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UNIVERSITATEA TITU MAIORESCU BUCURETI

FACULTATEA DE INFORMATIC
SPECIALIZAREA: INFORMATIC
COMUNICARE DE SPECIALITATE N LIMBA ENGLEZ

Suportul de curs pentru anul I ID conine:

I.

PROGRAME ANALITICE

II.

CONINUT CURS

III.

TEME DE CONTROL

IV. BIBLIOGRAFIE

I.

PROGRAME ANALITICE
PROGRAMA ANALITICA
COMUNICARE DE SPECIALITATE N LIMBA ENGLEZ

Denumirea
disciplinei
Codul disciplinei
Facultatea
Profilul
Specializarea

I.1.1.6

Semestrul

Informatica
Informatica
Informatica

Numarul de credite

Nr. ore pe sem/activitati


Total
SI
TC
AT
14
0
10
4

Categoria formativa a disciplinei


DF-fundamentala, DG-generala, DS-de specialitate, DE-economica/manageriala, DU-umanista
Categoria de optionalitate a disciplinei: DI-impusa, DO-optionala, DL-liber aleasa (optionala)
Discipline
anterioare
Obiective

Continut
(descriptori)

Obligatorii (conditionate)
Recomandate

AA
0

DG
DI

Revizuirea cunotinelor lingvistice i gramaticale de limb englez general;


Asimilarea i fixarea elementelor de limbaj specializat, tehnic;
Exersarea celor patru abiliti necesare pentru o comunicare fluent n limba englez :
citit (reading), vorbit (speaking), scris(writing) i ascultat (listening);
4. Perfecionarea capacitii de prezentare oral a unui proiect de specialitate n limba
englez.
1. The History of Computers
2. Defining Computers. The Components of a Computer
3. Categories of Computers
4. Examples of Computer Usage. Computer Applications In Society.
1.
2.
3.

Forma de evaluare (E-examen, C-colocviu/test final, LP-lucrari de control)


Stabilirea
-raspunsurile la examen/ colocviu/ lucrari practice
Notei finale -activitati aplicative
(procentaje) - teme de control
Bibliografie 1. Boeckner, Keith; Brown, P. Charles, Oxford English for Computing, Oxford
University Press, 1997.
2. Deaconu, Mdlina, English for IT, Bucureti, Editura UTM, 2010.
3. Cornilescu, Alexandra, Iclezian-Dimitriu, Ioan, The Infinitive, Iai, Editura
Institutul European, 2000.
4. Esteras, Santiago Remacha, Infotech- English for Computer Users, Cambridge
University Press, 2004.
5. Glendinning, Eric H.; McEwan, John, Basic English for Computing, Revised
and Updated, Oxford University Press, 2002;
6. Jones, Daniel, English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge University Press,
1997.
7. Lagoutte, Franois, 1000 de cuvinte-cheie n informatic, Bucureti, Editura
Compania, 2003.
8. Paidos, Constantin, English Grammar- Theory and Practice, Iai, Editura
Polirom, 2001.
9. Thomson, A. J., Martinet, A. V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford
University Press, 1997.
Coordonator de discplina
Grban Valentin

Grad didactic, titlul, prenume, nume


Lector dr. Deaconu Mdlina

C
60%
30%
10%

Semnatura

PROGRAMA ANALITICA
COMUNICARE DE SPECIALITATE N LIMBA ENGLEZ

Denumirea
disciplinei
Codul disciplinei
Facultatea
Profilul
Specializarea

I.1.2.6

Semestrul

Informatica
Informatica
Informatica

Numarul de credite

Nr. ore pe sem/activitati


Total
SI
TC
AT
14
0
10
4

Categoria formativa a disciplinei


DF-fundamentala, DG-generala, DS-de specialitate, DE-economica/manageriala, DU-umanista
Categoria de optionalitate a disciplinei: DI-impusa, DO-optionala, DL-liber aleasa (optionala)
Discipline
anterioare
Obiective

Continut
(descriptori)

Obligatorii (conditionate)
Recomandate

AA
0

DG
DI

1. Revizuirea cunotinelor lingvistice i gramaticale de limb englez general;


2. Asimilarea i fixarea elementelor de limbaj specializat, tehnic;
3. Exersarea celor patru abiliti necesare pentru o comunicare fluent n limba englez :
citit (reading), vorbit (speaking), scris(writing) i ascultat (listening);
4. Perfecionarea capacitii de prezentare oral a unui proiect de specialitate n limba
englez.
1. Supercomputers.
2. Data Representation
3. Data, Information, Knowledge
4. Physical Transmission Media: Cabling and Wireless Transmission Media

Forma de evaluare (E-examen, C-colocviu/test final, LP-lucrari de control)


Stabilirea
-raspunsurile la examen/ colocviu/ lucrari practice
Notei finale -activitati aplicative
(procentaje) - teme de control
Bibliografie 1. Boeckner, Keith; Brown, P. Charles, Oxford English for Computing, Oxford
University Press, 1997.
2. Deaconu, Mdlina, English for IT, Bucureti, Editura UTM, 2010.
3. Cornilescu, Alexandra, Iclezian-Dimitriu, Ioan, The Infinitive, Iai, Editura
Institutul European, 2000.
4. Esteras, Santiago Remacha, Infotech- English for Computer Users, Cambridge
University Press, 2004.
5. Glendinning, Eric H.; McEwan, John, Basic English for Computing, Revised
and Updated, Oxford University Press, 2002;
6. Jones, Daniel, English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge University Press,
1997.
7. Lagoutte, Franois, 1000 de cuvinte-cheie n informatic, Bucureti, Editura
Compania, 2003.
8. Paidos, Constantin, English Grammar- Theory and Practice, Iai, Editura
Polirom, 2001.
9. Thomson, A. J., Martinet, A. V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford
University Press, 1997.
10. Vldoiu, Ion, Verbele modale ale limbii engleze, Bucureti, Editura Antet,
2004.
Coordonator de discplina
Grban Valentin

Grad didactic, titlul, prenume, nume


Lector dr. Deaconu Mdlina

C
60%
30%
10%

Semnatura

II.

CONINUT CURS

SEMESTRUL I
The History of Computers
The modern personal computer is not the brainchild of any one person no single Eureka!
heralded the beginning of its development. Instead its history is a tale of leaps, bounds and
hold-ups stretching back five thousand years to the invention of the abacus in Mesopotamia.
This brief history outlines some of the important people and events in the evolutionary
passage from wooden bead-counter to multimedia workstation.
1. The mechanical era
In this age of microelectronics, computer components are not only powerful but also
incomprehensibly small its atoms, not inches, that count. But the forerunners of todays
computers were mechanical: they were made of cogs, shafts and sliders large enough to put
together by hand, and were operated not by a keyboard and mouse but with dials and handles.
The earliest breakthroughs were made by the likes of Leonardo da Vinci, who
designed a simple mechanical calculator in 1500, and William Oughtred, who in the early
1600s came up with the slide rule, a handheld tool for speeding up arithmetic which was still
being used in schools three and a half centuries later. By the 1640s the French mathematician
Blaise Pascal had invented a machine capable of multiplication and division which was later
improved by Gottfried Leibnitz, the same man who is credited with having laid down the
principles of binary the number system using only 0s and 1s that is the fundamental
language spoken by all modern computers. The greatest achievements of the mechanical era,
though, came courtesy of the eccentric British mathematician and inventor Charles Babbage,
whose inventions included the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine of 1833. Though
he died before it could be constructed, the Analytical Engine could not only cope with the
complex mathematics, but it could be programmed to deal with various types of problem and
make decisions based upon its own results thus heralding the leap from calculator to real
computer. Babbages partner in crime was none other than Ada Byron aka Lady Lovelace,
the daughter of the poet Lord Byron who is now sometimes described as the first ever
computer programmer.
2. Punch cards and vacuum tubes
It wasnt until the end of the nineteenth century that computers actually started to
prove themselves useful. Just before the 1890 census of the US government held a design
contest to find an efficient way of counting the records of its exploding population. It was
won by a German immigrant named Herman Hollerith, whose electric tabulating machine
read data from paper punch cards, saving many years of manual counting and marking a
significant point at which computing became as much to do with data management as
performing calculation. Holleriths ComputingTabulatingRecording Company went from
strength to strength, and in 1924 it merged with a rival to form International Business
Machines IBM which grew into one of the most significant forces in computer design.
In the meantime the vacuum tube was being developed, from which a new generation
of computers was to grow. The tubes did the same job as mechanical or electrical switches,
but they were capable of switching on and off thousands of times faster, facilitating a whole
new level of computing speed. This technology reached its zenith in machines designed on
both sides of the Atlantic during World War II. The British utilized it in their powerful code-

breaking machine, Colossus, but more significant was the American ENIAC (Electronic
Numerical Integrator and Computer), developed between 1943 and 1945 to calculate missile
trajectories. Containing nearly 17500 vacuum tubes, ENIAC was the first multitasking
computer, and it could add 5000 numbers or carry out fourteen ten-digit multiplication per
second making him about a hundred times faster than its closest rival.
While ENIAC was still being built, its designers J. Presper Eckert and John V.
Mauchly joined forces with another key figure, mathematician John von Neumann, to work
on a new machine. What they came up with was EDVAC, the first computer to have a stored
program. This was a real breakthrough: instead of spending hours or even days turning knobs
and pressing buttons to instruct a computer to carry out a particular task. The commands
could be written as numerical code and stored inside the machine. This made everything
much faster, but more significantly it paved the way for the programming languages of the
1950s which in turn led to the development of modern software.
3. Transistors and microchips
For all its speed, ENIAC highlighted the shortcomings of vacuum tube technology: it
was 150 feet wide, weighed 30 tons, produced so much heat that it regularly burnt out and
guzzled electricity in such quantities that the lights in the neighbouring towns dimmed each
time it was switch on. These problems were soon to be overcome with the advent of the
silicon transistor, which was better that the vacuum tube at controlling the flow of electricity
while being much smaller and generating considerably less heat. Transistors were invented
back in 1920s, but it wasnt until 1954 that reliable silicon model were manufactured
commercially, bringing small, reliable and affordable computers a significant step closer.
The ensuing years saw the birth of the microchip or chip a single piece of board
containing many transistors. As time went by, chips became increasingly powerful and ever
more tiny until 1971 a company called Intel (Integrated Electronics) released their 4004 chip,
the first microprocessor. The 4004 combined 2300 transistors and all the essential elements
of a computer on a single chip, and in the space of a few square inch provided roughly the
same computational power as the 17500 vacuum tubes of ENIAC. These developments,
combined with great advances in programming languages and other breakthroughs such as the
invention of the floppy disk, made it possible to produce smaller and faster computers which
were more flexible and less difficult to use.
4. Computers get personal
Despite all these advances, computers remained in the realm of academics,
governments and big business, and it wasnt until 1975 that a vaguely personal computer
something that individuals could actually afford to buy came onto the market. It arrived in
the form of the MITS Altair 8800, which shipped with an Intel processor and 256 bytes of
memory, around one millionth of the amount found in a decent modern PC. And it wasnt just
in the memory department that the Altair was lacking: it had neither a keyboard nor a
monitor. Instructions were fed in by small switches and results displayed by a pattern of little
red lights great for discos, but not a lot else.
But this was soon to change. In 1977 Stephen Jobs and Steve Wozniak produced the
Apple II, which, with its neat plastic case and video out socket (allowing you to use your TV
as a monitor), was an instant success. While the Altair was primarily of interest to hobbyist
and enthusiasts the Apple II was actually useful for business, and programs began to appear
which could save hours of manual number crunching such as VisiCalc, the first ever
spreadsheet program.
During this time the price of components plummeted, and various bargain computers
started appearing on the market. By the end of 1970s, a variety of machines were available for

a few hundred dollars like the Radio Shack TRS 80, which became incredibly popular in
homes and schools.
5. The PC is born
The next big turning point came in 1981, when IBM released their Personal
Computer the IBM PC which was the blueprint of the modern PC. Though the design
was strong, it was not just the computer that made IBMs new machine so popular: it was the
companys decision to tell the world, in near complete detail, how the PC worked and how it
was built. IBM did this in the hope that other developers would produce extra pieces of
hardware that will be compatible with the PC which they did. However it soon occurred to
these developers that they werent limited to manufacturing add-ons; they could produce their
own versions of the whole machine and sell them cheaper. This was possible because IBM
only held a patent for the BIOS (basic input/output system), and because most of the internal
components of the PC had been bought off-the-shelf from other manufactures. Very soon
computer companies everywhere where manufacturing their own copies of the IBM design:
they could run all the same programs and data could easily be moved from one machine to the
next. These computers were collectively known as IBM compatible PCs, but it wasnt long
before PC became a generic term used to describe any computer based on IBMs original.
6. The rise of Microsoft
When IBM designed the PC they commissioned the young Micro-soft company (later
Microsoft) to provide the all important operating system or OS: the underlying software that
bridges the gap between a computer and the application software running on it. It was called
Micro-soft Disk Operating System MS-DOS and though it had been developed for IBM,
Microsoft shrewdly retained the copyright. As PC clones began to spring up everywhere,
nearly all were installed with MS-DOS, and though Microsofts founder Bill Gates didnt
know it at that time, this was soon to make him the worlds richest man.
As time went by, it became increasingly difficult for new types of computer to get a
decent foothold in the market. Inexpensive machines like the Commodore 64 were very
popular among home users, but any new system that set out to complete with the PC was
faced with the problem of not being able to run all the software that had written for use with
MS-DOS. Other PC operating systems were proposed by IBM and others, but they never
really got off the ground or failed to gain the popularity of the Microsoft option. The MSDOS PC still faced serious competition from established manufactures such as Apple,
however, who introduced LISA and the Macintosh (the Mac) in 1983 and 1984 respectively.
These were the first personal computers to use an operating system with a Graphic User
Interface (GUI), meaning that the user, instead of typing encrypted instructions into the
machine, could run programs and organize files by using a mouse to click on windows, icons
and dropdown menus.
Soon afterwards, Microsoft released their own GUI operating system: a reworking of
MS-DOS called Windows. Many of the features were very similar to those of the Apple
system, and Apple promptly threatened to take Microsoft to court, claiming they had ripped of
their design. In the end, Microsoft agreed to license certain elements of the Apple design to
avoid court proceedings, and they managed to arrange it so that the features could be used in
all future Microsoft programs. But when Windows 2.0 came out in 1987, Apple thought
Microsoft had overstepped the mark and this time actually took them to court for breach of
copyright. Microsoft won the case, in part because of the previous licensing deal and in part
because many of the original ideas for the Apple system had originally been developed by
Xerox for non personal computers. This made it easy for Gates and Co to say, Well, we
may not have invented it, but neither did you

7. And the rest is history


As time went by, PCs and Macs held their ground as the most popular system, and
Windows after the release of version 3.0 in 1990 became the dominant PC operating
system. Machines designed for things that PCs and Macs didnt do very well continued to
enjoy success: the Atari ST and Commodore Amiga, for example, were popular for gaming
until the early 1990s. But with the rise of specific gaming stations such as those made by
Nintendo and the ever increasing versatility of the PC, computers such as these started falling
by the wayside, leaving a two-horse contest between Windows-driven PCs and Macs.
And for the time being this situation seems unlikely to change. Once a company or
user has data and programs for one platform, switching to another can be a major and
potentially expensive upheaval. Perhaps the next big shift will be a move towards free
software. A considerable number of people have already turned to Linux: they can get an
operating system and an ever-growing selection of high-quality applications that are both free
and legal.
As for the future of hardware, the tendency for ever-faster machines in ever-smaller
boxes seems unlikely to lose pace. Who knows a few years down the line the latest edition
of this book may be sold as a thumbnail-size data chip to slip into your computer. Well just
have to wait and see

I.

A. Answer the following questions:

1. Who is the inventor of the computer?


2. What invention marks the beginning of computers history?
3. Who were the forerunners of todays computers?
4. What are the earliest breakthroughs?
5. Who laid down the principles of binary?
6. Name the greatest achievements of the mechanical era.
7. Who is considered to be the first computer programmer?
8. When and on what occasion did computers prove to be useful for the first time?
9. What can you say about vacuum tubes?
10. What was ENIAC?
11. What was EDVAC?
12. What were the advantages of the silicon transistor over the vacuum tube?
13. When were transistors invented? What about the silicon ones?
14. Define the microchip.
15. When was the first microprocessor released and by whom?
16. What was the first personal computer? What can you say about it?
17. What can you say about Apple II?
18. What was the name of the first spreadsheet program?
19. What computer was popular in the 1970s?
20. Enlarge upon IBMs 1981 Personal Computer.
21. Define IBM- compatible PCs.
22. Whom did IBM commission to provide the OS? What was it called?
23. What was MS-DOS PCs competition?
24. What were the first personal computers which used an OS with a GUI? What did that
mean?

25. What was Microsofts GUI?


26. Why did Apple take Microsoft to court? Who won?
27. What is the dominant PC operating system?
28. What seems to be the future trend for software? What about hardware?

B. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. EDVAC was the first computer that had a stored program.
2. Bill Gates was the founder of IBM.
3. IBM was created in 1924.
4. Charles Babbage is called the first computer programmer.
5. One can say that todays computer is the creation of several persons along many years.
6. MS-DOS was developed by IBM.
7. ENIAC was a code-breaking machine.
8. Computer was invented as early as 1500.
9. Macs are more popular systems than PCs.
10. The first microprocessor was released in 1971 by Intel.
III. Match the following words with the correct definitions:
brainchild
to herald
to leap
bound
hold-up
abacus
bead
forerunner
cog
shaft
to slide
dial
handle
breakthrough
eccentric
achievement

to punch
vacuum
census
immigrant
zenith
missile

a space absolutely devoid of matter;


one who is ardently absorbed in an interest or pursuit;
a person that has many different skills;
to center attention on;
to put into code or cipher;
the point of the celestial sphere that is directly opposite the nadir and
vertically above the observer;
to give notice of; to signal the approach of;
deviating from an established or usual pattern or style;
to express a threat against;
a product of one's creative effort;
to have enough money to buy or pay for something;
to make a hole in something using a metal tool or other sharp object;
an imperfection or lack that detracts from the whole; also : the quality or
state of being flawed or lacking;
an object (as a weapon) thrown or projected usually so as to strike
something at a distance;
leap, jump; the action of rebounding;
the short thick digit of the human hand that is analogous in position to the
big toe and differs from the other fingers in having only two phalanges,
allowing greater freedom of movement, and being opposable to each of
them;
to spring free from or as if from the ground;
a person who pursues an activity in their spare time for pleasure;
an instrument for performing calculations by sliding counters along rods or
in grooves;
a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence;
the time during which something is delayed;
characterized by keen awareness, sharp intelligence, and often a sense of

knob
to highlight
Eureka
shortcoming
to afford
neat
hobbyist
enthusiast
to crunch
shrewd
to encrypt
to threaten
thumb
versatile

the practical;
one that precedes and indicates the approach of another;
free from dirt and disorder; habitually clean and orderly;
the handle of a tool or instrument; a commonly cylindrical bar used to
support rotating pieces or to transmit power or motion by rotation;
a part that is designed especially to be grasped by the hand;
a small ball-shaped body; a small piece of material pierced for threading on
a string or wire (as in a rosary);
to chew with a noisy crackling sound;
a usually complete enumeration of a population;
a tooth on the rim of a wheel or gear;
exclamation attributed to Archimedes on discovering a method for
determining the purity of gold;
a result gained by effort;
a rounded protuberance;
a face upon which some measurement is registered usually by means of
graduations and a pointer;
a sudden advance especially in knowledge or technique;
to move smoothly along a surface.

