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Space-division multiple access (SDMA) uses directional or smart antennas to

communicate on the same frequency with users in different locations within range of the
same base station. An SDMA system was proposed by Richard Roy and Bjrn Ottersten,
researchers at ArrayComm, in 1991.

Functions of MIMO
MIMO can be sub-divided into three main categories, precoding, spatial multiplexing or
SM, and diversity coding.
Spatial multiplexing requires MIMO antenna configuration. In spatial multiplexing, a
high-rate signal is split into multiple lower-rate streams and each stream is transmitted
from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. If these signals arrive
at the receiver antenna array with sufficiently different spatial signatures and the receiver
has accurate CSI, it can separate these streams into (almost) parallel channels. Spatial
multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher signalto-noise ratios (SNR). The maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser of
the number of antennas at the transmitter or receiver. Spatial multiplexing can be used
without CSI at the transmitter, but can be combined with precoding if CSI is available.
Spatial multiplexing can also be used for simultaneous transmission to multiple
receivers, known as space-division multiple access or multi-user MIMO, in which case
CSI is required at the transmitter.[32] The scheduling of receivers with different spatial
signatures allows good separability.
Diversity coding techniques are used when there is no channel knowledge at the
transmitter. In diversity methods, a single stream (unlike multiple streams in spatial
multiplexing) is transmitted, but the signal is coded using techniques called space-time
coding. The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with full or near
orthogonal coding. Diversity coding exploits the independent fading in the multiple
antenna links to enhance signal diversity. Because there is no channel knowledge, there
is no beamforming or array gain from diversity coding. Diversity coding can be combined
with spatial multiplexing when some channel knowledge is available at the transmitter.

MU-MIMO

In radio, multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) is a set of


advanced MIMO (pronounced mee-moh or my-moh), multiple-input and multipleoutput, technologies where the available antennas are spread over a multitude of
independent access points and independent radio terminals - each having one or
multiple antennas. In contrast, single-user MIMO considers a single multi-antenna
transmitter communicating with a single multi-antenna receiver. To enhance the
communication capabilities of all terminals, MU-MIMO applies an extended
version ofspace-division multiple access (SDMA) to allow multiple transmitters
to send separate signals and multiple receivers to receive separate signals
simultaneously in the same band. PU2RC is a fundamental and practical MUMIMO technology for broadcast and multiple access wireless communications.
Like the relationship between OFDM and OFDMA, MU-MIMO (and, similarly,
SDMA) can be thought of as an extension of MIMO applied in various ways as a
multiple access strategy. A significant difference is that the performance of MUMIMO relies on precoding capability than OFDMA so that if the transmitter does
not use precoding, the performance advantage of MU-MIMO is not achievable.[1]
Multiple access MIMO, MIMO-SDMA,[2][1] massive MIMO,[3] cooperative MIMO,
coordinated multipoint (CoMP) or in other wordsmacrodiversity,[4] and ad hoc
MIMO are all family terminologies within MU-MIMO, as each of those
technologies leverages multiple users as a degree of freedom in achieving
successful radio transmission.

Technology[edit]

MIMO[edit]
To achieve MIMO from a conventional SISO system, several technologies have
been proposed.

Beamforming alters the phase of each element in an antenna array to


create spatial beam patterns through constructive and destructive interference.

Space-time coding/processing performs antenna diversity with multiple


antennas at either transmitter or receiver side or both sides, where every
antenna element is separated from its nearest element by around four to ten
times the wavelength to keep the signal through each multi-path independent.
The distance between two adjacent antenna elements is relying on the angular
spread of the beam signal.

Space-division multiple access (SDMA) is a common and typical multiple


input multiple output scheme in cellular wireless systems. SDMA is often
referred to as simply a MIMO system since the half port of a SDMA system
also consists of multiple users. Although SDMA is indeed a MIMO technique,
MIMO is not necessarily SDMA.

Spatial multiplexing is performed by multiple antennas equipped at both a


transmitter and a receiver front end.

Cooperation are known as network MIMO systems, distributed MIMO


systems, macrodiversity MIMO, or virtual antenna array systems. Mobile
devices use the partnered mobile devices' antennas, antenna arrays, or
antenna elements as virtual antennas.

