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communicate on the same frequency with users in different locations within range of the

same base station. An SDMA system was proposed by Richard Roy and Bjrn Ottersten,

researchers at ArrayComm, in 1991.

Functions of MIMO

MIMO can be sub-divided into three main categories, precoding, spatial multiplexing or

SM, and diversity coding.

Spatial multiplexing requires MIMO antenna configuration. In spatial multiplexing, a

high-rate signal is split into multiple lower-rate streams and each stream is transmitted

from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. If these signals arrive

at the receiver antenna array with sufficiently different spatial signatures and the receiver

has accurate CSI, it can separate these streams into (almost) parallel channels. Spatial

multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher signalto-noise ratios (SNR). The maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser of

the number of antennas at the transmitter or receiver. Spatial multiplexing can be used

without CSI at the transmitter, but can be combined with precoding if CSI is available.

Spatial multiplexing can also be used for simultaneous transmission to multiple

receivers, known as space-division multiple access or multi-user MIMO, in which case

CSI is required at the transmitter.[32] The scheduling of receivers with different spatial

signatures allows good separability.

Diversity coding techniques are used when there is no channel knowledge at the

transmitter. In diversity methods, a single stream (unlike multiple streams in spatial

multiplexing) is transmitted, but the signal is coded using techniques called space-time

coding. The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with full or near

orthogonal coding. Diversity coding exploits the independent fading in the multiple

antenna links to enhance signal diversity. Because there is no channel knowledge, there

is no beamforming or array gain from diversity coding. Diversity coding can be combined

with spatial multiplexing when some channel knowledge is available at the transmitter.

MU-MIMO

advanced MIMO (pronounced mee-moh or my-moh), multiple-input and multipleoutput, technologies where the available antennas are spread over a multitude of

independent access points and independent radio terminals - each having one or

multiple antennas. In contrast, single-user MIMO considers a single multi-antenna

transmitter communicating with a single multi-antenna receiver. To enhance the

communication capabilities of all terminals, MU-MIMO applies an extended

version ofspace-division multiple access (SDMA) to allow multiple transmitters

to send separate signals and multiple receivers to receive separate signals

simultaneously in the same band. PU2RC is a fundamental and practical MUMIMO technology for broadcast and multiple access wireless communications.

Like the relationship between OFDM and OFDMA, MU-MIMO (and, similarly,

SDMA) can be thought of as an extension of MIMO applied in various ways as a

multiple access strategy. A significant difference is that the performance of MUMIMO relies on precoding capability than OFDMA so that if the transmitter does

not use precoding, the performance advantage of MU-MIMO is not achievable.[1]

Multiple access MIMO, MIMO-SDMA,[2][1] massive MIMO,[3] cooperative MIMO,

coordinated multipoint (CoMP) or in other wordsmacrodiversity,[4] and ad hoc

MIMO are all family terminologies within MU-MIMO, as each of those

technologies leverages multiple users as a degree of freedom in achieving

successful radio transmission.

Technology[edit]

MIMO[edit]

To achieve MIMO from a conventional SISO system, several technologies have

been proposed.

create spatial beam patterns through constructive and destructive interference.

antennas at either transmitter or receiver side or both sides, where every

antenna element is separated from its nearest element by around four to ten

times the wavelength to keep the signal through each multi-path independent.

The distance between two adjacent antenna elements is relying on the angular

spread of the beam signal.

input multiple output scheme in cellular wireless systems. SDMA is often

referred to as simply a MIMO system since the half port of a SDMA system

also consists of multiple users. Although SDMA is indeed a MIMO technique,

MIMO is not necessarily SDMA.

transmitter and a receiver front end.

systems, macrodiversity MIMO, or virtual antenna array systems. Mobile

devices use the partnered mobile devices' antennas, antenna arrays, or

antenna elements as virtual antennas.