IV. Give the synonyms of the following: eccentric, neat, encrypted, to punch, to herald,
eccentric, knob, shortcoming, enthusiast, shrewd.
V. Give the antonyms of the following: eccentric, vaguely, to dim, modern, useful, rival,

VI. Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:

to guzzle
a) to drink; b) to produce; c) to consume; d) to improve;
to dim
a) to brighten; b) to reduce; c) to increase; d) to maximize;
advent
a) assessment; b) appearance; c) aspiration; d) assault;
ensuing
a) preceding; b) luminous; c) ever-changing; d) following;
realm
a) kingdom; b) attention; c) domain; d) sight;
to plummet
a) to rise; b) to drop; c) to change; d) to maintain;
blueprint
a) spark; b) cause; c) incipit; d) design;

underlying
a) amazing; b) genuine; c) basic; d) improved;
to rip off
a) to improve; b) to use; c) to comment upon; d) to steal;
to breach
a) to break; b) to destroy; c) to diminish; d) to interrupt;
upheaval
a) success; b) disagreement; c) revolution; d) problem.

VII. Make sentences of your own with the following:


to stretch back
to be operated by
to make a breakthrough
to come up with an idea
to be credited with
to lay down certain principles
courtesy of
to cope with
to deal with
to prove useful
to hold a contest
to go from strength to strength
to merge with
to perform/ to carry out a calculation
in the meantime
to reach the zenith
to join forces
to pave the way for (fig.)
to overcome a problem
to bring something closer (fig.)
despite all
to be shipped with something
to be primarily of interest to
to become popular
turning point
to be the blueprint of
in complete detail
to hold a patent for something
to be off-the-shelf
to commission somebody to do something
to bridge a gap
to get a foothold in the market
to be faced with a problem
to gain popularity

to face competition from


to take to court
to fall by the wayside
to lose pace
a few years down the line

VIII. Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention that
some forms of the words must be changed:
analog, foundations, model, to give way, limits, clerks, hypothetical, key, physicist, previous,
concepts, calculus, computational, to store, to perform, digit, continuous, to refer, to follow,
in accordance with, to state

Before the 1920s, computers (sometimes computors) were human that performed
computations. They were usually under the lead of a . Many thousands of computers were
employed in commerce, government, and research establishments. Most of these computers
were women, and they were known to have a degree in . Some astronomical calculations
for calendars.
After the 1920s, the expression computing machine to any machine that performed
the work of a human computer, especially those effective methods of the Church-Turing
thesis. The thesis that a mathematical method is effective if it could be set out as a list of
instructions able to be by a human clerk with paper and pencil, for as long as necessary,
and without ingenuity or insight.
Machines that computed with values became known as the kind. They used
machinery that represented continuous numeric quantities, like the angle of a shaft rotation or
difference in electrical potential.
Digital machinery, in contrast to analog, were able to render a state of a numeric value
and store each individual . Digital machinery used difference engines or relays before the
invention of faster memory devices.
The phrase computing machine gradually , after the late 1940s, to just computer as
the onset of electronic digital machinery became common. These computers were able to
perform the calculations that were performed by the human clerks.
Since the values by digital machines were not bound to physical properties like
analog devices, a logical computer, based on digital equipment, was able to do anything that
could be described "purely mechanical." The theoretical Turing Machine, created by Alan
Turing, is a device theorized in order to study the properties of such hardware.
From the time when processes were performed by human clerks, the study of
computability began a science by being able to make evident which was not explicit into
ordinary sense more immediate.

The mathematical .. of modern computer science began to be laid by Kurt Gdel with
his incompleteness theorem (1931). In this theorem, he showed that there were to what
could be proved and disproved within a formal system. This led to work by Gdel and others
to define and describe these formal systems, including such as mu-recursive functions and
lambda-definable functions.
1936 was a year for computer science. Alan Turing and Alonzo Church
independently, and also together, introduced the formalization of an algorithm, with limits on
what can be computed, and a "purely mechanical" for computing.

IX. Translate into Romanian:


Webster's Dictionary defines "computer" as any programmable electronic device that
can store, retrieve, and process data. The basic idea of computing develops in the 1200's when
a Moslem cleric proposes solving problems with a series of written procedures.
As early as the 1640's mechanical calculators are manufactured for sale. Records exist
of earlier machines, but Blaise Pascal invents the first commercial calculator, a hand powered
adding machine. Although attempts to multiply mechanically were made by Gottfried
Liebnitz in the 1670s the first true multiplying calculator appears in Germany shortly before
the American Revolution.
In 1801 a Frenchman, Joseph-Marie Jacquard builds a loom that weaves by reading
punched holes stored on small sheets of hardwood. These plates are then inserted into the
loom which reads (retrieves) the pattern and creates (process) the weave. Powered by water,
this "machine" came 140 years before the development of the modern computer.
Shortly after the first mass-produced calculator (1820), Charles Babbage begins his
lifelong quest for a programmable machine. Although Babbage was a poor communicator and
record-keeper, his difference engine is sufficiently developed by 1842 that Ada Lovelace uses
it to mechanically translate a short written work. She is generally regarded as the first
programmer. Twelve years later George Boole, while professor of Mathematics at Cork
University, writes An Investigation of the Laws of Thought (1854), and is generally
recognized as the father of computer science.
The 1890 census is tabulated on punch cards similar to the ones used 90 years earlier
to create weaves. Developed by Herman Hollerith of MIT, the system uses electric
power(non-mechanical). The Hollerith Tabulating Company is a forerunner of today's IBM.
Just prior to the introduction of Hollerith's machine the first printing calculator is
introduced. In 1892 William Burroughs, a sickly ex-teller, introduces a commercially
successful printing calculator. Although hand-powered, Burroughs quickly introduces an
electronic model.
In 1925, unaware of the work of Charles Babbage, Vannevar Bush of MIT builds a
machine he calls the differential analyzer. Using a set of gears and shafts, much like Babbage,
the machine can handle simple calculus problems, but accuracy is a problem.

The period from 1935 through 1952 gets murky with claims and counterclaims of who
invents what and when. Part of the problem lies in the international situation that makes much
of the research secret. Other problems include poor record-keeping, deception and lack of
definition.
In 1935, Konrad Zuse, a German construction engineer, builds a mechanical calculator
to handle the math involved in his profession. Shortly after completion, Zuse starts on a
programmable electronic device which he completes in 1938.
John Vincent Atanasoff begins work on a digital computer in 1936 in the basement of
the Physics building on the campus of Iowa State. A graduate student, Clifford (John) Berry
assists. The "ABC" is designed to solve linear equations common in physics. It displays some
early features of later computers including electronic calculations. He shows it to others in
1939 and leaves the patent application with attorneys for the school when he leaves for a job
in Washington during World War II. Unimpressed, the school never files and ABC is
cannibalized by students.

The Enigma, a complex mechanical encoder is used by the Germans and they believe
it to be unbreakable. Several people involved, most notably Alan Turing, conceive machines
to handle the problem, but none are technically feasible. Turing proposes a "Universal
Machine" capable of "computing" any algorithm in 1937. That same year George Steblitz
creates his Model K(itchen), a conglomeration of otherwise useless and leftover material, to
solve complex calculations. He improves the design while working at Bell Labs and on
September 11, 1940, Steblitz uses a teletype machine at Dartmouth College in New
Hampshire to transmit a problem to his Complex Number Calculator in New York and
receives the results. It is the first example of a network.
First in Poland, and later in Great Britain and the United States, the Enigma code is
broken. Information gained by this shortens the war. To break the code, the British, led by
Touring, build the Colossus Mark I. The existence of this machine is a closely guarded secret
of the British Government until 1970. The United States Navy, aided to some extent by the
British, builds a machine capable of breaking not only the German code but the Japanese code
as well. (http://goldenink.com/computersandnetworks.shtml)

X. Translate into English:


Dei sistemele de calcul au o istorie bogat, majoritatea descoperirilor i facilitilor
care au condus la construirea PC-ului dateaz din ultimii 50 de ani.
n 1951, John Mauchly i John Eckert construiesc primul calculator comercialUNIVAC I. Acesta este prezentat la televiziunea naional american n ziua alegerilor din
1952. Pe msura primirii rezultatelor competiiei prezideniale americane, salariaii firmei
Remington Rand, productoarea calculatorului UNIVAC I, introduceau rezultatele n
calculatorul care era programat s anticipeze ctigtorul pe baza rezultatelor pariale.
UNIVAC a anticipat corect rezultatele i astfel a ctigat imediat credibilitatea publicului
american.
ncepnd cu UNIVAC i alte calculatoare similare, dezvoltarea sistemelor decalcul
comerciale a cuprins patru etape distincte, numite generaii. Astzi ne aflm la grania celei
de-a cincea.

Generaia tuburilor cu vid (1942-1956)


Calculatoarele din prima generaie, cum a fost UNIVAC, prelucrau datele utiliznd
tehnologiile tuburilor cu vid, experimentate pentru sistemele ABC, ENIAC i EDVAC.
Aceste calculatoare erau numite sisteme mainframe (cadrul principal), datorit scheletului de
metal utilizat pentru susinerea tuburilor cu vid. Dac s-ar utiliza i astzi tehnologia tuburilor
cu vid, un sistem mainframe modern ar avea dimensiunile unui zgrie-nori.
Stocarea datelor n calculatoarele din prima generaie se realiza pe tamburi metalici.
Programele stocate erau scrise n limbaj-main, adic n secvene de 0 i 1 care
reflectau direct contribuiile lui George Boole. Fiecare productor crea propriul su limbajmain.
Ctre sfritul anului 1944, John von Neumann, membru al proiectului Manhattan care
a creat bomba atomic i consultant al multor lucrri tiinifice n timpul rzboiului, a vizat
proiectul ENIAC. n urma discuiilor avute, von Neumann a conceput o tehnic de stocare a
programelor i a scris lucrarea ,,Prima schi raport despre EDVAC, care descria structura
unui calculator digital.
Calculatorul conceput de von Neumann coninea cinci pri:
- o unitate de intrare asemntoare unei tastaturi ce permitea introducerea informaiilor
n calculator;
- o zon de memorie pentru stocarea programelor i datelor;
- o unitate aritmetic pentru efectuarea calculelor;
- o unitate de control care realiza transferul instruciunilor programului i a datelor
ntre memorie i unitatea aritmetic;
- un dispozitiv de ieire, cum ar fi o imprimant.
Lucrarea unui von Neumann a fost publicat pe scar larg i a schimbat definitiv
modul de proiectare al calculatoarelor. (Aproape toate calculatoarele construite dup ENIAC
au fost calculatoare von Neumann).
Grace Hopper, care a lucrat n anii 40 la calculatorul MARK, a realizat n 1952 primul
compilator- un program care traduce limbajul de programare n limbaj-main.
Compilatoarele au schimbat modul de programare, permind programatorilor s introduc
numere i litere n locul secvenelor de 0 i 1.
Generaia tranzistoarelor (1956-1963)
n 1948, trei fizicieni ai laboratoarelor BELL au descoperit un nou tip de cristal numit
germaniu. Acesta nefiind un conductor de electricitate att de bun ca oelul sau cuprul, dar
mai bun dect alte materiale cum sunt sticla sau cauciucul, a fost denumit material
semiconductor.
A urmat descoperirea altor materiale semiconductoare, inclusiv siliciul, care erau
confecionate din materii brute uor de procurat- pietre sau nisip. Cercettorii au descoperit
c, prin adugarea altor materiale unui semiconductor (adic prin dopare), rezult un material
capabil s acioneze ca un redresor sau amplificator electric. Acest material a primit numele
de tranzistor i era n msur s nlocuiasc tuburile cu vid.
Dimensiunile tranzistoarelor erau mult mai mici (cam a cincizecea parte din
dimensiunea unui tub cu vid), dar furnizau mai mult energie i erau mai rezistente dect
fragilele tuburi cu vid produse din sticl.
Ctre sfritul deceniului, tranzistoarele au luat locul tuburilor cu vid din sistemele de
calcul, televizoare, aparate de radio. Astfel, aplicaiile care utilizau tranzistoare erau numite
,,n stare solid, ntruct tranzistoarele erau mai rezistente.

Tehnologia ,,n stare solid a fost utilizat pentru construirea primelor


supercalculatoare, destinate gestionrii unor cantiti mari dedate i efecturii unor calcule
rapide. n anul 1959, Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) a creat minicalculatorul PDP-1.
n anii 60, calculatoarele mainframe din a doua generaie, erau fabricate de companii
cum ar fi: IBM, HONEYWELL i SPERRZ-RAND, fiind utilizate pe scar larg n afaceri
importante.
n cea de-a doua generaie de calculatoare, mbinarea ntre limbajele de programare de
nivel nalt cum ar fi COBOL i FORTRAN i conceptul de program stocat, inventat de von
Neumann, a dus la crearea unor sisteme de calcul de uz general, foarte flexibile. Un astfel de
program putea fi ncrcat rapid n memoria calculatorului (construit pe tranzistori), putea fi
rulat uor i apoi nlocuit cu un alt program.
Generaia circuitelor integrate (1964-1971)
Tranzistoarele erau deja utilizate de aproximativ 12 ani, devenind mai complete i mai
fiabile pe msura perfecionrii procesului de fabricaie.
La sfritul anilor 50, tranzistoarele ajunseser de dimensiuni foarte mici nct a
aprut ideea combinrii acestora ntr-un singur dispozitiv. Astfel, n 1958, inginerul Jack
Kilby a proiectat primul circuit integrat, care coninea trei componente ntr-un singur modul
din siliciu de cuar.
n acelai timp, inginerul Jack Hoerni descoper un mod de a fabrica tranzistoare
plate, care au permis construirea unor modele de circuite integrate plate- cipuri pentru
calculatoare.
Perfecionrea tehnologiilor a determinat includerea unui numr din ce n ce mai mare
de componente ntr-un chip. Astfel, dimensiunile calculatoarelor erau n continu scdere, dar
preul componentelor- n special al cipurilor, rmnea destul de ridicat.
Un alt proces major al celei de-a treia generaiei a fost crearea sistemelor de operare.
Acestea permiteau controlul instruciunilor de baz ale unui calculator, inclusiv deplasarea
instruciunilor i datelor ntre unitatea de prelucrare i memorie, tiprirea i citirea
informaiilor de pe disc.
Cu toate progresele nregistrate de tehnologia sistemelor de calcul, pn la
calculatoarele personale modern, mai era nc un drum lung de strbtut.
Expresia magic a anilor 60 a fost time-sharing-ul. Datorit acestei tehnici,
utilizatorii nu mai trebuiau s ,,stea la coad ca s lucreze la un calculator; calculatorul
,,trecea de la un utilizator la altul, acordndu-i fiecruia cte un scurt interval de timp.
ntruct calculatoarele lucreaz mai rapid dect oamenii, utilizatorii puteau lucra ntr-un ritm
constant fr s observe c sistemul ,,lucrase cu altcineva n ultima zecime de secund.
Un pas important al generaiei a treia a fost fcut de inginerul Douglas Engelbart, care
a avut ideea ca sistemele de calcul s furnizeze datele de ieire prin intermediul unor
dispozitive cu tuburi catodice similare televizoarelor (nu la imprimant) i care s permit n
acelai timp utilizatorului s manipuleze imagini i s introduc texte.
n anul 1968, Engelbart i-a susinut proiectul ntr-o conferin despre calculatoare,
prezentnd schema unui sistem care coninea o tastatur i un dispozitiv de indicare denumit
mouse- confecionat din lemn.
Doi ani mai trziu, n 1970, Douglas Engelbart a proiectat cteva interfee utilizator
prevzute cu mai multe ferestre (predecesoarele sistemului Windows) i a implementat un
sistem de pot electronic bazat pe un sistem mainframe.
Cu toate acestea, marile companii de pe piaa sistemelor de calcul- IBM, DEC,
SPERRY- nu credeau nc n existena unei piee de desfacere pentru sistemele de calcul uor
de utilizat i orientate pe imagini.

Generaia circuitelor microminiaturizate (1971-)


La nceputul anilor 70, dimensiunile circuitelor integrate erau n continu scdere.
Tehnica integrrii pe scar larg (LSI- large scale integration) a permis productorilor
s includ sute de componente ntr-un singur chip. Aceast tehnic a fost nlocuit curnd cu
VLSI (integrare pe sacr foarte larg- very large scale integration), care permitea includerea a
sute de mii de componente ntr-un chip. Numrul componentelor dintr-un chip a ajuns de
ordinul milioanelor, prin utilizarea ULSI (integrare pe scar ultra larg).
n anul 1970, o companie mic numit INTEL (n prezent cel mai mare productor de
cipuri din lume) a instalat toate componentele eseniale ale unui sistem de calcul ntr-un
singur cip: microprocesorul.
Crearea microprocesorului a transformat n realitate viziunea lui Douglas Engelbart
privind calculatoarele personale.
Primul microprocesor comercial a devenit disponibil n 1971. Cu toate acestea, primul
calculator personal comercial de succes, APLE II, a fost produs abia n 1976.
Generaiile viitorului
Peste civa ani, se va nva despre cea de-a cincea ( i poate a asea i a aptea)
generaie de sisteme de calcul. n acest moment, n lumea ntreag sunt testate tehnologiile
necesare celei de-a cincea generaii.
Oamenii de tiin lucreaz la proiecte de inteligen artificial- programe de
calculator capabile s gndeasc similar unei fiine umane. Acest proces poate dura ani muli
ntruct nimeni nu tie cu exactitate cum funcioneaz inteligena uman, iar programele de
acest gen sunt dificil de creat.
Unele descoperiri preliminare sunt aplicate n sisteme expert (destinate bibliotecilor,
luptei mpotriva criminalitii, mbuntirii sntii) i ntr-un domeniu numit logica fuzzy
(fuzzy= vag).
Un alt domeniu de cercetare implic modul de construire a calculatoarelor: arhitectura
sistemelor de calcul. Calculatorul von Neumann coninea un singur procesor, dar foarte muli
ingineri sunt de prere c urmtoarea generaie va fi acea a calculatoarelor cu prelucrare
paralel care utilizeaz mai multe microprocesoare, permind astfel creterea vitezei i a
eficienei.
Este foarte posibil ca procesoarele viitorului s fie fabricate folosind noi materiale. n
acest sens, att n domeniul ingineriei electrice ct i n cel al sistemelor de calcul, se
desfoar o competiie strns privind crearea unui supraconductor viabil. Materialele
supraconductoare reprezint semiconductori care opun mult mai puin rezisten la trecerea
curentului electric. O rezisten mai mic nseamn mi puin cldur degajat, o vitez
sporit i o eficien superioar.
O alt component a tehnologiei din generaia viitorului imediat este dispozitivul optic
de stocare. Stocarea optic utilizeaz tehnologia laser pentru scrierea i citirea informaiilor.
Dispozitivele cu laser au dou avantaje: capacitate i durabilitate. Compact-discurile utilizate
pentru stocare au o capacitate incredibil i pot conine o cantitate de informaii de mii de ori
mai mare dect discurile magnetice de aceeai dimensiune. Laserul nu atinge, de fapt,
suprafaa discului, deci discurile optice sunt mai puin fragile dect alte forme de stocare a
datelor.
De fapt, discurile optice reprezint numai nceputul: deja a fost construit prototipul
unui cub de stocare optica. Acesta poate conine un volum de informaii de sute de ori mai
mare dect cel al discurilor optice. (Gitnaru, Andrei, Calculatorul- mediu i canal de
comunicaie, Bucureti, Editura comunicare.ro, 2002, pp. 20-25)

WORD FOCUS
I.

