rather than making h i m happy, his addiction was making
him more and more miserable. He declared that he would not only get rid of all his brand-name
things - he was going to l i ve w i thout brands for an entire year.
This meant search ing his local farmers' markets for fresh produce rather than running out to the
-,upermarket. Clothes shops on the high street were now out of bounds, so he went to second-hand
-,hops . S i nce he couldn' t find brand-free alternatives to his TV or DVDs, he spent the year without
them. Unable to find brand-free toothpaste, he made his own .
As described in Boorman 's book,

Bonfire of the Brands,

the year was a constant struggle .

:--l e vertheless, there were many benefits. He got to know his local shopkeepers by name and lost
weight from not eating ready-made food. Of course, his bank account was in much better shape, and
hi s anxiety about needing brands for status nearly disappeared. '"I ' ve lost a whole bunch of stuff, but
-,uddenly i t doesn ' t matter," he wrote.
Critics have commented that Boorman should have given his belongings to charity, but if he had not
'taged the bonfire, he wouldn ' t have received the publ i city he desired . He was, after all, making a
'tatement - not only about brands, but about consumerism in general . I n the U K, he says, shopping
has become the national pastime because people have blindly accepted advertising 's message: w e ' l l
:-eel better i f we consume more. I n reality, consumer culture has done us more harm than good. I f
'-\ e stopped working such long hours to pay our debts, w e ' d suffer less stress and enj oy more free
I me.

You stil l may not want to get rid of the things you've worked so hard to buy, or stop shopping for
:' our favourite brands. B ut if Neil Boorman 's actions have at least made you think twice about your
, onsumer habits, then he has accompl i shed his goal.

Neil Boorman
burns it all

VO CABULARY
Words from
the
Text
..
.
.
. ..

...

1 . Choose two possible answers to complete


each sentence. Pay attention to the words in
colour.
1 . Your p a st i m e cou l d be work i n g i n a n office I
m a k i n g j ewe l l ery I g a rd e n i n g .
2 . Your be l o n g i n g s m ight include yo u r s h oes I
you r M P4 p l ayer I y o u r scho o l .
3 . You can buy ready- m a d e s o u p I wood I
c u rta i n s .

4. You ' d probably be

if you
I fa i l ed a test I

m isera b l e

f i n i s h ed yo u r h o mewo r k
l ost yo u r wa l l et .

5 . You ca n b u y a specific b r a n d o f f l owers I


penci I s

6. A

I crisps.
might own a
I b o ut i q u e .

s h o p keeper

resta u ra n t

s h oe s h o p

COLLOCATIONS
4. Which of the nouns and noun phrases can be
used to form collocations with the verbs in
colour?
1 . do more harm than good, a difference, busi ness
with, one's d uty, someone a favo u r, a decision,
the shopping, one's best
2 . m a ke friends, a statement, an experi ment, an effort,
a deal, a mistake, you r homework, a l iving,
an excuse
3. pay a debt, someone a visit, a remark, someone a
com p l i ment, a message, the bills, attention,
a fortune, the price
5. Complete the sentences with the correct form
of do, make or pay.
1 . You should ........... you r best if you wa nt to keep
this job.
2 . We know the boss .. ....... a l ready
a decision .
3 . You should have
.. the bill last week.
4. I want to apolog ise for .
this m ista ke.
5. If you smoke now, you ' l l .. ....... the price when
you ' re older.
6 . Dad was furious when he hea rd I had n 't
my
homework.
H O

2. Read t h e sentences in I. Then match t h e words


or phrases in colour to their definitions in 1 1 .

1 . D oes this shop sell camping g e a r?

2 . Let's get r i d of all these old magazines.

3. H ow wi l l you pay back all you r d e bts /


4 . The teacher's room i s o u t of b o u n d s for
students.
5. Cons u me r i s m leads to many social problems.
6 . I 've got plenty of stuff that I don't know what
to do with .
11

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

equ i pment
th row away
constant buyi ng
money owed
not allowed
objects, t h i ngs

6. Complete the sentences with collocations


from Exercise 4. Make any necessary changes.
1 . She's
for being a snob: she has very few
friends.
2 . You shouldn't go to that club. I think you ' re ..
3. Could you
me
and lend me ten e u rosl
4 . My boss . . me .. . .. yesterday. He sa id I was
doing a great job.
5. Could you please repeat what you sa i d ? I wasn't
HO

HO

6 . it's very difficult to


from a rt.
7. Let's ........... . I ' l l clean the bathroom if you do the
was h i ng-up.
factories that use
8 . Many companies refuse to
child labour.
. H

.H.

3. Pay attention to the words in colour

and name:
1 . a holiday when people l ig ht b o n f i res
2 . a g a dget that has become trendy
3. somet h i n g a child might n a g
his parents a bout
4. a ben efit of using a
credit card
5. somet h i n g a p u p i l might
get teased about

Many factories in Asia


depend on ch ild labour.

U nit 6
4. Complete the passage with the words below.
Make any necessary changes. Then listen and
check your answers.

Topic .Vocabulary
CONSUMERISM

sweatsh o p

1 . Decide whether the following statements are


true or false. Correct the false statements.
If there is a d i sc o u nt on an item, it costs less
than its usual price.
If a shop g oes o u t of b u s i n ess, it is successf u l .
3 If an item is made in a sweats h o p, the people
who made it are paid wel l .
I f you get a free t r i a l , you can try something out
before you buy it.
If you get a ref u n d , you get you r money back.
'J .
If someth i ng is free of c h a rg e, you must pay for it.
If you excha n g e a n item, you r money is retu rned .
8 A recei pt proves you paid for a n ite m .
-

2.

Complete t h e monologues about shopping


habits with the words below. Make any
necessary changes.
carry

p rice consc i o u s

spl u rg e

outlet

over p riced

b a rg a i n

afford

p ri ce tag

o n sale

c a r ry

go out of b u s i ness

b a rg a i n

m e rc h a n d ise

"I prefer to shop at inexpensive shops or 1


Of cou rse, I select things I l i ke, but before I try
anything o n , I look at the 2 . . . I compare prices
at different shops a n d try to find 3
.

afford

p ri ce tag

liHnu.Jij

__

If you ' re looki ng for a

and you l ive in North America,

you ' l l probably go to Walmart. With 3,600 gigantic stores on

that continent alone, Walmart is the largest company in the


wortd. The store's 2

includes eve ryth ing from furniture, clothing

and groceries to medicine, toys and 1Vs - all at amazingly low


prices. However, Wal mart has also got a dark side. Wherever
it has appeared, smaller shops 3

H . H.

because they' re unable

to compete. How does Walmart keep its prices so low? By


being extremely efficient - but, according to its critics,
also by u nderpaying its employees and by
manufactured in third-world

m e rc h a n d ise

. .......

s n a p up

. H

Walmart claims that it enables lower-income groups to buy


things they couldn't otherwise 6 .. ........ . For m i l l ions of customers
who eagerly

.. H

Walmart's goods, the cheap prices on the

8 . . . . . .

. . . make Walmart's dark side easy to ignore.

" I only shop in a place that 4


the brands I
1ke. I know what I want and I ' l l buy it even if it's
, because my i mage is i mportant to me. I ' m
!"
not very 6
H.

OOOH00HOO

" I can 't 7 .


to buy everything I ' d li ke, so I
usually try to find 8 . . . at a reasonable price. I
also look for thi ngs that a re 9
But every once
1n a while I ' l l 1 0 . ... ... . on somethi n g I really wa nt ! "
H

.. ... ...

O H

PHRASAL VERB S
3.

Complete the sentences with the phrasal


verbs below. Make any necessary changes.
pick o ut

come to

stock u p o n

snap up

1 . We should .
rice. There ' l l be a price rise soo n .
and com pa re prices.
3. A l l the discou nted bags were .
in the sale.
4 . I bought too many thi ngs. My bill ........... nearly
1 ,000!
5. They're ........... free samples o f biscu its and cakes.
Let's try some 1
6. She looked at all the dolls and ........... one with
black hair.
H

2 . Let's

I I I

shop a ro u n d

g ive out

H .

products

On the other hand,

Complete the sentences. Make them true for

you.
1 . A brand I really l i ke is . . . , because
2. I shopped around before I .
3 . I wish I could afford to . . . .
4. I ' d like to get rid of . . , as . . . .
5 . I really should make an effort to
6. I feel miserable when . . . .
.

Vocabulary Builder, pages 6 8 - 6 9

GRAMMAR
CONDITIONALS

Read the exa m ples a n d a nswer the q uestions.

Which conditional descri bes ...


1.

an Imaginary or hypothet1ca s tuat1on i n the present

2. a n u n real situation i n the past

1 . Choose the correct answer.


1 . I won't buy those jeans u n less they w i l l g ive I
g i ve I g ave me a discount
2. We wou ld n 't have seen Joe if we h a d n 't come I
d i d n 't come I won't come to this shop.
3. Meet me outside as soon as you f i n i s h I
wi l l f i n i s h I fi n i s h ed you r shopping.
4. We c o u l d have b o u g ht I c a n b u y I cou l d b u y
more if we had a credit card .
5 . I wo u l d n 't co m p l a i n I wo n 't co m p l a i n I
wo u l d n 't h ave com p l a i ned if the service had
been better.
6. If they b u i ld a shopping centre here, the small
shops w i l l g o I wo u l d g o I wou l d have g o n e
out of busi ness.
7. This shop wou ld have more customers if its
prices had bee n I were I a re lower.
8. We wou l d n 't shop here if we h a d n 't l i ked I
d i d n 't l i ke I d o n 't l i ke the merchandise.

3 . a future possibil ity I p robability


4. genera l truths

2. Complete the sentences with the correct form

IMPE RATIVES, MODALS AND


TIME CLAUSES

1 . If shops ........... (not use) plastic bags, there ..

Read the exa mples and choose the correct answer.

of the verbs in brackets.

2.

3.
y '

1.

l m pe rat1ve verbs ca n be used 1 n the result clause of


a fi rst I seco nd con d i t i o n a l .

2 I n con d itional sentences, m o d a l s can be used i n


the con d ition I the res u l t I both cl auses.
3. After time expressions such as when, as soon os,
until a n d by the time, the present I futu re tense is
u sed to ta l k a bout the future.

4.
5.

(be) less waste.


We were late for the concert We ........... (might I
be) on time if we ........... (not m iss) the bus.
I know you ' re busy. ........... (you I speak) to me as
soon as you ........... (get) time?
Joe sold his house. He
(never I sell) it if he
........... (not need) the money.
it's been snowing a l l night I ........... (d rive) slowly if
the roads
(be) sti l l slippery.
I see you l i ke those tra i ners. If they ........... (not be)
so expensive, ........... (you I buy) them/
H

H.

6.

WISH CLAUSES

We use wish or 1f only to descnbe situations that we wish


wee different, or that we a re sorry about.
Read the exa mples and a nswer the q uestions.

3 . Read the situations. Then write conditional

a I wish I had more money.


b. I wish he would give his stuff to chanty.
c " only I had seen tha t bonfire!

sentences using the words in brackets.


1 . The post office was closed .
(be open I post I the letter)
2. This dog is dangerous.
(bite I someone I u n less I tra i n properly)
3 . You ' re too th i n .
(not b e I u nderweight I eat more)
4. Josh has got an i nfection.
(feel better I when I finish I his antibiotics)
5 . lt was l ucky they helped us.
(not help I m ight be I i n serious trouble)
6. Why are you out of shape?
(exercise more I belong I to a gym)

Which sentence a bove refers to a situation that


the speaker ... ?

eg rets a bout the past

2. 1s u n ha p py about
3. h opes (but dou bts) w i l l h a p pe n n the futu re
N OTE: I n w1sh c a uses, we usually use could (not
would) w1th I a n d we.
We all wish we could work fewer hours.

74

EXAM FOCUS

4.

Complete the sentences. Use various


conditionals.
I don't have much money. If . . .
2 . I ' m sorry I did n 't call you . If . .
3 . I hope it doesn't ra i n today. If . . .

Dad hasn't a rrived yet. As soon as .


J . We lost the matc h . If . . . .

I n rewrites that i nvolve cond it i o n a l s a n d w is h c l a u ses,


first identify the verbs in the ori g i n a l sentence. Verbs
that are negative in the ori g i n a l sentence often
become affi rmative, and affi rmative verbs often
become negative.

5.

par

REWRITES: CON DITIONALS AND WISH CLAUSES

Choose the correct answer.


We' re lost I If only we wo u l d b r i n g I
h a d b ro u g ht a map I
Emma is terribly busy. She wishes she h a d I
wo u l d h ave more free time.
That man is stra nge. I wish he wo u l d sto p I
sto p ped sta ring at me.
I don't l i ke my neighbourhood . If only I wo u l d I
co u l d move !
Edward is overweight. He wishes he h a d been I
were t h i nner.
I ' m t i red of wa itin g . I wish you cou l d I wo u l d
h urry u p !

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

couldn 't park a t tht' supemwrket tecvusc the car


was u (

' could have parked c..


hadn't been u '

,he superrrarkc t t the t ryr park

Rewrite the sentences with the words i n brackets.


Do not change the ori g i n a l mea n i ng of the
sentences.
1. I can't find anything if a shop assistant doesn 't help
me. (unless)
2.

it's a pity tha t the shop wen t out of business. (wish)

3. I didn 't go to the party because Tracy was invited.


(if)
4. it's too bad that Kathy doesn 't like me. (wish)

6.

Complete the sentences.


You gave me some good advice. If only I
Wars a re terrible. If only people . . .
I d i d n 't know it would be so cold. I wish I . . . .
C la i re is too short to be a model . She wishes
she . . . .
I l ive very far from my school. I wish I
My feet h u rt. I wish these shoes . . . .

1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

6.
i

7. Complete the passage with the correct form


of the verbs in brackets. Then listen and check
your answers.

F R U STRAT E D

""Jught an expensive jacket the other day. The shop assistant


_JJ

it looked fabulous, but at home in front of the mirror. it

')ked awfu l ! If they

(give) refunds I could return it.

.1t there's no chance of that.

I 2

. .

(exchange) it i f I find

mething else I l ike at the shop. But if I 3 .

. ... .....

l thing,

( not find)

I ' l l have to take a credit note, which I ' ll probably

. . (show) i t to my girlfriend -

rget about or lose ! This would never have happened if I

.J

my mobile phone wnh me, I

...

. .
.

ot great taste. 1f I had


.

( send)

::r a picture. but I'd left i t at home ! When I


.

(go) shopping again, 1 ' 1 1 ask her to


come with me. I wish I

(not

buy) that jacket without showing


her. 1f only 1 R

. .......

impulsive !

( not be ) so

5. I 'm sorry I can't help you. (if only}


6. I don't have a sandwich, so I can't give you one. (if)

Grammar Review ''*1'15


8. Rewrite the sentences starting with the words
given. Do not change the original meaning of
the sentences.
1 . it's a pity we don't have tickets.
I wish .
2 . That is the boy. We have been sea rch i ng for h i m .
That is the boy for
3 . "Where do you usually shop ? " G ra nt wondered.
G rant wondered
4. I didn't know it was your b i rthday, so I d i d n 't
buy you flowers.
If . . . .
5 . The road was being repa i red .
They . . . .
6 . I ' l l get off the phone. Then I ' l l go shopping .
As soon as .

U n it 6

SKILLS
LISTENING

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . ....... .... . . . . . ....... .......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ................ ....... . .

. . . . . . ..................

A RADIO PROGRAMME
1 . Look at the advertisements on this page.
Which do you think is most effective? Why?
2. Listen to three reports on a radio programme

about a new marketing technique. Then


answer the questions.
1 . What prod uct is discussed in each report?
2 . What d o a l l three products have i n common?
3 . Listen again to the three reports and choose

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

the correct answers.


Tryvertising is a way to . . . .
a. get ideas for new products
b. design more attractive advertisements
c. convi n ce people to make pu rchases
d . see i f a prod uct can b e marketed
The Nike R u n n i ng Lounge
a. sells trai ners
b. helps runners
c. l i m its the n u mber of trai ners you can try out
d. charges money for their services
At Villeroy and Boch, . . .
a . only serious customers can try out the
bathrooms
b. you should bring you r own towel
c. there is a Wellness Lounge at every bra nch
d . you don 't share the lounge with other
customers
The fa m i ly at London Zoo . . . .
a . left the zoo with a free DVD
b. bought a Sony Camcorder
c. told thei r friends about the free trial
d. lost a camera
The programme's host believes that . . . .
a . compan ies may lose a lot o f money from
tryvertising
b. tryvertising is the best way to sell products
c. customers should be careful if they are
offered a free trial
d. companies gain more than they lose from
tryvertisi ng

Have you ever received a free sample or a

free trial of a product? If so, where and what


product? Did you buy the product afterwards?
WEB EXTRA

Find out about another method of advertising at: www.burlingtonbooks.es/uietupoillls2

. . . . . .............. .

U nit 6

SPEAKING
ROLE PLAY
1 . Which of the sentences below would be said by a sales assistant? Which would be said by a
customer?
h . A r e t hese o n s a l e ?
a. You w o n 't be sorry!
i . D o you ta ke cred it c a r d s ?
b . I'm afra i d we've run o u t of those.
c.

j.

Do they s u it m e ?

H ow ca n I h e l p y o u ?

d . I ' l l h ave to c h e c k w i t h t h e m a n ag e r.

k . O K, I ' l l ta ke it .

e. Cash or cred it c a r d ?

I.

f.

I s there a d i scount?

m. Yo u r recei pt's in the b a g .

T h ey're t o p q u a l ity.

n . C a n you o r d e r o n e ?

g. H ave n 't you got a n yt h i n g c h e a p e r ?

'._!J_I
-'..J.L

2. Cynthia is speaking to a sales assistant. Complete the d ia logue with sentences from Exercise 1 .

Sales Assistant: Sorry to have kept you wa iting.

..

...

Cynth ia: I ' d l i ke an M P4 player l i ke this one.


Sales Assistant: Oh,
Cynthia: Wel l , 3 . .

... . . . .

H.

This one on d isplay is the only one left

Sales Assistant: Yes, but it could take a few days. Do you want to buy the display model?
Cynth ia: M m m . . . that depends. 4 .
5

Sales Assista nt:


Cynthia:

.......

..

.. ?

. . . Hang on a min ute . . . G ood news ! H e ' l l give you 1 5 % off.

H ow long is the g u a rantee?

Sales Assistant: One year.

HOH

Cynthia: I ' l l put it on my credit card, thanks. Here it is.


Sales Assista nt: O K . . . here you are.

8 ..

Cynthia: Thanks !
3.

With a partner, act out the fol lowing role play using the sentences in Exercise 1 .
Make any necessary changes.
Student A (customer): You're looking for tra i ners. You don't want to spend a lot of money, but they haven 't
got the cheaper ones in you r size.
Student B (sales assistant): You r customer wants trainers, but you haven't got the kind he l i kes. You try to
convince him to buy something more expensive but better q u a l ity.

Pronunciation Practice, pag 1 22

77

WRITING
A Summary
EXAM FOCUS

In a s u m m a ry, we w a nt to g ive readers the m a i n poi nts of an a rticle a s briefly a s possible.


When you w rite a s u m m a ry:
1 . Read the orig i n a l text carefu l ly and decide which facts are main i deas. I nclude o n ly these i n your summary.
Read the a rticle a nd the model summary below. Which of the fol lowing elements a re i ncl uded 1 n the s u m m a ry?
what Freecyc!e does when Freecyc!e began
the purpose of Freecyc!e

how you can get things on Freecycle

how gift-giving helps the environment the fact that Freecyc!e connects people

2. Write your summary using synonyms and similar words when possible, rather than copying.
How does the w riter of the s u m m a ry say the fol lowing?

a . You post things you no longer want, a nd other mem bers come rou n d to you r home to pick them u p.
b. No money changes hands; payment is made i n smiles a n d thanks.
c. The goal of the n etwork is to h e l p save the environment by transforming today's consumeri st mental ity thro u g h
gift-givi ng.
3.

Make sure your summary forms a logica l whole. You may have to change the order o f the original article.
Does the s u m m a ry below read smoothly? In the original a rticle, the date of Freecycle's fou n d i n g is men tioned before
its goa l s. W here is it mentioned in the s u m m a ry?

4.

Your summary should g ive the reader a clear idea of what the text is a bout.
Does the s u m mary below acco m p l ish this goa l ?

FREECYCLE -CHAN G I N G TRASH TO TREASURE


Sandra Toppc:r's son had gro\\ n out o f his tricycle. but she felt it was a pity to
thnl\\ it out. Perhaps someone could use i t - but who? Nm\ there's a solution
to her dilemma: Freecycle.
The idea of this online network is simple. You post things you no longer
\\ ant. and other members come round to your home to pick them up. I t
\\Orks t h e other way a s well - you log on t o see i f someth i ng you might
l i ke is bei ng gi ' en away . or you can post a "wanted'' notice. letting people
knm, '' hat you need. No mone; changes hands: payment is made i n
smiles and thanks.
Freecycle \\'as founded by environmental activist Deron Beal in 2003.
The goal of the network i s to help save the em i ronmcnt b) transforming
today 's consumerist mental ity through gift-gi , i ng. By giving things
a\\ a) rather than throwing them out. we use less space in our landfi l ls.
I n addition. i f we reuse goods rather than constantly buying. we save
the energy and nm materials needed to manufacture ne\\ i tems.
Initial!) acti \t' on!) i n the l nned States. Freecy clc nO\\ operates
in m er 5 countries from Spain to S ingapore. Aside from its
em ironmental benetih. gi' ing and taking has had the added bene fi t
o f bui lding communi!) tie. When neighbour\ meet i n order t o give
each other gi fts. a connection based on tru-,t is natural!) formed.
Freecy cle claims to be "changing the world one g i ft at a time." and
this is not far from the truth. Little b) l i ttle. Freecycle b helping
to make the \\ orld a better place.
78

SUM MARY:

Freecycle is an online network


w here people give away things
they do not want. All items are
free . The idea beh ind Freecycle
is to help the em i ronment by
encouraging the use of second
hand goods. The site began i n
the U n i ted States i n 2003 and has
spread all O\ er the w orld. helping
build communi ty ties among its
members. B y encouraging gift
giving. Freeeycle is working to
improve the woriel.

<

U n it 6

Your Task

PARAPHRASING

Summarise the text on page 71. Write 50-70

Para p h rasing or rewriti n g material 1 n you r o w n words is a


usefu l ski l l w h e n s u m mar1sing. We often para p h rase i n a
s u m m a ry by s horten i n g or com b m i n g sentences.

words.

WRITING A SUMMARY
1.

1. Read the short text below. Then look at the


paraphrased sentences and decide which one is better.
Explain your choice.
Shopping is becoming more and more popu l a r as a way
to fight the b l u es, to reward oneself, to enhance
self-esteem or to escape from boredom . M i l lions of
people have d iscovered this type of self-treatment, ca lled
reta i l therapy.
a. Shopping, or reta i l therapy, is now used by m i l l ions as a
way to deal with psycholog ical problems.
b. M i l l ions of people help themselves fight the blues, reward
themselves or enhance their self-esteem by shopping .
2. Paraphrase the fol lowing excerpts. Use the words

given and add any necessary information.


1 . Resea rchers are able to use bra i n sca n n i ng, specifically
functional M Ris, in order to determ i n e what parts of the
b ra i n are actually active when people consider whether
or not to p u rchase a product.
u s i n g I b r a i n sca n s I resea rch ers ca n see I pa rts I
b ra i n I u sed I m a ke I p u rc h a s i n g d ec i s i o n s
2 . Twenty-two per cent of men rely on the opi nions of
other people when they purchase clothes, while women
genera l ly buy clothes on their own, without the input of
a shopping compa n io n .
m e n I often I n eed h e l p I d e ci d i n g I c l ot hes I b u y I
w h i l e I m ost wo m e n I b u y I a l o n e
3 . lt is becoming common for consumers to play an active
part in prod uct desi g n . Even g loba l brands, such as N i ke
tra iners and M&M sweets, a re making it possible for
people to personal ise their p u rchases.
g rowi n g t r e n d I co n s u m e rs I desi g n I own I

Read the o ri g i n al text carefully and decide


which facts to include. Choose only the
main ideas, leaving out less i mportant
details as well as examples.

2. Write this information in one paragraph.

Paraphrase rather than copy the


i nformation. Shorten sentences or combine
them in order to be more concise.
3 . Your first attempt will probably be too long.

look it over careful ly in order to find:


a. points you can delete while stil l
preserving the main idea.
b. places where you can make your
language more concise.
4. A reader of your summary should be able
to get the main idea of what the article is
about. See whether this is true about your
summary. If not, have you included enough
information? You may have to omit a minor
point and add a more i m portant point.
5. Make sure the sentences in your paragraph
fol low each other smoothly and make a
logical whole.
CHECKLIST
./

I jollowd the stps i.vt- the ExV!m Foc.LtS.

./

I i.vu:.Lu..d oftl.y the mV!i.vt- i.ds.

./

I pV!rV!phmsd mther thV!vt- c.opi..

./

My su..mmV!ry forms V! Lo3i.c.V!l whok.

./

I c.huke-d my 3mmmV!r, spLli.1113 V!vt-d


pwutu..V!ti.ovt-.

perso n a l i sed p r o d u cts

Improve Your Style


Writing Concisely

Good sentences do not con ta i n u n n ecessa ry words. You can


red uce the length of you r senten ces by substituti n g a s i m pler
p h rase for a longer a n d more com p l icated p h rase.
t

/1ke snoo
p

that "av

s ooc; wtth t

Make each sentence sim pler by shortening the


clause in italics.
1 . They ordered a pizza that had lots of cheese.
2 . The breeze came through t h e wi ndow that
was open.

ren

3 . We al most ran over a woma n

who was talking

on a mobile phone.

4.

Because he felt that his mother was upset,

the

child tried to comfort her.


5.
6.

I sang while

I was doing the washing-up.

He can 't stand s h i rts

that are made o f

polyester.

79

SKILLS

P H O N E M E S SAG E S
You a re going to practise l a nguage used for g iv i n g and t a k i n g a phone
message, as wel l as learn typical expressions used in voicema i l . Read the
t i ps on te lephone l a n g uage and a n swer the Tas k Questions be l ow.

TIPS

Some p h rasa l verbs a re co m m o n ly used i n p h o n e c a l l s . Hold on a n d hang on mea n " wa it " ,


b u t hang up mea n s " p u t the phone down " (end the c a l l ) Don't confuse these express i o n s .

When spea k i n g to someone i n a form a l situation, use can, could, would a n d may when you

I f you n eed c l a rification, use p h rases l i ke Can you repeat that, please / o r Could you

m a ke a req u est. For exa m p l e, "Could / speak to Mr Jones, please ? "


speak a little more slowly, please /

Always use please, tha n k you or thanks very much when a s k i n g for or receivi n g i n fo rmation or h e l p .

TASK QUESTIONS

1.

Read the d i a l o g u e a n d c hoose the correct a nswers. Then l iste n a n d c h ec k .

Phil i p :

Neil:

Ph i li p :

Nei l :
P h ilip:

Nei l :
Phi l i p :
Neil:

2.

What?

I Yes? I

Hello?

Hello. C o u l d I s p e a k to I W h e re i s I W i l l y o u g e t M rs Jenki ns, please?


I ' m sorry, she's not here. Can I w r ite I t a ke I d o a message?
Yes, please. Say to h e r I Say I Te l l h e r that the parcel has a rrived and needs to be collected before
5 o'clock.
Can you hold o n I wa it I h a n g up? I need to get a pen .
I s u p pose so I Certa i n ly I Yes.
Right - can you say a g a i n I repeat I review that, please?
This line is bad, I ca n 't hear you . I ' l l ca l l back I h a n g up I r i n g off.

Read the fo l l ow i n g v o i ce m a i l messages a n d g u ess t h e m iss i n g words. T h e n l iste n to t h e messages


a n d see i f you were r i g ht.

a . You 've ........ .. S i m o n 's Electricians Service. Please leave a message after the .
Tha n k you .
b. This i s G ina. I ' m sorry I ' m not ........... right now. Leave m e a message and I ' l l
. . to you a s soon a s possi ble.
c. Thank you .
Photo Shop. Our h o u rs are 8 a m-9 p m , Monday
Friday. Please
d u ring these h o u rs,
leave a message.
H

H.

3.

L i st e n to t h e m essa ges l eft o n t h e voicem a i l . W h i c h messa g e was l eft for each v o i ce m a i l ?