Combinations of the above listed techniques

MU-MIMO[edit]
Multi-user MIMO can leverage multiple users as spatially distributed transmission
resources, at the cost of somewhat more expensive signal processing. In
comparison, conventional, or single-user MIMO considers only local device
multiple antenna dimensions. Multi-user MIMO algorithms are developed to
enhance MIMO systems when the number of users, or connections, numbers
greater than one (admittedly, a useful concept). Multi-user MIMO can be
generalized into two categories: MIMO broadcast channels (MIMO BC) and MIMO
multiple access channels (MIMO MAC) for downlink and uplink situations,

respectively. Single-user MIMO can be represented as point-to-point, pairwise


MIMO.
To remove ambiguity of the words receiver and transmitter, we can adopt the
terms access point (AP; or, base station), and user. An AP is the transmitter and a
user is the receiver for downlink environments, whereas an AP is the receiver and
a user is the transmitter for uplink environments. Homogeneous networks are
somewhat freed from this distinction.

Space-division multiple access [edit]


Main article: Space-division multiple access
Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) enables creating parallel spatial
pipes next to higher capacity pipes through spatial multiplexing and/or diversity, by
which it is able to offer superior performance in radio multiple access
communication systems. In traditional mobilecellular network systems, the base
station has no information on the position of the mobile units within the cell and
radiates the signal in all directions within the cell in order to provide radio
coverage. This results in wasting power on transmissions when there are no
mobile units to reach, in addition to causing interference for adjacent cells using
the same frequency, so called co-channel cells. Likewise, in reception,
the antenna receives signals coming from all directions including noise and
interference signals. By using smart antennatechnology and by leveraging the
spatial location of mobile units within the cell, space-division multiple access
techniques offer attractive performance enhancements. The radiation pattern of
the base station, both in transmission and reception, is adapted to each user to
obtain highest gain in the direction of that user. This is often done using phased
array techniques.
In GSM cellular networks, the base station is aware of the mobile phone's position
by use of a technique called Timing Advance (TA). The Base Transceiver Station
(BTS) can determine how distant the Mobile Station (MS) is by interpreting the
reported TA. This information, along with other parameters, can then be used to
power down the BTS or MS, if a power control feature is implemented in the

network. The power control in either BTS or MS is implemented in most modern


networks, especially on the MS, as this ensures a better battery life for the MS
and thus a better user experience (in that the need to charge the battery becomes
less frequent). This is why it may actually be safer to have a BTS close to you as
your MS will be powered down as much as possible. For example, there is more
power being transmitted from the MS than what you would receive from the BTS
even if you are 6 m away from a mast. However, this estimation might not
consider all the MS's that a particular BTS is supporting with EM radiation at any
given time.
Mathematical description[edit]

MIMO channel model

In MIMO systems, a transmitter sends multiple streams by multiple transmit


antennas. The transmit streams go through a matrix channel which consists of
all

paths between the

transmit antennas at the transmitter and

receive

antennas at the receiver. Then, the receiver gets the received signal vectors by
the multiple receive antennas and decodes the received signal vectors into the
original information. A narrowband flat fading MIMO system is modelled as

where

and

are the receive and transmit vectors, respectively, and

and

are the channel matrix and the noise vector, respectively.


Referring to information theory, the ergodic channel capacity of MIMO systems
where both the transmitter and the receiver have perfect
instantaneous channel state information is[40]

where

denotes Hermitian transpose and

is the ratio between transmit

power and noise power (i.e., transmit SNR). The optimal signal
covariance

is achieved through singular value decomposition of

the channel matrix

and an optimal diagonal power allocation

matrix

. The optimal power allocation is achieved

through waterfilling,[41] that is

where

are the diagonal elements of ,

argument is negative, and

is zero if its

is selected such that

If the transmitter has only statistical channel state information, then the
ergodic channel capacity will decrease as the signal covariance can
only be optimized in terms of the average mutual information as[40]

The spatial correlation of the channel has a strong impact on the ergodic channel
capacity with statistical information.
If the transmitter has no channel state information it can select the signal
covariance
means

to maximize channel capacity under worst-case statistics, which


and accordingly

Depending on the statistical properties of the channel, the ergodic capacity is no


greater than
Channel Capacity

times larger than that of a SISO system.