Phrasal verbs = a verb + a particle (a preposition or an adverb)

Examples:
Verb
Particle
break
down

Meaning
to become mentally or physically ill
because of an unpleasant experience
to visit a place or person for a short
time, usually while you are going
somewhere else
to happen successfully or as planned

call

in

come

off

cut

down

get

over

give
go

in
under

yield, cease to resist


to fail financially

keep

away

look

into

to prevent someone/something from


doing something
to examine a situation, a problem

make

for

to go in the direction of a place

pass

out

to faint

pull

over

to drive a car to the side of the road

put

up

to build a structure

run

out

set

up

to use all of something so that there is


none left
to start a company

take

on

to employ someone

turn

out

to happen in a particular way, to have


a particular result

II.

to eat or drink less of a particular


thing, to diminish prices, etc.
to begin to feel better after an
experience that has made you unhappy

Example
After hearing the bad news,
his cousin broke down.
While visiting London, we
called in Sophia.
Congratulations! Your plan
has come off!
They cut down the price for
bread last year.
My friend tries to get over
the argument she had with
her boss.
You should never give in!
They are poor now because
their business went under.
His grandmother told us to
keep away from the fire.
I admit I have been rather
busy lately, but I am going
to look into this matter till
is not too late.
When I met Tom, he was
making for home.
Seeing the snake, the old
woman passed out.
I fell sick, pull over for a
moment, please!
My grandfather is busy
now: he is pulling up a
wall.
We ran out of sugar when
we had guests.
They set up this company
when they were not married.
They took her on, though
she was not qualified for
that job.
It turned out that they were
wrong.

Mathematical operations, mathematical signs, root, fractional numbers, decimal


numbers.

+
x
:
x

addition
subtraction
multiplication
division
the square root of x
the cube root of x
the fourth root of x
the sixth root of x
the ninth root of x
four over five (4 is the nominator; 5 is the denominator)
one third
seven - twenty-first;

1
2+3=5
53=2
2x3=6
6:2=3
= 16
= 16

one and three fourths (quarters)


two plus three equals five
five minus three equals two
two multiplied by/by three equals six
six divided by two equals three
four square is sixteen
four cube is sixty four
two to the fourth power
integral of sixteen;
integral between limits x and y

x less than y
x
x greater than y
x
x equal to or less than y
x y
x equal to or greater than y
x y
x not equal to y
x
x identical to y
x
x similar to y
x
x approximately equals y
x
sin x
[sain eks]
cos x
[kousain eks]
tan x
tangent x
f (x)
function of x
AB parallel to CD
AB
0.003
oh/nought point 003
0.25
oh point two five
5.89
five point eight nine
twenty degrees thirty one minutes
20
III. Pay attention to the difference among: zero, nought, nil/love, oh:
Word:
Usage:
zero
-temperatures;

-linguistics;
- to refer to somebody who is a nonentity;
- in linguistics.
-in mathematics;
-grades;
- in scores in team games;
- in tennis scores;
-telephone numbers;
-years;
-hours;

nought
nil
love
oh

Expressions:
-zero hour;
-zero tolerance;
-noughts and crosses
Exercises:
I.

Fill in the blanks using the appropriate phrasal verbs given below. Note that some
of them may not be used at all whereas there are cases when there can be used two
particles with the same verb.

back up; key in; log in (on); log off (out); hack into; pick up; print out; scroll up/ down; zoom
in/out
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

II.

My friend is very slow at data.


When he goes abroad, he always his e-mails from cyber cafs.
If you want to see the details in pictures, you can .
It took her two hours to her thesis.
You should when you leave the computer unattended.
I was very upset when I realized that someone has my computer.
He to the bottom of the page and then to the top of it.
You should to this new website.
You must find the of the data you lost!

Give the verbs corresponding to the following nouns: addition, subtraction,


multiplication, division.

III. Give the nouns of the following adjectives: high, thick, long, wide, deep, broad.
IV. Read the following:
12 + 25 = 37
257 + 349 =606
98 - 89 = 9
3576 473 =3103
3 x 7 = 21
74 x 23 = 1702
58 : 2 = 29
96 : 3 = 32

=3
= 2.51
=1,021
= 1,018
4= 16
= 729
=50625
= 32768

50 52
123 34
a b
C D
sin 30 = 0.5
cos 45 = 0. 7
tan 45 = 1
0.34
8.79
92.345
67
59
=3
= 0.5
= 0.16

VI. Translate into English using mathematical operations and dimensions:


1. Dac mpari aceste numere vei obine rezultatul corect.
2. nti aduni i apoi scazi.
3. Ar trebui s msori lungimea acestui fir.
4. nlimea acestui munte este de 4 000 de metri.
5. Adncimea acestui lac este de 30 de metri.
6. Strada are o lime de 2 metri.
7. Grosimea sticlei este de 3 milimetri.
VII. Fill in the blanks with zero, nought, nil, love, oh as appropriate:

1. The score was five to .. (5/0) and that was only due to Hagi.
2. is a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number.
3. The noun sheep has a plural.
4. She was born in nineteen .. nine.(1909)
5. She told him he was an absolute for her, which was not very nice.
6. Her phone number is three seven four two. (370 42)
7. I told them to meet at thirteen four. (13. 04)
VIII. Make sentences with the following and translate them into Romanian:
-zero hour;
-zero tolerance;
-noughts and crosses.

Defining Computers. The Components of a Computer


Computers are everywhere: at work, at school, and at home. They are a primary means
of local and global communication for billions of people. Employees correspond with clients,
students with classmates and teachers, and family with friends and other family members.
Through computers, society has instant access to information from around the globe.
Local and national news, weather reports, spots scores, airlines schedules, telephone
directories, maps and directions, job listings, credit reports, and countless forms of
educational material always are accessible. From the computer, you can make a telephone
call, meet new friends, share photographs and videos, relate opinions, shop, book flights, file
taxes, or take a course.
In the workplace, employees use computers to create correspondence such as e-mail
messages, memos, and letters; calculate payroll; track inventory; generate invoices. Some
applications such as automotive design and weather forecasting use computers to perform
complex mathematical calculations. At school, teachers use computers to assist with
classroom instruction. Students use computers to complete assignments and research.
People also spend hours of leisure time using a computer. They play games, listen to
music or radio broadcasts, watch or compose videos and movies, read books and magazines,
share stories, research genealogy, retouch photographs, and plan vacations.
Many people believe that computers literacy is vital to success. Computer literacy
involves having a knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses.
A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored
in its own memory that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce
results and store the results for future use.
Computers process data into information. Data is a collection of unprocessed items,
which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video. Information conveys meanings
and is useful to people.
The Components of a Computer
A. A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components known
as hardware. These components include input devices, output devices, a system unit, storage
devices, and communication devices.
An input device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data and
instructions into a computer. Six widely used input devices are the keyboard, mouse,
microphone, scanner, digital camera and PC video camera (Figure 1-3).
A computer keyboard contains keys you press to enter data into the computer. A
mouse is a small handheld device. With a mouse, you control movement of a small symbol on
the screen, called the pointer, and you make selections from the screen.
A microphone allows a user to speak into the computer. A scanner converts printed
material (such as text and pictures) into a form the computer can use.
With a digital camera, you take pictures and then transfer the photographed images to
the computer or printer instead of storing the images on traditional film. A PC video camera is
a digital video camera that allows users to create a movie or take still photographs
electronically.
An output device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or
more people. Four commonly used output devices are a printer, a monitor, speakers, and a
portable media player.
A printer produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper. A monitor
displays text, graphics, and videos on a screen. Speakers allow you to hear music voice, and
other audio (sounds). You can transfer audio, video, and digital images from your computer to

a portable media player, and then listen to the audio, watch the video, or view the images on
the media player.
The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer that are
used to process data. The circuitry of the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a
circuit board called the motherboard.
Two main components on the motherboard are the processor and memory. The
processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), is the electronic component that
interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer. Memory consists of
electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those
instructions. Most memory keeps data and instructions temporarily, which means its contents
are erased when the computer is shut off.
Storage holds data, instructions, and information for future use. For example,
computers can store hundreds or millions of customer names and addresses. Storage holds
these items permanently.
A computer keeps data, instructions, and information on storage media. Examples of
storage media are USB flash drives, hard disks, CDs, DVDs, and memory cards. A storage
device records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from storage media. Storage
devices often function as a source of input because they transfer items from storage to
memory.
A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that is small and lightweight enough to
be transported on a keychain or in a pocket. The average USB flash drive can hold about 500
million characters.
A hard disk provides much greater storage capacity than a USB flash drive. The
average hard disk can hold more than 250 billion characters. Hard disks are enclosed in an
airtight, sealed case. Although some are portable, most are housed inside the system unit.
Portable hard disks are either external or removable. An external hard disk is a separate, freestanding unit, whereas you insert and remove a removable hard disk from the computer or a
device connected to the computer.
A compact disc is a flat, round, portable metal disc with plastic coating. One type of
compact disc is a CD-ROM, which can hold from 650 million to 1 billion characters. You can
access a CD-ROM using most CD and DVD drives. Another type of compact disc is a DVDROM, which has enough storage capacity to store two full-length movies or 17 billion
characters. To access a DVD-ROM, you need a DVD drive.
Some portable devices such as digital cameras use memory cards as the storage media.
You can use a card reader/writer to transfer stored items, such as digital photographs, from
the memory card to a computer or printer.

A communication device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send


(transmit) and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers.
A widely used communications device is a modem.
Communications occur over cables, telephone lines, cellular radio networks, satellites
and other transmission media. Some transmission media, such as satellites and cellular radio
networks, are wireless, which means they have no physical lines or wires.
B. Software, also called a program, is a series of instructions that tells the computer what to
do and how to do it.
You interact with a program through its user interface. Software today often has a
graphical user interface. With a graphical user interface (GUI pronounced gooey), you
interact with the software using text, graphics, and visual images such as icons. An icon is a

miniature image that represents a program, an instruction, or some other object. You can use
the mouse to select icons that perform operations such as starting a program.
The two categories of software are system software and application software. The
following sections describe these categories of software.
System software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of
the computer and its devices. System software serves as the interface between the user, the
application software, and the computers hardware. Two types of system software are the
operating system and utility programs.
OPERATING SYSTEM. An operating system is a set of programs that coordinates all the
activities among computer hardware devices. It provides a means for users to communicate
with the computer and other software. Many of todays computers use Windows XP or Vista,
two of Microsofts operating systems, or Mac OS X, Apples operating system.
When a user starts a computer, portions of the operating system load into memory
from the computers hard disk. It remains in memory while the computer is on.
UTILITY PROGRAM. A utility program allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks
usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs. Most operating systems
include several utility programs for managing disk drives, printers, and other devices and
media. You also can buy utility programs that allow you to perform additional computer
management functions.
Application software consists of programs designed to make users more productive
and/or assist them with personal tasks. A widely used type of application software related to
communications is a Web browser, which allows users with an Internet connection to access
and view Web pages. Other popular application software includes word processing software,
spreadsheet software, database software, and presentation graphics software.
Many other types of application software exist that enable users to perform a variety of
tasks. These include personal information management, note taking, project management,
accounting, document management, computer-aided design, desktop publishing, paint/image
editing, audio and video editing, multimedia authoring, Web pages authoring, personal
finance, legal, tax preparation, home design/landscaping, education, reference, and
entertainment (e.g., games or simulations).
Installing and Running Programs
The instructions in a program are stored on storage media such as a hard disk or
compact disc. When purchasing software from a computer store, you typically receive a box
that includes a CD(s) or DVD(s) that contains the program. You also may receive manual or
printed instructions explaining how to install and use the software.
Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer, and
other hardware components. When you buy a computer, it usually has some software
preinstalled on its hard disk. This enables you to use the computer the first time you turn it on.
To begin installing additional software from a CD or DVD, insert the program disc in a CD or
DVD drive. The computer then copies the program from the disc to the computers hard disk.
Once software is installed, you can use or run it. When you instruct the computer to
run an installed program, the computer loads it, which means the program is copied from
storage to memory. Once in memory, the computer can carry out, or execute, the instructions
in the program.

Software Development
A programmer, sometimes called a developer, is someone who develops software or
writes the instructions that direct the computer to process data into information. Complex
programs can require thousands to millions of instructions.
Programmers use a programming language or program development tool to create
computer programs. Popular programming languages include C++, Visual C#, Visual Basic,
JavaScript, and Java.
Information Processing Cycle
Computers process data (input) into information (output). A computer often holds
data, information, and instructions in storage for future use. Instructions are the steps that tell
the computer how to perform a particular task. Some people refer to the series of input,
processes, output, and storage activities as the information processing cycle. Recently,
communication also has become an essential element of the information processing cycle.

I.

A. Answer the following questions:

1. Are computers useful?


2. Define computers.
3. Make the distinction data-information.
4. What is hardware?
5. Define input devices. Give examples.
6. Define output devices. Give examples.
7. Define system unit.
8. Define storage devices. Give examples.
9. Define communication devices. Give examples.
10. What is software?
11. Make the distinction between system software and application software.
12. Define operating system. Give examples.
13. Define utility program.
14. What is a Web browser?
15. Give examples of application software.
16. Name some tasks that that can be performed duet o application software.
17. Define the process of installing.
18. What is a programmer?
19. Name some popular programming languages.
20. Define the information processing cycle.

B. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Web browser is a widely used type of system software.
2. Windows XP is an operating system.
3. Computer literacy is not essential in understanding computers.
4. A computer contains many electric, electronic and mechanical components known as software.
5. Three commonly used output devices are keyboard, a mouse and a microphone.
6. Computers are mainly used in the workplace.
7. Data is synonymous with information.
8. The mouse is also called pointer.

9. The portable media player is an output device.


10. The CD has a flat coating.

II.

Match the following words with the correct definitions:

hardware
software

input
output
key
pointer

microphone

digital camera
printer

monitor
speaker

system unit
motherboard

processor

memory
storage
hard disk
CD-ROM

an itemized list of goods shipped usually specifying the price and


the terms of sale;
a non-volatile storage device for digital data; it features one or more
rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindle within a metal case;
data is encoded magnetically by read/write heads that float on a
cushion of air above the platters;
a cathode-ray tube used for display (as of television pictures or
computer information);
of, relating to, or concerned with self-propelled vehicles or
machines;
an electronic device, that reads 'cards';
the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers
and holds many of the crucial components of the system, while
providing connectors for other peripherals, sometimes alternatively
known as the main board, system board;
the system of recording and summarizing business and financial
transactions and analyzing, verifying, and reporting the
results;http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accountancy - cite_note-3
the entire set of programs, procedures, and related documentation
associated with a system and especially a computer system;
an inherited, established, or customary pattern of thought, action, or
behavior (as a religious practice or a social custom); a belief or
story or a body of beliefs or stories relating to the past that are
commonly accepted as historical though not verifiable;
a chain with a key ring attachedm used for holding keys;
an electronic flash memory data storage device used for storing
digital information, commonly used in many electronic devices,
including digital cameras, mobile phones, laptop computers, MP3
players, and video game consoles, being small, re-recordable, and
being able to retain data without power;
the physical components (as electronic and electrical devices) of an
apparatus (as a computer);
the system that includes the circulation of money, the granting of
credit, the making of investments, and the provision of banking
facilities;
a computer application that simulates a paper, accounting
worksheet. displaying multiple cells that together make up a grid
consisting of rows and columns, each cell containing alphanumeric
text, numeric values or formulas;
information fed into a data processing system or computer;
a picture representing a view of natural inland scenery;
a part to be depressed by a finger that serves as one unit of a
keyboard;
a part of something;

DVD-ROM
memory cards
USB
flash
drive
card reader
card writer
interface

Web browser
traditional
portion

spreadsheet

accounting
finance
landscape

assignment

invoice

inventory

automotive

keychain

III.

a piece of work that is given to someone as part of their job;


the information produced by a computer;
a list of all the things in a place;
a camera that takes video or still photographs, or both, digitally by
recording images via an electronic image sensor;
a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing
information resources on the World Wide Web;
the small symbol, usually an arrow, that you move using a
computer`s mouse to point to the place on the screen where you
want to work, start a program;
the part of a computer where information can be stored; the amount
of space that can be used for storing information on a computer;
a device that produces printout;
a point of interaction between the components of a computer, and is
applicable at the level of both hardware and software, allowing a
component to function independently; it may refer to the means of
communication between the computer and the user by means of
peripheral devices such a monitor or a keyboard;
an instrument whereby sound waves are caused to generate or
modulate an electric current usually for the purpose of transmitting
or recording sound (as speech or music);
an electronic device, that writes 'cards';
the part of a sound system where the sound comes from;
consists of a flash memory data storage device integrated with a
USB (Universal Serial Bus) 1.1 or 2.0 interface; is typically
removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than a
floppy disk;
the main unit of a personal computer, typically consisting of a metal
or plastic enclosure containing the motherboard, power supply,
cooling fans, internal disk drives, and the memory modules and
expansion cards that are plugged into the motherboard, such as
video and network cards;
an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by
Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Time Warner in 1995; its main uses are
video and data storage; are of the same dimensions as compact discs
(CDs), but are capable of storing more than six times as much data;
the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of
a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the
computer's functions;
computer components and recording media that retain digital data
used for computing for some interval of time; provides one of the
core functions of the modern computer, that of information
retention.
a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not
writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback.

Give the synonyms of the following: to buy, box, to interpret, to carry out,
portion, programmer, many, vital, sealed, to convert, to store, screen

IV.

Give the antonyms of the following: processed, shut off, temporarily, portable
(computer), sometimes, input, to press, to connect, flat, to maintain.

V.

Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:

means
a) ways out; b) way-sides; c) ways; d) way-lays;
payroll
a) wads; b) wage-packets; c) wagers; d) wages;
leisure
a) tranquillity; b) free; c) serene; d) serendipity;
literacy
a) knowledge; b) understanding; c) books; d) readings;
to convey
a) to communicate; b) to conceal; c) to conceive; d) to conceptualize;
retrive
a) to redeem; b) to recuperate; c) to rectify; d) to redistribute;
lightweight
a) light; b) lighted; c) lighter; d) lighten;
average
a) avowed; b) common; c) compliant; d) available;
to provide
a) to supplement; b) to supersede; c) supply; d) to supervene.
VI.

Make sentences of your own with the following:

to run a program
to perform a calculation
to enter data into a computer
to retouch a photograph
to share photographs/videos
to carry out an instruction
to access a Web page
to relate opinions
to book a flight
to take a course
to file taxes
to calculate payroll
to track inventory

to generate invoices
to complete assignments
to be under the control of
to make a phone call
to make a selection
to be housed inside smth.

VII.

Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention
that some forms of the words must be changed:

profit, to print, websites, line, deceptively, to increase, to check, to order, secure (adj.), to
research, to look into, to ripe off, to place, reviews, lowest, simply, reputations, product, to
prevent, deceptive, shipping, vendors.
When it comes to wisely shopping for computer equipment, there are some techniques that
will your chance that your purchase will have the following characteristics:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

You will get a good price.


You will get a good product.
You will get what you expected when you .
You will get the order when you expect it.
You will not get .