USE YOUR SKillS

1.

You own a business i n tow n . Create a voicema i l for you r busi ness. Remember to i n c l ude the name of
you r busi ness, open i n g h o u rs a nd a ny other im portant i nformati o n your customers may need.

2.

J ack is a pplyi ng for the job advertised below. He phones to make a n appointment for a job interview.
M r. B l a ke is out, so Jack leaves a message with the secreta ry. Write the d i a logue between Jack and the
secreta ry.

J u nior Salespeople Wanted


No experience needed, on-the-job tra i n i n g . Flexible work hours .
To set u p an interview, please phone M 1chael Bla ke 032 746 2 3 74

so l

".-

or

EXAM
PRE PARATION

Exam
Practice

TIPS FOR EXA M S


1 Creating the World We Want
2 Nature Deficit Disorder
3 Are Some Foods Truly Irresistible?
4 Texti n g Our Way to Good Health
5 Buying Adventures
6 The Death of Han d writin g ?

83
84
85
86
87
88
89

Listening
Practice

TIPS FOR LISTEN I N G EXAMS


1 G uerilla Gard e n i n g
2 Real ity TV School
3 DDR
4 M ystery Shoppers
5 The Dangers of Plagiarism
6 The Ideal Job for Teens

90
91
92
93
94
95
96

Speaking
Practice

TIPS FOR SPEAKING EXA M S


1 Tal k i n g about a Picture
2 Expressi n g Opinions
3 A Personal I nterview
4 Comparing Pictures
5 Expressi n g Opinions
6 A Role Play

97
98
99
1 00
101
1 02
1 03

81

TIP S

F OR EXAMS

READING THE TEXT

Look at the title and read the questions careful ly. This will help you
pred ict the topic and content of the text

Don't panic if you are not fa m i l i a r with the topic - the text will give you
enough information to answer the questions.

Read the text to get a general idea of the content


Remember that you don't need to understa nd every word to answer
the questions.

To understand a new word, check the beginning and the end of the
word for a suffix or prefix. These can help you guess the meaning of
a word . Read the whole sentence or paragraph aga in as this will also
help you guess its mea n i n g .

ANSWERING QUESTIONS

Read each question carefully.


Identify keywords in the questions and use them to locate the relevant
part of the text

C heck the n u m ber of poi nts al located to each question .

If you don't know the answer to a question, don't waste time


move on to the next question.
Read over your exam paper before you hand it i n .

Don't leave a n y q u estion unanswered.

Need more help?


True

F a l se questions

M u l t i p l e cho ice questions


Sent ence comp l etion
Open questions
Synonyms

Antonyms

Genera l exam t ips

WRITING AN ESSAY

Brainstorm for ideas before you start to write.

G roup similar ideas together.


Don't try to express very com p l icated ideas - keep you r sentences
simple.

Try to write a topic sentence for each paragraph .

Remember to use connectors to l i n k your ideas.

Use a variety of adjectives to make you r descriptions interesting.

Use synonyms to avoid repeating words.

C heck your essay for spelling and correct punctuation .

Need more help?

83

1l Exam Practice
Creating the World We Want
Imagine a place where there is no sound of traffic . Imagine a place where all you can hear are birds singing,
children playing and bicycle bells ringing. Residents of Vauban, a suburb of the German town Freiburg, live i n
such a place. This e nvironmental ly-friendly neighbourhood is practically car-free.
It i s permitted for residents to own cars in Vauban, but those who do must park them in large garages at the
edge of the town. A space in one of these garages is expensive, costing around 20,000. It is hardly surprising,
therefore, that 70 per cent of residents live without a car.
So how do people get by without a car? The town has been planned in a way that enables people to live
comfortably without having to use a car. There are shops, restaurants, banks and schools i n different areas
of Vauban. As a result, residents are able to get to most places on foot. For shopping trips or for transporting
young children, many people have got carts that they pull behind bicycles.

The Vauban experiment has been seen as a possible model for future way of living in an age of climate
change. Experts around the world believe that gas emissions from cars play a significant role in global
warming. As a result, there is a growing trend in Europe and the U nited States to attempt to reduce private car
use. In Copenhagen, for example, the city maintains bicycles for public use.
While Vauban may well be a sign of things to come, it has stil l not been imitated on a large scale around the
world. Yet i f Yauban residents are indeed i ntent on changing the world and not j ust the small suburb where they
l ive, they will first have to find a way to convince people that it is possible to live without cars. That may not
be such an easy task.

1 . Choose the correct answer.


1 . I n Va u ban . . .

a . no-one owns a ca r
b . there is nowhere to park
c. there a re very few cars
2 . The residents of Va u ban . . .
a . l ive at the edge of town
b. wa l k a lot
c. don't do a lot of shopping

4. Choose the best meaning for each word or


phrase.
1 . hard ly (paragraph 2 )
a . very
b. a l most not

c. completely

2 . get by (paragraph 3 )
a . travel
b. shop

c. cope

3 . m a i ntains (paragraph 4)
a. keeps
b. pro h i bits

c. destroys

4 . task (paragraph 5 )

a . trip

b . job

c. day

2 . Complete the sentences using the information

given in the text. Use your own words as far


as possible.
1 . People are able to ma nage without a car in

Va uban because
2. In Vau ba n , people prefer to l ive without a car
beca use
3 . Decide if the following sentences are true

or false. Find evidence in the text to j ustify


your answers.
1.

People use their bicycles when they go


shoppi n g .
2 . G overn ments around the world would like to
red uce people's dependence on ca rs.
3 . The writer believes that the Va uba n experiment
has changed the world.

5. Write a composition of about 1 00-1 50 words


in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
1.

Would you l i ke to l ive i n a


town that is car-free7 Why or why not?

2.

A for a n d a g a i n st essay:

An o p i n i o n essay:

The advantages ano


d isadvantages of own ing a car.

Exam Practice

Exan1 Practic
Nature Deficit Di sorder
In the past many kids would get home from school, get on their bikes and disappear i nto parks and woods unti l
it got dark. Today, however, this is not the case. Most children prefer to spend their free time i ndoors in front
of a television or a computer screen. Recently, parents and educators have become i ncreasingly concerned that
children's lack of contact with nature is having detrimental effects on their overall health.
Richard Louv, author of the bestse l ler Last Child in the Woods, has argued that chi ldren suffer physical ly and
mentally from lack of contact with nature. He believes that dozens of problems ranging from depression to
attention deficit di sorder can be triggered by alienation from nature, a condition that he has called ''Nature
Deficit D isorder'. He is convinced that contact with the outside world can reduce stress. increase a person s
attention span and stimulate creativity and cognitive development.
Louv claims that nature deficit disorder has been caused by a number of factors. Firstly, computers, video
games and television have given children more and more reasons to stay i nside. In addition, many parks and
nature reserves have "do not walk off the trail'" signs. This means that children have less access to the "natural"
outdoors.
Yet, according to Louv, the leading cause of nature deficit disorder may in fact be parents' attitudes. He
suggests that parents today are so afraid of allowing their children to explore freely outside that they are
keeping their kids indoors i n order to protect them from danger.
While there is no absolute scientific proof to support Louv's claims, most parents know from experience that
the easiest way to calm an irritable child is to go outside. If parents simply encourage the kind of outdoor play
that they remember from their own youth, it will be a good thing.

1. Choose the correct answer.


1 . In
a.
b.
c.
2.

the past, children . . . .


disappeared a lot
rode their bikes i n the dark
spent a lot of time outdoors

Richard Louv claims that . . .


a . ch i l d ren have a lot of contact with nature
b . it is i m po rtant to have contact with nature
c. children who have contact with nature are
stressed

2. Complete the sentences using the information

given in the text. Use your own words as far


as possible.
1 . C h i ld ren who do not have contact with nature

a re more li kely to

2 . C h i ldren suffer from n) u re deficit d isorder


because

4. Find words or expressions i n the text that


mean:
1 . harmful (paragraph I)
2.

many (paragraph 2 )

3 . caused (paragraph 2)
4. m a i n (para g raph 4)
5. ch i l d hood (paragraph 5)
5. Write a composition of about 1 00-1 50 words
in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
1 . An o p i n i o n essay: Do you t h i n k that spending

time outside helps people your age? Why o r


why not!
Describe a place i n you r
neighbou rhood where you enjoy spending time
outdoors.

2 . A desc r i pt i o n :

3. Decide if the following sentences are true or

false. Find evidence in the text to justify your


answers.
1.

Accord i n g to Louv, children who have contact


with nature can concentrate better than those
who don't.
2 . Pa rents are u nable t o protect their child ren from
nature deficit d isorder.
3 . Louv's claims have been scientifica lly proved.
4. The writer supports Louv's claims.
85

35 Exan1 Practice
Are Some Foods Truly I rresistible?
Have you ever wondered why you can 't resist a chocolate chip biscuit? Or David Kessler, a pediatrician and
former head of the US Food and Drug Admini stration, may have found the answer. In his new book The End of
Overeating, Kessler suggests that the reason we are not able to resist certain foods is not just because we don 't
have enough willpower.
According to Kessler, food manufacturers have created tasty combinations of fat, sugar and salt that many
people cannot stop eating even when they are ful l . He claims that food scienti sts are del iberately devisi ng
snacks, cereals and ready meal s which act on the reward centres of the brain.
Kessler believes that there i s a point at which we get the greatest pleasure from sugar, fats and salt. This
he terms the "bliss poi nt". Food that triggers this bliss point i s not only tastier, but also stimulates people's
appetites instead of suppressing them. As a result, food makers work hard to reach this precise point.
The End of Overeating draws attention to the strategies used by the food industry to ensure that our food
truly is "irresistible". It suggests that if we become more educated about the forces that infl uence our eating
behaviour, we may be able to alter our perceptions of what types of food are desirable. In addi tion, the book
stri ves to give us practical suggestions on how to curb overeating and on how to regain control of our eating
habits.

The End of Overeating places much of the blame or obesity on the fact that food in the Western world is
carefully designed to make us want to eat more of i t. Yet there can be no doubt that ultimately it is up to the
individual to maintai n a healthy weight. At the end of the day, only we can determine what goes into our
mouths, or, more importantly, what does not.

1 . Choose the correct answer.

4. Choose the best meaning for each word.

1 . Accord i n g to D r Kessler, we find certai n foods

1 . wi ll power (paragraph 1 )
b. self-control c. confidence
a . time
2. tasty (paragraph 2)
c. terrible
a . healthy
b. delicious

irresistible beca use . . .


a . we are weak
b. we have no will power
c. the foods are addictive
2. The writer of the article bel ieves that .
a . obese people are not responsible for their
condition
b. it is possible to control the tendency to
overeat
c. it is i m possible to resist certa i n foods

3 . deliberately (paragra ph 2)
b. q u ickly
a. quietly

c. i ntentionally

4. curb (paragraph 4)
a. control
b. convi nce

c. enjoy

5. Write a composition of about 1 00-1 50 words


in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
1.

2. Decide if the fol lowing sentences are true or

false. Find evidence in the text to justify your


answers.
1 . Once o u r bl iss point has been reached, we are
no longer h u n g ry.
2 . Accord i n g to Dr Kessler, it is impossible to
change our eating habits.
3. Complete the sentences using the information

g iven in the text. Use your own words as far


as possible.
1 . We find food tastiest when

2. Food ma kers work hard to reach the b l i ss point


because
3. We can a lter our perception of food by
86

The food i n d ustry should


not be allowed to make food more addictive
i ntentional ly. Do you agree? Why or why not?
2. A desc r i pt i o n : Describe you r favourite food.
Why do you enjoy eati ng it!
A n o p i n i o n essay:

Exam Practice

Texting Our Way to Good Health


Mobile phones and text messaging are frequently held responsible for the fact that young people lead inactive
lives. This i nactivity in its turn has been linked to the rising levels of child obesity all over the world. Yet, a
number of recent studies have proposed various ways that text messaging could in fact be utilised to fight child
obesity.
It has long been accepted that self-monitoring calorie intake and body weight is very i mportant for successful,
long-term weight loss. Yet i n most cases, people who are trying to lose weight find i t difficult to continue to
observe and record their own eating behav iour over time.
A recent study conducted at the University of North Carolina in the USA has shown that texting may be an
effective tool to help chi ldren monitor their eating habits. Researchers found that teen participants in the study
who reported their eating and physical activi ty using text messages were more li kely to continue monitoring
their eating and exercise behaviour than those using a traditional diary. This may be because when participants
in the study sent a text message, they immediately received an automated feedback message based on what
they had reported.
Researchers at the U niversity of Southern California in the USA are currently conducting a study in which
each teen participant is hooked up to a "mobile body-area network" that includes a heart-rate monitor, a GPS
satellite navigation unit, and a blood glucose meter. Each sensor is l inked to a smartphone that sends the data to
the university's computers, which process the information they receive. If the data suggests that a teenager has
been sitting around too much, a stream of text messages are then sent, either urging them to do some exercise
or putting them in touch with other participants for group activities.
It's sti ll unclear whether or not text messaging i s indeed the solution to fighting the rise in teen obesity.
However, it is clear that something must be done to combat this alarming trend. If we want to fight obesity
in the population as a whole, it is essential that we first begin by attacking the problem amongst children and
teens. After all, they are our future.

1 . Decide if the following sentences are true or


false. Find evidence in the text to justify your
answers.

3. Com plete the sentences using the information


given in the text. Use your own words as far
as possible.

1 . The way in which teenagers monitor their


eating behaviour may be i m portant.

1 . Self-monitoring helps people to

2.

Both of the studies mentioned i n the article


have been completed .

3 . The writer of t h e article bel ieves that texting i s


the best way t o fight the rise in child obesity.
4.

The writer of the article thinks that it is also


i m portant to deal with obesity a mongst adults.

2. Rewrite the following sentences without

changing their original meaning.


1 . Researchers a re conducting a study i n which

each teen participant is hooked u p to a mobile


body-area network.
Researchers a re conducting a study by
2. it is clear that something must be done to
combat this alarming trend.
it is clear that we

2 . Both of the studies descri bed in the article


investigated

4. Choose the best meaning for each word.


1 . linked (paragraph 1 )
a . suggested
b. con nected
2. mon itoring (paragraph 3)
a. changing
b . i m proving
3. alarming (paragraph 5)
a . exciting
b . frighten ing

c. added
c. checking
c. i nteresting

5. Write a com position of a bout 1 00-1 50 words


in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
1.

An o p i n i o n essay:

Some people bel ieve that


mobile phones should be banned from schools.
Do you agree/ Why or why not?

2.

An o p i n i o n essay:

Do you think that text


messaging could help you follow a hea lthy
l ifestyle/ Why or why not!

87

---

xam Practice
Buy ing Adventures
From camel treks i n Algeria to jeep tours of Afghanistan, an increasing number of travellers are now opting for
adventure holidays which offer them thrilling and chal lenging experiences that they will never forget.
Traditionally, adventure holidays were primarily taken by young individual travel lers who travelled on a low
budget. Yet today, people of all ages are seeking out new and exciting ways to take a break from the routine of
normal life. As a result, many tour operators offer specially designed tours that are dedicated to taking
participants to remote and dangerous parts of the world. Many of these tours are extremely expensive. A trip to
the Patagonia Wilderness in South America can cost around $ 1 1 ,000 while those wishing to reach the summit
of Mt. Everest are required to pay over $25 ,000.
Adventure travellers are looking for a challenge and get satisfaction from taking risks and accomplishing
something that many others will never achieve. They tend to go to places where very few people have ever
considered going. When a country decides to welcome in travellers, it's the adventure travellers that are the
first to arrive.
Adventure travellers often return from their trip feeling that they have undergone a life-changing experience.
Many claim that the fact that they have successfully coped with such a challenging situation makes them more
confident in their own ability to deal with any difficulty they may encounter in everyday life.
Yet not everyone agrees that adventure travel is a good thing. Environmental activists are increasingly
concerned that the human desire to explore unfamiliar territory may in fact be very harmful to the environment.
They suggest that carbon emissions res ulting from a human presence in i solated areas like Antarctica may
cause irreversible damage to the natural surroundings. However, despite these objections, humans continue to
desire adventures. As more and more possibilities open up, including commercial space travel j ust around the
corner, it would seem that adventure travel is here to stay.

1 . Choose the correct answer.


1 . Adventure travellers today
a. are you n g
b. do not have a lot of money
c. often travel i n g ro u ps
2 . Adventure travel lers who return from thei r
travels . . . .
a. a re self-confident
b. find it difficult to return to everyday l ife
c. are u nable to cope with challenging
situations
3 . The writer bel ieves that adventure travel

a . will become less popu l a r


b. will not change
c. will continue to develop
2. Answer the questions.

1 . What attracts people to adventure travel ?


2 . Why d o environ mental ists object to
adventure travef?

88

3. Rewrite the following sentences without


changing their original meaning.
1 . Those wishing to reach the s u m m it of Mt.
Everest a re req u i red to pay over $ 2 5,000.
If you wish to reach the sum mit of
Mt. Everest,

1.

2 . Ca rbon emissions may cause da mage to the


natu ral surro u n d i ngs.
The natural su rroundings may

4. Find words or expressions i n the text that


mean the opposite of:
1 . boring (paragraph 1 )
2 . nearby (paragraph 2)
3 . very easy (paragraph 4)

4. good for you (paragraph 5)


5. Write a composition of about 1 00-1 50 words
in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
Describe you r ideal holiday.

1.

A desc r i pt i o n :

2.

A n o p i n i o n essay:

Wou l d you l i ke to g o o n a n
adventure hol iday? Why o r why not?

2.

1.

2.

Exam Practice

xam Practice
The Death of Handwriting?

Today people are generally hammering away on a computer keyboard, texting on a mobile phone or twittering
on a B l ackberry. They are no longer writing by hand. So is penmanship simply an outdated and inefficient
mode of communication or i s there value in trying to preserve it?
At one t ime, writing clearly and quickly was essential to everything from public documents to personal letters.
However today i n the age of the e-mail and the text message, most people rarel y need to write more than a
shoppi ng list or a short note.
Although handwritten communication is less widespread than it once was, many people continue to believe
that the art of penmanship must be protected. They suggest we must conti nue to learn handwriting skills if we
wish to be able to read all types of handwriting and thus maintain a direct connection with the past . For them,
it is difficult to conceive of the possibi lity that a person might one day find his grandmother's di ary and be
unable to read it.
I n addi tion, people note that a person's handwriting i s distinctive and can be as personal as his voice or laugh.
By preserving hand-written communication, they claim, we are also maintai n i ng our connection with the
unique qualities of i ndividuals.
I nterestingly, the development of the telephone, the computer and the text message have not completely
removed the need to write by hand as many feared. In fact, it seems highly unlikely that handwritten
communication w i l l ever disappear completely s ince there is always the possibil ity of not having a computer
available at a particular moment or that there w i l l be a power fai lure and we will have to write down i mportant
information on a piece of paper. Even in today's technological world, the handwritten word is very much alive
and well and i t looks set to stay that way for a very long t ime to come.

1 . Choose the correct answer.

3. Answer the questions.

1 . Handwritten com m u nication


a . is less i m portant than i t used t o be
b . h a s d isappea red
c. is now used on a larger scale

1.

2 . People who learn ha ndwriting skills


a. wi ll lose thei r con nection with the past
b. wi ll be able to read handwritten docu ments
c. wi ll find it difficult to use computers
3 . Type-written comm u n i cation is . . . .
a . less widespread than handwritten
com m u n ication
b . u n ique
c. i m personal

2. Rewrite the following sentences without


changing their original meaning.
1 . Handwritten com m u n ication is less widespread
than it once was.

2 . Accord i n g to the writer, why i s it u n l i kely that


the handwritten word will ever d isappear
completely?

4. Find words or expressions i n the text that


mean:
1.

3 . keep (paragraph 3)
4. u n ique (paragraph 4)
5 . i m p roba ble (paragraph 5)

5. Write a composition of about 1 00-1 50 words


in your notebook. Choose ONE option.
Imagine that you have j u st come
across you r g rand mother's d i a ry. Write a d i a ry
entry in which you r g ra n dmother descri bes
something that happened to her on a
particular day.

1 . A n a rrative:

2 . The development of the telephone, the


computer and the text message have not
completely removed the need to write by h a n d .

old-fash ioned (paragraph 1 )

2 . i magine (paragraph 3)

Handwritten com m u nication is not

The need to write by hand

Why has handwritten comm u n i cation become


less widespread than it u sed to be?

2.

" Computers have made the


world a better place. " Do you agree ? Why or
why not?
A n o p i n i o n essay:

89

TIP S

FOR LISTEN NG EXAMS

BEFORE YOU LISTEN

Before l i stening to the record i n g , read the title a n d the comprehension


questions, as they can help you to pred ict the topic and content of the
passage.

When you read the q u estions, identify keywords and underline them.

M a ke s u re you know the type of i nformation you are listen i n g for


(place, time, person, reason, etc.).

WHILE YOU LISTEN

As you l isten, pay attention to keywords and their synonyms or


a ntonyms to recog nise the pa rt of the record i n g related to each
question.

Remember - you don't have to u ndersta nd every word to


com p rehend the main i deas a n d answer q uestions.
Some English words can sound very simi lar. Try to recognise
the word from its context.

ANSWERING MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

90

Read the choice of answers carefu l ly and listen for the correct
answer expressed in a s l i g htly different way.

Be aware of words that appea r i n the recordi n g , but which a re


used as d istractors i n the questions.

Listening Practice

1l Listening Practice
Guerilla Gardening G

tune i n (to):
make a point of:
neglected:
weed:
show u p:
wasteland:
industria l estate:
soil:

You are going to listen to a radio interview about


a special kind of gardening. Listen and choose
the correct answers.

1.

G u e r i l l a g a r d e n e rs . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

5. M a ri l y n 's n ext project . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

use their own land for growi ng pla nts


do not g row plants on privately owned land
g row pla nts on land they do not own
only use land that belongs to everyone

2. M a r i lyn i s a g ue r i l l a g a rd e n e r beca use

opposes land ownership


wants to g row food
li kes flowers
wa nts to i mprove the appearance of her
hometown

3. M a r i lyn i s u s i n g p l a nts t h at . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.
4.

cost a lot of money


are donated
she buys
a re old

R i g ht n ow, M a r i l y n 's g r o u p . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

has been the same for yea rs


includes some students
are j ust students
includes a 1 0-year-old boy

i nvolves g rowi ng a lot of g rass


is one that l isteners wi l l remember
wastes a lot of fertile soi l
is o n an i ndustrial estate

6. The n ew p roject . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

she . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

si ntonizar
poner empeno en
abandonado/a, descuidado/a
mala h1erba
presentarse, aparecer
paramo, terreno baldfo
polfgono 1nd ustr1a l
t1erra

7.

is sched uled to start early in the morning


will begi n i n the m iddle of the n ight
may d istu rb the local residents
is i l legal

M a ri lyn e n c o u r a g es peo p l e to b r i n g . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

gardening tools
boxes
plastic bags
not h i n g

8. G u e r i l l a g a r d e n e rs th i n k i t i s i m p o rta nt
to . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

use only envi ronmental ly-friendly materials


clean u p after they fin ish
leave stones
use plastic bags

91

Listening Practice
Reality T V School
You are going to listen to an i nterview about
Reality TV School. Listen and choose the correct
answers.

1 . J essi e's l atest a ss i g n m e nt was to be . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

a n actor
a rea l ity TV star
a student
a reporter

2. The school a i m s to . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

make people look d i fferent from each other


teach people acti ng skills
help people get onto a rea l ity show
help people change their personal ities

3 . T h e " Pe r p Wa l k " . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

helps students wal k faster


is an exam ple of a television show
teaches people to i nsult others
is u npleasant for participa nts

4. J o rge B e n d e rsky . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

is the name of an a n i m a l
is an acting coach
appeared on rea lity TV
started the real ity TV school

5. What do stu d ents l e a r n at the Rea l ity TV


Schoo l ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

t o i m p rove their a ppea ran ce


to film each other
to tal k more quickly
to l isten to each other's sound bites

6. The l o n g c o u rse . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.
7.

T h e t h ree- h o u r sem i n a r . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

92

meets for five weeks


lasts longer than most rea l ity shows
causes a lot of confl icts
can be seen on TV
is requ i red of a l l students
costs nearly $ 1 40
i ncl udes over 2 5 students
consists of private i nstruction

assig nment:
m isi6n, enca rgo
make the most of: aprovecha r al maxima,
sacar el maxima partido a I de
make it o nto:
consegu i r entrar en
rema rk:
comenta rio, observaci6n
acti ng coach:
profesor/a de interpretaci6n
catchy:
pegadizo/a, facil de recorda r
private tuition: clases part1culares
former:
antig uo/a, a nterior
8. Now Jessie . . . .

a. is appearing on the reality show

Eye in the

Sky

b. wants to become a contestant on a cooking


show
c. has become a casting agent for reality TV
shows
d . is participating i n a nother cou rse

Listening Practice

33 Listening Practice
DDR
You are going to listen to a conversation about a
different way to exercise. Listen and choose the
correct answers.

1 . Pamela . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

is a physical education teacher


presented DDR at a conference
will attend a conference tomorrow
has retu rned from a teachers' meeti ng

2. I n D D R, p l ayers . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

appea r on TV
create m usic
point to the arrows
step on a mat

mat:
display:
i n time to:

alfombri l la (de bai le)


v1sualiza r
a l eo m pas I ritmo de

l i n e u p:
soda:
workout:
look into:

hacer cola
refresco con gas
eje rcicio
estud1a r, invest1ga r

'l\d.o am ac.ad.. so.\o. d "'dG\..\'.;)GS

3 . O r i g i n a l ly, D D R . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

was invented by a woman


started i n Japan
started as part of a physica l ed ucation class
was free

4 . L i n d a Ca rson . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

beca me a D D R player
worked i n a video game arcade
sold the D D R video
did a study on D D R

5 . Why i s D D R s o a p pea l i n g ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

l t i s more challenging than basketba l l .


Teens are used t o playing video games.
You need a lot of ta lent to play.
You just have to catch a ba l l .

W h i c h i s N OT m e n t i o n ed a s a b e n efit of
DDR?

a.
b.
c.
d.

weight loss
i ncreased fitness level
better sports skills
fun

M o re expens ive vers i o n s of t h e g a me . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

come with extra mats


may cost as m uch as $800
charge extra for the TV
a re not so comfortable

M r J o n es t h i n ks . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

D D R is a waste of time
DDR is too expensive
D D R sounds l i ke a good idea
the other teachers won't I i ke it

93

Listening Practice
Mystery Shoppers

una etern idad, sig los, m ucho


tiempo
beforehand: de antemano, con a ntelaci6n
brutal ly:
tremendamente
perk:
i n centivo, ventaja
pose as:
hacerse pasar por
preten d :
fingir, hacer como que
promptness: rapidez
refuse:
negarse

ages:

You are going to l i sten to an interview about


mystery shoppers. Listen and choose the correct
answers.

1 . What do mystery s h o ppers d o ?

a . They pretend that they a re customers.


b. They try to make friends with the staff i n a
shop.
c. They report on the company that employs
them .
d . They take photos of the staff and customers.

5. Mystery s h oppers s p e n d a l ot of t i m e . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

6 . To by's pet . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

2. Why d o b u s i n esses e m p l oy mystery


s h o ppers?

a.
b.
c.
d.

To teach employees how to act natural ly.


To find out how employees rea lly behave.
To increase the n u m ber of sa les i n a shop.
To eva l uate the boss.

3. Mystery s h op pers . . . .

a . pay for any services they receive


b. receive only services but no payment for
their work
c. are not always paid on time
d. wait for ages to get a job
4. What d o Toby's d ut i es i nc l u d e ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Taking notes w h i l e he works.


Tel l i n g people what to do.
Writing gu ideli nes.
Observing details.

I
(

94

being friendly
i n coffee shops
giving feedback
talking about thei r feelings

7.

d i d not rea l ly exist


weighed more than it should
m isbehaved
embarrassed Toby

To by f i n d s it h a rd to . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

always be honest
write a good report
feel sorry for people
meet the company's standards

8 . What does To by l i ke a bout h is j o b ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

T h e h o u rs.
The free vacations and spa holidays.
The experiences.
The job opportu n ities.