Formal definition[edit]

Let

and

be the random variables representing the input and output of the

channel, respectively. Let


given

be the conditional distribution function of

, which is an inherent fixed property of the communications channel. Then

the choice of the marginal distribution


distribution

completely determines the joint

due to the identity

which, in turn, induces a mutual information

. The channel

capacity is defined as

where the supremum is taken over all possible choices of

Shannon capacity of a graph[edit]

Main article: Shannon capacity of a graph


If G is an undirected graph, it can be used to define a communications
channel in which the symbols are the graph vertices, and two codewords
may be confused with each other if their symbols in each position are equal
or adjacent. The computational complexity of finding the Shannon capacity
of such a channel remains open, but it can be upper bounded by another
important graph invariant, theLovsz number.[4]
Noisy-channel coding theorem[edit]

The noisy-channel coding theorem states that for any > 0 and for any
transmission rate R less than the channel capacity C, there is an encoding
and decoding scheme transmitting data at rate R whose error probability is

less than , for a sufficiently large block length. Also, for any rate greater
than the channel capacity, the probability of error at the receiver goes to
one as the block length goes to infinity.
Example application[edit]

An application of the channel capacity concept to an additive white


Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with B Hz bandwidth and signal-to-noise
ratio S/N is the ShannonHartley theorem:

C is measured in bits per second if the logarithm is taken in base 2,


or nats per second if the natural logarithm is used, assuming B is
inhertz; the signal and noise powers S and N are measured in watts or
volts2, so the signal-to-noise ratio here is expressed as a power
ratio, not in decibels (dB); since figures are often cited in dB, a
conversion may be needed. For example, 30 dB is a power ratio
of

Channel capacity in wireless communications[edit]

This section[5] focuses on the single-antenna, point-to-point scenario.


For channel capacity in systems with multiple antennas, see the article
on MIMO.

AWGN channel[edit]
If the average received power is
density is

[W] and the noise power spectral

[W/Hz], the AWGN channel capacity is

[bits/s],

where

is the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This result

is known as the ShannonHartley theorem.[6]


When the SNR is large (SNR >> 0 dB), the
capacity

is logarithmic in power and

approximately linear in bandwidth. This is called the bandwidthlimited regime.

When the SNR is small (SNR << 0 dB), the capacity


is linear in power but insensitive to bandwidth. This is called
thepower-limited regime.
The bandwidth-limited regime and power-limited regime are
illustrated in the figure.

AWGN channel capacity with the power-limited regime and bandwidth-limited


regime indicated. Here,

Frequency-selective channel[edit]
The capacity of the frequency-selective channel is given by socalled water filling power allocation,

where

and

subchannel

, with

is the gain of

chosen to meet the power constraint.

Slow-fading channel[edit]
In a slow-fading channel, where the coherence time is greater
than the latency requirement, there is no definite capacity as the
maximum rate of reliable communications supported by the
channel,
gain

, depends on the random channel

, which is unknown to the transmitter. If the transmitter

encodes data at rate

[bits/s/Hz], there is a non-zero probability

that the decoding error probability cannot be made arbitrarily


small,
,
in which case the system is said to be in outage. With a nonzero probability that the channel is in deep fade, the capacity
of the slow-fading channel in strict sense is zero. However, it
is possible to determine the largest value of
outage probability
the -outage capacity.

such that the

is less than . This value is known as

Fast-fading channel[edit]
In a fast-fading channel, where the latency requirement is
greater than the coherence time and the codeword length
spans many coherence periods, one can average over many
independent channel fades by coding over a large number of
coherence time intervals. Thus, it is possible to achieve a
reliable rate of communication of
[bits/s/Hz] and it is meaningful to speak of this value as the
capacity of the fast-fading channel.

In linear algebra, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is a factorization of


a real orcomplex matrix. It has many useful applications in signal processing and
statistics.
Formally, the singular value decomposition of an m n real or complex
matrix M is a factorization of the form M = UV, where U is an m m real or
complex unitary matrix, is an m n rectangular diagonal matrix with nonnegative real numbers on the diagonal, and V(the conjugate transpose of V, or
simply the transpose of V if V is real) is an n n real or complex unitary matrix.
The diagonal entries i,i of are known as the singular values of M.
The m columns of U and the n columns of V are called the left-singular
vectors and right-singular vectors of M, respectively.
The singular value decomposition and the eigendecomposition are closely
related. Namely:
The left-singular vectors of M are eigenvectors of MM.
The right-singular vectors of M are eigenvectors of MM.
The non-zero singular values of M (found on the diagonal entries of )
are the square roots of the non-zero eigenvalues of
both MM and MM.

Applications that employ the SVD include computing the pseudoinverse, least
squares fitting of data, multivariable control, matrix approximation, and
determining the rank, range and null spaceof a matrix.
Statement of the theorem[edit]

Suppose M is a m n matrix whose entries come from the field K, which is


either the field of real numbers or the field of complex numbers. Then there exists
a factorization of the form

where U is an m m unitary matrix over K (orthogonal matrix if K = R), is


a m n diagonal matrix with non-negative real numbers on the diagonal, and
the n n unitary matrix V denotes the conjugate transpose of
the n n unitary matrix V. Such a factorization is called a singular value
decomposition of M.
The diagonal entries i of are known as the singular values of M. A
common convention is to list the singular values in descending order. In this
case, the diagonal matrix is uniquely determined by M (though the
matrices U and V are not).