Shopping Steps 1. the product you want to buy. Read the at on-line magazines such as
zdnet.com. Also computer gaming may review sound cards and video cards. Another
technique to find reviews is to go to a search engine or a super search engine and search
for reviews on the you are looking into buying. For instance go to mamma.com and search
for "asus video card reviews". 2. Be aware of somewhat pricing. This refers to the fact that
various charge a wide variety of amounts for, even when you are buying product of
similar weight and cost. This is because some vendors build some of their into shipping
costs. This should not you from purchasing from a particular vendor, but if you are aware
of it, you will know what you are paying. This pricing policy will make the vendor show up
with a lower price on a price search engine. 3. Use price search engines to find the vendors
with price. 4. Use web sites that compile customer ratings on vendors to tell what vendors
have good . 5. When you your order:
-Be sure your order is placed using a server so no one can steal your private information.
-Always use your credit card such as Master Card or Visa. This is another of protection
between yourself and the vendor. If you have trouble such as not receiving the product but
still being billed for it, they can the problem.
- shipping costs before finishing your order.
- a copy of your order and get and print your order number.

VIII.

Translate into Romanian:

Advantages and disadvantages of using computers


Society has reaped many benefits from using computers. Both business and home users
can make well-informed decisions because they have instant access to information from
anywhere in the world. A user is anyone who communicates with a computer or utilises the
information it generates. Students, another type of user, have more tools to assist them in the
learning process.
The benefits of computers are possible because computers have the advantages of speed,
reliability, consistency, storage, and communications.
Speed: When data, instructions, and information flow along electronic circuits in a
computer, they travel at incredibly fast speeds. Many computers process billions or
trillions of operations in a single second.
Reliability: The electronic components in modern computers are dependable and
reliable because they rarely break or fail.
Consistency: Given the same input and processes, a computer will produce the same
results consistently. Computers generate error-free results, provided the input is
correct and the instructions work.
Storage: Computers store enormous amounts of data and make this data available for
processing anytime it is needed.
Communications: Most computers today can communicate with other computers,
often wirelessly. Computers allow users to communicate with one another.
Some disadvantages of computers relate to the violation of privacy, public safety, and the
impact on the labour force, health risks, and the impact on the environment.
Violation of Privacy: In many instances, where personal and confidential records
were not properly protected, individuals have found their privacy violated and their
identities stolen.
Impact on Labour Force: Although computers have improved productivity and
created an entire industry with hundreds of thousands of new jobs, the skills of
millions of employees have been replaced by computers. Thus, it is crucial that
workers keep their education up-to-date. A separate impact on the labour force is that
some companies are outsourcing jobs to foreign countries instead of keeping their
homeland labour force employed.
Health Risks: Prologue or improper computer use can lead to health injuries or
disorders. Computer users can protect themselves from health risks through proper
workplace design, good posture while at the computer, and appropriately spaced work
breaks. Another health risk, called computer addiction, occurs when someone becomes
obsessed with using the computer.
Impact on Environment: Computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are
depleting natural resources and polluting the environment. Strategies that can help
protect the environment include recycling, regulating manufacturing processes,
extending the life of computers, and immediately donating replaced computers.

IX.

Translate into English:

Calculatoarele digitale sunt echipamente complexe care conin milioane de componente


electronice elementare. Un calculator digital reprezint un sistem ierarhic, format din cteva
subsistme ca interacioneaz pn la subsistemul cel mai de jos al componentelor electronice.

Avnd n vedere numrul foarte mare de entiti, numite la ora actual calculator, i
proprietile foarte diferite ale acestora, este practic imposibil s se formuleze o definiie unic a
acestei noiuni. Potrivit diferitelor puncte de vedere se pot da diferite definiii ale unui
calculator numeric sau digital.
Definiia nr. 1: Un calculator digital (numeric) este un sistem destinat automatizrii
calculelor informaiei discrete n conformitate cu anumii algoritmi.
Definiia nr. 2: Un calculator digital este o reuniune ntre ansamblul de echipamente fizice
care constituie hardware-ul, ansamblul de microprograme care constituie firmware-ul i
ansamblul de programe care constituie software-ul, ce permite prelucrarea logic i aritmetic a
informaiei discrete la o vitez foarte mare (de ordinul milioanelor de operaii pe secund) n
conformitate cu algoritmii dai.
Definiia nr. 3: Un calculator digital este un automat finit, deci un sistem cu stare finit
care prelucreaz cu o vitez foarte mare informaia discret n conformitate cu algoritmii
impui.
Din definiiile anterioare se pot desprinde cteva trsturi comune specifice tuturor
calculatoarelor:
1. Informaia este discret, datele sunt numerice.
2. Prelucrrile sunt complet automatizate.
3. Prelucrarea se face n conformitate cu algoritmii impui.
4. Viteza de prelucrare este foarte mare.
5. Natura prelucrrilor este aritmetic i logic.
Termenul de calculator digital sau numeric este foarte larg, de la microcalculatoarele pe
un singur cip la supercalculatoare. Diferenele ntre diferite calculatoare este dat de mrime
pre,
performan,
domeniul
de
aplicabilitate
i
organizare.
(http://www.cs.ucv.ro/staff/dmancas/AC/Curs4_ConcepteAC.pdf)

Word Focus
I.

to lay aside

to lay down
to lay in

to lay into
to lay off

Phrasal verb to lay


Meaning
Examples
1.to stop using something and put it 1. My grandmother laid aside the
down;
knitting needles to see why the dog
2.to cease behaving in a certain way;
started to bark.
3.to save money.
2. We could not lay aside our
anger and talk like friends do.
3. I never manage to lay aside
money for vacations!
to state something officially;
This university clearly lays down
its rules.
to store a supply of something to use in His grandmother laid in some
the future;
bottles of wine for his future
wedding.
to attack or criticize;
Every time they meet, they lay into
each other.
1.to stop employing someone;
1. They are very poor because their
2. to stop doing or using something mother is retired and their father
(informal);
has just been laid off.
3. to stop hurting or annoying someone 2. He had to lay off smoking

(informal);
to lay on

to lay out

to lay over
to lay up

II.

because he coughed badly.


3. I want to be laid off!
1.to provide something (such as food, 1. He laid on a car to take his
transport, entertainment) for people;
mother home.
2. to ask someone to do something that 2. They laid this unpleasant job on
is difficult or that he/she will not want to me because they could not find
do
anyone else willing to do it.
1.to spread
1. You should lay out the new
2.to arrange
carpet to see what is so special
3.to explain
about it.
4. to spend a lot of money (informal)
2. His garden is laid out in a
5. to hit very hard
special pattern.
3. The rules are laid out in the
book he wrote last year.
4. She laid out money to buy two
expensive bags.
5. They took him to hospital
because he was laid out.
to stay somewhere for a short time Do you want to lay over here?
before continuing the trip
1. to have to stay in bed
1. He was laid up with pneumonia.
2. to stop using a vehicle because it is 2. Our car is laid up for the winter.
being repaired

Pay attention to the difference among the nouns that refer to the money given
for work: salary, wage, pay, remuneration, fee, stipend,
honorarium,

Salary

Wage

Pay

Remuneration

Fee

Stipend

Honorarium

Emolument

money received by white-collar workers or by


executives; paid at regular intervals (a month, a year);
money received by blue-collar workers; usually an
hourly rate paid weekly or fortnightly;
informal term for wages and salary; it is mainly used in
military; it refers to a permanent, recurring amount of
money;
formal term for wages and salary; it may refer to
money received only once;
it usually refers to the money charged by a professional
person in advance for performing something;
a fixed amount regularly paid; usually referring to
clergy or to students that are given a scholarship;
money given to a professional person for services when
law or custom forbids a set fee;
the most formal of all the above words; it refers to the
money paid for somebody appointed to a particular
office (often including other fringe benefits).

Exercises
I. Translate into English using to lay as phrasal verb:
1. A ntins ziarul pe mas c s vedem cu toii articolul.
2. A fost lovit foarte ru de cei care i-au spart casa.
3. El a fost nevoit s stea la pat din cauza pojarului.
4.Ai putea s lai deoparte furia i s ncerci s rezolvi problema.
5. Instruciunile de utilizare sunt explicate n broura care se vinde cu imprimanta.
6. De fiecare dat cnd se ntlnesc, se atac reciproc.
7. Mama a pus deoparte cartea pe care a citea i s-a ndreptat spre u.
8. Fabrica la care lucra a renunat la serviciile lui i acum este omer.
9. Ai reuit s pui deoparte bani pentru a-i cumpra o nou main?
10. Regulamentul acestei instituii este foarte clar formulat.
11. A pus la dispoziie un autobuz c s-i duc pe copii n excursie.
12. Ei au pus deoparte nite borcane cu dulcea de viine pentru iarn.
13.Ei au pus bazele unui spital pentru vrstnici.
14.Fii atent! i se ntinde o capcan!
15.Fcnd asta, s-a expus ridicolului.

II. Make sentences of your own using the following phrases and translate them into
Romanian: to lay the foundations of; to lay emphasis/ stress on; to lay a hand/ finger on
somebody; to lay bare/open something; to lay waste something; to lay plans/ a trap; to lay
claim to doing something; to lay siege to; to lay something at the door of somebody or
something; to lay somebody low; to lay the ghost of something; to lay down your life.
III.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: salary, wage, pay,
remuneration, fee, stipend, honorarium and emolument:
1. They earn a minimum hourly of 10.
2. These are perfectly legal that go along with the function of mayor.
3. The charged by Kevin Costner for a film that will begin to be shot next month is
outstanding.
4. His monthly is spent entirely on paying the bank loan.
5. This literary magazine gives 100 for critical articles.
6. The received for being a model in this fashion show is amazing.
7. The of the priests have been cut down.
8. His parents, working in the army, have a substantial .
IV.Translate into English using in each sentence one of the following words: salary (x 2),
wage, pay, remuneration, fee (x 2), stipend (x 2), honorarium and emolument:
1. Onorariul cerut de avocat pentru procesul de luna viitoare m-a luat prin surprindere.
2. Banii primii ca MC la acel eveniment au fost suficieni pentru a-i plti chiria luna aceea.
3. Onorariul cerut de celebrul poet pentru a citi fragmente din opera sa a fost simbolic.
4. Plile aferente acestui post au fost anchetate de poliie.
5. Salariul episcopului a fost donat pentru sinistrai.
6. Ateapt cu nerbdare slariul meu lunar.
7. Banii primii de fiul ei ca burs au fost cheltuii pentru a cumpra cri.

8. Banii solicitai pentru a juca ntr-un film anul viitor sunt prea muli.
9. Solda tatlui lui a fost diminuat drastic.
10. Salariul su annual l depete cu mult pe cel al surorii sale.
11. Salariile clasei muncitoare au fost majorate anul trecut.

Categories of Computers
Industry experts typically classify computers in seven categories: personal computers,
mobile computers and mobile devices, game consoles, servers, mainframes, supercomputers,
and embedded computers. A computers size, speed, processing power, and price determine
the category is best fits. Due to rapidly changing technology, however, the distinction among
categories is not always clear-cut.
Category

Physical Size

Personal computers Fits on a desk


(desktop)
Mobile computers Fits on your lap or
and mobile devices
in your hand
Game consoles
Servers
Mainframes

Supercomputers
Embedded
computers

Small
box
or
handheld device
Small cabinet

Number
of
Simultaneously
Connected Users
Usually one ( can be
more if networked )

General
Range

Price

Several hundred to
several
thousand
dollars
Usually one
Less than a hundred
dollars to several
thousand dollars
One to several
Several
hundred
dollars or less
Two to thousands
Several hundred to a
million dollars
Hundreds
to $300.000 to several
thousands
million dollars

Partial room to a
full
room
of
equipment
Full
room
of Hundreds
equipment
thousands
Miniature
Usually one

to $500.000 to several
billion dollars
Embedded in the
price of the product

A. Personal computers (desktop)


Personal computer is a computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output,
and storage activities by itself. A personal computer contains a processor, memory, and one or
more input, output, and storage devices. They also often contain a communications device.
Two popular styles of personal computers are the PC and the Apple. These two types
of computers use different operating systems. PC and PC-compatible computers usually use a
Windows operating system. Apple computers usually use a Macintosh operating system (Mac
OS X). The term, PC-compatible, refers to any personal computer based on the original IBM
personal computer design. Companies such as Dell, Gateway, and Toshiba sell PC-compatible
computers.
Two types of personal computers are desktop computers and notebook computers.
A desktop computer is designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices,
and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table. In some models, the monitor sits
on top of the system unit, which is placed on the desk. The more popular style of system unit
is the tall and narrow tower, which can sit on the floor vertically.
B. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

A. A mobile computer is a personal computer you can carry from place to place.
Similarly, a mobile device is a computing device small enough to hold in your hand. The most
popular type of mobile computer is the notebook computer.
- A notebook computer, also called a laptop computer, is a portable, personal
computer designed to fit on your lap. Notebook computers are thin and lightweight, yet can be
as powerful as the average desktop computer. Notebook computers usually are more
expensive than desktop computers with equal capabilities.
On a typical notebook computer, the keyboard is on top of the system unit, and
the display attaches to the system unit with hinges. These computers weigh on average
between 2.5 and 9 pounds, which allows users easily to transport the computers from place to
place. Most notebook computers can operate on batteries or a power supply or both.
- Tablet PC. Resembling a letter-sized slate, the Tablet PC is a special type of
notebook computer that allows you to write or draw on the screen using a digital pen. For
users who prefer typing instead of handwriting, you can attach a keyboard to Tablet PCs that
do not include one already. Tablet PCs are useful especially for taking notes in locations
where the standard notebook computer is not practical.
B. Mobile devices, which are small enough to carry in a pocket, usually store
programs and data permanently on memory inside the system unit or on small storage media
such as memory cards. You often can connect a mobile device to a personal computer to
exchange information. Some mobile devices are Internet-enabled, meaning they can connect
to the Internet wirelessly.
Three popular types of mobile devices are handheld computers, PDAs, and
smart phones.
A handheld computer, sometimes referred to as an ultra personal computer (uPC), or
an Ultra-Mobile PC (UMPC), or a handtop computer, is a computer small enough to fit in one
hand. Because of their reduced size, the screens on handheld computers are small. Industryspecific handheld computers serve mobile employees, such as parcel delivery people, whose
jobs require them to move from place to place.
A PDA (personal digital assistant) provides personal organizer functions such as a
calendar, an appointment book, an address book, a calculator, and a notepad. Most PDAs also
offer a variety of other application software such as word processing, spreadsheet, personal
finance, and games.
Many PDAs are Internet-enabled so users can check e-mail and access the Web. Some
also provide camera and telephone capabilities.
The primary input device of a PDA is the stylus, which looks like a small ballpoint
pen, but uses pressure instead of ink to write and draw.
Offering the convenience of one-handed operation, a smart phone is an Internetenabled telephone that usually also provides PDA capabilities. In addition to basic telephone
capabilities, a smart phone allows you to send and receive e-mail messages, access the Web,
listen to music, and share photographs or videos.
As smart phones and PDAs continue a trend of offering similar functions, it is
becoming increasingly difficult to differentiate between the two devices. This trend, known as
convergence, has led manufacturers to refer to PDAs and smart phones simply as handhelds.
Some factors that affect a consumers purchasing decision include the devices size, screen
size, and capabilities of available software.

C. Game Consoles
A game console is a mobile computing device designed for single-player or
multiplayer video games. Standard game consoles use a handheld controller(s) as an input

device(s); a television screen as an output device; and hard disks, CDs, DVDs, and/or
memory cards for storage. The compact size and light weight of game consoles make them
easy to use at home, in the car, in a hotel, or any location that has an electrical outlet. Three
popular models are Microsofts Xbox 360, Nintendos Wii, and Sonys PlayStation 3.
A handheld game console is small enough to fit in one hand. With the handheld game
console, the controls, screen, and speakers are built into the device. Some models use
cartridges to store games; other use a miniature type of CD or DVD. Many handheld games
consoles can communicate wirelessly with other similar consoles for multiplayer gaming.
Two popular models are Nintendo DS Lite and Sonys PlayStation Portable (PSP).
In addition to gaming, many console models allow users to listen to music, watch
movies, and connect to the Internet.
D. Servers
A server controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network
and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information. Servers support
from two to several thousand connected computers at the same time.
People use personal computers or terminals to access data, information, and programs
on a server. A terminal is a device with a monitor, keyboard and memory.
E. Mainframes
A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or
thousands of connected users simultaneously. Mainframes store huge amounts of data,
instructions, and information. Most major corporations use mainframes for business activities.
With mainframes, large businesses are able to bill millions of customers, prepare payroll for
thousands of employees, and manage thousands of items in inventory. One study reported that
mainframes process more than 83 percent of transactions around the world.
Servers and other mainframes can access data and information from a mainframe.
People also can access programs on the mainframe using terminals or personal computers.
F. Supercomputers
A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer and the most expensive.
The fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than 135 trillion instructions in a
single second.
Applications requiring complex, sophisticated mathematical calculations use
supercomputers. Large scale simulations and applications in medicine, aerospace, automotive
design, online banking, weather forecasting, nuclear energy research, and petroleum
exploration use a supercomputer.

G. Embedded computers
An Embedded computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a
larger product. A variety of everyday products contain embedded computers:
o Consumer electronics
o Home automation devices
o Automobiles
o Process controllers and robotics
o Computer devices and office machines

Because embedded computers are components in larger products, they usually are small
and have limited hardware. Embedded computers perform various functions, depending on
the requirements of the product in which they reside. Embedded computers in printers, for
example, monitor the amount of paper in the tray , check the ink or toner level , signal if a
paper jam has occurred , and so on.

III.

A. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main categories in which computers are classified?


2. What are the elements that are taken into account when determining the category in which a
computer fits?
3. Define personal computer.
4. What does a personal computer contain?
5. Give examples of personal computers.
6. How many types of personal computers are there?
7. Make the distinction between mobile computers and mobile devices.
8. What is a notebook computer?
9. What is a Tablet PC?
10. What is a handheld computer?
11. What is a PDA?
12. Define game consoles.
13. What games consoles use as input/ output/ storage device?
14. Name some popular models of game consoles.
15. Define servers.
16. Define mainframes.
17. In what field of activity are mainframes used?
18. Define supercomputers.
19. In what field of activity are supercomputers used?
20. Define embedded computers.
21. Give examples of products that contain embedded computers.

B. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Embedded computers are huge.
2. Game consoles are heavy.
3. Mainframes are cheap.
4. A PDA does not have the spreadsheet application software.
5. Notebooks are usually more expensive than desktop computers with the same capabilities.
6. A notebook computer is small enough to fit in one hand.
7. Computers can be classified in seven categories.
8. The field of computers is rather stable.
9. The tower is the less popular style of system unit.
10. The distinction among different types of computers is clear cut.

IV.
notebook

Match the following words with the correct definitions:


to come from different directions and meet at the same point to

computer
mainframe
supercomputer

to embed
game console
to process

handwriting
floor
lap
delivery

convenience

trend
to differentiate
to converge
cartridge
outlet
to bill
payroll
corporation
transaction

sophisticated
petroleum
toner

become one thing;


the engineering science and technology of robots, and their
design, manufacture, application, and structural disposition.;
a body formed and authorized by law to act as a single person
although constituted by one or more persons and legally endowed
with various rights and duties including the capacity of
succession;
the flat surface that you stand on inside a building;
a copy on a much reduced scale;
powerful computers used mainly by large organizations for
critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as
census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource
planning, and financial transaction processing;
the quality of being suitable or useful for a particular purposem,
espeially by making something easier or saving your time;
the activity of managing salary payments for workers in a
company;
a computer accessory usually referring to a narrow elongated
staff, similar to a modern ballpoint pen;
an oily flammable bituminous liquid that may vary from almost
colorless to black, occurs in many places in the upper strata of the
earth, is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons with small amounts
of other substances, and is prepared for use as gasoline, naphtha,
or other products by various refining processes;
a battery- or AC-powered personal computer generally smaller
than a briefcase that can easily be transported and conveniently
used in temporary spaces such as on airplanes, in libraries,
temporary offices, and at meetings;
an open receptacle with a flat bottom and a low rim for holding,
carrying, or exhibiting articles;
to deal with information using a computer;
an exchange or transfer of goods, services, or funds;
the act of bringing goodsm letters, etc. to a particular person or
placem or the things that are brought;
a computer that is at the frontline of current processing capacity,
particularly speed of calculation;
a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the
printed text and images on the paper;
the upper part of your legs when you are sitting down;
writing done by hand;
a case or container that holds a substance, device, or material
which is difficult, troublesome, or awkward to handle and that
usually can be easily changed;
to enclose closely in or as if in a matrix; to make something an
integral part of ;
deprived of native or original simplicity; highly complicated or
developed; complex;
a line of general direction or movement; a prevailing tendency or
inclination;

tray
robotics

stylus
miniature

to enter in an accounting system;


an interactive entertainment computer or modified computer
system that produces a video display signal which can be used
with a display device (a television, monitor, etc.) to display a
video game;
to recognize or expresss the difference between things or people;
a receptacle for the plug of an electrical device.