Liste n i n g Practice

IS) Listening Practice


The Dangers of Plagiarism

educational establishment: sistema educative


cheat:
copiar
denu nciar
report:
account for:
expl ica r, justificar
the end j ustifies
el fin justifica Ios medias
the means:

You are going to listen to a radio interview


about plagiarism. Listen and choose the correct
answers.

trabajo
moral idad, princi pios
cifra

paper:
morals:
fig u re:
1 . Who i s R o g e r H a n se n ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

A
A
A
A

6 . Tea c h e rs . . . .

a . often copy words from one docu ment to


another
b. are awa re that some s i m i l a rities are i n nocent
c. are now more careful when they mark
papers
d. don't let students know thei r work will be
checked

plagiarist
psychologist
student
u n iversity professor.

2. P l a g i a r i s m . . . .

a . is considered less serious than cheati ng i n


exa ms
b. has not gai ned much attention
c. means copying someone else's work
d . means cheating in an exam
3 . M a ny stu d e nts today . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.
4.

a re encou raged to cheat by the i r schools


compete to see who ca n cheat the most
t h i n k that cheating is j u stified if it helps
a re reported for cheating by their parents

H ow d oes t h e I nternet e n c o u ra g e c h e at i n g ?

a . l t tempts students t o copy others' work.


b. lt simpl ifies m uch of the material ava i lable.
c. Students use their own words when
cheat i n g .
d . Students ca n 't b e ca ught.

7.

What i s N OT m e n t i o n ed a s a p u n i s h m ent for


cheat i n g ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Students m ust take t h e cou rse aga i n .


Students m u st d o a nother paper.
Students may not gain a qual ification .
Students m u st help others with their
assig nments.

8. What does Roger H a nsen t h i n k a bout


c heats?

a.
b.
c.
d.

They
They
They
They

may not be q u a l ified to do their job.


should be g rateful to society.
help keep Turniti n . com i n busi ness.
m i g ht not know that they ' re cheat i n g .

5. W h a t type of website i s Tu r n i t i n . c o m ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

lt sells papers to students for as l ittle as 6.


lt a llows students to check their spel l i n g .
l t decides what action teachers should ta ke .
lt helps teachers see if work has been copied.

95

(6) Listening Practice


The Ideal Job for Teens G

s u it:
h i re:
s u rvey:
fee:
average:
stead y flow:
deliver:

You are going to listen to a conversation


between two teenagers about an ideal job. Listen
and choose the correct answers.

1.

5 . To m p refers s u rvey co m p a n i e s t h at . . . .

Lisa . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

a.
b.
c.
d.

enjoyed her job as a babysitter


q u it both her s u m mer jobs
cou l d n 't get a paper delivery job
earned a lot of money

a . 1 5 m i n utes
b. u nder 1 0 m i n utes
c. 2 0 m i n utes
d . an average of 1 0 m i n utes

a . she d i d n 't want to work as a shop assistant


b. she wasn't paid a lot for being a shop
assistant
c. she cou l d n 't get a job as a shop assistant
d. she was too experienced to be a shop
assistant

7.

it req u i res travel l i ng to i nteresti ng places.


it's not difficult.
it's enjoya ble.
it has flexible h o u rs .

a.
b.
c.
d.

answering telephones for big compan ies


t h i n k i n g of ideas for new products
developing ma rketing su rveys
answering questions on online su rveys

96

_______j

u nder the age of 1 6


if you a re over 1 5
if you a re between 1 3 and
from the age of 1 3

16

8. Tom a d v i ses Lisa . . . .

4 . T h e w o r k Tom descri bes i s . . . .

I
I
I J
)
I
I
I
\ \
J -- ; 1 I I i .. \ ' \ \

\ \ I
I ' I
I ' I
I I I
I
I
( ' r - / " 1 ' ' \ -" \
\

Yo u c a n reg i ster for a su rvey co m p a n y . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

3. What i s NOT true a bout Tom 's i d e a l j o b ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

i nclude a mem bers h i p fee


a re free to join
a re cash-payi ng
a re poi nt-payi ng

6. Tom c a n com p l ete a s u rvey i n . . . .

2. Lisa was d i sa pp o i nted beca use . . . .

a.
b.
c.
d.

conve n i r, ven i r I i r bien


contrata r
encuesta
cuota
promedio, media
afl uencia conti nua
repartir

to ask her parents for money


to join only one su rvey company
to join her parents' Paypal account
to reg ister with the compan ies on h i s l ist

TIP S

F OR SPEAKING EXAMS

BEFORE YOU SPEAK

M a ke sure that you u nderstand the task and the q uestions you are
g iven .

If you are al lowed some preparation time, organise what you are going
to say a n d use simple notes.

Don 't try to com m u n icate ideas that are too complicated. it's better to
use simple sentences.

Don't worry if you don't know a particular word or expression in


English . T h i n k of an a lternative and use the words you know to express
the same idea.

WHILE YOU SPEAK

N e e d more help?

Don't spea k too q u i ckly or too slowly. Try to spea k clea rly.

Tal k i n g about a p icture

Don't worry about making errors - it's preferable to make a few errors
than to remain si lent a n d not say a nyth ing at a l l .

C o m p a ring p i ctures

If you make a mistake, stay calm, correct you rself and carry on
speaking.

A personal i nterview
'

E x p ressing an o p i n ion
,,

Rol e p l ay
"

97

Jl Spe aking Practice


Talking about a Picture
1. Match the examiner's questions to the student's answers.
I
1 . What can you see i n the picture ?

What's i n t h e background 7
3 . What's the weather l i ke 7
4. What do you think t h e people were d o i n g before t h e picture was taken?
5 . What is the people's relationship to one another?
6 . What do you t h i n k will happen next?
2.

11

a. In the b a c k g ro u n d you can see mountains and a h i l l covered in snow.


b. There a re skis lea n i n g agai nst the wa ll, so I su p pose they were s k i i n g .
c. You ca n te l l it's very cold - everyone is d ressed i n wi nter clothes .
d . T h e p i ct u re s h ows people sitting round a table. They seem to be eating i n a restau rant or hotel.
e. lt l o o ks l i ke they're a l l friends. They're about the same age and they're talking and l a u g h i n g .
f . After t h e i r m e a l , t h ey' l l p r o b a b l y go s k i i n g aga i n .

2. Listen t o a student describing a picture. Then write T (true) or F (false) for each statement.
The student .
1 . descri bed what she could see i n the background.
2 . specu lated about what the people were doing before the pictu re was taken .
3 . described what the people a re doi n g .
4. described the atmosphere.
5 . described the weather.
6 . specu lated about what might happen next

TASK
Describe this picture.
Use the q uestions in Exercise
1 a bove to h e l p you, as well
as the expressions in bold.

I f you n e e d t i m e to t h i n k,
um . . .

well

... ,

i t's

fi n e to p a u se or to say t h i n g s l i k e :

e r . . . I s u p pose t h ey' l l g o h o m e aft e r t h ey've e a t e n .

Speaking Practice

Sp eaking Practice
Expressing Opinions
1 . Complete the mini-dialogues with the expressions below.
there's no way
n ot rea l l y

a l l r i g ht

come on

reached a d e c i s i o n

you 've g ot a poi nt

I h a d n 't t h o u g h t of that

A: We use too many plastic bags these days and the supermarkets enco u rage it.
So what do you suggest we do - ban plastic bags7
B : I suppose 1
A: 2
... - I don't think that would work. I n my opinion, supermarkets should charge
customers for bags.
H

A: Let's try to persuade the students at our school to stop using buses and cars, and to
start cycl i n g to schoo l .
B: Oh, 3 ... . ! 4 . ... .. . . they'd agree to that. A n d i n a ny case, there's nowhere t o leave
bi kes at o u r schoo l .
A: 5
!
OOOOOOOHOO

A: 6 .... ... ... then. Have we 7 .. . . . 7


B : G reat !
H

2. The students you are about to hear have been asked to suggest an alternative, environmentally

friendly sou rce of electricity for their school. Listen to the conversation and write solar panels or
wind turbines for each point below.
1 . cheap to use
2. not attractive
3. harm wildl ife
4. very effective
5 . m ight not provide enough energy
3. What option did the students choose?

TASK
In your opinion, which of the following is the most serious ecological problem
facing the world today? Discuss with your partner and decide on one of the
problems below. In your discussion, use the expressions in colour from Exercise 1 .

global warming
land poll ution
carbon emissions

water pollution
deforestation
overpopulation

il
-.....--.
.. illioli.
Lea r n l ots of t o p i c w o rds. T h i s

will

expa n d

you r voca b u l a ry a n d y o u w o n ' t r u n o u t o f t h i n g s t o say.

99

35 Sp eaking Practice
A Personal Interview
1 . Kath and Peter want to volunteer at a local community centre. The secretary is asking Kath some
questions. Match Kath's answers to the secretary's questions.
Secretary

Kath
No, I ' m a n only c h i l d .
Well, hockey a t school, b u t that's about it
I l ike photog raphy and I play the guitar.
I ' m a bit shy with older people; I ' m very patient
with childre n .
e. I ' l l b e 1 7 i n August
f. No, I 've never done anyth ing l i ke this before.

1 . H ow old a re you ?

a.
b.
c.
d.

2 . Do you p l a y a ny s p o rts?
3. Do you have a ny b rothers or s i sters?

4.
5.

What a re you r h o b b i es ?

6.

How w o u l d you desc r i b e yo u rse lf?

H ave y o u d o n e vo l u nteer work befo re?

2. Kath and Peter were asked the questions in bold in an interview. Listen to their i nterview, then
answer the questions that follow.
1 . H ow l o n g h a ve you l ived i n B i r m i n g h a m ?
Which student used i n co rrect grammar, Kath o r Peter/
2 . What d o y o u t h i n k of B i r m i n g h a m ? D o you l i ke l iv i n g h e r e ?

Whose answer was too short?


3.

How often d o you get together with yo u r f r i e n d s ? What d o you d o ?

Whose answer incl uded i rreleva nt i nformation I


4. What types of TV prog ra m m es do you enjoy?

Which student did not answer the question?

3. Ask your partner the questions in bold in Exercise 2. Then evaluate your partner's answers according
to the criteria in Exercise 2 above.

TASK
Write a d ialogue between Dave and Tom. Tom is new at school . Dave asks Tom questions about his
interests and opinions. Write six questions that Dave asked and Tom 's answers .

...._.-- S h o w i n te rest i n you r pa rtne r's a n sw ers.

R e a l ly?

100

T h at's i n te rest i n g .

S o u n d s g re a t

terri b l e .

Speaking Practice

41 Speaking Practice
Comparing Pictures
1.

a
b
c
d
e

Match the functions to the expressions below.

Functions
simi larities between pictures
differences between pictures
giving examples
expressing a n opinion
specu lating

Expressions
1 . The two pictu res are similar beca use . . .
2 . both pictures show .
3 . Another thing they've got i n common i s . .
4 . for example . .
5 . seem to . . .
6 . Another difference i s . . .
1

7 . whereas i n the first picture


8 . I would i magine that . . .
9 . t h e people are proba bly
1 0. such as . . .
1 1 . Personally, I ' d rathe r
1 2 . I prefer . . .

2. Listen to a dialogue in which two students compare the pictures below.

Which of the expressions in Exercise 1 do they use?

TAS K
With a partner, compare the pictures below. In what ways are they similar? In
what ways are they different? Use the expressions in Exercise 1 to help you.

llilil...;-.
..;;.; Yo I f you w a n t to a d d to w h a t you 've s a i d , u s e t h e fo l l o w i n g exp ress i o n s :

I 've j u st n o t i ced t h a t . . .

A n d a n ot h e r t h i n g ; ...

By t h e way, I ca n s e e . . .

f5) Sp eaking Practice


Expressing Opinions
1. Read the statements below and decide whether you agree or d isagree with each one.
1 . Mobile phones a re r u i n i ng our social l ives.
2. Young people spend too much time using computers.
3. Secondary school students should study from home using the I nternet.
4. Lessons in schools should beg i n no earlier than 1 0 . 00 a m .
5 . Young people today lead a less healthy lifestyle t h a n previous generations.
2. Read the five statements below. Each one is a response to one of the statements i n Exercise 1 .

Decide which statements i n Exercise 1 each refers to, then complete the statements with one of the
fol lowing expressions. There may be more than one correct answer.
I d o u bt it

Yo u 've g ot a p o i nt

Yo u 've g ot to a d m it t h at
I ' m a l l for t h at

'4

You cou l d be r i g ht

H ow c a n you say t h at?

As fa r a s I ' m conce r n ed,

I t h i n k you ' re wrong

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

I rea l ise t h at, b ut

I n my o p i n i o n,

I a g ree e n t i re l y

That's n ot t h e w a y I s e e i t
I d i s a g ree

........... . Sometimes I ' m j u st so tired in the morn i n g .


........... they c a n b e a g reat h e l p i n an emergency.
........... . They just sit a l l day i n front of the computer or television .
........... . Computers a re the futu re and we need to know how to use them.
........... . I learn better when I ' m i n a class, with other students.

3 . Two students are d iscussing statement 1 in Exercise 1 above. listen to their conversation and say

which person you agree with. Write down the most convincing point that they made.

TASK
In pairs, look at the statements in Exercise 1. Choose one that you agree with and that your partner
disagrees with, and discuss. Give reasons for your point of view, and use the expressions in colour in
Exercise 2.

----- Lea r n d i ffere n t e x p ressi o n s to a g ree o r d i sa g ree w i t h yo u r pa rt n er.


I t h i n k yo u ' re w ro n g .

I ' m sorry, I d o n ' t a g ree.

Yo u ' re q u ite r i g h t !

T h a t's t r u e .

Speaking Practice

@ Sp eaking Practice
A Role Play
1 . What do you consider i mportant when you buy clothes? Choose the three most important points
from below.
a . getting a discount
b . buying the best qual ity
c. getting a guarantee
d. getting polite service
e. buying something that is comfortable
f. being able to choose from a large selection
g. buying someth ing that is fashionable
,4 2. Read the dialogue and fill in the missing words. Then listen to the d ialogue and check your answers.

Sales assistant:
Katie:
Sales a ssistant:
Katie:
Sales assistant:
Katie:
Sales assistant:
Katie:
Sales assistant:
Katie:
Sales assistant:
Katie:
Sales assistant:

G ood morni n g . How ca n I help you ?


I ' d l i ke t o b u y t h e boots that were advertised i n t h e newspaper.
I ' m sorry. I ' m afraid we've 1 ........... out of those !
Oh . . . wel l , what about these? Are they on 2 ... . ?
I ' m afraid not. They're 50 .
50 ? ! Have you got anything 3 .. ...... ?
Wel l , we do have these boots. They' re very comfortable and
they're top 4 .
They're sti l l quite expensive. Is there a 5 .... .. . ?
I ' l l have to check with the 6 .
O K . I ' l l wait.
You ' re in luck ! She says she can give you 1 0% off.
1 0% ? That's not very much ! Anyway, I ' m not s u re they 7 . . . me.
U m , no, I'm not 8 .. . .. the m . Thanks, anyway.
C ertain ly, M iss.

TAS K
With a partner, act out the following role play using expressions from Exercise 2 and any others that
you have learned.
Student A (customer): You have seen a coat that you rea lly want in a shop window. You try it on but it is
slig htly big on you . You would also l ike a d ifferent colour.
Student B (sales assistant): This is the last coat that you have. You rea l ly want to sell it. Try to convince the
customer that the col o u r is wonderful and the size is just right.

._--""..-.....

Try to re l a x a n d act n a t u ra l ly. Yo u can ask q u esti o n s to keep the conversa t i o n g o i n g .

W h a t d o y o u reco m m e n d ?

W h e re a re t h e l atest m od e l s ?

W h e n does t h e s a l e e n d ?

103

GRAMMAR APPENDIX
Grammar Review
PRESENT SIMPLE
FORM
Negative

Interrogative

I I You work

I I You do not (don 't) work

Do I I you work?

H e I She I it works

H e I She I lt does not (doesn 't) work

Does h e I she I it work?

We I You I They work

We I You I They do not (don 't) work

Do we I you I they work?

A ffi rmative

I T i m e expressions

Uses

Examples

Adverbs o f frequency

A reg u l a r habit or routine

My sister works on Sundays.


( M i hermana trabaja Ios
dom i ngos.)

a l ways, usual ly, g e ne ra l ly, reg u l a rly,


occasional ly, frequen tly, often , someti m es,
rarely, seldom, n ever

A g e n e ra l truth o r scientific fact

Facebook is a popular website.


(Facebook es u n a pagina web
conocida.)

Stative verbs

I think she is very bossy.


(Creo q u e es m uy m a n dona.)

a t 1 o'cl ock, at n i g ht, i n the morn i n g ,


o n Fridays, eve ry week, once a month,
how often . . .?

::l STATIVE VERBS


I n d ican u n estado, mas q u e u n a acci6n, y suelen usarse
e n Present Simple. Estan relacionados con :

A l g u nos i nd ica n ta nto estado com a activi dad y pueden


usarse e n Present Simple y e n Present Continuous.

las emociones y Ios sent i m i e ntos (disl i ke, enjoy, hate,


hope, l i ke, love, prefer, wa nt),

Donna thinks the book is wonderful.


(Donna cree q ue el I i b ra es estupendo.) [estado)

e l pensa m i e nto y la opinion (bel i eve, forget, guess,


know, remember, th i n k, understa nd),

He is thinking about going to Malta in the summer.


(Esta pensa n d o e n i rse a Ma lta en vera no.) [activi dad]

la percepci6n y Ios sentidos (feel , hear, see, smell,


so und, taste, touch).

El verba see en Present Con tinuous i n d ica una acci6n


futu ra fijada de antema no.

Ios precios y las medidas (cost, measure, weigh) y

We are seeing Ann tonight.


(Ve remos a A n n esta n oche.) [Ya h e mos q u edado.)

la posesi6n (belong, have, own).


-------

PRESENT CONTINUOUS
FORM
A ffirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I am singing

I am (I'm) not singing

Am I singing?

You are singing

You a re not (aren't) sing i n g

Are you singing?

H e I She I l t is singing

H e I She I l t is n o t (isn 't) s i n g i n g

Is h e I she I it s i n g i ng ?

We I You I They a re singing

We I You I They a r e n o t (aren't) s i n g i n g

Are we I y o u I they s i n g i n g ?

Uses

Examples

Time expressions

An action which is h a p p e n i n g now

Greg is reading right now.


(G reg esta leyendo a h o ra mismo.)

now, right now, at the moment

A tem porary action

I am studying maths this term. (Estoy


estudia ndo matematicas este trim estre.)

this yea r, at present, today,


these days, t h i s month

A d efi n ite p l a n for the near fut u re


(see page 1 08)

I am meeting my boyfriend tonigh t.


( H e q u edado con m i n ovio esta n oche.)

t h i s eve n i n g , ton ig ht, tomorrow,


n ext Friday I week I yea r
105

PAST SIMPLE
FO R M
Affirmative

Negative

1 1 You fi n i shed

I n terrogative

1 1 You did not (didn 't) fi n ish

Did

1 1 you fi nish?

H e I She l it fi n ished

H e I She l i t did not (didn 't) fi nish

Did h e I she I it fi nish?

We I You I They fi n ished

We I You I They did not (didn't) fi nish

Did we I you I they fi nish?

Uses

Examples

Time expressions

A com p l eted action i n


t h e past

A dog attacked my sister last year.


( U n perro atac6 a mi hermana el a n o pasad o.)

yesterday, last week I yea r,


two days ago, i n 2007, i n the 1 980s,
in the 1 8'h century, w h e n , then

A series of completed actions Mr Smith climbed the stairs and followed him.
(El Sr. Smith subi6 las esca l e ra s y lo sigu i6.)
in the past
-

- ---

----------

PAST CONTINUOUS
FORM
Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I was visiti n g

I was not (wasn 't) visiti n g

Was I visiti ng?

You were visiting

You were n o t (weren 't) visiting

Were you visiti ng?

H e I She l i t was visiting

H e I She l it was not (wasn 't) vi siti ng

Was h e I she I it visiting?

We I You I They were visiti ng

We I You I They were not (weren't) visiting

Were we I you I they visiting?

Uses

Examples

Time expressions

An i n co m p l ete action in prog ress


at a specific time in the past

At 9 o 'clock that evening, he was waiting for the report.


(Esa noche a las 9 el estaba espera n d o el i nfo rme.)

last n i g ht I week I
yea r, at 4 o'clock

An i nco m p l ete actio n i nterru pted


by a nother action

As I was speaking on the phone, David came into the room.


( M i entras yo h a b l a ba por telefono, David entr6 en la
ha bitaci6n.)

when, w h i le, as

Two i ncom p l ete actions i n prog ress While Janet was walking up the path, Martin was parking
at the same time i n the past
the car.
( M ie ntras J a n et subia por e l ca m i no, M a rt i n esta ba
a p a rca ndo e l cache.)

l_

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE


FORM
Affirmative

106

1 1 You had a rrived

Negative

1 1 You had not (had n't) a rrived

I n terrogative

He I She l i t had a rrived

He I She l i t had not (hadn't) arrived

Had h e I she I it a rrived?

We I You I They-h ad arrived

We I You I They had not (hadn't) a rrived

Had we I you I they a rrived?

Had

1 1 you a rrived?

Uses

Examples

Time expressions

A completed action which took place


before a noth e r action i n the past

By the time the police arrived, he had


already left.
( Pa ra cuando l l eg6 l a policia, ya se
ha bia m a rchado).

a l ready, by the time, after,


before, u ntil, n ever, j ust

Grammar Appendix

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE


FORM
Interrogative

Negative

A ffirmative

I I You have l ived

He I She I it has l ived

We I You I They have l ived

I I You have not (haven 't) l ived

H ave I I you l ived?


Has h e I she I it l ived?

He I She I lt has not (hasn 't) l ived

H ave we I you I they l ived?

We I You I They have not (h aven 't) l ived

Time expressions

Uses

Examples

An action that began in the past and conti n u es


i n the present

I have played basketball for two years. n ever, ever, a l ready, j ust, yet,
rece ntly, l ate ly, how long .. .?,
(Li evo j u g a n d o al baloncesto dos
fo r, si nce, in rece nt yea rs
a n os.)

An action that took place at an u n d etermined


She has moved house recen tly.
t i m e i n the past, but is co n nected to the prese nt (Se ha ca mbiado d e casa hace poco.)

- FUTURE SIMPLE
FO R M
Affirmative

I nterrogative

Negative

I I You w i l l a l low

I I You w i l l not (won't) a l low

H e I She I it w i l l a l low

H e I She I i t will not (won't) a l low

W i l l he I she I it a l low?

We I You I They w i l l not (won 't) a l low

Will we I you I they a l low?

We I You I They w i l l a l l ow

W i l l I I you a l l ow?

Uses

Examples

Time expressions

A pred iction

Vancouver will attract thousands of tourists.


(Va ncouver atra e ra a m i l es de tu ristas.)

A p l a n ned
sched u l e

The tour will begin at 9.00 am.


(La visita e m pezara a las 9 de la m a fi a n a.)

this eve n i ng, in an h o u r, at 2 o'clock,


later, tomo rrow, n ext month I yea r,
soon , i n a few wee ks, i n the futu re,
on the p t of May

A sponta n eous
decision

I am too tired to walk. I'll take a taxi.


(Estoy demasiado cansado para ca m i n a r. Cog e re u n taxi.)

BE GOING TO
FO R M
Affirmative

Negative

I nterrogative

I am going to buy

I am (I'm) not going to buy

Am I going to buy?

You a re going to buy

You a re not (a ren 't) going to buy

Are you going to buy?

H e I She I i t is not .(isn't) going to buy

Is h e I she I it going to buy?

We I You I They a re not (aren't) going to buy

Are we I you I they going to buy?

H e I She I it is going to buy

We I You I They a re going to buy


Uses

A p l a n n e d action for the fut u re

An action that is a bout to


happen or a fut u re eve nt based
o n prese nt evi de nce

Time expressions

Examples

We are going to spend our next holiday in London.


I this even i n g , later,
(Va mos a pasa r n u estras p r6xi mas vacaciones e n Lond res.) : in an h o u r, at 4 o'clock,
tomo rrow, soon,
Be careful! You are going to fall!
next month I yea r,
( i Ten cuidado ! iVas a caerte !)
i n a few weeks,
There's a lot of ma terial - this exam is going to be difficult!! on the gth of May

(Hay mucho materi a l : i este exa m e n va a ser d i fici l !)

1 07

EL

PRESENT CONTINUOUS C O N VALOR

D E FUTU RO

Anu ncia acciones fija das de a ntemano q u e ocu rri ran e n un fut u ro proximo. Se suele reserva r para pla nes personales ya
conce rtados.
En m uchos casos, expresa la m i sma idea q u e be going to.
I'm washing I going to wash my hair this evening.
(Me voy a lava r el pelo esta noche.)

En ca mbio, para h a b l a r de i ntenciones o decisiones es preferible utilizar be going to.


I'm going to talk to him about her.

l'm ta}king 1TJ him ab(')ttf hn

( Le voy a h a b l a r sabre el la.) [enfasis en la i ntenci6n]

I'm seeing Phi/ tonight.


(Veo I Ve re a P h i I esta noch e.) [enfasis en el p l a n conce rtad o]

El Present Con tinuous con va l o r de futuro se d isti n g u e del normal en q u e la expresi6n tem pora l q u e va en la frase i n d ica
u n tie m po fut u ro, no presente.
He is studying history at the moment.
(El esta estu d i a n d o h istoria en este mome nto.) [presen te]
He is signing a con tract tomorrow.
(El fi rma I fi rmara u n contrato m a ii ana.) [futu ro]

FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE


FORM

1 A ffirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I I You w i l l have eaten

I I You w i l l not (won 't) have eaten

W i l l I I you have eaten?

H e I She I it w i l l have eaten

He I She I lt w i l l not (won 't) have eaten

W i l l he I she I it have eaten?

We I You I They w i l l have eaten

We I You I They w i l l not (won 't) have eaten

W i l l we I you I they have eate n ?

Uses

Examples

Time expressions

A completed
action at a certa i n
future time

By the time h e 's ready to go, the shops will have closed.
( Pa ra cuando el este l isto para i rse, l a s tiendas ha b ra n
cerrado.)

by t h i s t i m e n ext week, by 3 o'clock,


by the end of ... , by then, by August,
i n fou r month s

_.._

FUTURE CONTINUOUS
FORM

108

tg ?

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I I You w i l l be trave l l i n g

I I You w i l l not (won 't) be travel l i n g

W i l l I I you be

H e I She I i t will b e trave l l i n g

H e I She I i t w i l l n o t (won 't) b e trave l l i n g

W i l l h e I she I it be trave l l i n g ?

We I You I They w i l l be trave l l i ng

We I You I They w i l l not (won 't) be trave l l i n g

W i l l we I you I they be trave l l i ng ?

Uses

Examples

Time expressions

An action i n prog ress at a certa i n


fu tu re time

We'll be visiting her on Thursday.


(Esta remos visita ndola el j u eves.)

at this time tomo rrow, at this time n ext ... ,


on Th u rsday, i n the n ext decade

Grammar Appendix

1 . F ame
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
FORM
Affirmative

Negative

I n terrogative

1 1 You have been worki ng

1 / You have not been working

Have 1 1 you been worki ng?

H e I S h e / i t has been working

H e I She l it has not been worki ng

Has h e I she I it been working?

We I You I They have been working

We I You I They have not been working

Have we I you I they been worki n g ?


'

Uses

Examples

An action that sta rted in the past


and co nti n u es in the present

I have been working as a pho tographer for a year.


(He esta do u n a n o tra bajando de fot6grafo.)
Ho w long have you been waiting?
(( Cua nto tiempo has estado espera ndo?)

An action w hose resu lts a re sti l l


a p pa rent

Time expressions

for a yea r, since 2002,


how long ... ?, a l l n i g h t I
m o rn i n g I day I week ...

I am tired. I have been signing autographs all night.


(Estoy ca nsada. He estado fi rmando a ut6g rafos toda l a
noch e.)

FORMA

us os

Afi rm ativa : sujeto + have I has been + verba principa l


terminado en -ing.
Negativa : sujeto + have I has not (o n't)
verba principal term i nado en -ing.

been +

lnterrogativa : have I has + sujeto + been + verba


principal term i n a d o e n -ing.

Expresa r acciones que e m pezaron e n e l pasado y q ue


a u n conti n u a n. Coma el Present Perfect Con tinuous
resa lta el t i e m po q u e esta d u ra n d o la acci6n, se
suele trad ucir por " l l eva r" en presente + un verba en
gerund io.
The actress has been acting for two years.
(La actriz l l eva dos a nos actu a n d o.)