MU-MIMO[edit]

Multi-user MIMO can leverage multiple users as spatially distributed transmission

resources, at the cost of somewhat more expensive signal processing. In

comparison, conventional, or single-user MIMO considers only local device

multiple antenna dimensions. Multi-user MIMO algorithms are developed to

enhance MIMO systems when the number of users, or connections, numbers

greater than one (admittedly, a useful concept). Multi-user MIMO can be

generalized into two categories: MIMO broadcast channels (MIMO BC) and MIMO

multiple access channels (MIMO MAC) for downlink and uplink situations,

MIMO.

To remove ambiguity of the words receiver and transmitter, we can adopt the

terms access point (AP; or, base station), and user. An AP is the transmitter and a

user is the receiver for downlink environments, whereas an AP is the receiver and

a user is the transmitter for uplink environments. Homogeneous networks are

somewhat freed from this distinction.

Main article: Space-division multiple access

Space-Division Multiple Access (SDMA) enables creating parallel spatial

pipes next to higher capacity pipes through spatial multiplexing and/or diversity, by

which it is able to offer superior performance in radio multiple access

communication systems. In traditional mobilecellular network systems, the base

station has no information on the position of the mobile units within the cell and

radiates the signal in all directions within the cell in order to provide radio

coverage. This results in wasting power on transmissions when there are no

mobile units to reach, in addition to causing interference for adjacent cells using

the same frequency, so called co-channel cells. Likewise, in reception,

the antenna receives signals coming from all directions including noise and

interference signals. By using smart antennatechnology and by leveraging the

spatial location of mobile units within the cell, space-division multiple access

techniques offer attractive performance enhancements. The radiation pattern of

the base station, both in transmission and reception, is adapted to each user to

obtain highest gain in the direction of that user. This is often done using phased

array techniques.

In GSM cellular networks, the base station is aware of the mobile phone's position

by use of a technique called Timing Advance (TA). The Base Transceiver Station

(BTS) can determine how distant the Mobile Station (MS) is by interpreting the

reported TA. This information, along with other parameters, can then be used to

power down the BTS or MS, if a power control feature is implemented in the

networks, especially on the MS, as this ensures a better battery life for the MS

and thus a better user experience (in that the need to charge the battery becomes

less frequent). This is why it may actually be safer to have a BTS close to you as

your MS will be powered down as much as possible. For example, there is more

power being transmitted from the MS than what you would receive from the BTS

even if you are 6 m away from a mast. However, this estimation might not

consider all the MS's that a particular BTS is supporting with EM radiation at any

given time.

Mathematical description[edit]

antennas. The transmit streams go through a matrix channel which consists of

all

receive

antennas at the receiver. Then, the receiver gets the received signal vectors by

the multiple receive antennas and decodes the received signal vectors into the

original information. A narrowband flat fading MIMO system is modelled as

where

and

and

Referring to information theory, the ergodic channel capacity of MIMO systems

where both the transmitter and the receiver have perfect

instantaneous channel state information is[40]

where

power and noise power (i.e., transmit SNR). The optimal signal

covariance

matrix

where

is zero if its

If the transmitter has only statistical channel state information, then the

ergodic channel capacity will decrease as the signal covariance can

only be optimized in terms of the average mutual information as[40]

The spatial correlation of the channel has a strong impact on the ergodic channel

capacity with statistical information.

If the transmitter has no channel state information it can select the signal

covariance

means

and accordingly

greater than

Channel Capacity

Formal definition[edit]

Let

and

given

distribution

. The channel

capacity is defined as

If G is an undirected graph, it can be used to define a communications

channel in which the symbols are the graph vertices, and two codewords

may be confused with each other if their symbols in each position are equal

or adjacent. The computational complexity of finding the Shannon capacity

of such a channel remains open, but it can be upper bounded by another

important graph invariant, theLovsz number.[4]

Noisy-channel coding theorem[edit]

The noisy-channel coding theorem states that for any > 0 and for any

transmission rate R less than the channel capacity C, there is an encoding

and decoding scheme transmitting data at rate R whose error probability is

less than , for a sufficiently large block length. Also, for any rate greater

than the channel capacity, the probability of error at the receiver goes to

one as the block length goes to infinity.