X.

Give the synonyms of the following: to manufacture, to function, amount,


product, model, to carry, practical, to offer.

XI.

Give the antonyms of the following: thin, top, variety, to send, limited, fast,
floor, permanently, simple.

XII.

Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:

console
a) boar; b) bodge; c) bodkin; d) board;
embedded
a) insight; b) inserted; c) insensate; d) inset;
hinge
a) joist; b) jotter; c) joint; d) joule;
slate
a) slant; b) board; c) slam; d) rock;
jam
a) blockade; b) blockage; c) bludgeon; d) blurb.

XIII. Make sentences of your own with the following:


to make a clear-cut distinction
to carry from place to place
to hold in the palm of ones hand
to operate on battery
to take notes
to fit in one hand
to access information
in addition to
to continue a trend
at the same time

XIV. Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention
that some forms of the words must be changed:

nearly, peripherals, to omit, to meet, maker, wiring, manufacturers, thick, types, to


weigh, steadily, except, IBM, fewer, office, to range, powerful, to fit, to accomplish,
portable, disadvantage
A personal computer (PC), also called a microcomputer, is designed to the computing
needs of an individual. The two most commonly used of personal computers are Apples
Macintosh systems and the more numerous IBM- compatible personal computers, which are
made by such as Dell, Gateway, Sony, Hewlett-Packard (HP) and many others. These PCs
are called IBM-compatible because the first such computer was made by . The price
range of personal computers has dropped to between $300 and $3,000 even as they have
become more and useful.
Designed for use at a desk or in an environment, a desktop computer is a personal
computer that runs programs to help individuals their work more productively or to gain
access to the Internet.
A notebook computer is small enough to into a briefcase and is because many
people need a computer to travel with them. Many notebook computers are as powerful as
desktop computers and include all of a desktop computers components, such as speakers,
a CD drive and a modem. Notebook computers are generally manufactured by the same
companies as desktop computers. Some of the most popular notebook in price from $450
to over $3,000.
Laptop computers are like notebook computers that they are a bit too large to fit into
a briefcase. The most popular of laptop computers is IBM with models that range in price
from $600 to as much as $3,000. laptops are being sold now that the smaller notebooks
have become so powerful.
Subnotebooks are notebook computers that some components (such as a CD drive) so
as to cut down on weight and size. A significant advantage of subnotebooks is that some of
them less than three pounds. For example, the newest Sony Vaio subnotebook weighs only
3 pounds and is less than 1 inch . One of subnotebooks is that users must often carry
along external disk drivers and their attendant . A subnotebook might be used by a UPS
driver or by salespersons whose specific computing needs do not require all of the and
accessories that are available with desktops, notebooks and laptops. The top manufacturers of
subnotebooks are Sony and Panasonic. Subnotebooks range in price from $1,600 to $2,500.
(Daley, Bill, Computers are your Future, Ninth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, USA,
pp. 14-15)

XV.

Translate into Romanian:

Servers are computers that make programs and data available to people who are
connected to a computer network. They are not designed for individual use and are
typically centralized or operated from one location. Users connect to the network on
clients, which can be desktops, notebooks, workstations or any other computer for
individuals, to contact the server and obtain the needed information. This use of remote or
off-side clients and centralized servers is called client/server computing. It plays an
important role in todays businesses. Servers can be as small as a microcomputer or as
large as a mainframe. The top three server manufacturers are IBM, Sun Microsystems and

Dell. Servers typically cost between $ 1,000 and upwards of $ 30,000 but HP UNIX
servers run from $100,000 to over $1 million!
Minicomputers, also referred to as midrange servers, are midsize computers that
handle the computing needs of a smaller corporation or organization. They enable dozens,
hundreds or even thousands of users to connect to them simultaneously through PCs or
terminals. Terminals are basically computers that lack processing capabilities. They
simply receive input via remote keyboard and display output on a monitor. Minicomputers
can be slightly larger than microcomputers or as big as a washing machine. In recent
years, the minicomputer market has waned.
Mainframes are designed to handle huge processing jobs in large corporations or
government agencies. For example, an airline may use a mainframe to handle airline
reservations. Some mainframes are designed to be used by hundreds of thousands of
people at the same time. People connect to mainframes using terminals or PCs.
Mainframes are usually stored in special, secure rooms that have a controlled climate.
They are manufactured by firms such as IBM, Honeywell and HP/Agilent, cost hundreds
of thousands to millions of dollars and are very powerful.
Supercomputers are ultrafast computers that process large amounts of scientific data
and then display the underlying patterns that have been discovered in the data. According
to Top 500.org the top three supercomputers in the world as of November of 2005 are:
The Dept. of Energy=s IBM BlueGreen/L system, installed at Dept. of Energys Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). It has achieved a record Linpack performance of
280.6 TFlop/s (trillion cycles per second). It is still the only system ever to exceed the 1oo
TFlop/s mark. No. 2 is a similar but smaller IBM eServer- the Blue Gene Solution system,
installed at IBMs Thomas Watson Research Center with 91.20 TFlop/s Linpack
performance. And No. 3 is the ASCI Purple system at LLNL, also built by IBM. It has
reached 63.4 TFlop/s. A supercomputers price tag is also large from $ 1 million to $ 20
million. (Daley, Bill, Computers are your Future, Ninth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall,
2007, USA, pp. 15-16)
XVI. Translate into English:
A. Datorit existentei numrului mare si diversittii criteriilor ce ar trebui luate n
considerare, este foarte greu s se fac o clasificare riguroas, clar si complet a
sistemelor de calcul. Sintetiznd, se poate considera c, n general, sistemele de calcul se
diferentiaz dup mrime, posibilitti de procesare, pret si vitez de operare. Se consider
astfel
c
exist
patru
categorii
de
sisteme
de
calcul:
Microcalculatoare sunt calculatoare cunoscute sub denumirea de calculatoare personale
(Personal Computer - PC). Acestea au cunoscut cea mai rapid dezvoltare si diversificare
odat cu aparitia chip-ului (cip) - circuit integrat obtinut prin ncapsularea a milioane de
tranzistoare ntr-un nvelis ceramic, pe o singur pastil de siliciu.
Constructia unui PC se bazeaz pe microprocesor, un cip care contine portiuni din unitatea
centrala de prelucrare (UCP). Acesta este considerat "creierul" microcalculatorului.
Sunt
de
remarcat
urmtoare
caracteristici
ale
PC-urilor:
*sunt
accesibile
din
punct
de
vedere
al
pretului;
*au
dimensiuni
reduse
si
unele
tipuri
pot
fi
portabile;
*utilizatorii
pot
nvta
foarte
usor
operarea
acestora;
*pot
fi
folosite
n
orice
domeniu;
*lucreaz
n
retea
putnd
realiza
schimburi
de
date.
Minicalculatoare au fost create pentru executarea unor functii specializate: aplicatii multi-

utilizator, masini cu control numeric, automatizri industriale, transmisii de date ntre


sisteme dispersate geografic. Ele sunt calculatoare de dimensiuni medii, compuse din
module structurale cu functii precise, sunt usor de instalat si utilizat, se pot conecta la
reteaua electric fr restrictii. Au putere si capacitate de stocare mai mare, UCP complex,
Sistemul de intrare/iesire foarte dezvoltat n sensul comunicrii prin retea de periferice n
sistem
multiutilizator.
Calculatoarele "mainfraime" constituie o categorie aparte, situat ntre supercalculatoare si
minicalculatoare, opernd cu viteze ridicate si administrnd un volum foarte mare de date.
Au procesorul foarte complex, volum mare de stocare n DM, S I/O complex, orientat pe
gestionare de statii de lucru, permit acces multiutilizator (pot suporta sute si chiar mii de
utilizatori
simultan).
Calculatoarele "mainframe" necesit instalatii speciale si proceduri de mentinere n
functiune, neputnd fi cuplate direct la reteaua de nalt tensiune, de aceea au costuri
foarte ridicate. Ele functioneaz, de regul, fr ntrerupere, ceea ce presupune accesul
controlat la date si un sistem de protectie adecvat. Se utilizeaz n spitale, bnci, etc.
Supercalculatoarele sunt cele mai puternice, complexe si scumpe sisteme electronice de
calcul, care pot executa peste 1 bilion de instructiuni pe secund. Au procesorul format
dintr-un numr mare de microprocesoare (de ordinul miilor), sunt proiectate pentru calcul
paralel, au costuri si performante foarte ridicate. Sunt utilizate n domenii care necesit
prelucrarea complex a datelor, cum ar fi: reactoare nucleare, proiectarea aeronavelor,
seismologie,
meteo,
etc.
Lund n considerare particularittile unui calculator personal (PC), din punct de vedere a
mrimii (fizice sau ca si capacitate de memorare), vitez de lucru, costuri, utilizri
specifice, se poate spune c exist mai multe tipuri de calculatoare si anume: Desktop,
Tower,Laptop,PalmPC.
*Desktop - calculatorul de tip clasic, la care monitorul este asezat n general pe carcasa
unittii
centrale
ce
se
afl
pe
birou.
*Tower - acel calculator la care carcasa unittii centrale este mai ngust dar mai nalt
dect la desktop si este asezat lng monitor sau, de cele mai multe ori, sub mas.
*Laptop (notebook) - calculator usor de transportat, construit pentru a fi folosit n afara
biroului (de exemplu n tren), avnd o surs independent de alimentare (baterii sau
acumulatoare). Au componente usoare si mici, de exemplu afisajul cu cristale lichide,
tastatur si nlocuitor de mouse. Cntresc numai 3 - 5 kg si sunt cele mai
costisitoare
(aproximativ
pretul
a
dou
PC-uri).
*Palm PC (Palmtop, Handhold sau Organizer) - se utilizeaz ca bloc notes, agend
telefonic, calculator de buzunar, calendar, etc. Facilitti: posibilitatea transferului de date
prin PC, recunoasterea scrisului de mn, accesarea Internet-ului. Datorit dimensiunilor
reduse (ct o palm), procesarea textelor este destul de dificil.
(http://www.referate.k5.ro/referate/referat/Tipuri-de-calculatoare/328)

Word Focus
I.

Pay attention to the phrasal verb to break:

to break away

Meaning
1. to leave a group or political party and
form another group;
2. to leave your home, family, job to
become independent;

Examples
1. Many members broke
away to form a new party.
2. He felt the need to break
away from home.

3. to move away from someone who is


holding you;
4. to move away from other people in
game/race, etc;
5. to no longer be attached to something;

to break down

1.cause to collapse by using force


2. collapse, cease to function properly
because of some fault or weakness;

to break in

1.entering a building illegally and by


force, especially in order to steal things;
2.interrupt someone by some sudden
remark;
3.train a horse/pony etc. for use;
4. to help a person get used to a certain
way of working;

to break off

1.(tr. or intr.) detach or become detached;


2. (tr.) terminate (used of agreements or
negotiations);
3. (intr.) stop talking suddenly, interrupt
oneself;

to break out

1. begin (used of evils such as wars,


epidemics, fires, etc.)
2. escape by using force from a prison;

to break up

1. .(tr. or intr.) disintegrate


2. (intr.) terminate (used of school terms,
meetings, parties, etc.)
3.the act of ending a marriage or
relationship;

II.

smash

3. She broke away from


him and answered the
phone.
4. Tom broke away 100
meters before the finish.
5. A part of the car broke
away after the impact.
1. He was so strong that he
broke down the front door.
2. The microwave has
broken down.
1. The thieves broke in the
bank building last night.
2. I felt the need to break in
on his conversation.
3. He broke in this horse a
long time ago.
4. Because I am new, they
are breaking me in.
1. The door handle has
broken off.
2. They broke off the
diplomatic relations with us.
3. When he saw them
coming, he broke off
because he didnt want them
to hear what he was saying.
1. The fire broke out on the
last floor.
2. The prisoners could not
break off because of the
guards.
1. The old ship was broken
up by the waves.
2. The meeting broke up at
two oclock.
3. This rumour is false: they
did not break up! On the
contrary, they are happier
than ever!

Pay attention to the difference among: smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap, tear,
burst, disintegrate, fracture, crack, crush, smash.

to break with a lot of force; it suggest the complete deformation


caused by a heavy, noisy blow; it suggests the shattering of
something brittle either by throwing it or by throwing something
against it.

shatter
shiver
split
snap
tear
burst

disintegrate
fracture
crack

crush

to break into many pieces; it refers to the total breaking up of a thin


surface;
it is more closely restricted to glass or glass-like surfaces,
suggesting a reduction into long, narrow shards or slivers;
to break into two pieces;
to break into two pieces with a sudden loud noise;
to break into pieces paper/cloth;
to break (about tyre/balloon/ pipe); it involves much greater
violence than to break; it suggests a forceful breaking open that is
due to internal pressure;
to break into a lot of small pieces and be destroyed;
to break (about bones); it suggest a deeper, thorough and more
localized breaking than to crack;
to break without the separation of parts; it suggests the breaking
out across a surface of slit-like openings or hairline ruptures
because of wear, age or pressure; sometimes, it may suggest
breaking into pieces;
it points to the effect of great external pressure; it suggests
squeezing something out of shape;

EXERCISES

I. Translate into English using to break as phrasal verb:


1. n sfrit s-a terminat trimestrul! Vine vacana!
2. S-au terminat negocierile.
3. Ei nu vor s se despart pentru c nc se iubesc.
4. Dac ai pierdut cheile, trebuie s spargi ua.
5. A evadat din nchisoare acum 2 luni i poliia nu l-a gsit nc.
6. A simit nevoia s prseasc partidul.
7. Avionul s-a dezintegrat n aer.
8. Profesorul explica o problem dar s-a oprit cnd a auzit clopoelul.
9. Imprimanta s-a stricat chiar n momentul n care voiam s printez lucrarea.
10. n fiecare toamn izbucnete o epidemie de grip.

II.

Fill in the blanks with to break as phrasal verb:

1. She was speaking but she broke when she heard that noise.
2. Someone broke my house and stole my TV.
3. She usually broke on his conversation.
4. They break the horses when they are two years old.
5. The Second World War broke on the 1 st of September 1939.
6. The meeting broke at 10 oclock.
7. The leg of the chair broke .

III. Make sentences of your own using the following and translate them into Romanian:
breakthrough; break-even; breakneck; breakwater; to have a break; to do something without

a break; lunch/coffee/tea break; to break into a run; to break into a smile/ a song/ applause,
to break out in spots/ a rash/ a sweat; to break with tradition/ the past.

IV. Translate into English using the words given below: smash, shatter, shiver, split, snap,
tear, burst, disintegrate, fracture, crack, crush, smash.
1. Trebuie s m duc la spital. Cred c mi-am fracturat mna.
2. Paharul s-a crpat.
3. Trebuie s chemm instalatorul. S-a spart conducta de ap cald.
4. A spart oglinda.
5. Statuia s-a spart la cutremur.
6. Ai spart ole pentru c ai pus deasupra lor cartofii.
7. Nu tiu de ce a sfiat perdeaua.
8. Racheta s-a dezintegrat pur i simplu n aer.
9. Profitul se mparte la doi.
10. Creanga a pocnit sub picioare.
11. Paharul s-a spart pentru c a aruncat cu el n main.

V. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: burst (x2),
shattered, split (x2), cracked (x2), crushed, snapped, smash.
1. He blew up the balloon until it .
2. The stone the already cracked window.
3. I want to the cake into two.
4. She open the walnut to get the kernel.
5. Money should be into two.
6. Everyone could see that he was nervous because he the Coca-Cola can in his hand.
7. The teacher the chalk in two.
8. Vandals all the windows of the house.
9. Take away this cup! Nobody can drink from it!
10. She squeezed the pimple until it .

Examples of Computer Usage. Computer Applications in Scociety.

I.Every day, people around the world rely on different types of computers for a variety
of applications. There is a wide range of uses for computers. One can name five categories of
users: a home user, a small office/home office (SOHO) user, a mobile user, a power user, and
a large business user.
Home User
In an increasing number of homes, the computer is a basic necessity. Each family
member, or home user, spends time on the computer for different reasons. These include
budgeting and personal finance management, Web access, communications, and
entertainment.
On the Internet , home users access a huge amount of information , take college classes ,
pay bills , manage investments , shop , listen to the radio , watch movies , read books , play
games , file taxes , book airline reservations , and make telephone calls. They also
communicate with others around the world through e-mail, blogs, instant messaging, and chat
rooms. Home users share ideas, interests, photos, music, and videos on social networking
Web sites, or online social networks.
Many home users have a portable media player, so they can listen to downloaded music
and/or podcasts at a later time through earphones attached to the player. They also usually
have one or more game consoles to play video games.
Todays homes typically have one or more desktop computers. Some home users network
multiple desktop computers throughout the house, often wirelessly. These small networks
allow family members to share an Internet connection and a printer.
Home users have a variety of software. They type letters, homework assignments, and
other documents with word processing software. Personal finance software helps the home
user with personal finances, investments, and family budgets. Other software assists with
preparing taxes, keeping a household inventory, and setting up maintenance schedules.
Reference software, such as encyclopedias, medical dictionaries or a road atlas, provides
valuable information for everyone in the family. With entertainment software, the home user
can play games, compose music, research genealogy, or create greeting cards. Educational
software helps adults learn to speak a foreign language and youngsters to read, write, count
and spell.
Small Office/Home Office User
Computers assist small business and home office users in managing their resources
effectively. A small office/home office (SOHO) includes any company with fewer than 50
employees, as well as the self-employed who work from home. Small offices include local
law practices, accounting firms, travel agencies, and florists. SOHO users typically use a
desktop computer. Many also use PDAs.
SOHO users access the Internet often wirelessly to look up information such as
addresses, directions, postal codes, flights, and package shipping rates or to make telephone
calls. Nearly all SOHO users communicate through e-mail. Many are entering the ecommerce arena and conduct business on the Web. Their Web sites advertise products and
services and may provide a means for taking orders.