Expresa r acciones term i nadas pero reci e ntes cuyos


efectos son visi bles todavfa.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS


FORM
A ffirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1 / You had been waiting

1 1 You had not been waiti ng

Had 1 / you been wa iti ng?

He

I S h e / it had been waiting

We I You I They had been wa iting


Uses

He

I She / it had not been waiti ng

We I You I They had not been waiting

Had h e I she I i t been wa iti n g ?


Had we I you I they been waiti ng?

Examples

An action w h i ch co ntinued
u p to a nother past action

Time expressions

His fans had been waiting for three hours when he


arrived.
(Sus fa n s h a b ia n estado espera ndo tres horas cuando el
l l eg6.)
-------

FORMA

Afirmativa : sujeto + had been + verba principal


term i n a d o e n -ing. Es igual en todas las perso nas.

for h o u rs, si nce last April,


all morn i ng ...
when, u n t i l , before ...

Negativa : sujeto + had not (o n't) been + verba


p ri ncipal term inado e n -ing.
l nterrogativa : had + sujeto + been + verba principal
term i n ado e n -ing.

109

us os

H a b l a r de u n a acci6n prolongada que ocu rri6 en el


pasado a n tes q u e otra acci6n breve. Es muy co m u n
tra d u c i rlo p a r " l l eva r" en preterite i m perfecta + u n
ve rba e n gerun dio.
I had been trying to find an agent for months
until finally I found one. (Li eva ba m eses i ntenta n d o
e n contrar u n agente hasta q u e p a r fi n encontre u no.)

EL I N F I N ITIVO

Es la fo rma verba l preced ida de to y se em plea en Ios


sigu ie ntes casos :

To leave now would be a mistake.


( l rse a h ora seria u n e rror.)

Lo habitual es q u e esas dos acciones vaya n u n idas par


u n a conju nci6n, q u e puede ser tempora l (when, unti l ,
before) . concesiva (although) o ca usal ( beca use) .
The play was a failure because the main character
had been drinking all night.
(La obra fu e un fracaso porq u e el prota g o n ista h a b ia
esta do bebiendo toda la noche.)

El Perfect Con tinuous no va acom pariado de verbos


estaticos, coma know o wa nt.

lie has been wanting tabeesingersincehe vvesfow.


He has wanted to be a singer since he was four.
(Ha q u e rido ser ca n ta n te desde q u e tenia 4 a rias.)

Si se puede co ntar el n u m e ro de veces q u e ha ocu rrido


una cosa, no se util iza e l Perfect Con tinuous.
lie has been tJing taee/1fle1 faw timestadey.
He has tried to call her four times today.
(Ha i n tentado l la m a r l a cuatro veces hay.)

::l

E s la fo rma verba l term i nada en - i ng, q u e fu nciona coma


susta ntivo en Ios s i g u i e ntes casos:

Coma com p l e m e nto di recto de a l g u nos verbos:


conti nue, deny, detest, d isl i ke, enjoy, fi n ish, hate,
l i ke, love, m iss, prefer, recommend, suggest, etc.
I hate going to celebrity parties.
(Od io ir a fiestas de fa mosos.)

Sin embargo, make, let y a l g u nos verbos de perce pci6n


(hear, feel, see, etc.) va n seg ui dos de la fo rma base.
The police didn 't let me approach the stage.
(La poli cia no me dej6 acerca rme al escena rio.)
VERBOS SEG U I DOS DE GERUNDIO Y D E I N F I N ITIVO

Ve rbos coma beg i n , forbid, i ntend, propose o start


pueden ir seg u i dos de a m bas formas verbales sin q u e su
sign ifica do va rie.
I started to act I acting two years ago.
(Em pece a actua r hace dos a ri as.)

Los verbos love, l i ke, prefer y hate pueden ir seg u idos


tanto de gerundio coma de i nfi n itive, pero el matiz de su
sign ificado va ria :

I wouldn't mind being famous.


(No me im porta ria ser fa mosa.)

Se u t i l iza love I l i ke I hate I prefer + gerundio


cua ndo e l sign ificado es genera l .
/ love watching TV.
( M e encanta ver la television.)

Detras de las preposiciones.

Detras de a l g u n as fo rmas verba les:


be used to I get u sed to, ca n't help, ca n't sta nd,
don't mind I wou l d n 't m i nd , feel l i ke, it's no u se,
look foward to, spend (ti me) . etc.

Detras del co mpleme nto i n d i recto de verbos coma:


advise, help, i nvite, persuade, teach, tel l , warn, etc.
She persuaded me to join the cast.
( E I I a me conve nci6 para q u e me u n i ese a l re parto.)

We talked about hiring a bodyguard.


(Habla mos de contrata r a u n g u a rda espa ldas.)

Detras de a l g u nos adjetivos ( busy, ha ppy, ready,


tired, w i l l i ng, etc.) y adverbios (slowly, fast, low, etc.).
I am too tired to see a film tonight.
(Estoy demasiado cansado para ver u n a pel icu la esta
noch e.)

EL G E R U N D I O Y EL I N FI N ITIVO

EL G E R U N D I O

Detras de verbos co m a : agree, a ppear, choose, decide,


hope, learn, plan, prom i se, refuse, seem, try, wa nt,
wish, expect, manage, etc.
He refused to talk about his private life.
(Se neg6 a h a b l a r de su vida privada.)

Nota :
Las expresiones tempora les usadas con el Perfect
Con tinuous, ta n to en presente coma en pasa do, deben
i nd ica r u n periodo, no u n mome n to concreto.

Coma sujeto, hablando de u n hecho con creto.

Se utiliza love I l i ke I hate I prefer + i nfi n itivo


cuando se refi e re a u n a situaci6n o un tie m po e n
particu l a r.
I hate to tell you this, but I haven't got tickets for the
show.
(Od i o deci rte esto, pero no te ngo e n tra das para e l
especta culo.)

En ca m bio, otros verbos n o sign ifica n lo mismo si l l evan


detras un gerundio o un i nfi n itive :

Coma sujeto de la oraci6n cuando se habla de acciones


o h echos e n g e n e ra l .

forget + gerundio se em plea e n frases n egativas para


i n dica r la i m posi bi l idad d e olvidar a l g a ocu rrido en e l
pasa do.
I 'll never forget meeting Angelina Jolie.
( N u nca olvidare haber conocido a A n g e l i n a Jol i e.)

Being a sports star is n o t easy.


(Ser u n a estre l l a del deporte no es fa cil.)

forget + infi n itivo s i g n ifica "olvi d a rse de hacer a l ga".


I forgot to ask her about her last album.
(Se me olvid6 pregu nta rle par su u ltimo disco.)

110

Grammar Appendix

remember + gerundio sig n ifica "record a r a l g a q u e se


h izo en el pasad o".
I remember giving them their tickets.
( Recuerdo ha berles dado sus entradas.)

remember + i nfi n itivo sig n ifica "acorda rse de hacer


a l go" en el fut u ro.
Remember to take a picture of the singer before
you go.
( Recuerda hacerle u n a fotog rafia al ca nta nte a ntes
de i rte.)

regret + gerundio sign ifica " l a m entar haber hecho


algo e n el pasado".
He regrets marrying a celebrity.
(Se a rrepie nte de haberse casado con u n a perso na
fa m osa.)

regret + infi n itivo sig nifica " l a m e nta r l o que se va a


decir a con t i n uaci6n".
I regret to tell you tha t all the tickets have been sold.
( La m e nto deci rte q u e se h a n ven dido todas las
en tradas.)

stop + gerundio s i g n ifica "dejar un ha bito".


Amy stopped going to festivals last year.
(Amy dej6 de i r a festiva les el a r'i o pasado.)

stop + infi n itivo sign ifica "dejar de hacer a l g a para


hacer otra cosa ".
Can we stop to have a coffee?
(L Pod emos para r para to m a r un cafe?)

VE R B COLLOCAT I O N S

Algu nos verbos va n seg u i d os de ciertas pala b ras q u e solo


se asocian con e l los y forman expresiones d e n o m i nadas
collocations. Son m uy h a bituales en el i n g les coloq u i a l y
convi ene a p rend erse las de mem oria. Por eje m p l o :
catch sight of (avista r, d ivisar)
catch a bus (cog e r u n a utobus)
catch someone 's eye (I la m a r la atenci6n de a l g u ien)
take for granted (da r por sentado/a, asu m i r)
take pride in (enorg u l l ecerse de)
take by surprise (cog er por sorpresa)
go bald (quedarse ca lvo/a)
go missing (desapa recer, extravia rse)
go mad (volverse loco/a)

S U F IJOS

Los sufijos son term i naciones que se a r'i aden a a l g u nas


pala bras para fo rmar otras n u evas.
S U FIJOS PARA FORMAR SUSTANTIVOS

Algu nos de Ios mas u t i l izados para formar susta ntivos a


partir de verbos son -ment, -tion I -sion y -er I -or.
agree (acord a r)
invite (i nvitar)
conclude (co ncl u i r)
run (correr)
sail (n avega r)

agreement (acuerdo)
invitation (i nvitaci6n)
conclusion (concl usion)
runner (corred or/a)
sailor (marinero/a)

Ta mbien se fo rman susta ntivos a fia d iendo Ios sufijos


-ity, -ship, -n ess, -ence I -a nce, -ian y -th a a l g u nos
adjetivos, susta ntivos o verbos.
personal (personal)
friend (a m i go/a)
happy (fel iz)
obedien t (obed ie nte)
annoy (mol esta r)
music ( m usical
strong (fue rte)

personality (perso n a l idad)


friendship (am istad)
happiness (fe l i cidad)
obedience (obed iencia)
annoyance (molestia)
musician (musico/a)
strength (fu e rza)

SU FIJOS PARA FORMAR ADJ ETIVOS

Los sufijos -ed e - i n g se a fi a d e n a Ios verbos para formar


adjetivos. Los adjetivos term i n ados en -ed expresa n que
la person a o cosa a la q u e se refiere experi m e nta un
efecto concreto ; Ios term ina dos en -ing expresan q u e la
perso na o cosa causa ese efecto.
bore (a bu rrir)

bored ( [estar] a b u rrido/a)


boring ( [ser] a b u rrido/a)

amaze (sorprender)

amazed ([estar] sorprendido/a)


amazing ( [ser] sorpre n d e nte)

Los sufijos -ful y -l ess se a r'i aden a a l g u nos susta ntivos y


ayu d a n a saber el s i g n ificado d e Ios adjetivos resu l ta n tes,
ya que -ful sig n ifica "con" y - less "si n ".
care (cuidado)

careful (cuidadoso/a)
careless (descuidado/a)

Ta m bien se fo rman adjetivos a r'iadiendo Ios sufijos -ous,


-al, -able I -ible, -ive y -ant I -ent.
danger (pel ig ro)
nation (naci6n)
predict (predecir)
reverse (inve rso)
a ttract (atraer)
resist (resistir)
confide (confiar)

dangerous ( p e l i g roso/a)
national (naciona I)
predictable (predeci b l e)
reversible (reve rsi ble)
a ttractive (atractivo/a)
resistant (resistente)
confident (seg u ro de si)

111

2 . Going Green
LOS MODALES
Modal

Uses

Examples

can

a b i l ity

Most people can do something to protect the environment.


(La mayoria de la gente puede I sabe hacer alga para proteger el med ia am biente.)

req u est

Can Ijoin your group?


(,! Puedo u n i rm e a vuestro g ru po?)

suggestion

Teachers can encourage students to ride bikes to school.


(Los profesores pueden a n i m a r a Ios estudia ntes a q u e vaya n en bici al co legio.)

poss i b i l ity

I can lend you my new electric car.


(Puedo presta rte mi n u evo cache el ectri co.)

be able to

a b i l ity, possibi lity

I was able to install solar panels on the roof


(Pude i nsta l a r pane les solares en el tejado.)

ca n't

i n a b i l ity

The mayor can 't (cannot) solve our pollu tion problem.
(El a l ca lde no puede I sabe so l ucionar n u estro prob lema de conta m i naci6n.)

p roh ibition

You can 't throw plastic in this bin.


(No puedes tira r plastico en este c u bo.)

d i sbelief

Tha t can 't be Bob 's car. He doesn 't drive.


( Ese no puede ser el cache de Bob. El no co n d u ce.)

could
Could you water my plan ts, please?
(,! Pod rias regar m is p l a n tas, por favor?)

may

I might

may
- ..

shou Id

You could choose organic food next time.


(Pod ias e l e g i r com i d a o rg a n i ca la prox i m a vez.)

possibil i ty

The weather forecast could be wrong.


(El p ron6stico del tie m po podria ser e rr6neo.)

possi bil ity

Peter mightjoin Greenpeace.


(Puede q u e Peter se u n a a G reen peace.)

pol ite req uest

May ! leave these plastic bottles here, please?


(,!Puedo dejar estas bote l las de p l astico a q u i, por favor?)

I ought to ' advice, opin ion

We should I ought to keep the sea clean.


(Deberiamos m a ntener el m a r l i m pio.)

need to

obl igation,
n ecessity

I need to find out what the weather will be like tomorrow.


(Te ngo q u e I N ecesito averi g u a r q u e tiempo hara m a ria na.)

have to

obl igation,
n ecessity

We have to avoid using plastic products.


(Te nemos q u e evi tar el uso de prod uctos de plastico.)

112

polite suggestion

obl igation,
strong necessity
strong belief

Sa m must feel terrible after seeing all that plastic in the river.
(Sa m debe d e sentirse fata l despues de ver todo ese pla stico en el rio.)

mustn't

prohibition

You mustn't waste water.


(No debes desperd iciar el ag ua.)

don't have to

lack of obl igation I


necessity

You don't have to worry about swimming h ere. This river is not polluted.
(No tienes q u e preocu parte por n a d a r a q u i. Este rio no esta conta m i na do.)

need n't

lack of o b l i gation I
necessity

You needn't wash the vegetables. They are clean.


(No tienes q u e lava r las verd u ras. Esta n l i m pias.)

would

fo rmal req u est

shall

offer

Would you like some more water?


(,! Ouieres mas a g u a ?)

offer, suggestion

Shall / help you with your environmental research?


(,!Te ayu do con tu i nvestigaci6n medioambienta l ?)

Grammar Appendix
FORMA

Los verbos modales:


Son i nva riables, por l o q u e tienen u n a m isma forma
para todas las personas y no se conj u g a n .

N o n ecesita n do I does para forma r la negativa n i l a


inte rrogativa.
Siem pre va n seg u i d os de un verbo e n la fo rma base.

Be able to, have to y need to n o comparten todas estas


ca ra cteristicas, pero si a l g u n os de sus usos.
us os
can
Expresa r h a b i l idad o ca pacidad.
Hacer peticiones, dar y pedir perm iso.
Hacer sugere ncias.
l n d icar posi b i l idad.

be able to
Ti ene e l m ismo sig n i ficado q u e can, pero como can
solo puede e m plearse e n Present Simple, en el resto de
tiem pos verba l es se usa be able to.

can't
Expresa r fa lta de h a b i l idad o de ca pacidad.
Expresa r p roh i bici6n.
Expresar deducci6n n egativa o certeza de que a l g o es
i m posible.

could
Expresar h a b i l i d a d o ca pacidad en el pasado.
Hacer peticiones mas educadas que con ca n.
Hacer sug e rencias menos d i rectas que con can.
l n d icar pos i b i l idad mas remota que con can.

may I might
Expresar posi b i l idad de q u e ocu rra a l g o, mas rem ota
en el caso de m i g ht.
May ta m bien se util iza para d a r, pedir o denegar
perm iso, o para hacer peticiones ed ucadas.

mustn't
l n d i ca r pro h i bici6n.

don't have to
Expresar ausencia de obl igaci6n y d e n ecesidad
("no tener q u e", "no tener por q u e").

would
En i n te rrogativa, se u t i l iza para ped i r a a l g u ie n q u e
haga a l go.
Con l i ke, se usa pa ra hacer ofreci m ie ntos o
i nvitacio n es.

shall
En i nterrogativa, se u t i l iza para ofrecerse a hacer a l g o
y para h a c e r u n a sugerencia.

::l PHRASAL VERBS


Son verbos seg u idos de u n a o dos particu las
(pre posiciones, adverbios o a m bos) con u n sign i ficado
d i sti nto del que cada p a l a b ra tiene por separado. Pueden
ser tra nsitivos o intra n si tivos :
This song brings back some memories.
(Esta ca nci6n me trae recu erd os.)
I was late because my car broke down.
(Liegue tarde porq u e se me estrope6 el coche.)

La m ayoria de Ios tra nsitivos perm iten i nterca l a r e l


compleme nto d i recto en tre e l verbo y l a particula : s i
es u n sustantivo puede i r e n medio o n o , pero si es u n
p ro n o m b re debe coloca rse e ntre a m bos.
I'm going to pick up my brother at the station.
(Voy a recog e r a m i hermano a la estaci6 n.)
I'm going to pick my brother up at the station.
I'm going to pick him up at the station.

Sin e m bargo, a l g u nos tra nsi tivos, todos Ios i ntra n sitivos
y Ios formados por dos particu las son i nsepa ra bles.
He is looking for his sweets I them.
(Esta bu sca ndo sus ca ra melos I busca ndolos.)

should I ought to
Oar consejo y hacer reco mendacio nes.
Ought to apenas se usa e n negativa n i en
i nterrogativa.
Should es el mas com u n de Ios dos.

Algu nos verbos pueden com b i n a rse con d i fe rentes


particu las para formar d isti ntos phrasal verbs.

need to I needn't
Need to se usa en a fi rmativa para expresa r obliga ci6n
y n ecesidad, i g u a l que have to.
Needn't i n d ica a usencia de obli gaci6n y n ecesi dad,
igual q u e don't have to.

Ademas, m uchos p h rasal verbs tienen mas d e un


s i g n i ficad o :

must I have to

Expresa r obl igaci6n o n ecesi dad.


Must solo se usa e n p resente y have to e n Ios demas
tiem pos.
Las personas de a utoridad e m p l e a n must, m i e n tras q u e
la obligaci6n d e have to no es ta n fuerte.
Must ta m b i e n se usa pa ra expresa r u n a conclusion
16g ica sobre u n hecho presente ("deber de",
"tener q u e").

start out (em pezar)


start over (vo lver a e m peza r)
start up (montar ( u n negocio))

break down (estropea rse, averia rse ; echarse a l lo ra r ;


d escomponerse)
pick up (a prender, a d q u i ri r ; recoger; m ejorar,
reponerse)
bring up (cria r(se) ; pla ntear, saca r a co laci6n)

113

LOS MODALES PERFECTOS


Modal

Perfect

m u st have
may I might hav

: Uses

. Examples

Certa i nty that somet h i n g was true

a bout a past action or

I possi b i l ity that someth i n g was true

------- -

--J

He must have been upset when all his craps were destroyed.
(Debe de haberse d isgustado cuando se estrope a ron todas sus
cosechas.)

She may I might have forgotten to throw out the rubbish.


(Puede q u e se h aya olvidado de tira r la basu ra.)

could have

Abi l ity to do someth i ng in the past


which in the end was not done

H_e could have joined our protest.


(El pod ia haberse u n ido a n u estra protesta.)

couldn't have

Certa i nty that someth ing


d i d n ot h a p pen, d isbe l i ef

They couldn 't have predicted the tornado. it was sunny.


(No pod ia n haber pred icho el tornado. Ha cia sol.)

would have

Desire to do someth i n g in the past


w h ich in fact cou l d not be done

I would have gone to the demonstration, but I was very busy.


(Habria ido a la m a n ifestacion, pero esta ba muy ocu pado.)

should I shouldn't I Criticism or reg ret after a n event


ought to have
needn 't have

An u n necessary past action

You shouldn't I should I ought to have warned me earlier.


(No deberias I Debe rias ha berme avisa do a ntes.)
You needn't have picked the children up. I was going to do it.
(No ten ias por q ue recoger a I os n i nos. l ba a hacerlo yo.)

us os

::l SHOULD / HAD BETTER

must have + partici pio


Expresa r una con c l u sion logica de u n hecho pasa do.

FORMA

may I might have + partici pio


Hacer una su posicion de un hecho pasado.
Expresar la posi b i l idad d e q u e a l g a fu e ra cierto.

could have + participio


l nd ica r q u e se p u d o haber hecho a l g a e n e l pasado,
pero q ue fi n a l mente no se h izo.

couldn 't have + partici pio


Expresar la certeza de que alga no pudo haber
ocurrido.

would have + partici pio


l n d i ca r que se q u iso haber hecho alga e n e l pasado,
pero no se p u d o debido a factores o circu nsta ncias
extern as.

should I ought to have + partici pio


Oueja rse d e l o q ue ocu rrio.
La mentarse de que no se haya c u m p l i d o l o que se
espera ba.

shouldn't have + partici pio


Expresa r una opinion critica sabre u n hecho pasado,
ind ica ndo que n o debe ria haber ocu rrido.

needn't have + participio


l nd ica r que n o h a b ia necesidad d e hacer la que se h izo.

Afirmativa : sujeto + had better + verba principal en


la forma base. Sign ifica " Es m ejor q u e " + un verba en
presente de subj u ntivo.
You had better [You'd better) use public transport.
(Es m ejor q u e u ses el tran sporte publ ico.)
Negativa : sujeto + had better not + verba pri ncipal en
la forma base.
We 'd better not buy that product. it's not
environmen tally friendly.
(Es m ejor q u e no com premos ese p roducto. No es
eco logico.)
l nterrogativa : no se suele usar.
usos

Coma ya se ha vista, should se util iza para deci r la


que se cree q u e se deberia hacer, d a r un con sejo o u n a
recomendacion. H a d better ( o la contraccion ' d better)
es otra fo rma muy coloq u i a l d e expresa r la m ismo.
No obsta nte, had better tiene u n uso disti nto de should,
ya que ta mbien se util iza para expresa r una adverte ncia.
En este caso, se suele tra d u c i r por "Sera mejor que ... " o
"Mas va l e q u e ... ".
You'd better use energy-efficient light bulbs!
( i Sera m ejor q u e uses bombi l l as de bajo consu m o !)
You'd better not throw tha t in the river!
( i Mas va l e q u e no ti res eso a l rio!)

Grammar Appendix

3 . O nline World
LA VOZ PASIVA
Tense

Active

Passive

Present Simple

Amazon sells books online.

Books are sold on line by Amazon.

Past Simple

Amazon sold books on line.

Books were sold on line by Amazon.

Future Simple

Amazon will sell books on line.

Books will be sold on line by Amazon.

Present Conti n uous

Amazon is selling books on line.

Books are being sold on line by Amazon.

Past Conti nuous

Amazon was selling books on line.

Books were being sold on line by Amazon.

Present Perfect Simple

Amazon has sold books on line.

Books have been sold on line by Amazon.

Past Perfect Simple

Amazon had sold books on line.

Books had been sold on line by Amazon.

Modals

Amazon should sell books on line.

Books should be sold on line by Amazon.

Modal Perfects

Amazon could have sold books on line.

Books could have been sold online by Amazon.

have to

Amazon has to sell books on line.

Books have to be sold on line by Amazon.

be going to

Amazon is going to sell books on line.

Books are going to be sold on line by Amazon.


The technician
(subject)

FORMA

Afirmativa : sujeto + to be + participio del verbo


p ri ncipal.
Negativa : sujeto + to be + not (o n't) + participio del
verbo principa l .

Si la frase l l eva u n modal, u n verbo e n Future Simple o


u n tie m po co mpu esto, se a ii a d e not (o n't) a l modal, a
w i l l o a have I has.

The computer
[subject)

by the technician.
(object)

Se pone como sujeto el primer com p l e m e nto q u e haya


detras del verbo e n activa, ya sea d i recto o ind i recto.

Cuando hay dos co m p l e m e ntos, l o mas frecuente en


i n g l es es poner e l com p l e m e nto i n d i recto como sujeto.

Si en la preg u nta h a y u n modal, u n verbo en Future Simple


o un tiempo compuesto, la frase pasiva comienza con el
modal o el verbo auxiliar, igual que en la voz activa.

Paul will be given a computer.

Si el com p l e mento i n d i recto es un pronom b re objeto,


se ca mbia a la forma de pronom bre sujeto.

Has the new video game already been launched?


(zSe ha la nzado ya el n u evo vid eoj uego?)

We will give him a computer.


He will be given a computer.

Where will the new program be purchased?


(z D6nde se co m p ra ra el n u evo prog ra m a ?)

Se pone el verbo to be en el m ismo t i e m po q u e tenia


el verbo pri ncipal en la voz activa, y el verbo principal
en participio.
She is deleting my files.
My files are being deleted.
( M i s a rch ivos esta n siendo bo rra dos.)

Who will be chosen as prime minister?


(z Ouien sera elegido pri m e r m i n i stro?)
CO M O PASAR U NA O RACI O N A PASIVA

Antes de saber cuales son Ios pasos que hay q u e seg u i r


para pasa r u n a o raci6n de activa a pasiva, es i m portante
record a r que la pasiva es mas frecuente en i n g l es q u e en
caste l l a n o, por lo q u e se suele tra d ucir el verbo e n activa
o en la forma i m perso n a l . El esq uema q u e se puede ver a
co nti nua ci6n expl ica c6mo se pasa u n a o raci6n de fo rma
activa a pasiva.

has been fixed

We will give a computer to Paul.


A computer will be given to Paul.
(Se le d a ra u n ordenador a Pa u l .)

lnterrogativa : to be + sujeto + participio del verbo


principa l .

::l

the computer.
(abject)

(El ordenador ha sido a rreg lado por e l tecnico.)

The computer mustn't be restarted yet.


(El ordenador no se debe re i n iciar todavia.)

En las pregu ntas q u e l l eva n particula i nte rrogativa


ta m b i e n se invierte el orden del verbo auxi l i a r y del
sujeto, menos cuando la particu la hace de sujeto.

has fixed

Los mod a l es y be going to no ca m b i a n , pues es el


verbo q u e Ios sig u e el q u e se pone e n pasiva.
The teacher can use tutorials.
Tu torials can be used by the teacher.
(Los tutori a l es pueden ser uti l izados por el profesor.)

Se col oca el sujeto de la activa al fi n a l , precedido


de by. Hay q u e ca mbiarlo por su correspo n d i ente
p ronom bre objeto si es uno personal.
115

us os

Her new blog is said to be very successful.


(Se d ice q u e su n u evo blog es u n exito.)

l n d icar q u e la acci6n es mas i m portante q u e el


sujeto q u e la rea l iza, bien porq u e es poco re l eva nte,
desco nocido o porq u e no se q u iere nombra r.
Somebody bought the new device.
The new device was bought.
(El n u evo dispositive fue com prado.)
Con verbos como say, th i n k, believe, know o report es
posible util izar dos fo rmas de pasiva :
- La primera es una constru cci 6n i m pe rso n a l con it
+ u n o de estos verbos en pasiva + u n a o raci6n con
that + sujeto + verbo. Se traduce como una oraci6n
i m personal, pero activa : "Se d ice I Se pie nsa I Se
cree... " ; solo know se puede tra d ucir en pasiva.
lt is said that you can google anybody.
(Dicen I Se d i ce q u e se puede busca r en Goog l e a
cu a l q u i e ra.)
lt is known that some of the information on
Wikipedia is not accurate.
(Es sabido I Se sabe q u e pa rte de la i nformaci6n de
W i k i pedia no es exacta .)
- La segu nda se forma con el sujeto + uno de estos
verbos en pasiva + infi n itive. Para traducir este tipo de
pasiva tambien se recurre al pronombre "se" o se usa u n
sujeto genera l como "todo el m u ndo", " l a gente", etc.

4.

El verbo consider so lo se puede u t i l izar en el seg u n d o


tipo d e pa siva y tiene u n a tra d u cci6n l itera l : " s e r I
esta r consi derad o".
Her new blog is considered to be very successful.
(Su n u evo blog esta co nsiderado un exito.)

LOS VERBOS CAUSATIVOS:

SOMETHING + DONE

HAVE / GET +

Los verbos have I get + u n susta ntivo + participio


exp resa n acciones que se encarg a n a a l g u i e n .
Peter is going t o have I get his website updated.
(Va n a actu a l izar la pagina web de Peter.) [lo h a ra otra
persona]
Esta estructura tiene un sentido pasivo, pues el
susta ntivo que va en medio reci be la acci6n del verbo
q u e va en particip io, pero se suele tra d u cir e n voz activa.
My computer crashed, so I had it repaired yesterday.
(Se me colg6 el ordenador, asi q u e lo h ice a rreg lar ayer.)
A u n q u e a m bos se usan ind istinta m e nte, get es mas
i n fo rmal y, por ta nto, mas com u n e n el i ng l es hablado.
I got my computer repaired last week.
(Me a rreg l a ro n I Arre g l e el o rdenador la
semana pasada.)