Example application[edit]

Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with B Hz bandwidth and signal-to-noise

ratio S/N is the ShannonHartley theorem:

or nats per second if the natural logarithm is used, assuming B is

inhertz; the signal and noise powers S and N are measured in watts or

volts2, so the signal-to-noise ratio here is expressed as a power

ratio, not in decibels (dB); since figures are often cited in dB, a

conversion may be needed. For example, 30 dB is a power ratio

of

For channel capacity in systems with multiple antennas, see the article

on MIMO.

AWGN channel[edit]

If the average received power is

density is

[bits/s],

where

When the SNR is large (SNR >> 0 dB), the

capacity

is linear in power but insensitive to bandwidth. This is called

thepower-limited regime.

The bandwidth-limited regime and power-limited regime are

illustrated in the figure.

regime indicated. Here,

Frequency-selective channel[edit]

The capacity of the frequency-selective channel is given by socalled water filling power allocation,

where

and

subchannel

, with

is the gain of

Slow-fading channel[edit]

In a slow-fading channel, where the coherence time is greater

than the latency requirement, there is no definite capacity as the

maximum rate of reliable communications supported by the

channel,

gain

small,

,

in which case the system is said to be in outage. With a nonzero probability that the channel is in deep fade, the capacity

of the slow-fading channel in strict sense is zero. However, it

is possible to determine the largest value of

outage probability

the -outage capacity.

Fast-fading channel[edit]

In a fast-fading channel, where the latency requirement is

greater than the coherence time and the codeword length

spans many coherence periods, one can average over many

independent channel fades by coding over a large number of

coherence time intervals. Thus, it is possible to achieve a

reliable rate of communication of

[bits/s/Hz] and it is meaningful to speak of this value as the

capacity of the fast-fading channel.

a real orcomplex matrix. It has many useful applications in signal processing and

statistics.

Formally, the singular value decomposition of an m n real or complex

matrix M is a factorization of the form M = UV, where U is an m m real or

complex unitary matrix, is an m n rectangular diagonal matrix with nonnegative real numbers on the diagonal, and V(the conjugate transpose of V, or

simply the transpose of V if V is real) is an n n real or complex unitary matrix.

The diagonal entries i,i of are known as the singular values of M.

The m columns of U and the n columns of V are called the left-singular

vectors and right-singular vectors of M, respectively.

The singular value decomposition and the eigendecomposition are closely

related. Namely:

The left-singular vectors of M are eigenvectors of MM.

The right-singular vectors of M are eigenvectors of MM.

The non-zero singular values of M (found on the diagonal entries of )

are the square roots of the non-zero eigenvalues of

both MM and MM.

Applications that employ the SVD include computing the pseudoinverse, least

squares fitting of data, multivariable control, matrix approximation, and

determining the rank, range and null spaceof a matrix.

Statement of the theorem[edit]

either the field of real numbers or the field of complex numbers. Then there exists

a factorization of the form

a m n diagonal matrix with non-negative real numbers on the diagonal, and

the n n unitary matrix V denotes the conjugate transpose of

the n n unitary matrix V. Such a factorization is called a singular value

decomposition of M.

The diagonal entries i of are known as the singular values of M. A

common convention is to list the singular values in descending order. In this

case, the diagonal matrix is uniquely determined by M (though the

matrices U and V are not).

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems form an essential part of LTE in order

to achieve the ambitious requirements for throughput and spectral efficiency. MIMO

refers to the use of multiple antennas at transmitter and receiver side.