To save money on hardware and software small offices often network their computers.
For example, the small office connects one printer to a network for all employees to share.
SOHO users often have basic business software such as word processing and spreadsheet
software to assist with document preparation and finances. They are likely to use other
industry-specific types of software. A candy shop, for example will have software that allows
for taking orders and payments, updating inventory, and paying vendors.
Mobile User
Today, businesses and schools are expanding to serve people across the country and
around the world. Thus, increasingly more employees and students are mobile users, who
work on a computer while away from a main office or school. Some examples of mobile users
are sales representatives, real estate agents, insurance agents, meter readers, package delivery
people, journalists, and students.
Mobile users often have a notebook computer, Tablet PC, Internet-enabled PDA, or smart
phone. With these computers and devices, the mobile user can connect to other computers on
a network or the Internet, often wirelessly accessing services such as e-mail and the Web.
Mobile users can transfer information between their mobile devices and another computer.
The mobile user works with basic business software such as word processing and
spreadsheet software. With presentation graphics software, the mobile user can create and
deliver presentations to a large audience by connecting a mobile computer or device to a
video projector that displays the presentation on a full screen.
Power User
Another category of user, called a power user, requires the capabilities of a powerful
desktop computer, called a workstation. Examples of power users include engineers,
scientists, architects, desktop publishers, and graphic artists. Power users typically work with
multimedia, combining text, graphics, audio, and video into one application. These users need
computers with extremely fast processors because of the nature of their work.
The power users workstation contains industry-specific software. For example, engineers
and architects use software to draft and design floor plans, mechanical assemblies, or
vehicles. A desktop publisher uses software to prepare marketing literature such as
newsletters, brochures, and annual reports. A geologist uses software to study the earths
surface. This software usually is expensive because of its specialized design.
Power users exist in all types of businesses. Some also work at home. Their computers
typically have network connections and Internet access.
Large Business User
A large business has hundreds or thousands of employees or customers that work in or do
business with offices across a region, the country, or the world. Each employee or customer
who uses a computer in the large business is a large business user.
Many large companies use the words, enterprise computing, to refer to the huge network
of computers that meets their diverse computing needs. The network facilitates
communications among employees at all locations. Users access the network through desktop
computers, mobile computers, PDAs, and smart phones.
Large businesses use computers and the computer network to process high volumes of
transactions in a single day. Although they may differ in size and in the products or services
offered, all generally use computers for basic business activities. For example, they bill
millions of customers or prepare payroll for thousands of employees. Some large businesses
use blogs to open communications among employees and/or customers.
Large businesses typically have e-commerce Web site, allowing customers and vendors to
conduct business online. The Web sites showcases products, services, and other company
information. Customers, vendors, and other interested parties can access this information on
the Web.

The marketing department in a large business uses desktop publishing software to prepare
marketing literature. The Accounting department uses software for accounts receivable,
accounts payable, billing, general ledger, and payroll activities.
Large business users work with word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation
graphics software. They also may use calendar programs to post their schedules on the
network. And, they might use PDAs or smart phones to maintain contact information. E-mail
and Web browsers enable communications among employees, vendors, and customers.
Many employees of large businesses today telecommute. Telecommuting is a work
arrangement in which employees work away from a companys standard workplace and often
communicate with the office through the computer. Employees who telecommute have
flexible work schedules so they can combine work and personal responsibilities, such as child
care.

II. The computer has changed society today as much as the industrial revolution changed
society in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
People interact directly with computers in fields such as education, finance,
government, health care, science, publishing, travel, and manufacturing. In addition, they can
reap the benefits from breakthroughs and advances in these fields. The following pages
describe how computers have made a difference in peoples interactions with these
disciplines.
Education
Education is the process of acquiring knowledge. In the traditional model, people learn
from other people such as parents, teachers, and employers. Many forms of printed material
such as books and manuals are used as learning tools. Today, educators also are turning to
computers to assist with education.
Many schools and companies equip labs and classrooms with computers. Some schools
require students to have a notebook computer or PDA to access the schools network or
Internet wirelessly.
Students use software to assist with learning or to complete assignments. To promote
education by computer, many vendors offer substantial student discounts on software.
Sometimes, the delivery of education occurs at one place while the learning occurs at
other locations. For example, students can take a class on the Web. More than 70 percent of
colleges offer some type of distance learning classes. A few even offer entire degrees online.
Finance
Many people and companies use computers to help manage their finances. Some use
finance software to balance checkbooks, pay bills, track personal income and expenses,
manage investments, and evaluate financial plans. This software usually includes a variety of
online services. For example, computer users can track investments and do online banking.
With online banking, users access account balances, pay bills, and copy monthly transactions
from the banks computer right into their computer.
Investors often use online investing to buy and sell stocks and bonds without using a
broker. With online investing, the transaction fee for each trade usually is much less than
when trading through a broker.
Government
A government provides society with direction by making and administering policies. To
provide citizens with up-to-date information, most government offices have Web sites. People
access government Web sites to file taxes, apply for permits and licenses, pay parking tickets,
buy stamps, report crimes, apply for financial aid, and renew vehicle registrations and drivers
licenses.

Employees of government agencies use computers as part of their daily routine. Military
and other agency officials use the U.S. Department of Homeland Securitys network of
information about domestic security threats to help protect our nation. Law enforcement
officers have online access to the FBIs National Crime Information Center (NCIC) through
in-vehicle computers, fingerprint scanners, and PDAs. The NCIC contains more than 52
million missing persons and criminal records, including names, fingerprints, parole/probation
records, mug shots, and other information.
Health Care
Nearly every area of health care uses computers. Whether you are visiting a family
doctor for a regular checkup, having lab work or an outpatient test, or being rushed in for
emergency surgery, the medical staff around you will be using computers for various
purposes:
o Hospitals and doctors use computers to maintain patient records.
o Computers monitor patients vital signs in hospital rooms and at home.
o Doctors use the Web and medical software to assist with researching and
diagnosing health conditions.
o Doctors use e-mail to correspond with patients.
o Pharmacists use computers to file insurance claims.
o Computers and computerized devices assist doctors, nurses, and technicians with
medical tests.
o Surgeons implant computerized devices, such as pacemakers, that allow patients to
live longer.
o Surgeons use computer-controlled devices to provide them with greater precision
during operations, such as for laser eye surgery and robot-assisted heart surgery.
An exciting development in health care is telemedicine, which is a form of longdistance health care. Through telemedicine, health-care professionals in separate locations
conduct live conferences on the computer. For example, a doctor at one location can have a
conference with a doctor at another location to discuss a bone X-ray. Live images of each
doctor, along with the X-ray, are displayed on each doctors computer.
Science
All branches of science, from biology to astronomy to meteorology, use computers to
assist them with collecting, analyzing and modelling data. Scientists also use the Internet to
communicate with colleagues around the world.
Breakthroughs in surgery, medicine, and treatments often result from scientists use of
computers. Tiny computers now imitate functions of the central nervous system, retina of the
eye, and cochlea of the ear. A cochlear implant allows a deaf person to listen. Electrodes
implanted in the brain stop tremors associated with Parkinsons disease. Cameras small
enough to swallow sometimes called a camera pill take pictures inside your body to detect
polyps, cancer and other abnormalities.
Travel
Many vehicles manufactured today include some type of onboard navigation system.
Some mobile users prefer to carry specialized handheld navigation devices.
In preparing for a trip, you may need to reserve a car, hotel or flight. Many Web sites
offer these services to the public. For example, you can order airline tickets on the Web. If
you plan to drive somewhere and are unsure of the road to take to your destination, you can
print directions and a map from the Web.
Manufacturing
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) refers to the use of computers to assist with
manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly. Often, robots carry out processes
in a CAM environment. CAM is used by a variety of industries, including oil drilling, power

generation, food production, and automobile manufacturing. Automobile plants, for example,
have an entire line of industrial robots that assemble a car.

I.

A. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the main categories of computer users?


2. How can a computer be used at home?
3. Give examples of home software.
4. What is SOHO?
5. What can you say about mobile users?
6. Define power user. Give examples.
7. Define large business user.
8. What is telecommuting?
9. What was the equivalent of the computer in the 18 th century? (in point of the large influence
exerted)
10. What are the fields in which computers are used?
11. What is the part played by computers in education?
12. How are used computers in finance?
13. What is the purpose of computers in government offices?
14. How are computers used in medicine?
15. What is the part played by computers in the field of travelling?
16. Define CAM.

B. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. One can not renew his/hers permit by accessing government Web sites.
2. Any desktop computer is called workstation.
3. By networking their computers, small offices waste money on hardware and software.
4. With a media player you can listen to downloaded music.
5. There is only a small number of computer applications in society.
6. In the traditional educational model, people learnt by using computers.
7. One can access a huge amount of information on the Internet.
8. Only small businesses have e-commerce Web sites.
9. Telecommuting implies that employees commute everyday to their workplace.
10. Power users need very fast processors.
II.

Match the following words with the correct definitions:

assignment

bond
stock
permit
license

a licensed health-care professional who practices independently or


is supervised by a physician, surgeon, or dentist and who is
skilled in promoting and maintaining health;
a growth projecting from a mucous membrane (as of the colon or
vocal cords);
to write or print the letters of in a particular way; to read slowly
and with difficulty;
lacking or deficient in the sense of hearing;
a branch of medicine concerned with diseases and conditions
requiring or amenable to operative or manual procedures;

registration
routine
fingerprint
probation
surgery
emergency
to diagnose
nurse
conference
astronomy

meteorology
deaf
retina
abnormality
pill
polyp
plant
florist
geology
encyclopedia
greeting card
to spell

a science that deals with the history of the earth and its life
especially as recorded in rocks;
a piece of work that is given to someone as part of their job;
a factory or workshop for the manufacture of a particular product;
an official written statement giving you the right to do something;
the study of objects and matter outside the earth's atmosphere and
of their physical and chemical properties;
an illustrated, folded card featuring an expression of friendship or
other sentiment;
an official document promising that a government or company
will pay back money that it has borrowed often with interest;
the quality or state of being out of the common;
the act of recording names and details on an official list;
a work that contains information on all branches of knowledge or
treats comprehensively a particular branch of knowledge usually
in articles arranged alphabetically often by subject;
a share in a company;
an unforeseen combination of circumstances or the resulting state
that calls for immediate action;
a person who sells or grows for sale flowers and ornamental
plants;
an official document giving you permission to own something for
a period of time;
the impression of a fingertip on any surface;
a meeting of two or more persons for discussing matters of
common concern;
habitual or mechanical performance of an established procedure;
to recognize (as a disease) by signs and symptoms;
a critical examination and evaluation or subjection to such
examination and evaluation;
a usually medicinal or dietary preparation in a small rounded mass
to be swallowed whole;
a science that deals with the atmosphere and its phenomena and
especially with weather and weather forecasting;
the sensory membrane that lines the eye, is composed of several
layers including one containing the rods and cones, and functions
as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image
formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous
signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve.

III.Give the synonyms of the following: advance, place, to evaluate, basic, tiny,
various, to combine, breakthrough, to occur, to collect.
IV.Give the antonyms of the following: sure, flexible, basic, to connect, different, to
include, portable,
V. Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:

youngsters
a) babies; b) pupils; c) students; d) youths;
to draft
a) to draw a scheme; b) to draw a delineation; c) to draw a version; d) to draw a image;
ledger
a) accounting book; b) accounts book; c) accountancy book; d) accountant book;
to reap
a) to obtrude; b) to obviate; c) to obfuscate; d) to obtain;
fee
a) risk; b) charge;; c) chart; d) risqu;
mug shot
a) police records; b) police evidence; c) police sample; d) police photograph;

pacemaker
a) lung medical device; b) kidney medical device; c) heart medical device; d) liver medical
device;
breakthrough
a) advent; b) stern; c) advance; d) step;

cochlea
a) sensory organ; b) cartilage; c) thin skin; d) hearing organ;
to drill
a) to make a hole; b) to make a well; c) to make a forge; d) to make a pit.

VI.Make sentences of your own with the following:


to post on the network
to rely on
to keep an inventory
to look up an information
to bill customers
to prepare payroll
to acquire knowledge
to take a class
to track income/investments
to apply for financial aid/permit/license
to renew vehicle registration/drivers license
to file insurance claims

VII.Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention that
some forms of the words must be changed:
to guide, to climb, to drop, rescue, stints, commonplace, to fetch, to perfect, tasks, robots,
humanoid, disaster, research, inside, clunky, to refine, flexible, daily, balance, assistants,
risky, effortlessly, behind.
From fire fighting to eyeglasses, Hondas ASIMO (Advanced Step in Innovative
Mobility) robot could one day take on dangerous as well as everyday functions such as
lifting items or opening doors. ASIMO is a 4-foot-tall robot powered by several computers
(carried in a backpack), specialized software and 26 motors.
Sound like science fiction? ASIMO is very real, the result of two decades of and
experimentation by Honda engineers. Unlike the robots of yesterday, this humanlike robot
has highly arms, legs and neck so it can move around much like we do under its own
power. And because its programmed to maintain proper posture and as it moves, ASIMO
can easily and walk up and down stairs, step in any direction and check around corners.
Think of the possibilities. Computer-powered robots like ASIMO could become
helpful to people with physical disabilities- turning lights on and off, finding and moving
household objects, opening and closing doors and taking care of dozens of other tasks.
Walking independently- with or without packages in hand- they could also people through
buildings and streets.
Of course, ASIMO is still a work in progress. the scenes, Hondas engineers are
continuing to the robots computers, software and physical structure. As they gain more
experience and produce more robots, the price will below the $ 1 million mark (though for
$ 152,000 you can rent one for a year). Meanwhile, ASIMO has demonstrated its capabilities
at industry meetings and even served brief as an attention-getting greeter for other
companies.
Looking ahead, as Honda the technology, such robots may become as stand-ins
for scientists, fire fighters and police officers facing situations. ASIMO robots might shift
dangerous chemicals from one storage place to another or several flights of stairs to
position fire-fighting equipment a burning building. Or, they might act as the eyes and ears
of emergency personnel, exploring the scene of a natural , gathering data about the extent
of the damage and helping to carry out missions. You may never meet ASIMO, but
sometime in the near future, your life might change because of such computer-powered.
(Hello, ASIMO: Meet a Computer-Powered Robot, in Daley, Bill, Computers are your
Future, Ninth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, USA, p. 23)

VIII.Translate into Romanian:


A.
- real estate agents
- insurance agents
- accounts receivable
- accounts payable
- billing
- general ledger
- payroll activities

- personal finance management


- budgeting
B. Almost everyone has been affected by computers and the Internet. Although most
people are able bodied, consider the effect of technologies that support or provide
opportunities to the disabled and disadvantaged. As a part of the Americans with Disabilities
Act of 1990, your school must provide computer access to people with disabilities. A
colleges computing services department must provide special software, such as speedrecognition software, to help people with vision impairments use computers. Input and output
devices specifically designed for the physically disabled can be installed or existing devices
can be modified to accommodate users with hearing or motor impairments. Home and school
computers equipped with speech-recognition software can help children and those with
learning disabilities learn and read.
Computers are also helping stroke victims to lead more independent lives. From robotic
treadmills to muscle stimulations to therapy that involves playing video games, computers are
giving many patients hope of almost full recovery of their former abilities.
In schools, students can use computers to take advantage of inexpensive training and
learning opportunities. E-learning is the use of computers and computer programs to replace
teachers and the time-place specificity of learning. People also can access computers and the
Internet from libraries, Web cafes and public Internet centers to look for work or access
online training and rsum-creation tools.
A good example of how computers can improve the disabled peoples lives is Stephen
Hawkings case. He is a British theoretical physicist, whose scientific career spans over forty
years. His books and public appearances have made him an academic celebrity. Hes principal
fields of research are theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.
Hawking is severely disabled by motor neurone disease also known as amyotrophic
lateral sclerosis (ALS). Hawking's illness is markedly different from typical ALS in the fact
that his form of ALS would make for the most protracted case ever documented. A survival
for more than ten years after diagnosis is uncommon for ALS; the longest documented
durations are thirty-two and thirty-nine years and these cases were termed benign because of
the lack of the typical progressive course.
When he was young, he enjoyed riding horses and playing with other children. At
Oxford, he coxed a rowing team, which, he stated, helped relieve his immense boredom at the
university. Symptoms of the disorder first appeared while he was enrolled at University of
Cambridge; he lost his balance and fell down a flight of stairs, hitting his head. Worried that
he would lose his genius, he took the Mensa test to verify that his intellectual abilities were
intact. The diagnosis of motor neurone disease came when Hawking was 21, shortly before
his first marriage, and doctors said he would not survive more than two or three years.
Hawking gradually lost the use of his arms, legs, and voice, and as of 2009 has been almost
completely paralysed.
During a visit to the research centre CERN in Geneva in 1985, Hawking contracted
pneumonia, which in his condition was life-threatening as it further restricted his already
limited respiratory capacity. He had an emergency tracheotomy, and as a result lost what
remained of his ability to speak. He has since used an electronic voice synthesizer to
communicate.

The DECtalk DTC01 voice synthesizer he uses, which has an American English
accent, is no longer being produced. Asked why he has still kept it after so many years,
Hawking mentioned that he has not heard a voice he likes better and that he identifies with it.
Hawking is said to be looking for a replacement since, aside from being obsolete, the
synthesizer is both large and fragile by current standards. As of mid 2009, he was said to be
using NeoSpeech's VoiceText speech synthesizer.
In Hawking's many media appearances, he appears to speak fluently through his
synthesizer, but in reality, it is a tedious drawn-out process. Hawking's setup uses a predictive
text entry system, which requires only the first few characters in order to auto-complete the
word, but as he is only able to use his cheek for data entry, constructing complete sentences
takes time. His speeches are prepared in advance, but having a live conversation with him
provides insight as to the complexity and work involved. During a Technology,
Entertainment, & Design Conference talk, it took him seven minutes to answer a question.
He describes himself as lucky despite his disease. Its slow progression has allowed
him time to make influential discoveries and has not hindered him from having, in his own
words, "a very attractive family." When his wife, Jane, was asked why she decided to marry a
man with a three-year life expectancy, she responded, "Those were the days of atomic gloom
and doom, so we all had a rather short life expectancy."
On 20 April 2009, Cambridge University released a statement saying that Hawking
was "very ill" with a chest infection, and was admitted to Addenbrooke's Hospital.The
following day, it was reported that his new condition is "comfortable" and he should make a
full recovery from the infection. (Adapted, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_Hawking;
Daley, Bill, Computers are your Future, Ninth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007, USA, p.
22)

IX.Translate into English:


Fie c ne dm seama, fie c nu, trim ntr-o lume computerizat. Astzi aproape orice
aparat din cas (televizor, cuptor, aparat de aer condiionat, telefon i aa mai departe)
funcioneaz pe baza unui calculator, mai mic sau mai mare. Mainile sunt astzi conduse de
calculatoare specializate, care accelereaz i frneaz singure, stabilesc automat temperatura din
interior sau i aprind singure farurile cnd sesizeaz c afar se ntunec. Evidena contabil a
oricrui magazin, birou de avocatur, salon de cosmetic, atelier auto, cabinet stomatologic,
etc., se face cu ajutorul calculatorului. O munc de cteva zile a ctorva persoane este fcut de
un simplu calculator n cteva minute i, culmea, fr nici o greeal.
Dar poate cel mai mare impact al calculatoarelor n viaa de zi cu zi este produs de
Internet. Aceast reea global de calculatoare aduce o adevrat revoluie n comunicarea
dintre oameni. A scrie o scrisoare clasic, pe hrtie, i a o trimite prin pot, a devenit astzi
ceva depit. Putem acum s introducem scrisoarea n calculatorul de acas sau de la serviciu i
s o expediem, via Internet, n cellalt col al lumii n cteva minute.
Putem avea o convorbire cu mai muli prieteni odat, chiar dac se afl la mare distan
unul de altul. De exemplu, putem vedea pe ecranul monitorului prietenul din America, prietena
din Australia i colegul de la serviciu aflat ntr-o deplasare n China. Toi patru putem vorbi
simultan i ne putem vedea pe ecranul monitorului, chiar dac distana dintre noi este de mii de
kilometri.