S ense It

I EL ESTILO INDIRECTO
Tense

Direct Speech

Reported Speech
-

Present Simple

We eat tasty food.

She said that they ate tasty food.

Past Simple

We ate tasty food.

She said that they had eaten tasty food.

Future Sim ple

We will eat tasty food.

She said that they would eat tasty food.

Present Conti nuous

We are eating tasty food.

She said that they were eating tasty food.

Past Conti nuous

We were eating tasty food.

She said that they had been eating tasty food.

Present Perfect Simple

We have eaten tasty food.

She said tha t they had eaten tasty food.

Present Perfect Conti nuous

We have been eating tasty food.

She said that they had been eating tasty food.

Past Perfect Simple

We had eaten tasty food.

She said tha t they had eaten tasty food.

Past Perfect Conti nuous

We had been eating tasty food.

------

CAMBIOS EN LOS MODALES


Direct Speech

- ....
-..._
.
_

She said tha t they had been eating tasty food.

------

, CAMBIOS EN OTRAS PALABRAS Y EXPRESIONES

Reported Speech

Direct Speech

Reported S peech

ca n

could

now

then

may

m ight

today

that day

ton i g ht

that n i g ht

yesterday

the previous day I the day before

must I have to
will

must I had to
wou ld

last week

the previous week I the week before

a month ago

the p revious month I the month before

tomorrow
here

the fo l l owing day I the day after I the n ext day


the fo l l owing week I the week after
there

th is

that I th ose

next week

I these

G rammar Appendix
El estilo i nd i recto se util iza para conta r lo q u e a l g u ie n ha
d i cho s i n cita r exacta mente sus p a l a b ras.

REPORTED STATEMENTS
Se puede conta r en presente lo q u e a l g u i e n acaba de
decir, para lo cual basta con s u p ri m i r las com i l l as y
cambiar el p ronom bre sujeto y la persona del verba.
"I am hungry. "
She says tha t she is hungry.
(Dice q u e tiene h a m bre.)

Pero lo normal es que el verba que introd uce la su bordinada


en estilo indirecto (normalmente say o tell) vaya en pasado.
Entonces, el cambio mas im portante es que el verba de la
subord i nada da u n salto atras (de Present Simple a Past
Simple, de este a Past Perfect Simple, etc.).
Ademas de s u p ri m i r las com i l l a s y ca m b i a r Ios tiem pos
verba l es, ta mbien hay que hacer a l g u n os ca mbios en I os
p ronom bres y en las expresiones d e tiempo y l u g a r.
Los verbos mas co m u nes para i ntrod ucir el esti lo
i n d i recto son say y tel l . Tel l siem pre l l eva un
com p l e mento i nd i recto sin l a p re posici6n to. Say puede
l l eva r co m p l e me nto i n d i recto o no, pero si l o l l eva
debe i r con esa preposici6n. La o raci6n su bord i nada va
i ntroducida par la conj u nci6n that, a u n q u e en i n g l es
h a b l a d o se s u e l e o m i t i r.
"The smell is strong, but pleasant, " he said.
He told us (that) the smell was strong, but pleasant.
He said [that) the smell was strong, but pleasant.
He said to us (tha t) the smell was strong, but pleasant.
(Nos dijo q u e el olor era fu e rte, pero a g rad a b le.)

Cuando la frase e n u ncia una verdad genera l , n o hay


ca m b i o en Ios tiem pos verba l es.

REPORTED ORDERS
Para pasa r u na o rden a est i l o i n d i recto, se cambia el
i m perative par u n i nfi n itive. Antes d e l infi n i tive, se debe
usar u n verba que exp rese m a n data, coma tel l u order,
seg u i d o del complemento i n d i recto. Ta m b i e n se pueden
usar Ios verbos ask o beg para exp resa r peti ciones, i nvite
para hacer u n a i nvitaci6n o warn para advertir a a l g u i e n
d e a l ga.
"Stop staring at me, " the mother told her son.
The mother ordered her son to stop staring at her.
(La m a d re le o rden6 a su h ijo q u e d ej a ra d e m i ra rla
fij a me nte.)

Cuando se trata de u n a o raci6n neg ativa, se pone not


dela nte de to.
"Don't tell anybody. " she begged us.
She begged us not to tell anybody.
(Nos s u p l ic6 q u e no se lo dijeramos a n a d i e.)

REPORTED SUGGESTIONS
Primero se pone el suj eto y suggest o recommend e n
pasado y, a co ntinuaci6n, se d i ce lo q u e se sugiere. Las
sugerencias se pasa n a l esti lo i n d i recto d e dos formas:
Usando u n a o raci6n d e co m p l e m ento d i recto
introd ucida par that y seg u ida del suj eto y el verba e n
la forma base. En este caso, la sugerencia s e refie re a
otra u otra s perso nas.

"Take the shortcut. " he recommended.


He recommended that we take the shortcut.
(El recomend6 q u e cogieramos el atajo.)

"Smells trigger memories, " he said.


He said tha t smells trigger memories.
(Dij o q u e Ios alares evocan recuerdos.)

REPORTED QUESTIONS
Hay dos tipos de pregu ntas en i n g les:
Las Yes I No q uestions son las que se pueden
contesta r con u n "si" o u n " no". Para ponerlas e n estilo
i n d i recto, se e m plea el verba ask y, a conti n u aci6n,
if o whether. Coma la pregu nta d eja de serlo y se
convierte e n u n a frase afi rmativa, no hay i nversion
sujeto-verbo, n i signa de interrogaci6n, y ta mpoco
co m i l las.

"Do you like chocolate?" they asked the girl.


They asked the girl if I whether she liked chocolate.
(Le preg u ntaron a la n i fi a si le g u staba el chocolate.)

Las Wh- q uestions son las q u e comienzan con una


particula i nterrogativa (what, who, where, when, why,
whose, how, etc.). AI pasa rlas al est i l o i n d i recto, se
pone dicha partic u l a + sujeto + verba, y se p rescinde
del signa de i nterrog aci6n y de las com i l las.
"What is your favourite flavour?" Frank asked.
Frank asked what my favourite flavour was.
(Fra n k preg u n t6 c u a l e ra m i sa bor preferido.)

Usando e l gerundio, sin especificar n i n g u n sujeto, ya


q u e la person a q u e hace la sugerencia se i ncl uye e n
ella.
"Let's make chocolate biscuits!" s h e suggested.
She suggested making chocolate biscuits.
(El l a sug i ri 6 hacer g a l l etas de choco l a te.)

::l REPORTING VERBS


Los verbos mas util izados para i ntrod uci r el est i l o
i n d i recto s o n say, tel l y ask, q u e tra n s m iten el mensaje
s i n a fi a d i r mas i nfo rmaci6n. Pero si se q u i e re com u nicar
la i ntenci6n del habla nte o el tono q u e u s6, hay otros
m u chos reporting verbs:
Afi rmaciones: adm it, agree, annou nce, answer,
a pologise, boast, claim, com p l a i n , decl are, deny,
exp l a i n , inform, insist, mention, offer, prom i se,
refuse, remind, reply, state
Preg u ntas : enquire, req uest, want to know, wonder
6rdenes: demand, order, shout, warn
S u p l i cas: beg
Sugerencias: advise, i nvite, recommend, suggest
Algu nos de estos verbos pueden ir seg u idos de i nfin itive
o gerundio, a u nq u e tambien es posible u sa rlos seg u idos
de la subord i nada.
I n fi n itive : prom ise, agree, refuse, advise, rem i n d , etc.
Emma promised to cook a mouth-watering stew.
( E m m a prometi6 coci n a r u n estofado q u e hace la boca
ag ua.)
Gerundio: deny, admit, etc.
She admitted having a weakness for chocola te.
(Ad miti6 tener debilidad por e l chocolate.)

117

5.

F amilies
-- ,

LAS ORACIONES DE RELATIVO


D E FI N I N G R ELATIVE CLAUSES
Uses

Examples

who a n d that refer to peo p l e

She is the girl who I that len t me The Kite R u n n e r.


la es la ch ica
me
Cometas en et
The Kite R u n ne r is a book which / that I want to read.
en et cielo es u n I i b ra

wh ich a nd that refer to objects


whose refers to possession
when and that refer to a moment i n time
where refers to a particu l a r p l ace
N O N - D E FI N I N G RE LATIVE CLAUSES

1- that can not replace who or which


Uses

- --

Examples

-- --------

Son oraciones su bordinadas adjetivas introducidas


por u n pronombre o u n adverbio rel ativo. Las hay de
dos tipos: defi n ing (especificativa s) y non-defi n i n g
(expl icativa s).

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


Aportan i nfo rmaci6n esencial sabre su a ntecedente. Sin
e l l a , la frase q u eda ria i nco m p l eta.

Los p ronombres who (personas), wh ich (cosas) y that


(personas y cosas) pueden o m i t i rse si n o hacen de
sujeto de la o raci6n s u bord i n ada.
Whose (posesi6n) n o se puede omitir n i sustitu i r
por that.
When (tiem po) puede omitirse si no hace de sujeto de
la oraci6n su bord i nada, o sustitu i rse por that.
Where ( l u g a r) no puede sustitu i rse por that y solo se
o m ite en a l g u nas ocasiones.

Why (raz6n) puede omitirse o susti t u i rse por that.

Whom se usa detras de las p re posiciones, pero se


suele omitir y se col oca la pre posici6n detras del verba.
He is the person to whom you need to talk.
He is the person you need to talk to.
(El es l a perso na con la q ue tienes q u e h a b l a r.)

NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES


Aiiaden i nformaci6n sabre su a ntecedente y van en tre
comas. Se forman con who, w h ich, when, where y
whose, q u e no se pueden o m i t i r n i sustitu i r por that.
My father, who is a self-cen tred man, lives in Paris.
( M i padre, q u e es u n egocentrico, vive en Pa ris.)

ns l

Baba, who is Amir's father, played soccer as a child.


(Baba, q u e es el padre de Am i r, j u g a ba a l futbol d e n i ii o.)

l n d ica usos ad icion a l es a Ios prese ntados e n las ta b las.

ESTRUCTU RAS FORMAL E I N FORMAL

Cuando e l re lativo va precedido d e una preposici6n, se


sig u e u t i l izando which si el a ntecedente es una cosa ;
pero si es u n a perso na, en l u g a r de who se e m plea
whom. Este es un uso m uy fo rma l.
Lo mas com u n en a m bos casos es poner l a preposici6n a l
fi nal de la o raci6n de re lativo y o m i t i r el p ronombre.
That's the point with which I agree. [Formal]
That's the point (which) I agree with. [I nformal]
(Ese es el p u n to con el que estoy de acuerdo.)
Dad is the person to whom you have to talk. [Formal]
Dad is the person (who) you have to talk to. [I nformal]
(Papa es la persona con la que tienes que h a b l a r.)

Cuando el verba de la oraci6n de re lativo va seg u i d o


de u n a preposici6n, s e puede u s a r e l relativo w h o y
ma ntener la preposici6n despues del verba (i nformal),
o se p u ede util izar whom e n vez d e who y poner l a
preposici6n a ntes del prono m b re relativo (formal).
His father was a bad-tempered man who was difficult
to live with. [I nformal]
His father was a bad-tempered man with whom it was
difficult to live. [Formal]
(Su padre e ra u n hombre m a l h u morado con el que era
dificil convivi r.)

Grammar Appendix

A Go o d Buy

6.

I LAS ORACIONES CONDICIONALES


-

Conditional clause

-- -

Result clause

Examples

Futu re S i m p l e

If you d o the shopping here, you 'll get great discoun ts.
(Si haces las com p ras a q u i, obtendras m uy b u enos d escu entos.)

I m p e rative

Ask for the receipt if you want to be able to return the camera.
(Pide e l recibo si q u i e res poder d evolver la ca m a ra.)

Mod a l + base form

If you buy a new house, you can rent out the old one.
(Si com p ras u n a casa n u eva, puedes a l q u i l a r la vieja.)

FIRST CON DITIONAL

if

+ Present S i m p l e

u n less

--

SECO N D CO N D ITIONAL

----

--

- ---

would

if

+ base form

+ Past S i m ple
u n less

cou l d I m ight

- ---

----- -

-- ----

If I had enough money. I would buy plane tickets to Australia.


(Si tuviera suficiente d i n ero, com pra ria b i l l etes de avi6n a Austra l ia.)

You could I might afford to buy a new car if you won the lottery.
( Podrias perm itirte com pra r u n cache n u evo si ga n a ras la l oteria.)

TH I R D CON D ITIONAL
If I had had the receipt, I would have returned this shirt.
+ past pa rtici p l e . (Si hu biera tenido el reci bo, hab ria d evuelto esta ca m isa.)
I could I might have afforded it if my salary had been better.
cou ld have I
(Podria
habermelo perm itido si mi sueldo h u b i e ra sido m ejor.)
m ight have
wou l d have

if

+ Past Perfect

Son o raciones com p u estas por u n a p roposici6n


subord i nada que expresa la co ndici6n (conditional
clause) y u n a principal que i n d i ca e l resultado (result
cla use). N o i m porta e l o rden e n q u e se col oq uen las
proposiciones pero, si l a condici6n va p ri m e ro, se suele
poner u n a coma e ntre a m bas.
If it rains, the roads get wet.
(Si l l u eve, las ca rreteras se m oja n .)
The roads get wet if it rains.
(Las ca rreteras se m oj a n si l l u eve.)
E L P R I M E R CO N D I CI O NAL

Se usa if + Presen t Simple e n l a con d i ci6n y Future


Simple, u n verbo modal o el i m perativo en el resu l tado.
Expresa q u e ocu rri ra si se cu m p l e l a condici6n sena lada.
You can 't go shopping if you don't finish your food.
(No p u edes i r de com pras si no term i nas la com ida.)
If you want to exchange it, bring the receipt.
(Si q u i e res ca m b i a rlo, trae el recibo.)

Para expresar q u e a l g o ocu rri ra o no si n o se cu m p l e


la con d ici6n, la pro posici6n es i ntrod ucida p o r l a
conj u nci6n u n less, q u e eq u iva l e a if n o t ("a no s e r q ue",
"a m en os q u e").
Unless I find a sales assistan t, I won't open the shop.
If I don't find a sales assistant, I won't open the shop.
(A no ser q u e encue ntre I Si no encue ntro u n
d e pendie nte, n o a brire l a tienda.)

U n less se usa con basta nte asiduidad e n e l primer


condicional, pero es menos frecuente e n e l seg u n d o
con d icional y n u nca s e e m plea e n el tercero.
EL S E G U N D O C O N D I C I O NAL

Se usa if + Past Simple e n l a cond ici6n y would +


el verbo en la forma base en el resultado. Expresa
co nd iciones hipoteticas referidas al presen te, es decir,
q u e es poco probable q u e ocurra n .
H e wouldn't buy a B M W unless he h a d enough money.
(El n o com praria un B M W a n o ser q u e tuviera
suficie nte d i nero.)

Si e l verbo de l a condici6n es to be, se suele utilizar


were e n todas las personas del s i n g u l a r y del p l u ra l .
I f tha t camera weren't s o expensive, I would buy it.
(Si esa ca m a ra n o fue ra ta n ca ra, la com p ra ria.)

Para dar consejos se e m plea la for m u l a if I were.


If I were you, I would get the ones tha t are on sale.
(Yo, en tu l u g a r, com pra ria las q u e esta n rebajadas.)

En l u g a r de would, tambien se pueden usar Ios m od a l es


could o might en el resu l tado, pero a mbos i ndican q u e
la proba b i l idad de q u e se c u m p l a l a h i p6tesis e s a u n
menor. E q u iva l e n a l verbo "poder" e n condicional o a las
expresiones "ta l vez" o "qu izas" + con d iciona l .
I f this brand weren't s o expensive, I might buy more of
their products. (Si esta ma rca n o fu era ta n ca ra, ta l vez
com p ra ria mas p rodu ctos suyos.)

J ug

EL TERCER CO N D I CIONAL

::l O RACI O N ES TEM PORALES

Se forma con if + Past Perfect e n l a condici6n y would


have + partici pio en el resu ltado. En este caso la
co ndici6n es tota l m en te i m posi ble, pues se refi e re al
pasado y ya n o puede rea l iza rse.

Las referidas al fut u ro se forman coma las o raciones del


primer cond iciona l : Present Simple e n la su bord i nada y
Future Simple en la p ri n cipal. Lo q u e ca m b i a n son las
conj u nciones, q u e e n este caso son as soon as, by the
time, the moment (that) . until, when, etc.

I would have bought a Mac if I had had money.


(Habria comprado u n Mac si h u b i e ra te n ido d i n e ro.)

I'll be happier as soon as you stop spending so much


money.
(Esta re mas contento e n cua n to d ejes de gastar ta n to
d i ne ro.)

En vez de would have + pa rtici pio, e n el resu ltado


ta m bien se puede e m p l e a r could have o m i g ht have +
pa rtici pio.
If we had kept the receipt, we might I could have
returned the jacket.
(Si h u biera m os g u a rdado el reci bo, podriamos haber
d evuelto l a cazadora.)

I won't stop looking until / find that CD.


(No para re d e busca r h asta encontra r ese CD.)

LAS ORACIONES DESIDERATIVAS


Form

wish I if only + Past S i m ple

Examples

Uses

---- --Refers to a p resent situation that the He wishes he had time to go shopping.
(Le g usta ria tener tiem po para ir d e co m p ras.)
speaker is u n h a p py about
If only I had an MP4 player.
(Me g u staria te ner I Oja l a tuvi e ra u n M P4.)

wish I if only

Past Perfect

Expresses reg ret a bout a past action


or situation

I wish I had bought the blue ones.


(Ojala h u b i e ra co m p rado Ios azul es.)
If only he had sold the house sooner.
(Si a l menos I Ojala h u biera ven d i d o la casa a ntes.)

wish I if o n ly +
cou l d I would + base form

Expresses a desire for somet h i n g to


ha ppen in the fut u re

I wish I could go to the shopping cen tre.


(Oj a l a p u d ie ra i r a l centra com e rci a l .)
If only the sales-assistant would help me.
(Oj a l a me ayude el dependiente.)

Las oraciones desiderativas expresa n u n d eseo. Se


pueden formar d e dos m a n e ra s : con e l verba wish o con
la expresi6n if on ly.
Wish s i g n ifica "desea r", pero en las oraciones de este
tipo e q u iva le a "desearia" o " m e g u staria". Cuando e l
sujeto es I, se puede tra d ucir por "Ojala". Va seg u i d o de
u n a o raci6n su bord i nada i ntrod ucida por la conj u n ci6n
that, a u nq u e esta se suele omitir.
If o n ly tiene el m ismo sign ificado y se puede trad ucir
por "Oj a l a " (sea cual sea e l sujeto) o "Si a l men os". Va
seg u i d o de u n a o raci6n s u bo rd i nada sin la conj u nci6n
that.

Ta nto wish coma if o n ly se pueden usar con va rios


t i e m pos verba les:

Past Simple: se refi ere a situaciones presentes q u e se


q u isiera n ca m b i a r o mejorar.
I wish I If only I had a betterjob.
(Oj a l a I Si a l menos tuviera u n trabajo m ejor.)

Si e l verba q u e va e n Past Simple es to be, hay q u e


usar were e n tod as las personas.
I wish I If only it were that simple!
( i Oja l a fuera ta n senci l l o !)

1 20 1

Past Perfect: se refie re a h echos pasados, lam entando


q u e ya no tienen remedio.
Do you wish you had bought it sooner?
(LTe g u staria haberlo com prado a ntes?)

Cou ld o would + un verba en la forma base : se refi e re


a l futu ro, expresa ndo la esperanza de q u e ocu rra l o
que se desea.
I wish I If only I could afford it.
(Oj a l a m e lo pudiera perm itir.)

Si e l sujeto de wish y e l del verba e n l a forma base son


d iferentes, se u sa would. Ademas, si e l sujeto es I o
we, se suele usar could.
I wish I If only our sales would improve.
(Si al m e nos mejorasen n u estras ventas.)
I wish I If only we could go together.
(Oj a l a I Si a l menos p u d i esemos i r j u n tas.)

PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE
A l l t h e e x e rcises i n t h i s sect i o n a re recorded o n
t h e Cl ass Aud i o C D s .

SEMI-VOWELS AND
SEMI-CONSONANTS /w/ /j/

Unit 1
PHONETIC ALPHABET
1 . Listen and repeat the sounds and words i n the
pronunciation key below.
r

n:

far, past

'"'

cat, band

aI

kite, fi ve

au

mouse, town

bed, head

Cl

play, page

C .:J

chair, bear

Ill

mouse

i n, tip

11

nose

me, tea

1:

father

girl

yes

h
k

hat
king
long

pi nk

happy

red

seven

1 . Listen and repeat the pai rs of words below.


Is the letter in colour pronounced the same
way in each word pair?
2 . year - stay
1 . work - crew
2. Listen to the sentences below.

When is the letter 'w' not pronounced /w/?


When is the letter 'y' not pronounced /j/?
listen again and repeat.
1 . The world needs to use renewable energy.
2 . Are yo u wi ll ing to change your fam i ly's att i t ude
to recycling?
3 . Can hybrid cars cut down the amount of petrol we use?
T h e l etter ' w ' is u su a l ly n ot

p ro n o u n ce d

/w/

w h e n it a p p e a rs i n t h e m i d d l e of

the word. The l etter 'y' i s u su a l ly n o t p ro n o u n ce d

I .:I

near, deer

J)

not, stop

,)()

phone, boat

\'

very

door, four

\1'

wi ndow

;)]

toy. enjoy

zebra
shop

3. Copy the words into your notebook.

television

Underline the syllable in each one that you


think is stressed. Then listen and check.
5 . pol l u tion
1 . devote
6 . l itter
2 . nig htmare
7 . i nhabit
3 . avoid
8. renewable
4. ha rm.ful

.):

Unit 2

tall

foot, good

u:

food, you

() .)

pure, cure

J:

word, heard

,\

but, cup

.:J

afraid, mother

bed

door

tf

si ng
chi ldren

()

think

the

d3

job

/j/ w h e n

i t a p pea rs a t t h e e n d of a w o r d .

WORD STRESS

S u ffixes a n d p refixes a re n 't u s u a l ly

2. Listen and choose the correct phonetic symbol

stresse d . M ost two-syl l a b l e n o u n s a n d a dj ectives

from the chart above for the sounds in colour


below. Then listen again and repeat.
5 . wi l l i ng
1 . stra ight
6 . crew
2 . trend
7 . emerge
3 . catch
8 . infatuation
4 . go

a re stressed on the fi rst syl l a b l e .

3. Read the following phonetic symbols and

write the words in your notebook. Then listen


and check your answers.
1 . l au t ' rerd3;:>sl
4. l 'wel0i/
5 . l ' :xt;:>grcef/
2 . I drarvI
3 . l 'e;:>resl

6. l pAb'hs;:>ti/

Unit 3

DIPHTHONGS (1)
1. Listen to the words below, paying attention
to the vowel sounds in colour. Then listen
again and repeat.
1. /er/ ava i l a b l e ; updated

2 . /;:>u/ cl ose- u p ; dow n l oa d

3 . /a1/ ti dy; d evi ce

4 . /JI/

overjoyed ; bo i l

121

2. Choose the word that does not contain the

sound shown by the phonetic symbol. listen


and check your answers.

2.

I er/ play wait ape neig hbour said


I 'du/ choke snow toad to toe

3.

/ar/ shy lie a i r kite sigh

1.

each sentence?
That's exactly what I t h i n k I
2 . You ea n 't be serious !
3 . H ow can you say that?
4. That's not the way I see it
5. I know what you mea n .

DIPHTHONGS (2)

W e u s u a l ly stress t h e words w i t h t h e
m ost i m po rta n t i nfo r m a t i o n i n t h e s e n te n ce.

1 . Listen to the words below, paying attention


to the vowel sounds in colour. Then listen
again and repeat.
1 . laul south; down
2 . /r'dl wei rd; deer
3. le'dl stare; cha i r
4 . lu'dl tou r; cu re
2. Look at the sentences below. Write the

1.
2.
3.

3. listen and repeat. Which words are stressed i n


1.

4. hr / boy r u i n voice toi l oyster

Unit

SENTENCE STRESS

phonetic symbol for each vowel sound in


colour. Then listen and repeat.
This beer is dark brown .
There's a mouth-watering smell i n the a i r.
Don't stare at that poor m a n .

Unit 6
DIFFICULT CONSONANT SOUNDS
1. Listen and choose the correct phonetic symbol
that you hear at the beginning of each word.
1 . f I tf
4. e I o
b
2. V I
5 . d3 I tf
3.

rlw

6.

jlh

TRIPHTHONGS
2. Listen to the words below, paying attention

PHRASAL VERBS - STRESS


1.

3 . Listen and repeat.


1 . set off
2.

2.

start out
4. bring back
3.

start over

3.

W h e n we p ro n o u n ce p h ra sa l ve rbs,
we u s u a l ly stress the seco n d word (the pa rt i c l e) .

3 . Listen and choose the word you hear.


1.
2.
3.

Unit 5
THE LETTER

'o'

1 . Listen and repeat.