Downlink MIMO

For the LTE downlink, a 22 configuration for MIMO is assumed as baseline

configuration, i.e. 2 transmit antennas at the base station and 2 receive antennas at

the terminal side. Configurations with 4 antennas are also being considered.

Downlink MIMO modes

Different MIMO modes are envisaged. It has to be differentiated between spatial

multiplexing and transmit diversity, and it depends on the channel condition which

scheme to select.

Spatial Multiplexing

the same downlink resource block(s). These data streams can belong to one single

user (single user MIMO / SU-MIMO) or to different users (multi user MIMO / MUMIMO). While SU-MIMO increases the data rate of one user, MU-MIMO allows to

increase the overall capacity. Spatial multiplexing is only possible if the mobile radio

channel allows it. Figure 1 shows the principle of spatial multiplexing, exploiting the

spatial dimension of the radio channel which allows to transmit the different data

streams simultaneously.

In Figure 1, each transmit antenna transmits a different data stream. Each receive

antenna may receive the data streams from all transmit antennas. The channel (for a

specific delay) can thus be described by the following channel matrix H: As above

figure.

LTE/E-UTRA

In this general description, Nt is the number of transmit antennas, Nr is the number

of receive antennas, resulting in a 22 matrix for the baseline LTE scenario. The

coefficients hij of this matrix are called channel coefficients from transmit antenna j

to receive antenna i, thus describing all possible paths between transmitter and

receiver side. The number of data streams that can be transmitted in parallel over

the MIMO channel is given by min {Nt, Nr} and is limited by the rank of the matrix H.

The transmission quality degrades significantly in case the singular values of matrix

H are not sufficiently strong. This can happen in case the 2 antennas are not

sufficiently de-correlated, for example in an environment with little scattering or

when antennas are too closely spaced. In LTE, up to 2 code words can be mapped

onto different so-called layers. The number of layers for transmission is equal to the

rank of the matrix H. There is a fixed mapping between code words to layers.

Precoding on transmitter side is used to support spatial multiplexing, see Figure 2.

This is achieved by applying a precoding matrix W to the signal before transmission.

The optimum precoding matrix W is selected from a predefined codebook which is

known at eNodeB and UE side. Unitary precoding is used, i.e. the precoding matrices

are unitary: WHW= I. The UE estimates the radio channel and selects the optimum

precoding matrix. The optimum precoding matrix is the one which offers maximum

capacity. The UE provides feedback on the uplink control channel regarding the

preferred precoding matrix (precoding vector as a special case). Ideally, this

information is made available per resource block or at least group of resource blocks,

since the optimum precoding matrix varies between resource blocks Figure 3 gives

an overview of EUTRA downlink baseband signal generation including the abovementioned steps relevant for MIMO transmission.

Figure 3 Overview of downlink baseband signal generation

LTE/E-UTRA

Transmit Diversity

Instead of increasing data rate or capacity, MIMO can be used to exploit diversity.

Transmit diversity schemes are already known from WCDMA release 99 and will also

form part of LTE as one MIMO mode. In case the channel conditions do not allow

spatial multiplexing, a transmit diversity scheme will be used instead, so switching

between these two MIMO modes is possible depending on channel conditions.

Transmit diversity is used when the selected number of streams (rank) is one.

Uplink MIMO

Uplink MIMO schemes for LTE will differ from downlink MIMO schemes to take into

account terminal complexity issues. For the uplink, MU-MIMO can be used. Multiple

user terminals may transmit simultaneously on the same resource block. This is also

referred to as spatial domain multiple access (SDMA). The scheme requires only one

transmit antenna at UE side which is a big advantage. The UEs sharing the same

resource block have to apply mutually orthogonal pilot patterns. To exploit the

benefit of two or more transmit antennas but still keep the UE cost low, antenna

subset selection can be used. In the beginning, this technique will be used, e.g. a UE

will have two transmit antennas but only one transmit chain and amplifier. A switch

will then choose the antenna that rovides the best channel to the eNodeB.

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