Realizarea cumprturilor de acas a devenit ceva obinuit. Pe ecranul monitorului ne


alegem produsele de care avem nevoie, pornind de la mncare, produse de ngrijire personal i
curenie, haine, aparatur electrocasnic i electronic, ajungnd la maini, case, excursii la
munte sau la mare. Produsele comandate ne sunt aduse automat acas, plata pentru cele
cumprate fcndu-se automat din contul de la banc.
i acestea sunt numai cteva dintre lucrurile noi aduse de calculatorul personal. Prin
urmare, a ti s lucrm cu un calculator este un lucru necesar. Mai jos sunt enumerate cteva
dintre domeniile n care este utilizat cel mai des calculatorul personal:
- redactarea unui document (scrisoare, proces verbal, contract, etc.);
- tehnoredactarea unei lucrri mai ample (lucrare de licen, carte, revist, ziar, etc.);
- inerea unor evidene simple, precum un tabel cu situaia plilor i ncasrilor unei
asociaii de locatari sau situaia alimentrii cu combustibil a mainilor unei societi comerciale;
- contabilitatea unei uniti economice, ncepnd de la situaii simple, precum calcularea
unor totaluri, i continund cu realizarea fielor de cont i a balanelor contabile, a calculului
salariilor angajailor, al impozitelor i al altor datorii fa de stat sau fa de teri;
- prelucrarea de imagini statice sau dinamice, ncepnd de la simple preluri de pe hrtie a
unor imagini, ajustarea i apoi retiprirea lor, pn la realizarea de filme cu personaje reale sau
de desene animate sau realizarea de clipuri publicitare.
- proiectarea asistat de calculator a circuitelor electronice, a pieselor mecanice, electrice,
electronice, a ansamblurilor complexe precum maini, avioane, sisteme hidrologice, etc.
- conducerea proceselor tehnologice, calculatorul nlocuind munca de rutin a mai multor
persoane, cu o precizie superioar celei umane;
- comunicarea ntre angajaii unei firme, prin reeaua de calculatoare a unitii. De
asemenea, calculatorul poate fi folosit ca robot telefonic, fax, telefon i chiar videotelefon;
- Internetul deschide o ntreag clas de aplicaii ale calculatorului, de la diferite metode
de comunicare ntre persoane (pot electronic, conversaii n timp real ntre mai multe
persoane, etc.), la magazine virtuale, videoconferine, programe de televiziune interactiv, etc.
(Dima, Gabriel, PC- ABC-ul utilizrii, Bucureti, Editura Teora, 2005, p. 9)

Word Focus
I.

Phrasal verb to make

to make for
to make off
to make out

to make up

Meaning
to travel towards, to head for;

Examples
It is getting late. We should make
for home.
to run away
The cars made off towards the
statue.
1. to be just able to hear or 1. I really cant make out what
see something;
she is saying.
2. to understand something;
2. I cant make out why he
3. to write (a cheque, a list, behaves like this.
etc.);
3. I cant make out the list of
guests becuse I dont know who is
in town and who has left abroad.
1. to constitute;
1. Lecturers make up only a small
2. to invent;
proportion of the Universitys
3. to prepare;
staff.
4. to put make-up;
2. They made up a song about the

to make up for

5. to come to a decision;
Foreign Minister.
6. to become friendly with 3. I could make up the beds.
someone again after you have 4. The actress made up before
had an argument;
talking to the press.
5. They finally made up their
minds about this matter.
6. I ve made up with her though
she yelled at me.
to compensate for;
He tried to make up for the lost
time but it was too late: he failed
the exam.

II. Do not use the verb to make instead of the verb to do! The verb to do has the
following meanings:

TO DO
to produce, to make

to perform, to execute
to clean
to grant
to be satisfactory
to make progress (referring to health)
to get along, to get on

Examples
He asked me to do a translation but i turned
him down because I have to do the
homeworks first.
I must do my duty at all costs.
My mother does the dishes every evening.
Do me a favour! Lend me your dictionary for
a few days.
Will this present do for them?
He is doing well after the operation.
How are you doing?

III.Pay attention to the difference between to make from, to make of and to make by:
- to make of/from for the materials that are used to make something;
- to make from- used in the case of the materials that cannot be recognized or have been
changed;
- to make of- used in the case of the materials that can still be recognized/seen, that have
not been completely changed;
- to make by- used to point to the person that created the respective object.
IV.

Pay attention to the difference among begin, start, commence,


institute, initiate, inaugurate and launch:

Begin

Start

Commence

Institute

the start of a process in fulfilement of a purpose; to make


the first step in doing something;
it underlines the very act of making a beginning, of setting
out;
more formal than begin; preferred in legal contexts; it
can be used humorously in contexts that are far from being
solemn;
preferred in legal contexts; to set up, to put into operation,
implying enterprise and foresight; it conveys the idea of
carrying out what has started;

Initiate

Inaugurate

Launch

to set up, to put into operation but without conveying the


idea of carrying out what has started;
to begin formally or officially; it may be used in historical
contexts implying great scope;
to begin with little ceremony or publicity.

Exercises
I.

Translate into English using to make as phrasal verb:

1. Copiii formeaz doar o mic parte din cei afectai de aceast boal.
2. Cu greu a reuit s descifreze scrisul lui de mn.
3. Hotrte-te i comunic-ne decizia ta.
4. Machiaz-te repede i coboar n sufragerie: avem musafiri.
5. M ndrept spre casa bunicilor.
6. A scris un cec pentru ei.
7. Poi tu s pregteti camera pentru musafirii notri?
8. Nu neleg de ce s-a purtat aa.
9. A inventat aceast scuz ca s nu trebuiasc s vin n vizit.
10. Hoii au fugit cnd au auzit c vine poliia.
11. Vreau s recuperez timpul pierdut!
12. S-au mpcat dei ea nu l-a iertat niciodat.
II. Make sentences of your own using the following phrases and translate them into
Romanian: to make as if to do something; to make the papers/ headlines/ front page; to make
or break; to be made up to captain/manager.
III. Translate into English using either to make or to do as appropriate:
1. Ai fcut armata?
2. Ce faci n buctrie? Fac o prjitur.
3. Face exerciii de la ora 7.
4. Mi-am fcut muli dumani de cnd am nceput s lucrez aici.
5. El se descurc foarte bine la universitate.
6. Nu te atepta ca medicamentul s fac minuni.
7. Poi face diferena ntre prima carte i cea de-a treia?
8. Ar trebui s-i faci nti leciile i apoi s te duci la plimbare.
9. Au fcut un contract cu firma pentru 2 ani.
10. i spal prul n fiecare sear.
11. Ci prieteni i-ai fcut n tabr?
12. Aceast main este potrivit pentru familia mea.

IV.Translate into Romanian using to make of, to make from, to make by when necessary:
1. Rochia ei este fcut din mtase.
2. Acest dulap este fcut de bunicul meu.
3. Paltonul este fcut din stof.
4. Tabloul acesta este fcut de mama.

5. Hrtia este fcut din lemn.


V.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below:
begin, start, commence, institute, initiate, inaugurate, launch
1. He only the reforms. He did not do anything else. He refused to carry them out.
2. Chanel the 2010 autumn-winter collection a few days ago.
3. I want to learn how to play the piano. I by reading about famous piano players. Then, I
will take some private lessons.
4. The juridical session a few minutes ago.
5. The Galeries Lafayett were in 1912.
6. The van with a strange noise.
7. The committee the reforms initiated by the mayor.
VI. Translate into English using in each sentence one of the following words: begin,
start, commence, institute, initiate, inaugurate, launch
1. Cnd au lansat acest parfum, au oferit reduceri semnificative.
2. Trenul a pornit cu un pufit.
3. Au iniiat acest proiect de lege anul trecut. Nu au mai fcut nimic altceva.
4. Vreau s nv japoneza. Am nceput s studiez verbul.
5. Au instituit aceast lege dei nimeni nu era de accord.
6. Procesul a nceput.
7. Au inaugurat statuia pe 1 decembrie.
8. Maina a pornit cu scrit de roi.
9. Vreau s slbesc i am nceput prin a ine regim. O s merg i la sal.
10. La lansarea noului album, au susinut un concert de 4 ore.

SEMESTRUL II
Supercomputers

NASA unveils its newest supercomputer today during a ribbon-cutting ceremony at the
agency's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif. The "Columbia" is one of the world's
most powerful supercomputing systems. Columbia was named to honor the crew of the Space
Shuttle Columbia lost Feb. 1, 2003. "This amazing new supercomputer system dramatically
increases NASA's capabilities and revolutionizes our capacity for conducting scientific
research and engineering design," said NASA Ames Research Center Director G. Scott
Hubbard. "It will be one of the fastest, largest and most productive supercomputers in the
world, providing an estimated 10-fold increase in NASA's supercomputing capacity. It is
already having a major impact on NASA's science, aeronautics and exploration programs, in
addition to playing a critical role in preparing the Space Shuttle for return to safe flight next
year," Hubbard said. Comprised of an integrated cluster of 20 interconnected SGI Altix
512-processor systems, for a total of 10,240 Intel Itanium 2 processors, Columbia was
built and installed at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing facility at Ames in less than 120
days. "The Columbia system is a tremendous development for NASA and the nation.
Simulation of the evolution of the Earth and planetary ecosystems with high fidelity has been
beyond the reach of Earth scientists for decades," NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator,
Science Mission Directorate Ghassem Asrar said. "With Columbia, scientists are already
seeing dramatic improvements in the fidelity of simulations in such areas as hurricane track
prediction, global ocean circulation, prediction of large scale structures in the universe, and
the physics of supernova detonations," he said. Columbia provides an integrated computing,
visualization and data storage environment to help NASA meet its mission goals and the
Vision for Space Exploration. The new system builds upon the highly successful
collaboration between NASA, Silicon Graphics, Inc. (SGI) and Intel Corporation that
developed the world's first 512-processor Linux server. The server, the SGI Altix located
at Ames was named "Kalpana," after Columbia astronaut and Ames' alumna Kalpana Chawla.
"With SGI and Intel, we set out to revitalize NASA's computing capabilities, and the
Columbia system has done so in a spectacular way," said Walt Brooks, chief of NASA's
Advanced Supercomputing Division. "Not only were scientists doing real Earth and space
analysis during the system build, but within days of the full installation, we achieved a
Linpack benchmark rating of 42.7 teraflops on 16 nodes with an 88 percent efficiency rating,
exceeding the current best reported number by a significant margin," he said. "With the
completion of the Columbia system, NASA, SGI and Intel have created a powerful national
resource, one that will serve scientists who strive to unlock the mysteries of this planet and
the universe in which it dwells," said SGI CEO Bob Bishop. "NASA should be commended
for the remarkable boldness that made the new Columbia computer happen. Our longstanding partnership with the agency has triggered a new age in scientific discovery, and
based on NASA's initial success, it seems likely that we'll be discussing new scientific
breakthroughs in the very near future," he said. "The launching of the Columbia system shows
what's possible when government and technology leaders work together toward a goal of truly
national importance," said Paul Otellini, president and COO of Intel Corporation. "While this
Itanium 2 processor-based system will be one of the highest performing computers ever
created in the world, the real value is how this system will accelerate scientific design and
research faster than before for years to come." The almost instant productivity of the
Columbia supercomputer architecture and technology has made the system available to a
broad spectrum of NASA-sponsored scientists. Feedback from scientists is extremely
positive. Columbia already is enabling scientists to conduct research and analyze complex

data much faster in a variety of scientific disciplines. The research and analysis ranges from
providing more accurate hurricane predictions, to climate change, galaxy formation, black
holes and supernovas. Thanks to the powerful Columbia supercomputer, NASA scientists
have developed an improved global circulation model. Initial results from this new model
accurately predict when a hurricane is expected to hit land five days in advance, three days
sooner than current methods, thereby helping reduce the potential impact on life and property.
I.

A. Answer the following questions:


1.Where did Nasa present its newest supercomputer?
2. What is the name of Nasas newest supercomputer? Explain why this name has
been chosen.
3. What is special about Nasas newest supercomputer?
4. What is Nasas newest supercomputer made up of?
5. Name some of the predictions their computer can made.
6. Name Nasas partners in this successful collaboration that led to the creation of this
supercomputer.
7. What do scientists think about this supercomputer?
B. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. The ribbon-cutting ceremony for Nasas newest supercomputer was astonishing.
2. The real value of Nasas newest supercomputer is that it will accelerate scientific
research.
3. Nasas newest supercomputer faces some difficulties in predicting hurricane.
4. The name of Nasas newest supercomputer was coined bz Scott Hubbard.
5. Nasas newest supercomputer is the result of a successful collaboration between
Nasa and Alcatel.
6. The servers name is Kalpana.
7. Scientist believe that Nasas newest supercomputer can be improved.

II.

Match the following words with the correct definitions:

ribbon

to honour
crew

amazing
to increase
capability
to revolutionize
impact
aeronautics
exploration

a person appointed as a substitute with power to act; a second in


command or assistant who usually takes charge when his or her
superior is absent;
worthy of being or likely to be noticed especially as being
uncommon or extraordinary;
a region of space from which nothing, including light, can
escapem being the result of the deformation of spacetime caused
by a very compact mass;
to explode or to make something explode;
a narrow fabric used for tying packages;
to give new life or vigor to;
to become progressively greater (as in size, amount, number, or
intensity);
the end toward which effort is directed;
to regard or treat with honor or respect;
to investigate, study, or analyze, look into;

cluster
to install
ecosystem
associate

deputy
improvement
hurricane
to predict
supernova
detonation
astronaut
to revitalize
teraflop

to unlock
remarkable
boldness
goal
spectrum
black hole
to enable

to unfasten the lock of; to free from restraints or restrictions;


to declare or indicate in advance;
all the people who work on a ship or plane;
a continuum of color formed when a beam of white light is
dispersed (as by passage through a prism) so that its component
wavelengths are arranged in order;
a science dealing with the operation of aircraft;
a person who travels beyond the earth's atmosphere; a trainee for
spaceflight;
fearless before danger;
causing great wonder, or surprise;
one trillion of floating point operations per second;
the natural ability, skill or power that makes a machine, person or
organization able to do something especially something difficult;
the explosion of a star in which the star may reach a maximum
intrinsic luminosity one billion times that of the sun;
to establish in an indicated place, condition, or status;
a tropical cyclone with winds of 74 miles (119 kilometers) per
hour or greater that occurs especially in the western Atlantic, that
is usually accompanied by rain, thunder, and lightning, and that
sometimes moves into temperate latitudes;
an impinging or striking especially of one body against another; a
forceful contact or onset;
someone who you work or do business with;
to change fundamentally or completely;
the act of making something better;
a number of similar things that occur together;
the complex of a community of organisms and its environment
functioning as an ecological unit;
the act of travelling through a place in order to find out about it
or finding something such as oil or gold in it;

III.

Give the synonyms of the following: to predict, boldness, improved, to unveil, to


honor, amazing, to revolutionize, impact, productive, to accelerate, to launch, to
revitalize, fidelity.

IV.

Give the antonyms of the following: to increase, fast, major, safe, connected,
evolution, efficient, bold, to unveil, powerful, to honor, productive, large, to
accelerate.

V.

Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:

to unveil
a) to revile; b) to revoke; c) to revel; d) to reveal;
shuttle
a) robot; b) roe; c) rod; d) rocket;

tremendous
a) newest; b) frightening; c) extraordinary; d) awful;
dramatic
a) specific; b) spectacular; c) speculator; d) speculative;
benchmark
a) standard; b) standpoint; c) value; d) test;
margin
a) amount; b) ambit; c) amble; d) amenity;
completion
a) finite; b) finishing; c) finder; d) finale;
to strive
a) to make an attempt; b) to make a discovery; c) to make an announcement; d) to make an
effort;
to dwell
a) to inherit; b) to inhabit; c) to work; d) to lie;
to trigger
a) to form; b) to glamorize; c) to generate ; d) to foresee.
VI.

Make sentences of your own with the following:

to conduct a scientific research


to play a critical role in
beyond the reach of
to meet the goal of
to set out to
to unlock a mystery

VII.

Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention
that some forms of the words must be changed:

traditional, processors, microprocessors, frontline, range, to design, tu turn, company,


ordinary, to take over, simply, crash, dedicated, fastest, competitors
A supercomputer is a computer that is at the of current processing capacity, particularly
speed of calculation. Supercomputers introduced in the 1960s were primarily by Seymour
Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC), and led the market into the 1970s until Cray left to
form his own , Cray Research. He then the supercomputer market with his new designs,
holding the top spot in supercomputing for five years (19851990). In the 1980s a large
number of smaller entered the market, in parallel to the creation of the minicomputer

market a decade earlier, but many of these disappeared in the mid-1990s "supercomputer
market ".
Today, supercomputers are typically one-of-a-kind custom designs produced by
companies such as Cray, IBM and Hewlett-Packard, who had purchased many of the 1980s
companies to gain their experience. As of July 2009[update], the IBM Roadrunner, located at
Los Alamos National Laboratory, is the supercomputer in the world.
The term supercomputer itself is rather fluid, and today's supercomputer tends to become
tomorrow's computer. CDC's early machines were very fast scalar processors, some ten
times the speed of the fastest machines offered by other companies. In the 1970s most
supercomputers were to running a vector processor, and many of the newer players
developed their own such at a lower price to enter the market. The early and mid-1980s
saw machines with a modest number of vector processors working in parallel to become the
standard. Typical numbers of processors were in the of four to sixteen. In the later 1980s
and 1990s, attention from vector processors to massive parallel processing systems with
thousands of "ordinary" CPUs, some being off the shelf units and others being custom
designs. Today, parallel designs are based on "off the shelf" server-class , such as the
PowerPC, Opteron, or Xeon, and most modern supercomputers are now highly-tuned
computer clusters using commodity processors combined with custom interconnects.

VIII. Translate into Romanian:


A. Next Monday, NASA plans to unveil a supercomputing application, NASA Earth
Exchange, that will enable scientists to collaboratively model and analyze large Earth science
data sets. The application -- NEX for short -- will allow even unsavvy users to take advantage
of NASA supercomputing power via the NEX Collaborative Portal, a Web-based portal
through which members of the Earth science community will be able to model and analyze
the information in their own virtual environments. The portal will also include collaboration
features like social networking that will allow scientists to share research results with one
another
or
work
together
on
projects.

B. Germany Thursday unveiled the world's most powerful weather supercomputer that
scientists hope will provide critical data on global warming for the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Weighing in at 35 tonnes and using 50 kilometres (31
miles) of cables, the supercomputer named "Blizzard" is capable of 158 TeraFlops, or 158
trillion calculations, per second. Scientists said that in addition to tracking reactions in the
atmosphere and the oceans, "Blizzard" should be able to work out the influence of ice and
plants on greenhouse gases and climate change. Blizzard is "60 times faster than its
predecessor and one of the world's largest supercomputers," the German climate research
centre in Hamburg said in a statement. "The new supercomputer should be in a position to
model even tornados and very small eddies," added the centre, whose data are also being used
at the UN climate conference in Copenhagen.

IX.