/n/

I A/

hu/

/u:/

h/

nod

something

open

lose

op i n i on

2. Complete the table above with the following

words. Then listen and check your answers.


overheard construction brother
who crops on ion lottery
to impol ite

odour

to the vowel sounds in colour. Then listen


again and repeat.
lar'dl bonfi re
lau'dl tower
ler'dl player

flour I flier
layer I lower
power I pyre

GL O S SARY

oneself in: enfrasca rse e n ,

ensim ismarse con)

a breath of fresh a i r /;:} bre8 ;:}\' fref 'e;c)/ un soplo de

a i re fresco
a drop in the ocean j;) drop

rn

O;:} ';)ufnl u n a gota en

el ocea no
access ( n ) / ' <ekses/ acceso
access (v) / '<ekses/ acceder
acco m p l i s h j ;c) ' b m pliJ/ lograr, llevar a cabo
accu rate / ' <ekj;:}r;:}t/ exacto/a, preciso/a
accuse of j ;c) ' kju:z ;:}\'/ acusar de
affa i rs j ;c) ' fe;c)z/ asu ntos
affluent / '<eflu;:} n t/ a d i nerado/a, rico/a
afford j ;c) ' b:d/ permiti rse

causar furor

b u rg l a r / 'bJ:gl;:}/ ladr6 n/ona


b u ry / 'beri/ enterrar (

(be) a l l the rage

bri n g up /brr!J .,p/ criar(se); pla ntear, sacar a colaci6n


brother- i n - l a w / ' brAo;:}m b:/ cunado

1 ( bi : )

J:l O;:} 're1d3/ ser el u ltimo grito,

a m azement j ;c) ' m eizm;c)nt/ asombro, sorpresa


a m o u nt j ;c) ' maunt/ cantidad
a p pearance j;c)'pi ;:}r;:}ns/ aparici6n; aspecto
a p p l y for j ;c) ' plai [;)/ solicitar, pedir
a p p l y to j ;c) ' plai t;:}/ echar una sol icitud, solicitar
a p p roach j ;c) ' pr;:}ud; hablar con, d i r i g i rse a; acercarse a
a rrive at j ;c) ' rarv ;:}t/ l legar a
a r rive i n j ;c) ' raiv m/ l legar a
a utograph / ' :x t;:}gr<ef/ aut6g rafo
ava i l a b l e j ;c) 'verl ;:}bl/ d isponible
avoid j ;:} \'::Jid/ evitar, e l u d i r
awf u l / ' J:fl/ horrible, terri ble

B
b a l a nce / ' b<el;:}ns/ m antener el e q u i l i brio
ba n /b<en/ proh i b i r
barg a i n / ' ba:g;:}n/ ganga
be l ly / ' beli/ barriga
bel o n g i n gs /br'lo!J I !Jz/ pertenencias
benefit / 'bemfit/ beneficia, ventaja

carbon d i ox i d e / ka:b;:}un dar'oksa1d/ d i6xido de

carbo n o
carbon foot p r i n t / ka:b;:}un ' futpnnt/ h u e l la de

carbono
ca rry / ' k<eri/ tener (en stock); vender
catch a b u s / k<etf d 'bAs/ eager u n autobus
catch a cold / k<etf

'kduld

I coger u n resfriado,

resfria rse
catch f i re / k<etf 'far;)/ prenderse fuego, i ncen d i a rse

catch o n e's breath / k<etf wAnz 'bre8/ recobrar el

a l i e nto
catch sight of / k<etf 'sait ;:}v/ avistar, d ivisa r, ver
catch someone's eye /k<etf sAmwAnz 'a1/ l l a m a r la

atenci6n de a l g u ien
c h a rg e a l a ptop ; da:d3 ;) 'l<eptop/ cargar u n

o rdenador portatil
c h a rg e a m o b i l e phone / da:d3 ;) m;:}ubaii 'f;c)un/

cargar un telefono m6vil


chase / tf eis/ perseg u i r
cheer / tji;:}/ aclamar, vitorear
c l ose-up / ' kl;c)us.,p/ (en) primer piano
come round j k,,m 'raund/ pasar, acercarse
come to / ' kAm t;:}/ ascender a, sumar
c o m m o n sense / kmn;:}n 'sens/ sentido com u n
co m p l a i n a bout / k;c) m ' plem ;:}baut/ quejarse de,

reclamar por
com p l a i n of / b m 'plem ;)V/ quejarse de
consist of / k;c)n 'SISt ;:}v/ constar de, consistir en
construct / b n 'strAkt/ construir
constructi o n / k;:}n 'stL\kfn/ construcci6n
constructive /k;:}n 'strAktl\'/ constructivo/a
consumerism / k;c)n 'sju:m;:}nz;:}m/ consu m ismo
contractor / kdn ' tr<ekt;:}/ contratista
cont roversi a l / kon tr;c)'VJ:fl/ controvertido/a, polemico/a

bitter / 'bit;)/ a margo/a

co u s i n / ' kAzn/ primo/a

b l e a k / bli:k/ crudo/a, depri mente

crash / kr<ef/ bloquearse, colgarse ( u n ordenador)

b l u r / b b:/ desd i b ujar, hacer borroso/a

crawl / kr:>:l/ gatear; ava nzar lentamente

bodyg u a rd / 'bodiga:d/ g u a rdaespa ldas

creak / kri:k/ cruj i r

bond /bond/ lazo, vincu l o

crew / kru:/ equ i po, cuadrilla

bonfire / 'bonfai;:}/ hoguera

c r o p / krop/ cu ltivo, cosecha

bottle / t;:} 'bot!/ em botellar


brand /br<end/ marca
break down /bre1 k 'daun/ estropearse, averiarse;

echarse a l lorar; descomponerse


break up /breik .,p/ separarse, rom per
b r i g ht /brait/ vivo/a
b r i n g a l o n g / bn!J ;c)'ln!J/ traerse, traer consigo; l l evarse,

llevar consigo
bring back /bn!J 'b<ek/ traer a la memoria, recordar

crowd / kraud/ muchedumbre, m u ltitud


c u rrently / 'k.\r;:}ntli/ actua l mente, en la actua l i dad
cut down / kA t 'dau n / red ucir, recortar

D
deafe n i n g / 'defni!J/ ensordecedor/a
d e bris / 'debri:/ restos
d e bt

I det/ deuda
1 23

" Glossary
d e l ete

I dr' li:t/ borra r, e l i m i na r

f i l e / fail/ a rch ivo

d e l i g htfu l / dr ' l aJtfl/ encantador/a

firm /fJ:m/ compa n fa, firma

deny / dr ' n ai / negar

flavo u r / ' flerv;:J/ sabor

depend o n
destroy
device
devote

I d1'pend

on/ depender de; con tar con

I dr'stnr/ destr u i r

f l ee / fli:/ h u i r, fugarse
fl eet /fli:t/ flota

I dr'vars/ dispositive, aparato


I dr'v;:Jut/ ded ica r(se)

flush /fl AJ/ t i ra r de la cadena


folder / ' f;:Ju)d;:J/ carpeta

d i e of / ' dar ;:Jv/ morir de

foo l /fu:l/ enganar

d i m / drm/ aten uarse, a paga rse

forester / ' fonst;:J/ g uarda bosques

d i scount / 'drskaunt/ descuento, rebaja

forward a n attachme ntjbw;:Jd <en ;:J ' t<etfm;:Jnt/

d i sg racef u l /dis'greisfl/ vergonzoso/a


d i sg usti ng / drs'gAstiiJ/ desagradable
d o b u s i n ess with / du: 'bizn;:Js w1o/ hacer negocios I

negociar con
d o m o re harm than good

I du:

m::>: ' ha:m o;:Jn gud/

ser pear el remedio que la enfermedad


d o o n e's best

I du: wAnz

'best/ hacer todo l a posible

d o o n e's d uty / du: w,\nz 'dju:ti / c u m p l i r con el deber


d o someone a favo u r / du: sAmwAn d 'feiv;:J/ hacer un

favor a a l guien
d o the s h o p p i n g

I d u : o ;:J

'fopiiJ/ hacer la compra

down to earth /daun t;:J '3:8/ practico/a, realista, con

Ios pies en la tierra


down l oad a f i l m /daun'l;:Jud d film/ descarga r(se) una

pelfcula
down l oa d a song / daun'l;:Jud d SDI)/ descargar(se) una

canci6n
d rive

(re)enviar un documento adju nto

forward an e m a i l /b:w;:Jd <en 'i:merl/ (re)enviar u n

correo electr6n ico


free of c h a rg e / fri: ;:Jv 'tfa:d3/ g ratis, g ratu ito/a
free t r i a l /fri: 'trar;:Jl/ muestra gratuita
frustrate

I frA'strert/ frustrar(se)

frustrated

I frA 'strei nd/ frustrado/a

frustrati n g

I frA 'streitiiJ/ frustrante

frustration /frA'strerfn/ frustraci6n


fuel / ' fju:;:Jl/ com busti ble
f u l l - l ength fi l m / fulleiJ8 'film/ largometraje

G
gadget / 'g<ed3rt/ art i l ugio, ch isme, aparato
gear / gr;:J/ equi po; ropa
get a l o n g

I dra1vI empuje, d i n a m ismo

I get

;:J' lDIJ/ l levarse bien

get r i d of /get 'nd DV/ l i bra rse I deshacerse de


get to / ' get tu:/ tener la oportu n idad de

g i ve out / g1v 'aut/ agotarse, acabarse; reparti r, distri b u i r

e m it / i 'mrt/ emitir, desped i r

g o a b road

e n d l ess / 'endl;:Js/ infin ito/a

go bald

enga ged / m ' ge1d3d/ prometido/a

go b l i n d / g;:Ju 'blamd/ quedarse ciego/a

enter your a g e / 'e n t;:J

go i n one ear a n d out the other /g;:Ju m wAn

enter your password

jJ:

erd3/ i ntrod u c i r tu edad

I en t;:J jJ:

'pa:swJ:d/ i ntrod ucir tu

contrasena
enterta i n ment / e n t;:J ' temm;:Jn t/ entreten i m iento,

espectaculo

I g ;:J u

I g;:Ju

;:J'bo:d/ i rse a l extranjero

'b:):ld/ quedarse calvo/a

go m a d

I g;:Ju

'm<ed/ volverse loco/a

g o out of b u s i n ess

e n v i ro n menta l ly friendly / m varr;:J nment;:Jli 'fre n d l i/

g o strong

envision /m'v13n/ prever, i ma g i n a rse


eventu a l ly / I'ventf u;:Jli/ final mente, al final
exch a n ge
excited

I 1ks'tfemd3/ (i nter)ca mbiar

I Ik'saitid/ entusiasmado/a

exh i b it / Ig 'zibit/ exposici6n


expose / Ik'sp;:Juz/ exponer, poner a l descubierto

I gdu

aut ov 'bizn;:Js/ quebrar

'stroiJ/ ir viento en papa, marcha r bien

g o wild / g;:Ju 'waild/ enloquecer, ponerse coma loco/a;

desmadrarse
goal

I g;:Jul/ m eta, objetivo

goog l e / ' gu:gl/ buscar en Google


g ratef u l / 'gretfl/ a g radecido/a
g reat-gra ndfather

I gren'gr<enfa:o;:J/ bisabuelo

g reen h o use effect / 'gri: n h aus rfekt/ efecto

i nvernadero

I gri:nh aus

'g<es/ gas i nvernadero

g row a p a rt / gr;:Ju ;:J ' pa:t/ distanciarse

fa i nt / fe m t/ d e b i l , a penas perceptible
f a k e / feik/ fingir
fa s h i o n a b l e / ' f<efn;:Jbl/ a la moda, elega nte
fence

I gdu

g reen h o use gas

I fen s/ va l la, cerea

;:Jnd

g o m i ss i n g / g;:Ju 'mrsiiJ/ desaparecer, extraviarse

environmental i st / mvair;:Jn'ment;:Jl!st/ ecologista

ecol6g ico/a, respetuoso/a con el media ambiente

I;:)

aut O;:J 'Ao;:J/ entrar por u n ofdo y sal i r por el otro

g row out of

I gr;:Ju

'aut m'/ quedarse pequeno/a

h a lfway / h a:fwer/ a medio cam i no

fiancee /fi'Dnser/ prometida

h a rmfu l / ' ha:mfl/ pernicioso/a, d a n i no/a

fight back / fan 'b<ek/ defenderse, contraatacar

harm less / 'ha:ml;:Js/ i n ofensivo/a

G lossary
hassle / ' h<esl/ fastidio, molestia

m a k e a m i stake / meik d m i ' steik/ equ ivocarse

hear a bo ut / ' h id dbaut/ enterarse de

m a ke a m o u nta i n out of a m o l e h i l l / m ei k
m

hear from / ' h id frd m / saber I tener noticias de

'mauntdn aut

hear of / ' h i d 1w/ oir hablar I saber de

g rano de arena

h e i ress / ' edres/ heredera

d m dul h i i / hacer u n a montana de u n

m a ke a state m e n t / m eik

;>

'steitmdi1l/ prestar I hacer

una declaraci6n
m a ke an effort / m eik dl1 'efdt/ hacer u n esfuerzo

m a ke an excuse / m eik .:n 1k' skju:s/ dar I poner u n a

i d o l / 'cudl/ idolo

excusa, buscar u n pretexto

i m p ressive / J m 'presl\/ i m presiona nte


(be) in the spotl i g h t

I ( bi : )

1 1 1 Od 'spodart/ estar en el

pu nto de m i ra, ser el centra de atenci6n


i nfatuation / mf<etfu'e1fn/ encapricha m iento
i n gest / m 'd3est/ ingerir
i n h a b i t / m ' h <e b i t/ habitar, vivir en
i n he ri t / m ' h ent/ hereda r
i ns ist on / m 's1st on/ insistir en
i nsta nt / ' mstdnt/ instanta neo/a , i n med iato/a
i nterest (n) / ' m trdst/ i nteres
i nte rest (v)
i nte rested

I 'm trdst/ i nteresar(se)


I' m tr;)st J d / i nteresado/a

i nterest i n g / ' mtr;)Sti!J/ i nteresante

m a ke friends

1 me1k

'frendz/ hacer amigos/as

m a ke (on e's) way / me1k wAnz 'wei/ abrirse ca m i n o


make waves / meik 'we1vz/ agitar las aguas, crear

problemas
m a n a g e / ' m ;:emd3/ d i rig i r, gestionar
m a n a g e a b l e / ' m <en icl3dbl/ controlable, ma nejable
management / ' m<e nicl3 m d n t/ d i recci6n, gesti6n
manager / ' m<emcl3d/ d i rector/a, gerente
m a r riage / ' m <encl3/ matri monio
m a rried / ' m<erid/ casado/a
m a rry / ' m<eri/ casar(se)
m a rve l l o u s / ' ma:vdlds/ maravi l l oso/a
mass m e d i a / m <es ' m i:chd/ med ios de com u n icaci6n de

masas
measurement / ' me3dllldnt/ medida

j e a l o u s / ' d3elds/ celoso/a

merch a n d ise / ' mJ:tf dnciais/ mercancfa(s)

j e l lyfish / 'd3elifif/ medusa

m i sera b l e / ' m izrdbl / triste, i nfeliz

mood / mu:cl/ h umor

keep in touch / ki:p 111 'tAtf/ mantener el contacto

mouth-wate r i n g / ' m auew:xtnl)/ del icioso/a, que hace

monk sea l / ' m,\l)k si:l/ foca monje

(be in the

for: tener ganas de)

la boca agua

L
lack ( n ) / l<ek/ escasez, falta
lack (v) /l<ek/ carecer
l a ndfi l l / ' l <en dfii/ vertedero
l a u n ch / b: n tf ; la nzar
l avish / ' l<evif/ l ujoso/a, fastuoso/a
l e a n o n / ' l i : n on/ apoyarse en
l e a n out / ' li:n aut/ asomarse
l i ce n ce p l ate / 'laisns pleit/ placa, matricula
l itter / 'htd/ basu ra

nag / n <eg/ fastid i a r I dar la lata a


nasty / ' na:sti/ desagradable
nay / n ei/ no
nephew /'nefju:/ sobrino
n i ece / n i:s/ sobrina
n i g ht m a re / ' nanmed/ pesa d i l l a
n o d / n od/ asent i r c o n la cabeza
nothing to do with /nA8Il) td 'du: w1o/ nada que ver con
(be) notorious (for)

l ive u p to / hv 'Ap Ld/ estar a la a ltu ra de; vivir de

acuerdo con, c u m p l i r
l og onto / log 'ontd/ entrar, a b r i r la sesi6n
logg i ng / ' l ogq)/ explotaci6n forestal
l oo k up to / l uk 'Ap tu:/ a d m i ra r I respetar a
l ose / l u:z/ perder

I (bi:)

ndu't:xrids ( fd) I ser conocido/a

(por), tener fama (de)

0
o d o u r / ' ducld/ olor
offensive /d'fensiv/ ofensivo/a
on sa l e

l oss / I os/ perd ida

1 on

'sed/ rebajado/a, con descuento

o n l i ne / o n ' l a m / en lfnea

lost / l ost/ perdido/a


l u x u r i o u s / I A g ' 3udrids/ l ujoso/a

o n ly c h i l d / 'dunli tfaiid/ h ij o/a u n ico/a


out of bounds / aut

DY

'baunclz/ zona p ro h i b i da

outfit / 'au tfn/ equipar

outlet / ' autlet/ outlet

m a k e a dea l / meik ,) 'di:l/ hacer u n trato


m a k e a l iv i n g / me1 k

' I Ivi!J/ ganarse la vida

outrageous / aut' reicl3ds/ escandaloso/a


ove rhear /dUVd ' h id/ oir (por casual idad)

G lossary
overjoyed /;}U\';) 'cl3::>Icl/ contentfsimo/a, l leno/a de alegrfa
overpriced / ;}UV;)' praist/ excesivamente caro/a
overwh e l med / ;}UV;} 'welmcl/ a bru mado/a

R
raise /reiz/ criar

p a l e / peii/ cla ro/a, p a l i do/a

raw mate r i a l / r::>: m J ' ti;}ri;}]/ materia prima

passer-by / pa:s;)'bai/ transeu nte

ready- made / ' redimeicl/ precocinado/a, preparado/a

password / ' pa:swJ:cl/ contrasena

rea l m / relm/ reino, domin io, esfera

past i m e / ' pa:staim/ pasatiempo

receipt / n'si:t/ recibo

pattern / ' pa:tn/ d i bujo, d iseno

referee / ref;} ' ri:/ arbitro/a

pay a debt / pe1 d 'clet/ pagar una deuda

ref u n d / ' ri:fAncl/ reem bolso, devol uci6n

pay a fort u n e / pe1 d 'f::>:tf u:n/ pagar una fortu na

re l ative / 're];}tiv/ pariente, fa m i liar

pay attention / pe1 ;) ' tenfn/ prestar atenci6n

r e l y on / n' l a1 on/ confia r en; depender de; conta r con

pay someone a co m p l i ment / pe1 sAmwAn d


'komplmP n t/ hacer un c u m p l i d o a algu ien

pay someone a visit

1 pe1

sA mwAn d 'vmt/ i r a ver I

hacer una visita a a l g u ien


pay the b i l l s /pei ad 'b!lz/ pagar las facturas I Ios recibos
pay the price / pe1 Od 'prais/ cargar con I pagar las

consecuencias
performa nce / p d 'b:mJns/ actuaci6n, i nterpretaci6n
performer / pd'b:m;}/ actor, actriz; i nterprete
pick out / pi k ' aut/ eleg i r, escoger
pick up /p1k 'Ap/ aprender, a d q u i r i r; recoger; mejorar,

reponerse
p i c k l es / ' p ilzlz/ encurtidos
p l easant / ' pleznt/ agradable
pole / pdulj poste, mastil; pertiga

re m a i n / n 'mem/ seg u i r siendo; q u edarse, perma necer


re m i n d a bout / n' mamd Jbaut/ recordar
re m i n d of /n'mamcl ;}V/ recordar
remove / n' mu:v/ q u ita r, borra r, e l i m i n a r
renewa b l e e n ergy / nnj u:;}b] 'endcl3i/ energfa(s)

renova ble(s)
restart / ' ri:sra:t/ rei n iciar

I n ' r::>:t/ replicar

retort

rhyt h m / 'nodm/ ritmo


road safety / ' r;)ud se1fti/ seg u ridad vial
role m o d e l / ' r;)u] modi/ modelo de conducta
rough / rAf/ aspero/a, basto/a

p o l i t i c i a n / po];}'tifn/ politico/a

savoury / 'seiv;}ri/ sabroso/a; salado/a

pol l ut i o n / pd'Iu:fn/ contam i naci6n, poluci6n

scent

I sent/ fragancia, a roma

p o p u l a r ity / pop ju'l;:er;}ti/ popularidad

search f o r / 'sJ:tf fd/ buscar

porta b l e / ' p::>:t;}blj portatil

see eye to eye / si: a1 t;} 'a1/ estar de acuerdo

post a message / pdust d ' m esicl3/ publicar I postear un

self-centred / selfsent;}d/ egocentrico/a

mensaje
post i nform ation / pdust mf;)'medn/ publ icar I postear

i nformaci6n

self-co nfide nce / selfkonfid;}ns/ confia nza en sf

mismo/a
self-esteem / selfi'sti:m/ a utoesti ma

prefer / pn'fJ:/ preferir

sensati on / sen'sedn/ sensaci6n

prefera b l e / ' prefrdbl/ preferible

sense / se n s/ sent i r

preference / ' prefrdns/ preferencia

sensible / ' sen s;}blj sensate/a , prudente

preg n a nt / 'pregn;}nt/ embarazada

sensitive / ' sen s;}t!Y/ sensi ble

1 set

press i n g / ' preSil:J/ u rgente

set back

pressu re / ' pref;}/ presi6n

set off / set 'of/ provocar, desencadenar

prevent / pn'vent/ preve n i r; evitar, impedir

set up / set 'Ap/ crear; fundar

price-con scious / ' p raiskonf;}s/ consciente de I

preocupado/a par Ios precios


price tag / ' pra1s t<eg/ etiqueta (del precio)

1 26

q u a rr e l / 'kwor;}]/ ren i r, pelea rse

'ba:k/ retrasar

sett l e fo r / ' sed fd/ conforma rse con


shop around ;fop ;)'raund/ i r de tienda en tienda

comparando precios

p u b l i c ity / pAb'hs;}ti/ publ icidad

shopkeeper ; fopki:pd/ tendero/a, comercia nte

pump / pAmp/ bombear

short cut / 'ht kAt/ atajo

p u rchase (n) / ' pJ:tf;}s/ compra, adq u isici6n

shove

;J,w;

p u rchase (v) / ' pJ:rfds/ compra r, a d q u i ri r

sh red

I h-eel/ pizca

empuj6n

p u rs u e / pJ 'sju:/ perseg u i r

sh uffle ; 'f.,fl/ a rrastrar Ios pies (al a n dar)

push a r o u n d / puf ;)' rauncl/ intim idar

s i b l i n g / ' sibhl:J/ hermano/a

pyre / ' paid/ hoguera, p i ra

s i n g l e /'sil:Jl/ soltero/a

Glossary
(g ive somebody a ) taste of his I her own m e d i c i n e

I smu:o/ suave, tersola

smooth

s n a p / sneep/ saca r (fotos)


s n a p up / sneep 'Ap/ no dejar escapar

q uedar agotadas, agotarse (las existencias))

soci a l networki n g site /sdu fl 'netwJ:kqJ satt/ pagina I

sitio web de redes sociales


s p l u rg e (on) /spb:d3 ( o n ) I derroch a r
spo i l t / sp:)[lt/ mimadola, consentidola
spouse

/ ( giv sAmbddi ;} ) terst m h r z I h d ;} U n 'medrsn/ dar


a probar la propia medicina, pagar a alguien con la
misma moneda

((be) snapped up:

I spaus/ c6nyuge

tasty / ' tei s ti/ sabrosola, apetitosola , ricola


tease / ti:z/ b u r l a rse I refrse de, toma r el pelo
the sky's the l i m it / 0;} skarz 0;} ' hm n/ n o hay lfmite
the t i p of the i ceberg / 0;} up d\ 0;} 'aisbJ:g/ la pu nta
'

del iceberg

start out / s ta :t 'aut/ empezar

t h i n k a bout / ' 8r1Jk dbaut/ pensar en

start over / sta:t ';)U\";}/ volver a empezar

t h i n k of /'9qJk ;}V/ pensar de I sabre

start up / sta:t ',\p/ montar (un negocio)

tidy up / tardi ' A p/ ordenar, recoger

state ment / ' stertm;}nt/ declaraci6n

tie / t al/ vinculo, lazo

stay at / 'ster ;}t/ q uedarse en

tough / tAf/ d iffcil, d u rola

ste nch / stentf/ hedor, fetidez

trash / treef/ basura

sti n k /sttl)k/ a pestar, heder

tre n d / trend/ moda, tendencia

st i r /stJ:/ esti m u l a r, despertar

trigger / ' tng;}/ desencadenar; provocar; evocar

stock up o n / stok 'Ap on/ a bastecer(se) de, comprar

t u r n i nto / tJ:n ' m t;}/ convertir(se) en

store / sn:/ gua rdar, a l macenar

t u r n out / tJ:n 'aut/ resulta r, sa l i r

stormy / ' sn:mi/ tormentosola

t u rpent i n e / ' tJ:p;}ntarn/ agua rras

stra i g h t /strett/ d i rectamente

tutorial / tju:' t::>:ri;}l/ tutorial

stroke / str;}uk/ acariciar

stro l l

I str;}u]/ paseo

str u g g l e / ' stngl/ l ucha

(be) unaware

I (bi:)

An;) 'we;}/ ig norar

stuff / s tA f/ cosas, bartulos

u pdated

subtle / ' sA!]/ suti l , suave

u p roar / 'Apr::>:/ a lboroto, ja leo

s u p p l y / s;) ' plai/ s u m i n istrar, p roporcionar

u rge (n) / J:cl3/ i m p u lse, deseo

I .\p'dertrd/ actualizado/a

s u rrounded /s;)'raundrd/ rodeadola

u rg e (v) / J:d3/ instar, a n i m a r

sweatshop

use u p

/ swe tfop/ fabrica I taller donde se explota


'

a Ios trabajadores

I ( h;}v

(have a ) sweet tooth

d) swi:t ' tu:8/ ser golosola

user-fri e n d ly

',\p/ agotar, gastar

1 ju:dfrendli/ facil de util izar I u sar

vac u u m up / 'veekjudm Ap/ aspi ra r

ta b l o i d s / ' teebb:dz/ prensa amarilla, peri6d i cos

sensacional istas
take a break / t e1 k d 'brerk/ tomarse un respire I

desca nso

take a p h oto / tetk d f;}u t;}u/ saca r una fotograffa


'

take advantage of / te1k dd'va:n ucl3 ;}v/ aprovechar;

a p rovecharse de

take after / te i k 'o:ft,) / parecerse I sa l i r a

take charg e / terk ' do:d3/ encargarse, hacerse cargo


take for g ra nted / teik fd 'gro:n ud/ dar por sentadola,

asumir
t a k e o n / ter k ' o n / enfrentarse a
take o ne's t i m e /teik w.\nz

' taun/ tomarse tiempo,

hacer las cosas con calma


take pride i n / terk 'prard rn / enorg u l l ecerse de
take someone by s u r prise / teik sAmw,\n bar sd'prarz/

eager a a l g u ien por sorpresa, sorprender a a l g u i e n

ta l e n t scout / ' t ee l ;} n t skaut/ cazatalentos

ta n g l e up / ' teengl ,\p/ e n redar, e n maranar


tanta l i s i n g / ' teent;}larzilJ / tentadorla
tap /teep/ grifo

I ju:z

va n ish i nto th i n a i r j \eentf m t;} e m e ;} / desaparecer,

esfumarse
voyage /'v::>ud3/ viaje por mar

w
war-torn / 'w::>:t::>:n/ destrozad ola por la g uerra
wealthy / 'wel8i/ ricola, a d i neradola
wei rd /wr;}d/ raro/a, extrano/a
whack /week/ golpe fuerte
w h i ff / WJf/ olorc i llo, tufi l l o
w h i sper / 'wiSp;}/ hablar en voz baJa, susu rrar
wi dow / 'wtd;}u/ viuda
w i l l i n g / 'wrltl)/ d ispuestola
wipe out /warp ' aut/ exterminar

wors h i p / 'wJ:ftp/ idolatra r, a dorar

y
yelp

I jelp/ g rita r, c h i l l a r

1 1 27

. -

Glossary

Functional Language
Unit 1

Unit 3

TALKING ABOUT A PICTURE

PERSONAL INTERVIEWS
How l o n g have you . . . ? /hau 'Iou hcev ju:/ ( C u a nto

This p i ct u re shows . . .

/ois 'p1ktfd f;:luz/ Esta fotograffa

m u estra . . . , En esta fotograffa se ve . .


They seem to b e . . .

/ I t b d 'bi: ocet/ Podrfa ser que . .

l t c o u l d b e that . . .
I i magine . . .

/oei 'si:m t;:l bi:/ Parecen ser I estar. . .

/ai 1'mced3m/ l m a g i no . . . , Supongo . .

I ' d say that . . .

/aid 'se1 ocet/ Yo d i rfa que . . .

i t l ooks l i ke . . .

/It 'luks la1k/ pa rece que . .

They ' l l probably . . .

/oeii 'pmbdbli/ Probablemente I Es

p robable que e l los/as . .


You ca n te l l that

. . . I ju: kcen ' tel ocet/ S e nota I ve

que . .
perhaps

/p;:l'hceps/ q u iza(s), tal vez

I s u ppose . . .

/ai s;:l'p;:luz/ S u pongo q u e . . .

T h i s i s a pict u re of . . .

/o1s

1z

d 'p1kt}d ;}V/ Esta es una

fotograffa de . .
You ca n see . . .

I ju: kcen 'si: I Puedes ver. . .

I n the bac kgro u nd, th ere is I there a re . . .

/m O;:l 'bcekgraund oed Iz/ oe;:l aJ En el fondo, hay . . .

tiempo has . . I

H ow often do you . . ?
.

frecuencia . . . 7

What do you . . . ?
Do you ever . . . ?

/hau 'ofn du: ju:/ L Con que

/ 'wot dd ju: 1 ( Q ue . . . I, L E n q u e . .

/du: ju: 'ev;:l/ (Aiguna vez . . . ?

/m jJ: ;:l'pmi;:ln/ En tu o p i n i o n , .

In your o p i n i o n, . . .
Have you ever . . . ?

What types of . . . ?

/ hcev ju: 'ev;:l/ (Aiguna vez has

( Normal mente c6mo . . . ?

Do you th i n k . . ?

. .

/wot 'ta1ps ;}V/ ( Q ue ti pos de . . . ?

H ow do you us u a l l y . . . ?
.

/ hau du: ju: 'ju:zu:;:lli/

/du: ju: '81\.)k/ ( C rees que . . . ?

What I Who is your favo u r ite . . ?

/wot/hu: 1z jJ:
'feiv;:lnt/ ( C u a l I Quien es tu . . . favorito/a l
Where is your favo u r ite . . . ? /wed 1z jJ: 'feiv;:lnt/
.

L D6nde esta tu . . favorito/a 7

What wo u l d you l i ke to . . ?

/wot wud ju: 'la1k t;:l/

What a re your p l a n s for . . . ?

/wot a: jJ: 'plcenz [;:lj

L Que te g u starfa . . . ?