LTE MIMO Concepts


Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems form an essential part of LTE in order
to achieve the ambitious requirements for throughput and spectral efficiency. MIMO
refers to the use of multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver side.
Downlink MIMO
For the LTE downlink, a 22 configuration for MIMO is assumed as baseline
configuration, i.e. 2 transmit antennas at the base station and 2 receive antennas at
the terminal side. Configurations with 4 antennas are also being considered.
Downlink MIMO modes
Different MIMO modes are envisaged. It has to be differentiated between spatial
multiplexing and transmit diversity, and it depends on the channel condition which
scheme to select.

Spatial Multiplexing

Spatial multiplexing allows to transmit different streams of data simultaneously on


the same downlink resource block(s). These data streams can belong to one single
user (single user MIMO / SU-MIMO) or to different users (multi user MIMO / MUMIMO). While SU-MIMO increases the data rate of one user, MU-MIMO allows to
increase the overall capacity. Spatial multiplexing is only possible if the mobile radio
channel allows it. Figure 1 shows the principle of spatial multiplexing, exploiting the
spatial dimension of the radio channel which allows to transmit the different data
streams simultaneously.

Figure 1 Spatial multiplexing


In Figure 1, each transmit antenna transmits a different data stream. Each receive
antenna may receive the data streams from all transmit antennas. The channel (for a
specific delay) can thus be described by the following channel matrix H: As above

figure.

LTE/E-UTRA
In this general description, Nt is the number of transmit antennas, Nr is the number
of receive antennas, resulting in a 22 matrix for the baseline LTE scenario. The
coefficients hij of this matrix are called channel coefficients from transmit antenna j
to receive antenna i, thus describing all possible paths between transmitter and
receiver side. The number of data streams that can be transmitted in parallel over
the MIMO channel is given by min {Nt, Nr} and is limited by the rank of the matrix H.
The transmission quality degrades significantly in case the singular values of matrix
H are not sufficiently strong. This can happen in case the 2 antennas are not
sufficiently de-correlated, for example in an environment with little scattering or
when antennas are too closely spaced. In LTE, up to 2 code words can be mapped
onto different so-called layers. The number of layers for transmission is equal to the
rank of the matrix H. There is a fixed mapping between code words to layers.
Precoding on transmitter side is used to support spatial multiplexing, see Figure 2.
This is achieved by applying a precoding matrix W to the signal before transmission.

Figure 2 Precoding principle


The optimum precoding matrix W is selected from a predefined codebook which is
known at eNodeB and UE side. Unitary precoding is used, i.e. the precoding matrices
are unitary: WHW= I. The UE estimates the radio channel and selects the optimum

precoding matrix. The optimum precoding matrix is the one which offers maximum
capacity. The UE provides feedback on the uplink control channel regarding the
preferred precoding matrix (precoding vector as a special case). Ideally, this
information is made available per resource block or at least group of resource blocks,
since the optimum precoding matrix varies between resource blocks Figure 3 gives
an overview of EUTRA downlink baseband signal generation including the abovementioned steps relevant for MIMO transmission.
Figure 3 Overview of downlink baseband signal generation
LTE/E-UTRA
Transmit Diversity
Instead of increasing data rate or capacity, MIMO can be used to exploit diversity.
Transmit diversity schemes are already known from WCDMA release 99 and will also
form part of LTE as one MIMO mode. In case the channel conditions do not allow
spatial multiplexing, a transmit diversity scheme will be used instead, so switching
between these two MIMO modes is possible depending on channel conditions.
Transmit diversity is used when the selected number of streams (rank) is one.
Uplink MIMO
Uplink MIMO schemes for LTE will differ from downlink MIMO schemes to take into
account terminal complexity issues. For the uplink, MU-MIMO can be used. Multiple
user terminals may transmit simultaneously on the same resource block. This is also
referred to as spatial domain multiple access (SDMA). The scheme requires only one
transmit antenna at UE side which is a big advantage. The UEs sharing the same
resource block have to apply mutually orthogonal pilot patterns. To exploit the
benefit of two or more transmit antennas but still keep the UE cost low, antenna
subset selection can be used. In the beginning, this technique will be used, e.g. a UE
will have two transmit antennas but only one transmit chain and amplifier. A switch
will then choose the antenna that rovides the best channel to the eNodeB.