L Que p lanes tienes para . . ?


.

Unit 2

Unit 4

REACHING A DECISION
N ot rea l ly. /not 'n;:lli/ En real idad no.

COMPARING PICTURES

I had n 't thought of that.

/ ai hcedn t '8:x t ;}V ocet/ No

habfa pensado en eso.


you've got a p o i nt

I ju:v got d 'pJmt/ en eso I ahf

tienes raz6n
Yo u ' re right.

I jud 'rart/ Tienes raz6 n .

Oh, c o m e o n !

/ ;:lu kAm 'on/ i Venga ya !

That's true, but . . .

/ocets 'tru: bdt/ Eso es cierto I

verdad, pero . .
I see what you m ea n .

/ai si: wot ju: 'mi:n/ Veo I

E ntiendo lo que q u ieres decir.


A l l right t h e n , let's . . .

/ J:l 'rait oen lets/ De acuerdo

entonces, va mos a .. .
O K . So we've decided . . .

/ ad tu:
'simdld brkoz/ Las dos fotograffas son

The two p i ct u res a re s i m i l a r because . . .

piktf;:)z

a:

parecidas porq ue . .

/ ;:l'nAO;:l
8r1J oe;:lv got m kom;:ln 1z/ Otra cosa que tienen en

Another th i n g they've got i n c o m m o n i s . . .

com u n es . .
H owever, i n some ways they a re very d ifferent.

/hauev;:l m 'sAm we1z oe1 a: veri difr;:ln t/ S i n


embargo, en cierto sentid o s o n muy d iferentes.
I wo u l d i m a g i n e that the people in pict u re A . . .

/a! wud I 'm;:ed3m ocet 0 ;:) pi:pl Ill plktf;:l A/


l m a g i n a rfa I D i rfa q u e la gente de la fotograffa A. .

/;:l'nAO;:l difr;:lns Iz/ Otra

Another d iffe rence is . . .

d iferencia es . .

/ ;:lukei S;:lU wi:v di'saidid/

Va le. Asf que I Entonces hemos decid ido . . .

Perso n a l ly, I ' d rather . . .

/ 'pJ:s;:ln;:l!i ard ra:o;:l/

Personalmente, preferi rfa . .

/wail m
piktf;:l B Its kwart laikli ocet/ mientras (q ue) en la

w h i l e i n p i ct u re B, it's q u ite l i kely that . . .

fotograffa B es bastante proba ble que .


whereas i n pict u re B . . .

/we;:lr;:ez

prktf;:l B/ m i e ntras

(que) en la fotograffa B . . .
For exa m p l e
while

/fd Ig'za:mpl/ Por ejemplo

/wail/ m ientras (q ue)

they both show . . .

m uestran . .

/oei 'b;:lu8 f;:lu/ a m bos/as

Glossary

Unit 6

Un it 5
EXPRESSING AN OPINION
In my o p i n ion, . . . /m ma1 ;:J'pmj;m / En mi opinion,
I t h i n k that . . .

/ai '8I!Jk oxt/ Pienso I C reo q u e .

If you ask me,

000

ROLE PLAY (SHOPPING)


. o o

0 0

/ If ju: 'a:sk mi:/ Para m f (q ue) I E n m i

opinion, . . .
I b e l i eve that

1 a g ree that

0 0 .

000

/ai b1' li:v o<et/ C reo que . .

/ai ;)'gri: oxt/ Estoy de acuerdo en

que . . .

/o<ets Igz<ektli wot 'a1


81uk/ Eso es exacta mente lo que pienso.

That's exactly what I t h i n k .

I k n ow what you m ea n . /ai n;)U wot ju: ' mi:n/ Se lo


q u e q u ieres decir.
Yo u 've got a point.

I ju:v got d 'pJmt/ En eso I A h f

tienes razo n .
I d i sagree.

You won't be sorry!

/ ju: w;)unt bi: 'sori/ r No te

arrepenti ras !

/aim ;)frerd wi:v


O;)Uz/ Me temo q u e (esos/as) se nos han

I ' m afra i d we've r u n out o f those.

rAn 'aut

;)V

agotado.

/du: oe1 'su:t mi:/ ( Me q uedan bien?


/ail hdv t;)
tfek w1o od ' m<emd3d/ Tendre que consu lta r con el

Do they s u it m e ?

I ' l l have to c h e c k w i t h the m a n a g e r.

encargado.

/ 'k<ef J: kredit ka:d/ (En efectivo

Cash o r cred it card?

o con tarjeta?
They're top q u a l i ty.

/ Oe;) 'top kwol;)ti/ Son de la

mejor ca l i d a d .

/ h<evnt ju: got


eni8ID 'tfi:pd/ ( NO tienes nada mas barato?

Haven't you g o t a nyth i n g cheaper?

/ai dis;)'gri:/ No estoy de acuerdo.


/O<ets not 0 ;) 'pJmt/ No se trata

That's n o t the poi nt.

de eso.

Are these o n sa l e ?

/a: oi:z on 'serl/ ( Estos/as estan

rebajados/as?

That's not the way I see it.

/o<ets not 0;) we1 a1 'si: It/

Yo n o lo veo I entiendo asf.


You ca n 't be seri o u s !

I ju: 'ka:nt bi: sldrids/ i NO

p uedes decir eso 7

/ hau k<en ju: 'se1 O<et/ L Como

As far as I ' m concerned,

000

/<ez fa: <ez 'aim k;)nsJ:nd/

Por lo que a mf respecta, .


D o n 't you t h i n k that o o . ?

I du: ju: teik 'kredit ka:dz/

(ACeptai s tarjeta(s) de cred ito?

p uedes hablar en seri o !


H ow ca n you say that?

Do you take credit cards?


H ow ca n I h e l p you?

/ h au k<en a1 'help ju:/ (Coma I

En q u e puedo ayudarte?

OK, I ' l l

take it.

j;)ukei arl 'teik It/ De acuerdo, me lo

llevo I quedo.
I s there a d i scou nt?

/ Iz oed d 'diskaunt/ ( Hay

descuento7

/d;)unt ju: '8I!Jk o<et/ ( NO

crees que . . . ?

Yo u r recei pt's in the bag.

I jJ: n'si:ts

0;)

bxg/ Tu

recibo esta en la balsa.

What I mean is

000

/wot a1 'mi:n Iz/ Lo que q u iero decir

es . . .

Can you order one?

/ k<en ju: 'J:dd wAn/ ( Puedes

pedirme I encargarme u n o/a?

Yo u 've got t o a d m it that

000

I ju:v got t;) dd'mn O<et/

Tienes que a d m itir q u e . .


I ' d say that

oo.

/ aid 'se1 o<et/ Yo d i rfa q u e . .

I rea l i se that, but

0 0 0

/ai 'ri:;)laiz o<et b;)t/ M e doy

cuenta de eso, pero . . .


I t see m s t o m e that

0 0 0

/ I t si:mz t ;) 'mi: oxt/ Me

parece I C reo q u e . .
Yo u ' re right.

I jud 'rait/ Tienes razo n .

That's a g o o d i d e a .

/O<ets d gud ai'di;)/ E s a e s u n a

b u e n a idea.
I ' m not s u re a bout that.

/ ann not 'fud dbaut O<et/ N o

estoy seg u ro/a de eso.

1 29

PHRASAL VERB S

En esta l i sta encontraras Ios mas comu nes traducidos seg u n el cont xto en q u e aparec en este l i b ro . Los
.
_
phrasal verbs se llaman ta m b i e n multiword verbs porque van segUidos de una prepos1C1on, un adverb1o o
a m bas cosas.
break dow n : estropearse, averiarse; echarse a l l o rar;

descom ponerse
b rea k up: separarse, romper

bring a l o n g : traerse, traer consigo; l l evarse, l l evar

con si go
bring back: traer a la memoria, recordar
b r i n g u p : criar(se); plantea r, sacar a colaci6n
ca l l back: volver a l l a m a r
carry o n : conti n u a r
clea n u p : l i mpia r, a rreg lar
come back: regresar, volver
come i n : entrar
come on: e mpezar

(- ! : i Va mos ! , i Venga ! )

come ro u n d : pasar, acercarse


come to: ascender a, s u m a r
c u t down : red ucir, recortar
d e a l with : ocuparse I encargarse de
end u p : term i n a r, acabar
feel l i ke : apetecer, tener ganas de
fight back: defenderse, contraatacar
fig u re out: comprender, explicarse
fi l l i n : rellenar ( i mpreso o docu mento)
find out: descubrir, averiguar
fit i n : encaja r, adaptarse; congeniar
g e t a h e a d : prog resar, tener exito
get a l o n g : llevarse bien
get back: volver, regresar
get by: a rreg la rselas
get off: bajar(se) I a pearse de
get on: l levarse bien; subi r(se), montar(se)
get over: reponerse, su perar
get r i d of: l i brarse I deshacerse d e
g e t t o : tener la oportu nidad de
get together: reu n i r(se), j u nta r(se)
get u p : levanta rse; s u b i r
g ive away: revelar; delatar
g ive back: devolver
g ive out: agotarse, acaba rse; repart i r, distri b u i r
g ive u p : dejar, ren u nciar a
go away: i rse, m a rc h a rse
g o back: volver, regresar
go o n : dura r; conti n u a r
g o o u t : sa l i r
g row a pa rt: d ista nciarse
g row i nto: tra nsformarse I convertirse en
g row out of: q uedarse pequenola
g row u p: criarse, crecer
h a n g a r o u n d : j u ntarse I andar con; pasar el rato
h a n g o n : esperar
hang out: pasar el rato
h a n g u p : colgar (el telefono, un adorno)
h o l d on: espera r
let down : decepcionar, fallar, defraudar
l ive u p to: estar a la a ltu ra de; vivir de acuerdo con,

cumplir

l o o k after: cuidar a I d e
l o o k aro u n d : m i rar a l rededor
look for: buscar

uol

l oo k forward to: espera r con ansia, tener m uchas ganas

de, estar desea ndo

l oo k out: tener c u i dado


l oo k up: buscar; i r a visitar; mejorar
l oo k up to: a d m i rar I respetar a
m a k e u p : componer
m i ss out on: desaprovechar, desperd i c i a r, dejar pasar,

perder

m ove away: i rse, m a rcharse, muda rse


m ove i nto: trasladarse I m u d a rse a ( u n l ug a r especffico)
pass by: pasar
pay back: pagar (deuda), devolver (di nero);

vengarse, hacer pagar caro

pay for: pagar; pagar por, ser castigadola


pay off: saldar, l iquidar; valer I merecer la pena
p i c k out: eleg i r, escoger
pick u p : a p render, a d q u i r i r; recoger; mejorar, reponerse
p l a y back: volver a reprod ucir
p u s h a r o u n d : intimidar
put off: aplazar, posponer
put on: representar; ponerse (ropa)
put up with: aguanta r, soportar
run away: escaparse, h u i r
r u n o u t (of): quedarse s i n
set b a c k : retrasar
set off: provocar, desencadenar
s e t u p : crear; fundar
shop a r o u n d : i r de tienda en tienda comparando precios
snap up: no dejar esca par
sta nd fo r: sign ificar
sta nd out: destacar, sobresal i r
sta nd u p : ponerse de pie, levanta rse
sta rt out: empeza r
sta rt over: volver a e mpezar
sta rt up: montar (un negocio)
stay away: alejarse; no acercarse
stock up o n : a bastecer(se) de, comprar
take after: parecerse I sal i r a
take back: retractarse, retirar (lo dicho)
take o n : enfrenta rse a
take out: desqu itarse
take over: a d q u i r i r, hacerse cargo de
take to: encarinarse con, eager carina a
take u p : em pezar (actividad o hobby)
ta n g l e u p : e n redar, enmara n a r
tear a p a rt: hacer pedazos I trizas
th row out: tirar (a la basu ra)
tidy up: ordenar, recoger
try on: probarse (ropa)
t u r n a r o u n d : da r(se) la vuelta
turn d own : baj a r (el volumen); rechazar
turn i nto: covertir(se) en
turn off: apagar, desenchufar (un aparato)
t u r n o n : encender ( u n apa rato)
t u r n out: resulta r, sal i r
use u p : agotar, gastar
wi pe out: exterminar

PREPO SITIONS
VERBS

P R E P O S ITIONS

accuse of: acusar de

NOUNS

P R E P O SITIONS

ban o n : prohib ici6n de I sobre

a g ree o n : acordar, estar I ponerse de acuerdo (sobre)

desi re for: deseo I anhelo de

a p p l y for: solicita r, pedir

effect o n : efecto en; i nfl uencia sobre

a p p ly to: echar una solicitud, solicitar

end of: final de

argue a bout: d iscutir sobre I por

escape fro m : h u id a I evasion de

a r g u e with: discutir con

form of: forma de

arrive at: l legar a

g r o u p of: grupo de

arrive i n : l legar a

i ncrease i n : a u mento en I de

beg i n with: em pezar con I por

i nfatuation with: enca pricha m iento con

b e l o n g to: pertenecer a

need for: necesidad de

care a bout: preocu parse I i nteresarse por

p a rt of: parte de

cl i m b up: subir I trepar (por)

p l e nty of: muchola

com p l a i n a bout: q u ej a rse de, reclamar por

reason for: raz6n para

compla i n of: q u ejarse de

sme l l of: olor a

consist of: constar de, consistir en

sol ution to: soluci6n a I de

depend o n : depender de; contar con


die of: morir de
emerge fro m : salir de
e n q u i re a bout: preguntar por, i nformarse de

ADJECTI V E S

f i g ht for: luchar por

(after

gossi p a bout: cotillear I chismorrear sobre


hea r a bout: enterarse de
hear fro m : saber I tener noticias de
hear of: ofr hablar I saber de
i n s ist on: insisti r en
i ntrod u ce to: dar a conocer; presentar
i nvite to: i nvitar a
l e a n o n : a poyarse en
l e a n out: asomarse
l i sten to: escuchar (a)
log onto: entrar, abrir la sesi6n
part i c i pate i n : practicar (un deporte); participar I tomar

parte en

p o i nt at: senalar
p o i nt to: senalar
prevent fro m : preve n i r; evitar, i m pedir

protest a g a i nst: protestar contra I sobre I acerca de

protrude fro m : (sobre)sal i r de

refer to: referi rse I a l u d i r a; denominar

re l y o n : confia r en; depender de; contar con


re m i n d a bout: recordar
re m i n d of: recordar
rob of: robar, qu ita r
search for: buscar
sme l l of: oler a
stare at: m i ra r fija mente
stay at: q uedarse en

ta l k a bout: hablar de I sobre


ta l k to I with: h a b l a r con

t h i n k a bout: opinar (sobre), parecer; pensar en


t h i n k of: pensar de I sobre
wait for: espera r a
wa l k away: i rse, marcharse
write a bout: escribir sobre

to

PR E P O SITIONS

be)

... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. .. . ........ . . . . . .. ..... ............. . . .. ... . .. .

dependent o n : dependiente I que depende de


d i fferent fro m : d iferente I distintola de
free fro m : sin, l i b re de
good at: buenola e n I para
i nte rested in: i nteresadola en
i nvolved in: metidola I i nvolucradola en
j e a l o u s of: (tener) envid ia I celos de
overjoyed at: contentfsimola de, llenola de a leg rfa por
p o l ite to: educadola con
proud of: org u l l osola de
sensitive to: sensible a
s i m i l a r to: similar I parecidola a
s u ita b l e for: apropiadola I adecuadola para
u n ha p py with: descontentola con

IRREGULAR VERB S
be /bi:/
beat /bi:t/

beat /bi:t/

been /bi:n/

ser, estar

beaten / ' bi:tn/

golpear

become/bi'kAm/

beca m e /b!'keim/

become /bi 'kAm/

l legar a ser

beg i n /b1'gm/

began /bi'g<en/

beg u n /bi'gAn/

empeza r

bend /bend/

bent /bent/

bent /bent/

doblar(se)

bet /bet/

bet /bet/

bet /bet/

aposta r

bite /bait/

bit /bit/

bitten / 'bitn/

morder

bleed /bli:d/

bled /bled/

b l e d /bled/

sa ngrar

b l ow /bldu/

b l ew / blu:/

b l own /bldun/

soplar

break /breik/

broke /brduk/

broken / 'brdukn/

rom per

b r i n g /bnu/

brought /bn:t/

brought / bn:t/

traer

b u i l d /bild/

b u i lt /bilt/

b u i lt /bilt/

constru i r

b u rst /bJ:st/

b u rst /bJ:st/

quemar
reventa r, esta I la r

burn /bJ:n/
bu rst /bJ:st/

bu rnt I b u rned /bJ:nt/bJ:nd/

b u rnt I burned /bJ:nt/bJ:nd/

b u y /bai/

bought /b::>:t/

bought /b::>:t/

comprar

catch /k<etf/

caught /b:t/

caught /b:t/

eager, atrapar

choose /tf u:z/

chose l tfduz/

chosen / ' tfduzn/

eleg i r

come /k.m /

came /keim/

come /kAm/

ven i r

cost /kost/

cost /kost/

cost /kost/

costar

cut /kAt/

cut /kAt/

cut /kAt/

cortar

d e a l /di:l/

dealt

dealt /delt/

comerciar, tratar

d i g /dig/

d u g /dAg/

dug /dAg/

cavar

d o /du:/

d i d /did/

done /dAn/

hacer

d raw /dn:/

d rew /dru:/

d rawn /dn:n/

d i buj a r

d rea m /dri:m/

I delt/

d rea mt I d reamed

d reamt I d reamed

I dremt/ dri:md/

sonar

/ dremt/ dri:md/

d r i n k /dnuk/

d ra n k /dr<euk/

d ru n k /drAuk/

beber

d rive /draiv/

d rove / drduv/

d riven /'dnvn/

conducir
comer

eat /i:t/

ate /eit/

eaten / 'i:tn/

fa l l /f::>: l/

fe l l /fell

fa l l e n / 'f::>: ln/

caer(se)

feed /fi:d/

fed /fed/

fed /fed/

a l i mentar

fee l /fi:l/

felt /felt/

felt /felt/

senti r(se)

f i g ht /fait/

fought /f::>:t/

fought /f::>:t/

luchar

f i n d /famd/

found /faund/

found /faund/

encontrar

fly /flai/

f l ew /flu:/

fl own /fldun/

volar

forget /fd'get/

forgot /fd'got/

forgotten /fd'gotn/

olvidar

forgive /fd'g1v/

forgave /fd'geiv/

forgiven /fd'givn/

perdonar

freeze /fri:z/

froze /frduz/

frozen / 'frduzn/

congelar(se)

get /get/

got /got/

got /got/

conseg u i r; l legar

g i ve /giv/

gave /geiv/

g iven / 'givn/

dar

g o /gdu/

went /went/

g o n e /gon/

ir

g row /grdu/

g rew /gru:/

g rown /grdun/

crecer; cu ltivar

have /h<ev/

had /h<ed/

had /h<ed/

tener; haber

hear /hid/

heard /hJ:d/

hea rd /hJ:d/

ofr

h i de /haid/

h i d /hid/

h i d d e n / ' hidn/

esconder(se)

h it /h it/

hit /hit/

hit /hit/

golpear, pegar

hold /hduld/

h e l d /held/

held /held/

sujetar

hang /h<eu/

h u n g 1 h a n ged / hAu/h<eud/

h u ng I h a n g ed /hAu/h<eud/

colgar

h u rt / h J:t/

h u rt /hJ:t/

h u rt / hJ:t/

herir, hacer d a n o

k e e p /ki:p/

kept /kept/

kept /kept/

g uardar, mantener

k n ow /ndu/

k n ew /nju:/

known /ndun/

saber, conocer

lay /lei/

l a i d /leid/

l a i d /leid/

poner, extender

lead / li:d/

led /led/

led /led/

g u i a r, con d u c i r

'

lea rnt I learned /b:nt/b:nd/

l e a rnt I lea rned /b:nt/b:nd/


l eft / left/

dejar; i rse, sa l i r

l e n d /lend/

lent /lent/

lent /lent/

prestar

let / let/

let /let/

l et /let/

permitir, dejar

l i e /lai/

lay /lei/

l a i n /!em/

tumbarse, echarse

l e a r n /b:n/
leave / li:v/

1 321

was I were /woz/wJ:/

left / left/

aprender

l i e /lar/ (reg u l a r verb)

l i ed /lard/

l i ed / lard/

mentir

l i g ht /!art/

lit / l it/

l it / h t/

encender

lose /lu:z/

lost /lost/

l ost /lost/

perder

m a d e / merd/

made /merd/

hacer, fabricar

mean /mi:n/

m e a nt /ment/

meant /ment/

s i g n ificar, q u erer decir

meet /mi:t/

met /met/

met /met/

conocer a ; reu n i rse con

pay / per/

paid /perd/

paid /perd/

pagar

put / put/

put /put/

put / put/

poner

read /ri:d/

read /red/

read /red/

leer
montar

m a ke / merk/

ride /rard/

rode /r;:lud/

ridden / ' ndn/

ring /nu/

rang /r<eu/

r u n g /rAD/

l l a m a r (por telefono)

rise /rarz/

rose /r;:luz/

risen / ' nzn/

elevarse, alzarse

run /rAn/

ran /r<en/

run /rAn/

correr

say /ser/

said /sed/

sa i d /sed/

see /si:/

saw /sJ:/

seen /si:n/

decir
ver

se l l /sel/

sold /s;:luld/

so l d /s;:luld/

vender

send /send/

sent /sent/

sent /sent/

enviar

set /set/

set /set/

set /set/

colocar

sew js;:lu/

sewed

sewn /s;:lun/

coser

shake / Jerk/

I s;:lud/

shook / fuk/

s h a ke n / ' ferkn/

shot / fot/

shot / Jot/

shone / fon/

shone / fon/

shine / Jam/

shoot / fu:t/

showed / f;:lud/

show / f;:lu/

s h ut / fAt/

shut / LH/

brillar

shown / f;:lun/

shut

agitar

I fAt/

d isparar
mostrar
cerrar

sing /sru/

sang /s<e!J/

s u n g /SAD/

s i n k /sruk/

sa n k /s<euk/

s u n k /sA!Jk/

h u ndirse

sit /srt/

sat /s<et/

sat /s<et/

sentarse

sleep /sli:p/

s l ept /slept/

s m e l l /smell

spe l l /spell

smelt I s m e l led

spoke /sp;:luk/

spoken / 'sp;:lukn/

spelt I spe l led

/spelt/speld/

spend /spend/
spi l l /sprl/

spent /spent/

hablar

spelt I spe l l ed

deletrear

spent /spent/

gastar; pasar (tiempo)

I spelt/ speld/

spilt I s p i l led

s po i lt I spoiled

spo i lt I spoiled

/spJ!lt/spJ!ld/

dormir(se)
oler

/smelt/smeld;

s p i l t I s p i l led

/sprlt/sprld/

spo i l /spJil/

slept /slept/

smelt I s m e l l ed

/smelt/smeld/

speak /spi:k/

can tar

derram a r(se)

/sprlt/sprld/

I spJ!l t/spJild/

arrui nar, estropear

spread /spred/

spread /spred/

spread /spred/

unta r; d ifundir(se)

spring /spnu/

sprang /spr<eu/

sprung /sprA!J/

sal tar

I stud/

sta n d /st<end/

stood /stud/

stood

steal /sti:l/

sto l e /st;:lul/

sto l e n /'st;:luln/

robar

I suk/
st i ng I suu/

stuck /stAk/

st uck /stAk/

pegar

stu ng /stA!J/

st u n g /stAD/

picar (un i nsecto)

swear /swe;:l/

swore /swJ:/

sworn /swJ:n/

j u rar

sweep /swi:p/

swept /swept/

swept /swept/

ba rrer

swi m /swrm/

swa m /sw<em/

swu m /swAm/

nadar

take /terk/

teach /ti:tf l

took /tuk/

taken / ' terkn/

coger, l levar

ta u g ht / tJ:t/

taught /tJ:t/

ensenar

tear /te;:l/

tore /tJ:/

torn /tJ:n/

rom per, desga rrar

te l l /tell

told /t;:luld/

told / t;:luld/

decir, contar

st ick

estar de pie

t h i n k /6ruk/

t h o u g ht /6J:t/

thought /6J:t/

pensar

th row ; er;:lu/

th rew /6ru:/

th rown /6r;:lun/

a rroj a r, tirar

u n d e rsta n d

I Ande'st<end/

u n d e rstood

I Ande' stud/

u n d e rstood

I Ande' stud/

comprender, entender

wake up / 'werk Ap/

woke up /'w;:luk Ap/

woken up / 'w;:lukn Ap/

wear /we;:l/

wore /wJ:/

worn /wJ:n/

lleva r puesto, ponerse

w i n /wm/

won /wAn/

won /wAn/

ganar

write /rart/

wrote /r;:lut/

written / 'ntn/

escri b i r

despertar(se)

1 1 33

REVIEW OF READING STRATE GIE S


Using a variety of
rea d i ng strateg ies
can help you
understa nd a text.
This is a revi ew of
the readi n g strateg ies
you have a l ready
learned . When you
d o your exams, try to
use as m a ny d ifferent
rea d i ng strateg ies as
you can .

PREDICTING CONTENT
Before you read a text, read the title a n d look at the
photographs. This w i l l help you pred ict the content of the text.

SCANNING FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION


Sca n n i n g helps you locate specific i nformation in a text. Pay attention
to the type of i nformation you a re sea rching for (dates, places,
n a m es). Loo k i ng for capital letters and n u m bers can h e l p .

READING FOR THE MAIN IDEA


Rea d i n g the fi rst, a n d someti mes the last, sentence of a para g ra p h
can help y o u identify the m a i n idea. This w i l l m a k e it easier t o
understand the text.

GUESSING THE MEANING OF WORDS


When you don't know the mea n i n g of a word , try to g uess. Fi rst, try
to identify the part of speech by looki n g at the word 's place i n the
sentence a n d its ending. Then look for oth e r words i n the sentence
which m ight g ive you c l u es to the mea n i n g .

UNDERSTANDING REFERENCE
Texts often conta i n pronouns a n d possessive adj ectives which refer to
somet h i n g o r someone that has a l ready been mentioned in the text.
When rea d i n g , it's i m porta nt to understa nd who or what these words
refer to. The a n swer can usually be found i n the fi rst part of the
sentence o r i n the previous sentence.

MAKING INFERENCES
M a k i ng i nferences (or rea d i n g between the l i nes) helps you
u n dersta n d th i ngs that a ren't act u a l ly written in the text. By loo k i n g
f o r certa i n h i nts i n the text, such as the way a person reacts or says
someth i n g , you can d raw you r own concl usions.

IDENTIFYING THE AUTHOR'S PURPOSE


Texts a re usually written for one of fou r pu rposes: to describe
(descriptions of places or people), to enterta i n (na rratives), to expl a i n
(i nstructions o r i nformative texts) or t o persuade (opi n i o n essays
or for a n d agai nst essays). Knowi ng the author's pu rpose can h e l p you
u n dersta nd the text.

WRITING GUIDE
The Writing Pro cess
STEP 1 : BRAINSTOR M FOR I D EAS
Write down all the ideas you can t h i n k of.
Don't worry about whether the idea is releva nt.
Don 't worry about g rammar or spe l l i n g .
You c a n write i n you r own language.
STEP 2: O RGANISE YOUR I D EAS
Decide which ideas to keep and cross out
the others.
G roup similar ideas together.
Organ ise the g ro u ps accord i n g to a writi ng p l a n .
STEP 3: FOC U S O N LANGUAGE
T h i n k of words and expressions you wi l l need in
you r work.
STEP 4: W RITE A FIRST DRAFT
Write you r fi rst d raft on the computer or by h a n d .
If you are writi ng b y hand, u se a penc i l . Leave wide
marg i ns for notes.
Leave space between lines for additions a n d
corrections.
Write q u i ckly. Don't worry about neatness or
accu racy.
If you can't t h i n k of a word i n English, write it
i n you r own language. Look u p the word in a
dictionary later.
If you can 't spell a word, write it any way you can .
Then check the word i n a dictiona ry o r use a
spellcheck when you have finished.

TOPIC: Li.vi.V_g i.11.. t/tte, c.e11-tre of tol'v%


Yot{ Live i.11.. t>r smt>rller .ftt>rt - yot{ 1-u:!ve Less
room.

Lii..'l!f it the cePtite oftowvc w

PLOt su:itttOLe

for

@Yot{ t>rre c.Lose to slwps.


@ The.re i.s Lots to do.
@ It i.s et>rsy to 3et t>rrOt{M.
@There i.s t>r Lot of trt'fjfic..
@Yot{ d.ot 11-Ud. t>r c.t>rr.
@It i.s ex:c.i.ti.V_g t>rM i.l1-teresti.V_g.
Yot{ t>rre c.Lose to c.i.11..emt>rs t>rM slwppi.V_g c.e11-tres.
There C.t>rl1.. be
(1rot{p A

t'f

Lot of 11..0 i.se t>rt

11-ijht.

The C.OI1-Ve.tti.e.Ue of Livi.V13 i11.. t/tte, c.e11-tre

of tOW11...
{1r0t{p 5 - The rec.ret>rtWI1-t'fL be11..efits of li.vi.V_g i11..
t/tte, c.e11-tre of tOI'v%.
(1rot{p C - The d.i.st>rd.Vt>rl1-tqges of li.vi.V_g i11.. t/tte,
c.e11-tre of tOW11...

STEP 5: CHECK YOUR WORK


Use the Writer's C h ecklist on this page to
improve your work.
COIW't:-J1lel1i'
to Live. i-t- the ce.l-1-tre. of toW-t-. First of Ci!LL,
It i.s very c
Lwe.
people. wko LJ,ds i-t- the ce.l-1-tre. Cifre. dose. to diffe.re.l-1-t kiMs of

Ar Cif res_lilt, it i.s e.Cilsy for them to b!iy wl-ulte.ve.r they wt.Cii Y
I-t- Ci!ddr.tuJ-t11-e.e.d. r, they Cilre. Cilble. to 3e.t
to wt.Cil-t-y pLCi!Ce.J',

shops.

MVI.
so tl-ult they CCil-t- ofte.-t- wt.Ci111-Cilje. to 3e.t CilrO!iM witlw!it
WCilfi'.
liSe. Cif cCilr,

ji5m: fo r bliSes.

or w

STEP 6: WRITE A FINAL D RAFT


If you are writing by hand: copy you r corrected
work neatly onto a clean sheet of paper.
Use a pen and leave a margin on the left-hand side.
M a ke sure you r paragraphs are clearly i n dicated .
N OTE
You can i n dicate the beg i nning of a paragraph by:
1 . i ndenti ng (moving the first word of the paragraph to the right).
2. skipping a l i n e before beg i n n i n g a n ew paragra p h . Each paragraph begins at the left-hand marg i n .
Both styles are correct, b u t b e consistent i n you r writ i n g . T h e i n dented style is preferred for informal letters.
WRITER'S CHECKLIST
I LAN(jlAA(jE

0Rf.JANI5ATION

CONTENT

I or:gCill't-i.se.d. my wo rk Ci!Ccordi
to Cif pLCi!-t-.

My work i.s i-1-te.re.sti.


Ci!M ori.11-Ci!L.

My 3rCilmwt.Cilr i.s correct.

ECi!ch pCi!rqgrCi!ph 1-uls

I bl'::fJCill-1- with Cif s!ii.tCil b le.


ope.l't-i.VLJ se.l-1-te.l't-Ce..

My word order i.s correct.

I pre.se.-1-te.d. my i.de.Cils de.Cilrly.

0 11-e..

topic.

My pCi!rqgmphs Cifre. de.Cilrly


iMicCilte.d..

My ide.Cils Cilre. i-t- Cif LojicCi!L


order.

I liSe.d sliitCilble. cotors to


Lil-1-k my ide.Cils.

I i11-el!ide.d omy re.le.VCill-1-t ide.Cils.

I s!ippo rte.d my ide.Cils with


de.tCi!iLs Ci!M exCi!mples (opil't-i.o-t-,
fo r Ci!M CiljCiliVW't essCi!y) .

I e.Me.d with Cif S!iLtCilble. dosiVLJ


se.l-1-te.l't-Ce..

I liSW co tors to Lil-1-k my


ide.Cils.

My spe.L li i.s co rrect.

My p!il't-CtliCiltio-t- i.s co rrect.

I liSe.d Cildjecti.ves correctly.

I liSW CCi!pitCi!L Le.tte.rs co rrectly.

Writing G u ide

Writing Skills
WORD ORDER
Word order is very i m po rtant i n English. The usual order is:
s u bject + verb + object + additions
Note the follow i n g :
1 . If a sentence h a s both a d i rect and a n indi rect object, there are often two possibil ities:
I told Sam a joke . ./
I told a j oke to Sam . ./
2 . Many time expressions can come at the beg i n n ing or the end of the sentence.
I n the even ings, we wa l k our dog . ./
We wal k our dog i n the eve n i n g s . ./
3 . Never separate the verb from its object(s). We can not say:
We wal k in the eveni ngs our dog. X
4. Adverbs of manner can come i n several positions, but not between the verb and the object.
Quietly, she closed the door. ./
She q u ietly closed the door ./
She closed the door q uietly . ./
She closed the door. X
5 . Adverbs of frequency come before the main verb. Some can come at the beg i n n i n g
and I or t h e e n d o f a sentence as wel l .
W e sometimes eat di nner together. ./
Sometimes we eat di n ner together. ./
We eat dinner together sometimes . ./
Never we eat d1nner together. X
We n ever eat d inner together. ./
.

S U BJ E CT-VERB AGR E E M ENT


The verb is singular or p l u ral, depend i ng on the subject.
The o l d woman walks slowly. (si ngular) I The old women walk slowly. (plu ral)
N ote the follow i n g :
1 . Sing u l a r n o u n s that refer t o g roups c a n have either s i n g u l a r o r plural verbs.
My fam i ly goes I go on tri ps together.

2 . Amounts and quantities usually have singular verbs.


Five h u ndred euros is missi ng .
3 . Words l i ke anyone, everybody and nobody have singular verbs.
Does anyone want to watch a fi l m ?
I thin k everybody i s hungry.
Nobody believes you .
4. Most uncountable nouns have got singular verbs.
You r hel p was excel lent.
The information is very i nteresting .
5 . Some u ncou ntable nouns have got pl ural verbs.
The scissors are very sharp !

U S E OF ADJ ECTIVES
1 . Adjectives come before nouns and after certai n verbs.
a tall building ./
a bu i l d i n g 19..U X
He looks embarrassed ./
.

2 . The adjective form for sing u l a r and p l u ra l nouns is the sa me.


a fun n y story I funny stories ./ fu n n i es stories X
3 . Adjectives fol low a specific order: opinio n + size or age + colou r + origi n + materi a l .
a beautiful, new g lass table ./
a beautiful glass new table X

CONN ECTORS
Connectors are l i nking words which join ideas and show how those ideas are related to one another.
David went to medical school because he wanted to be a doctor. (to g ive a reason)
He wants to be a good doctor so he studies very hard . (to descri be a resu lt)
He spends a lot of time studyi ng, but he sti l l finds time to have f u n . (to express a contrast)
They a lso help us to organise our writing and m a ke it easy for the reader to follow.
Many people feel that teenagers spend too much time watching TV. First of all, they claim that teens who watch
an excessive amount of television do not have enough opportu nities to develop their social skills. In addition,
they say that too much time spent i n front of a TV screen prevents teens from getting enough exercise. However,
television viewing also has advantages. For example, there a re many programmes on television which can provide
teenagers with val uable i nformation in an i nteresting and sti mulating way. As a res u lt, teenagers are exposed to
new ideas and can learn many exciting things.

Study the chart of connectors and p h rases below.


Purpose
m

'

,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,

to add points on the


same topic
to express a contrast

a mples
mm m

mm

and I i n addition I f u rthermore I moreover I what's more I besides I


a lso I too I as well as

but I however I nevertheless I yet I sti l l I although I even if I


even though I i n
of I

to describe a cause or reason

because (of) I si nce I due to I as I as a result of I


one/another reason for . . . is .

to describe a result

so I therefore I consequently I thus I as a resu l t I as a consequence I


for this reason I that is why

to show

to express personal o p i n i ons

i n my opin ion I I (strongly) believe (that) I I think/feel (that) I i n my view I


I as I see it
it seems to me (that) I
'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' m

to i ntroduce facts
to make

statements

'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

I the truth is (that)

to l ist poi nts


to g ive examples
to introduce opposin g points

on the one h a n d I on the other h a n d I in contrast I contrary to I


it can a lso be argued that I but there a re people who
(that)

to show sequence
to show time
to conclude

1 3 81

first I at fi rst I i n the beg i n n i n g I before I next I then I soon I meanwhile I later I
I when
I finally I in the end I
after that I afterwards I at last I
in conclusion I to sum up I in short I all in a l l

Writin g G u id e

WRITIN G A PARAGRAPH
A paragraph consists of several sentences about a certain topic. lt has the following parts:
1 . a topic sentence which g ives the main idea of the paragraph
2. supporting sentences wh ich add reasons, deta i l s and exa mples
3 . a concluding sentence which leads on to the next paragraph or summarises the m a i n idea

OPENIN(J

[l
r-

I would rutlly love. to ve.

do3. For o thiVf9, if I d

"flw"fys je.e.l tt I d some.<l who love.d "m/ "fa.e.pte.d


I11- "1dditio11.-, loohVf9 cifte.r

"'

do3 would I'VU!k.e.

1-11.e fe.e.l

"'

do3 I would ve.r be. loly. I wou.Ld

1-11.e .

C."lp"lble. "fmi i'VU!ture.. I would ve. I'VUII1-Y

re.spovt.ribilitie.s. For VC"lmple., I would ve. to fe.e.d "fmi W"fsh my do3 "fmi t"fk.e. him for

F>ODY

l - "fbout myse.lf

d"fy. Altho.18h C."friVf9 for

CONCLIASION

"'

r-

"'

do3 wou.Ld be. rd work, I "fm c.e.rt"fil1.- tt it would

"'

W"flk e.ve.ry

I'VU!k.e. 1-11.e je.e.l 3ood

All i11.- "'ll, "1ltho.18h my p"1re.l1-ts "'re. 11.-at k.e.e.11.- 011.- the. idut, I'm 30iVf9 to do my be.st to c.oi1.-Vi11.-c.e. the.m
to 3e.t

1-11.e

"'

do3.

The parts of a paragraph should flow logically. The paragraph m ust be easy to u nderstand.
You can accomplish this by:
1 . using pronouns to refer back to the nouns in the text.
2 . using connectors to show the connections between ideas (see the chart on page 1 38).

WRITING AN E S SAY
An essay consists of several paragraphs about a topic. There are many different kinds of essays, but they a l l
have the same basic pla n :

1 . T H E OPENING
The open ing is a general presentation of the topic. Try to start your essay with a n opening that will catch
your reader's interest. Here are some i deas:
a. Begi n with a surprising fact.
In the C h icago suburb of Richton Park, parents ca n now be sentenced to as m uch as $ 500 in fines and
1 60 hours of com m u n ity service if their chi ldren skip school or com mit acts of vandal ism .
b. Beg i n with a short a necdote about real or i maginary events.
Eva Wi l kenson served 1 00 days in West Vi rg i nia 's Cabel l County ja i l . But she d i d n 't com mit any cri me.
Her daug hter did.
c. Begin with a question.
Should parents be punished for their chi ldren's cri mes?
If you can't thi n k how to beg i n , don't worry. G o on to the body of the essay. You can always write the
opening later. The i m portant thing is to keep going.
2. THE BODY
The body has got one or more paragraphs which develop the topic. When you were preparing to write,
you bra instormed for ideas (see page 1 3 5). Then you chose ideas to use and put these ideas into groups in
a logica l order. Use these groups of ideas to write the body of the essay. Each g roup of ideas will become a
separate paragraph.
3. THE C LOSING
The closing is a paragraph which summarises the main idea or presents a conclusion. lt should not bring in
new ideas. In some cases, the closing may be similar to the opening, but presented i n different words.
lt should a lways leave the reader with a strong i mpression .
I n conclusion, by punishing parents for the crimes their chil d ren com m it, we a re si mply teach ing chil d ren
that they will not be held responsi ble for thei r own actions. I n my opin ion, it is high time that judges started
g iving more severe punish ments to the teens themselves. Th is would be more logica l than locki ng up thei r
parents !

LI 1_3_9

_
_

A F O R AND AGAINST E S SAY


A for and against essay is usual ly a bout a controversial issue. lt presents both sides of the issue and then
concludes by supporting one of the sides. Look at the topic below. Then study the plan and read the model.

TOPIC:
Write a for and agai nst essay on a topic connected to home schoo l i n g .
PLAN:
Yes or No to Home Schooling
OPENIN(j
Ivttrodu..c.tioft to thew-su..e.

eoDY
At:9Wl-te.vtl fo r O vt,e.
side. of the- issue.,
with su..p porti-113
de.t(;(i/s (;(M exwtples
A13u..M.e.vtt for theothe-r side. of theissu..e., with su..pporti113
de.t(i(i/s (;(M ex(;(WLples

CLOSIN(j
5u..WLWL(;(ry of theissu..e. (i(M the- write.rs
OpLftl.O ft

In recent years, an increasing number of parents around the world have


chosen to take their children out of the school system and educate them
at home. The question is whether this is good for everyone.
On the one hand, home schooling means that parents are able to
cater to their children's individual needs. For instance, parents can
encourage their children to explore their own interests. In addition,
parents can include important subjects that are often neglected in
normal schools, such as art or music. Moreover, parents can protect
their children from bullying and teasing.
On the other hand, children who are home schooled often have fewer
opportunities to participate in team sports and in other extra-curricular
activities. Furthermore, since home-schooled children are exposed to
fewer kids, they may not learn the social skills that are necessary if
they want to live peaceably with others.
Despite the numerous benefits of home schooling, I believe most
children should go to school. The lack of opportunities for social
interaction may prove to be problematic in later life.

U S E F U L LAN GUAGE

On the other hand, . . .

D u e to . . .
As a resu lt, . . .

lt is true that, . . .

I believe that . . .

Fi rstly I Secondly I Thirdly, . . .

In my opinion, . . .

On the one hand, . . .

'

For example . . .

In my view, . . .

For i nstance, . . .

The question is whether . . .

such as . . .

I n addition . . .

Furthermore,

Consequently . . .

H owever, . . .

I n conclusion, . . .

N evertheless, . . .

To sum up, . . .

""OOOOo W

OOOOOoooooooo

'OoooOoO

Writing Guide

A LEITER OF C O MPLAINT

In a letter of com p l a i nt, there is a req uest for action to be taken conce r n i n g an u nsatisfactory situati o n . Look at
the topic below. Then study the plan and read the mode l .

TOPIC:
Write a letter of complaint to a hotel i n which you were d isappointed with the service.
PLAN:
1 2 Sandmoor Lane
Norwood
London SE 1 9 4FB

DETAILS
Address of persOVl
wri.ti.11:9 tJ.u letter

22nd October, 2010

Dlif.te

The Manager
Kings Hotel
High Street
Brighton

Nlif.wte/Ti.tle of persOVl
bei.11:9 wri.tteVl to

(jREETIN(j
OPENIN(j
Opelo'lif1:9 rewu:trks,
relif.SOVl for wri.ti.11:9

To make matters worse, there was no hot water! When we informed


the hotel desk of this fact, we were told that there was a problem with
the water heating system in the hotel. At this point we fel t we had no
choice but to leave the hotel the following morning.

I
5I(jNIN(j OFF

I am writing to complain about my recent stay at your hote l . My wife


and I were extremely disappointed with the facilities and with the
serv1ce.
The problems began the moment we arrived. We had made a
reservation for a room with a sea view, yet on our arrival we were
informed that there were no available rooms with a view. Instead of
the relaxing view of the sea that we had looked forward to, our room
looked out at huge rubbish bins and laundry baskets.

F>ODY
(j i.ves i..-ifO rwu:tti.o Vl
lif.M detlif.i.ls

CL05IN(j
Closi.11:9 rewu:trks

Dear Sir or Madam,

L
[

In view of the great distress we experienced, I would appreciate a ful l


refund of the cost of our stay. I trust that you will deal with this matter
promptly and I look forward to your reply.
Yours faithfully,
Paul Brown

U S E F U L LAN GUAGE
Greetings

Opening Remarks

Useful Expressions

Closing Remarks

Signing Off

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am writi ng to
complai n about . . .

To make matters
worse, . . .

I n view of the . . .

You rs faithfully,

Instead of . . .

I strongly u rge you


to . . .

You rs sincerely,

I a m writi ng to
express my concern
regarding . . .

Dear M r I M rs I
Ms . . . ,
To whom it may
concern,

The problem began


when . . .
I find it u nacceptable
that . . .
I would like to point
out that . . .

I trust that you will . . .


I woul d appreciate
it if . . .
I suggest . . .
I look forward to
your reply.

AN OPINION E S SAY
An opinion essay states a n opinion and tries to convi nce the reader that this opinion is correct. Look at the topic
below. Then study the plan and read the model .

TOPIC:
Write an opinion essay on a topic con nected to teen d rivers.

PLAN:
Adult S upervision for Teen Drivers - Good or Bad?
OPENIN(j
Pre..sel1i'e1ti.ov. of issue
C1M opi.Vci.ov.

ODY
5puijic ree1sO vtS
C1M je1cts to support
OpHUOV.

It is well known that teen drivers are often involved i n fatal driving
accidents. In order to help deal with this issue, some governments
around the world have proposed that new teen drivers should be
required to drive with adult supervision for a period of time. While this
suggestion may sound l ike a good way to save l ives, in my opinion, i t
w i l l not solve the problem.
First of all, a person's age doesn't determine their level of
responsibility or their driving ability. It's a fact that many accidents
have involved experienced adult drivers.
Secondly, I believe that the more time a driver spends on the road, the
better his or her driving ability will be. By preventing new drivers from
driving without adult supervision, new drivers will inevitably gain less
driving experience since they will only be able to drive when an adult
supervisor is free to accompany them.
In short, forcing young drivers to drive with adul t supervision will not
reduce the number of teen fatalities. It is only by educating teenagers
and adults about the importance of safe driving that we can hope to
make a difference.

U S E F U L LAN G UAGE
Many people think that . . .

Therefore, . . .

In my opinion, however, . . .

As a result, . . .

I d isagree

lt is clear that . . .

In my view, . . .

I n short, . . .

I bel ieve that . . .

To sum u p, . . .

However, . . .

I n conclusion, . . .

Despite this, . . .
First of a l l, . . .
Secondly, . . .
I n add ition, . . .

1421

- --'

Writing G u ide

A D E S CRIPTI O N OF AN EVENT
A description of a n event g ives a clear i m p ression of what the writer experiences. lt usually includes details of the
writer's senses and how the writer felt there . Look at the topic below. Then study the plan and read the mode l .

TOPIC:
Write about a fam ily event that you have attended .

PLA N :
The Wedding
OPENIN(j
N&Wte, l.outtiol-1-, tiWte
&vtd writers opi.i1W1-1- of
evw

80DY
Desc.riptio-1- with WUJre
det&i.Lr I wh&it writer
sees, rs, sWtells,
t&stes

Last week, I went to my cousin's wedding. I hadn't seen my cousin


for many years and I didn' t know many of the other guests, so I wasn't
expecting to enjoy myself. In the end, I had a great time.
When I arrived, the wedding hall was already ful l of people. People
were standing around talking excitedly and there was a real buzz in the
air. The room was beautifully decorated with flowers and balloons and
the sweet smell of the flowers hung in the air. I couldn 't help but fee l
excited. It felt a s if something very special was about to happen.
Suddenly the musicians began to play. Everyone stopped talking at
once and turned to face the door. As the bride entered, many of the
guests had tears in their eyes. I felt so moved.

CL05IN(j
Covu.l-tdi.I1!J se.l-1-te.vu.e.
&vtd opi.l-'ti.o-1-

U S E F U L LAN G UA G E

Last week . . .
When . . .
Suddenly . . .
I felt . . .
I hea rd . . .
lt seemed . . .
The atmosphere was . . .
The crowd I people were . . .
lt tu rned out to be . . .
All i n a l l , . . .
I n the end, . . .

As she walked past in her beautiful white dress, my cousin turned and
smiled at me. She looked so happy. I realised that I wouldn 't have
missed this occasion for the world !

A NARRATIVE
A narrative is a story about a series of events and the people i nvolved i n them . Look at the topic below.
Then study the plan and read the model.
TOPIC:

Write a na rrative about a m isu nderstanding you once had .


PLA N :

Jumping to the Wrong Conclusion


OPENIN(g
The YIM!i.-t c./.utrl/fc.te.rs,
wMe-re. 1/!M wMe--t tMe
story tl/!ku pll/!c.e.

Last Saturday I visited my grandmother, who lives on the other side


of London. I had not seen her for ages and I was looking forward to
eating a piece of her delicious cake. It was a cold day, so I dressed
warmly in a hat and scarf.
I got onto the train and looked for a place to sit. I walked up and down
the aisles for some time until I found an empty seat next to an elderly
man who was reading a newspaper. Relieved, I sat down and took out
my book.
As soon as I had begun reading, I fel t that the man was watching me.
I felt very uncomfortable. I wanted to move but there were no empty
seats. Finally, the train pulled into Kings Cross station. I rushed off the
train, eager to escape the stare of the old man.

E>ODY
Eve.vr.ts 1/!M proble.wt.s
i.-t tMe- story, how tMe
c./.utrl/!c.te.r je.e.Ls 1/!M
tri.e.s to solve. problem

I left the station and began walking towards my grandmother's house.


After a few moments, I had a strange feeling that someone was
fol lowing me. I turned round. To my surprise, the elderly man who had
sat next to me on the train was running towards me. I started to run. I
coul d hear the man coming up behind me. In a minute he would catch
up with me . . .

CL05IN(g
The e.ftdi. of tMe
sto ry, how tMe
proble.m i.s resolved

U SEFU L LAN G U AG E

. ..... .... ...............

"Wait ! " he shouted. I stopped. The man stretched out his hand and I
could see that he was holding something. "Your hat," he said. "You
l eft it on the train." At that moment I realised that I had j umped to the
wrong conclusion.

.... ......... .... .................. ........... .....

Time Expressions

m ...

: Connectors of Seq uence

Last weekend I s u m mer I yea r, . . .

at first

as soon as

Two years ago, . . .

before

soon

it was a cold I hot I stormy day . . .

after

suddenly

it a l l began when . . .

next

while

One afternoon . . .

later

during

Fortunately, I U nfortunately, I Lucki ly, . . .


To my su rprise, . . .

when

eventually

then

in the end

u ntil

mea nwhile

felt . . .

The funny t h i n g is that . . .


Before I knew it . . .

Writing G u ide

A SUMMARY
A summary provides the reader with the m a i n poi nts of an a rticle in as few words as possible. A summary usually
does not include the writer's opinion and it is written i n h i s o r her own words where possible. Look at the topic
below. Then read the orig inal article and the model summary.
TOPIC:

Write a summary of the a rticle, using 50-70 words.

Baby Einstein DVDs: Educational or Not?


Baby Einstein DYDs are specifical l y aimed at babies and toddlers. These popular DYDs feature
classical music, and babies seem to love watching them. Not only do the DYDs provide busy
parents with a break from having to care for their infant, they are also said to have educational
benefits. Yet recent research suggests that these DYDs may not be as beneficial to children as
parents may like to believe. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that television viewing between
the ages of 1 and 3 could in fact be harmfu l to them.
Research at the University of Washington found that babies who had watched baby videos scored
about 1 0% lower on language skills than those who had not. In addition, experts have shown that
baby videos may also be associated with attention problems later on. They claim that the more
television children watch in their early years, the shorter their attention spans later in l ife.
The Campaign for a Commercial-Free Childhood is a group which has been fighting baby media
companies for some time in an attempt to get them to admit that baby videos are not educational.
They clai m that the entire marketing strategy of companies like Baby Einstein is based on false and
misleading c laims that the videos are educational. Recently, the B aby Einstein company announced
that they would give a ful l refund to anyone who had bought one of the DYDs in the last five years
and wished to return it. The campaigners see the recent announcement as an unspoken admission
that they did mislead the public and that the DYDs have no educational value.
Yet it will be interesting to see how many parents will actually c laim the refund and return the
DYDs to the company. Although the videos may not turn their children into geniuses, as they
might have hoped, they continue to keep them occupied and stimulated, without the need for
parental involvement. That may well be something that parents are not willing to give up.

DYDs designed specifically for babies and toddlers are very popular. Yet
recent research has suggested that they may i n fact be harmful to children's
development. In view of these findings, a recent campaign has accused media
companies of deliberately misleading parents by implying that these products
have educational value. Consequently, the Baby Einstein company has agreed
to give a refund to parents wishing to return the DYDs, although it is uncertain
how many parents will accept their offer.

lf'U.Ludu oy
i.mport(!fvtl
i.Mjo rwt(!fti.o -t
0 1'3(ifvWed i.vtlo
o 11.e c.ohesi.ve
p(!fr(!f_Jr(!fph
TIP:

Leave out less i m portant examples and deta ils. Shorten or combine sentences and try to use your own words.
U S E F U L LANG UAGE
Being Concise

Apparently, .. .

Finally, .. .

If

C learly, . . .

Consequently, . . .

I n short, . . .

Presently, . . .

although

A CURRI CULUM VITAE


When applying for a job, you w i l l often have to s u p p ly the em ploye r with yo u r perso n a l deta i ls,
as well as you r ed ucatio n a l q u a l ifications a n d work experience. Be low i s a n exa m p l e of a CV
which ca n be used as a model for you r own .

PERSONAL INFORMATION
Name
Address
Telephone no.
E-mail
Nationality
Da te of birth

Ana Rodrfguez Val lejo


Cl Salvador de Madariaga, 5, 3-C, Madrid
635423 1 79
anarodvallej o @ hotmail .com
Spanish
8th April , 1 992

WORK EXPERIENCE
Da tes
Name o f employer
Occupa tion or position held
Main activities and responsibilities

2008-20 1 0
Hard Rock Cafe
Waitress (part-time)
Preparation and service of food, wine and
beverages

EDUCATION AND TRAINING


Da tes
Name of school
Principal subjects covered
Title of qualifica tion awarded

2008-20 1 0
IES Juan De La Cierva
English l anguage, history, literature
Secondary School Graduate - B achillerato

PERSONAL SKILLS AND ABILITIES


LANG UAG ES
Mother tongue
Other languages

Spanish
English (good level written and spoken)
French (fluent)

COMPUTER S K I LLS
General
Graphics or multimedia
Programming

OTH E R SKI LLS AND ExPERIE NCE


D RIVI NG LICENCE

M icrosoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint


Photoshop, InDesign
Visual B asic
2007-2009: school theatre group
Licence for 1 25cc motorbike

QUIZ ANSWERS
Unit 3, page 3 3
1 .c
2.a 3.c 4.b

S.a

6.a

7.b

8.b

7-8 correct answers:

You know q u ite a lot about computers. Keep up the good work, but remember: there is l ife
beyond the computer screen . Maybe do some sport as wel l !
4-6 correct answers:
You use a computer, but it's not the centre of you r l ife. You 've found a good balance, but pay
attention to what's going on in the computer wor l d . Tech nology can be useful !
0-3 correct a n swers:
You obviously have other interests besides computers. That's g reat, but try to keep up with the

ti mes. Remember - this is the 2 1 st century l

Unit 4,

page

45

1 . False. Red , because it signals danger, actua l ly makes people more awa re a n d alert.
2 . True. Special cel ls in the nose respond to chem ical signals g iven by other people who feel
danger.
3 . True. Touch sti m u lates the b ra i n to produce endorphins, which are the hormones that i n h i bit
pa i n .
4 . True . O u r sense o f balance i s centred i n our ears, but we rely on o u r sense o f vision for
balance as wel l . Try i t !
5 . False. Wom e n 's sense o f s m e l l and taste is more sensitive than m e n 's .
6 . True . There is a n a rea on t h e retina that does n o t respond t o l i g h t . An image that falls on
that area w i l l not be seen . Try this test:

Hold the i mage a bout 50 centi m etres away. C lose your right eye, With you r left eye, look at
the + Slowly bring the i mage closer while looking at the +. At a certa i n d istance, the dot will
d isappear ! This i s when it fa l l s on the b l i n d spot.
7. False. People who suffer from a rare genetic d isease cal led C I PA a re unable to feel pa i n .
8. True. People with a cond ition ca lled synesthesia m i x together senses which are normally
separate.
9 . False. The seashell captures the noise a ro u n d you, which resonates in the shel l .

Unit 4 , p a g e 52
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1 47

VIEWPOINTS fo r
by Elizabeth G rant and Kevin Payne

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