Translate into English:

Teste dedicate super-computerelor au indicat faptul c Cray Jaguar a devenit cel mai rapid
calculator industrial din lume, dup ce a surclasat modelul RoadRunner produs de IBM.
Msurtorile efectuate asupra lui Cray Jaguar au indicat o putere de calcul practic de 1.75
petaFLOPS, n vreme ce IBM RoadRunner a atins "doar" 1.042 petaFLOPS.
Aceste performane sunt destul de greu tradus pentru un om obinuit, nu de alta dar
depesc cu mult numerele pe care le putem citi cu uurin. 1 petaFLOPS nseamn nu mai
puin de 10 la puterea a 15-a FLOPS sau, dac vrei, 1.000.000.000.000.000 de operaii pe
secund (n virgul mobil).
Este adevrat c Cray Jaguar a reuit aceast performan dup ce procesoarele AMD QuadCore au fost nlocuite cu unele AMD Six-Core, n total peste 180.000 de nuclee. Trebuie
menionat faptul c un computer desktop de ultim generaie abia atinge 70 de
gigaFLOPS (7 miliarde de operaii/sec)... Parc i vine s renuni la vorbele de prisos.
Cray Jaguar, cunoscut i sub denumirea de Cray XT5, este un super-computer dezvoltat n
laboratoarele de cercetare ale oraului Oak Ridge sau "oraul atomic" - aici au fabricat
americanii prima bomba atomic. (http://www.go4it.ro/componente-pc/cray-jaguar-acestaeste-cel-mai-rapid-super-computer-din-lume-5108829/)

Word Focus
I.

Phrasal verb to give:

to give away

to give back

to give in

to give out

Meaning
1.to give something to someone
because you do not need/want;
2.to tell something that should be kept
secret;
3.to lose in a game or competition by
making mistakes;
1.to give something to the person it
belongs;
2.to restore
1.to accept something that you have
initially rejected because someone has
forced/ persuaded you to;
2.to surrender;
3.to give something you have written
to someone in authority;

Examples
1. I will give my car away.
2. I wont give you away!
3. They gave away three
goals.

1.to give something out to give


something to each person in a group;
2. when a part of your body stops
working properly;

1. Give these candies out


to all the children, please.
2. His heart gave out
because of hard work.

1. Give me back the dress!


2. I want to give them their
jobs back.
1. I gave in and I decided
to take part in the
discussion.
2. The enemies have given
in.
3. I gave the paper in to
my teacher.

to give over
to give over to
to give up

II.

3. if a supply gives out, there is none


left;
4.to give out something to produce
something such as light, heat, etc.;
5. to give something out to
announce something officially;
to stop doing/ saying something that
disturbs other people;
to spend all your time doing
something;
to stop doing something

3. The oil has given out.


4.The candle gives out a
strange light.
5. The party gave out that
they lost the ellections.
Give over calling her!
My grandfather gave over
to fishing.
Give up smoching!

Pay attention to the difference among give, award, accord, confer and
grant:

Give
Award
Accord

Confer
Grant

the most general verb in this group;


implies the idea that the person deservs what he/she is given;
implies that the thing given is either deserved or proper,
suitable to the receiver;
to give an honorary degree;
implies generosity, mercy;

!!! To give has many extended senses, for example to give a blow, to give time, to give
trouble, etc.

Exercises
I.

Translate into English using to give as phrasal verb:

1. Am cedat i am acceptat slujba.


2. Te rog s distribui tu invitaiile tuturor persoanelor din grup.
3. nceteaz s mai atepi ajutorul lor.
4. Am renunat s mai scriu cartea aceea pentru c era prea complicat.
5. Fina s-a terminat acum dou zile.
6. Ar trebui s dai aceste haine demodate.
7. Toat viaa s-a dedicat muncii.
8. D-mi napoi banii pe care i i-am mprumutat.
9. Vrei s mpari aceste pliante?
10. Am alergat att nct mi-au cedat picioarele.
11. I-am nmnat lucrarea cnd mi-a cerut-o.
12. N-o s-i trdez micul tu secret dac m ajui.
13. nainte de apus toi soldaii s-au predat.
14. S-a operat pentru ca s-i recupereze vederea.
15. Liberalii sunt n pericol de a pierde alegerile.
16. Lampa fcea o lumin roiatic.
17. nceteaz s mai uzi florile, nu vezi c vine furtuna?
18. S-a anunat oficial c preurile vor scdea.

19. Ar trebui s-mi dai napoi cele dou cri i caietul pe care i le-am dat acum 2 sptmni.

II. Make sentences of your own using the following phrases and translate them into
Romanian: to give somebody an impression/ idea/ picture; to give something thought/
attention/ consideration; to give somebody a hand; to give somebody a call/buzz; to give a
try/ shot/ whirl; to give somebody time/ a few weeks/ all day; to give something a second
thought/ another thought;
III. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: give,
accord, award, confer, grant:
1. Theyher the privilege of studying in this library.
2. I praise to them because they have saved many lives.
3. I was surprised because theyme this title.
4. He was the first prize.
5. me your book, I want to read something.
IV.Translate into English using in each sentence one of the following words: give,
accord, accord, confer, grant:
1. Ministrul i-a dat permisiunea s plece.
2. I s-a conferit titlul de Sir.
3. Mi-a dat cheia fr tragere de inim. (reluctantly).
4.Acord respect superiorilor si dei i urte
5. I s-a acordat Oscarul pentru ntreaga carier.

V.Translate into English using the appropriate word from the following: to pass, to bequeath,
to donate, to distribute, to hand.
1. I-a lsat motenire un apartament i o main.
2. Au distribuit ajutoare toat vara.
3. Mi-a nmnat scrisoarea cu ochii n lacrimi.
4. A donat tablourile bunicilor Muzeului de Art.
5. D-mi, te rog, sarea.

Data Representation
Computers perform four basic functions: inputting data, processing data, displaying
the results using output devices and storing the results for subsequent use. Computer
hardware, especially the system unit, is involved in all of these functions.
The term performance refers to how fast a computer can obtain, process, display and
store data. To communicate knowledgeably with others about computer hardware capabilities,
it is important to know the terminology that is used to describe how computers represent data
as well as how much data computers can transfer or store.
Computer performance is often considered to be the same as the speed of a computers
processor; however, the processors capabilities are only part of the picture.
Computers cant do anything without data to work with. For a computer to work with
data, the data must be represented by digits inside the computer. We all use decimal numbers
- which consist of 10 digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9- to count. Computers count with binary
numbers (also called binary digits or bits for short), which consist of only two digits: 0 and 1.
The digit 0 represents the electronic state of off (absence of an electronic charge). The digit 1
represents the electronic state of on (presence of an electronic charge). A bit is the smallest
unit of information that a computer can work with. It is like a switch: it has only two possible
states and it is always in one or the other. If you have one light switch, then the switch is
either on or off. If you have two light switches, then you have four possibilities: both switches
are on, both switches are off, the first switch is on and the second is off, or the first switch is
off and the second switch is on. Three switches allow for eight possibilities, and so on, up to
eight switches, which result in 256 possible combinations.
A byte consists of eight bits and represents one unit of storage. Because it takes eight
bits (on/off switches) to make a byte, and eight bits result in 256 possible on/off
combinations, you will see the number 256 appearing behind the scenes in many computer
functions and applications. A single byte usually represents one character of data, such as the
essential numbers (0-9), the basic letters of the alphabet, and the most common punctuation
symbols. For this reason, you can use the byte as a baseline for understanding just how much
information a computer is storing. For example, a typical college essay contains 250 words
per page, and each word contains, on average, 5.5 characters. Therefore, the page contains
approximately 1,375 characters. In other words, you need about 1,375 bytes of storage for one
page of a college paper.
Bits (1s and 0s) are commonly used for measuring the data transfer rate of computer
communications devices such as modems. To describe rapid data transfer rates, the
measurements kilobits per second (Kbps), megabits per second (Mbps) and gigabits per
second (Gbps) are used. These rates correspond roughly to 1 thousand, 1 million and 1 billion
bits per second.
Bytes are commonly used to measure data storage. The measurements kilobyte (K or
KB), megabyte (M or MB), gigabyte (G or GB), and terabyte (T or TB) are used to describe
the amount of data the computer is managing either in memory or in long term storage on
disk.

Numeral systems commonly used in computer operations

Binary arithmetic:
The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, represents numeric values
using two symbols, 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation

with a radix of 2. Owing to its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry


using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by all modern computers.
In decimal systems we all know that, when we add a single digit (0 to 9) to another
digit, we get the rules of 0+0= 0, 0+1=1, right up to 9+9=18.
In binary systems, we perform such additions aligning the digits up and carrying any
values into the next column. Thus, 9+9= 8, with one carried into the next column to be added
with that column.
Actually, binary addition is simpler as it only involves two values for each digit, but,
obviously, we are now more accustomed to decimal addition. There are, thus, four possible
combinations when adding two binary digits together (with a carry from the previous
column):
0+0= 0

1+0= 1

1+1=10

1+1+1= 11

We can perform a binary addition as we do in decimal addition, by lining up the two


values with the least significant bit at the right-hand side, and the most significant bit at the
left-hand side. Any gaps in bits on the left-hand side are replaced with zero values (as we do
with decimal addition, but we typically do not include preceding zeros). For example:
0010001
0001111
0100000
11111

Binary numbers are difficult to work with because many digits are required to
represent even a small number. In binary notation, 2 is the base. For example, when you enter
the decimal number 14 into your computer, the binary representation is 1110. In addition, its
time-consuming for computers to translate binary numbers into their decimal equivalents. As
a base-2 numbering system is used, to determine the decimal equivalent of a binary number
each column is represented by two raised to the power of 0, 1, 2 and so on. For example, the
decimal equivalents of 1000 0001 and 0101 0011 are:
2
128
64
32
16
8
4
2
1
Decimal
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
129
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
83
Thus, 01010011 gives: (0x128) + (1x64) + (0x32)+ (1x16)+ (ox8)+ (ox4) + (1x2)+
(1x1)= 83.
Typical groupings of bits are:
-nibble: is a group of four bits. A nibble 16 (2 la puterea 4) different combinations of
ON/OFF, from 0000 to 1111.
-byte: is a group of eight bits. A byte gives 256 (2 la puterea 8A) different
combinations of On/Off, from 0000 0000 to 1111 1111.
-word: is a group of 16 bits (2 bytes). A word gives 65,536 (2 la puterea 16) different
combinations of On/Off, from 0000000000000000 to 1111111111111111.
-long word: is a group of 32 bits (4 bytes). A long word gives 4,294,967,296 (2 la
puterea 32) different combinations of ON/OFF.
Because binary numbers are difficult to work with (often, it is difficult to differentiate
binary numbers from decimal numbers, as one hundred and one can be seen as 101 in binary,

and vice-versa), in programming it is also common to translate binary numbers into


hexadecimal (hex, for short) numbers, using the numbers 0 through 9 and the letters A
through F, or into octal numbers, using the numbers 0 through 7 and 10-17. These notations
are used to write software, as a shorthand way of representing long strings of bits. Thus, the
string 01000001 can be represented as octal 101, decimal 65 and hexadecimal 41. (A typical
convention is to use a proceeding b for binary numbers, for example 010101111010b.)
Other example may be given: the letter K is represented as the lengthy binary number
01001011 and then quickly translated into 4B in hex, as shown in the table below:
Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9
10
11
12

13

14

15

Decimal
Number
Binary
Number

0 1
0 1

1
0

1
1

Octal
Number
Hexadeci
mal
Number

0 1

0 1

1
0
1
5

1
1
0
6

1
1
1
7

100
0

100
1

101
0

101
1

110
0

110
1

11
10

111
1

1
0
0
4

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Hexadecimal:
In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional
numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the
symbols 09 to represent values zero to nine, and A, B, C, D, E, F (or alternatively a through
f) to represent values ten to fifteen. For example, the hexadecimal number 2AF3 is equal, in
decimal, to (2 163) + (10 162) + (15 161) + (3 160), or 10,995.
Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits) (also called a "nibble"), and the
primary use of hexadecimal notation is as a human-friendly representation of binary coded
values in computing and digital electronics. For example, byte values can range from 0 to 255
(decimal) but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range
00 through FF.
Hexadecimal is used for the following:
-

To specify a memory address. Typically memory addresses in a computer are specified


with their binary address, thus there must be a method to display this in a form which
the user can easily convert to and from.
To display or set the value of a variable. Sometimes the actual binary contents of a
value need to be interrogated or set, thus there must be a form in which the user can
easily read and convert it into a binary form.
To specify network addresses. A network address of a computer often needs to be
converted into a form which the computer understands, thus there must be a
conversion between decimal and binary, or vice versa.

These problems are solved by either converting between binary and decimal, or between
binary and hexadecimal (base-16) or octal (base-8). Without the aid of a calculator, the

conversion between binary and decimal is relatively difficult for large binary numbers, but
hexadecimal and octal conversion makes it easier, as they allow the binary digits to be split
into groups of four (for hexadecimal) or three (for octal), and then converted. Hexadecimal is
the conversion most often used to specify a memory address or in defining the contents of a
memory address.
Octal:
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0
to 7. Numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping consecutive binary digits into
groups of three (starting from the right). For example, the binary representation for decimal
74 is 1001010, which can be grouped into (00)1 001 010 so the octal representation is 112.
In decimal systems each decimal place is a base of 10. For example:

In octal numerals each place is a power with base 8. For example:

By performing the calculation above in the familiar decimal system we see why 112 in octal
is equal to 64+8+2 = 74 in decimal.
Octal is sometimes used in computing instead of hexadecimal.

*
To represent and process numbers that have fractional parts (such as 1.25) or
extremely large numbers, computers use floating-point notation. The term floating point
suggests how this notation system works: no fixed number of digits is before or after the
decimal point, so the computer can work with very large as well as very small numbers.
Floating-point notation requires special processing circuitry, which is generally provided by
the floating-point unit (FPU). Almost a standard in the circuitry of todays microprocessors,
on older computers the FPU was sometimes a separate chip called the math coprocessor.
It would be difficult to use computers if they just spat out numbers at us. Fortunately,
thanks this character code, we can understand computer output.
Character code translates between the computers numeric world and the letters,
numbers and symbols called characters that were accustomed to using. Computers can
recognize several different character codes.
The most widely used character code is the American Standard Code for Information
Interchange (ASCII), pronounced ask-ee, which is used on minicomputers, personal
computers and computers that make information available over the Internet. IBM mainframe
computers and some other systems use a different code, Extended Binary Coded Decimal
Interchaange Code (EBCDIC), pronounced ebb-see-dic.
Although ASCII and EBCDIC contain some foreign language symbols, both are
clearly insufficient for a global computer market. Unicode can represent many, if not most, of
the worlds languages.

I.

A. Answer the following questions:

1. What does computer performance refer to?


2. Is computer performance the same thing as the computers processor?
3. What kind of numbers do computers use?
4. What does the digit 1 represent? What does the digit 0 represent?
5. Try to define the bit.
6. What would you compare a bit with? Why?
7. What is a byte?
8. What is commonly used for measuring the data transfer rate?
9. What measurements are used for describing rapid data transfer?
10. What is commonly used for measuring data storage?
11. What measurements are used for describing the amount of data managed by a computer?
12. What are the numeral systems used in computer operations?
13. What are the four possible combinations when adding two binary digits?
14. What is the base of the hexadecimal system?
15. What symbols are used by the hexadecimal system?
16. How many bits represent a nibble?
17. What is the hexadecimal numeral system used for?
18. What is the base of the octal numeral system?
19. What digits are used by the octal numeral system?
20. What is floating-point notation?
21. Define FPU.
22. What is a character code?
23. Give examples of character codes and say something about each.

B. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. Binary numbers are easy to work with.
2. A word has 14 bits.
3. ASCII is one of the most commonly used numeral systems in computer operations.
4. A nibble represents 16 combinations of On/Off.
5. A GB stands for 1 000 000 000 bits.
6. In the binary addition, the least significant bit is at the left-hand side whereas the most
significant one is at the right-hand side.
7. A byte gives 257 combinations of On/Off.
8. A Mbps stands for 1 million bits per second.
9. There is a convention to use a proceeding b for binary numbers, for example 010b.
10. A word is 2 bytes.
II.
digit
decimal
binary
switch

Match the following words with the correct definitions:


the proper positioning or state of adjustment of parts (as of a
mechanical or electronic device) in relation to each other;
abbreviation for mathematics;
the bottom of something considered as its support;
continually drifting or changing position;

storage
baseline
average
measurement
to implement

adapted to existing conditions; being in the habit or custom;


present or ready for immediate use;
to assume an orderly linear arrangement;
any of the Arabic numerals 1 to 9;
a usually initial set of critical observations or data used for
comparison or a control;

to owe
alignment
column
accustomed
to line up

the detailed plan or arrangement of an electric circuit;


to express the specific distinguishing quality of;
something made of or based on two things or parts;
to be, go, or come ahead or in front of;
a single value that summarizes or represents the general
significance of a set of unequal values;
a vertical arrangement of items printed or written on a page;
based on the number 10;
something likened to shorthand especially in providing rapid or
abbreviated communication or representation;
to be under obligation to pay or repay in return for something
received;
a device for making, breaking, or changing the connections in an
electrical circuit;
the length, height etc. of something;
when you keep or put something in a special place while it is not
being used;
to take action or make changes that you have officially decided
should happen.

preceding
base
to differentiate
shorthand
floating
circuitry
math
available

III.

Give the synonyms of the following: performace, knowledgeable,


capability, storage, to measure, notation, straightforward, to implement,
obviously, accustomed.

IV.
Give the antonyms of the following: absence, on, logical, internally, addition,
significant, accustomed, right-hand side,continuous, to be accustomed.

V. Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:
subsequent
a) entrenching; b) entreating; c) ensuing; d) enticing;
radix
a) base of a computer; b) base of a system number; c) radius; d) ray;

straightforward
a) rapid; b) easy; c) distraught; d) direct;
obviously
a) poorly; b) pointedly; c) plainly; d) pleadingly;

nibble
a) 8 bits; b) 2 bits; c) 4 bits; d) 6 bits;
split
a)to dive; b) to divest; c) to divert; d) to divide;
to spit
a) to expectorate; b) to expend; c) to expel; d) to expedite;

VI.Make sentences of your own with the following:


to represent by digits;
to consist of;
to result in;
on average;
to correspond roughly to something;
to perform a calculation;
to be accustomed with something;
to be replaced with;
to enter a number into computer;
to be time-consuming;
to differentiate something from something else;
to be common to do something;
to convert to/from;
to be accustomed to.
VII.Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention that
some forms of the words must be changed:
account, ordering, boiled, mixed, trivial, allegory, least, intent, problem, anarchy,
referred, edict, based, rare, Plea, lowest, bugs, big, versus, interconnected, highest,
programming, paper
The representation of data types is always a , as different computer systems use different
ways to store and represent data. For example, the PC, which is on the Intel
microprocessors, uses the little endian approach of representing a floating-point value. The
little endian form starts with the -significant byte in the lowest memory location, and the
most-significant byte in the location. The big endian form, as used with Motorola-based
systems, always starts with the high-order byte and ends with the -order byte.
In computing, endianness is the of individually addressable sub-units (words, bytes, or
even bits) within a longer data word stored in external memory. The most typical cases are the
ordering of bytes within a 16-, 32-, or 64-bit word, where endianness is often simply to as
byte order. The usual contrast is between most least significant byte first, called bigendian and little-endian respectively. forms are also possible; the ordering of bytes within
a 16-bit word may be different from the ordering of 16-bit words within a 32-bit word, for
instance; although, such cases are sometimes collectively referred to as mixed-endian or
middle-endian.

Endianness may be seen as a low-level attribute of a particular representation format. Byte


order is an important consideration in network , since two computers with different byte
orders may be communicating. Failure to for varying endianness when writing code for
mixed platforms can lead to that can be difficult to detect.
The terms Little-Endians and Big-Endians were introduced in 1980 by Danny Cohen in his
"On Holy Wars and a Plea for Peace". It uses Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift (1726) as
an for the byte order (aka Endianness) issue which became crucial when computers
became with each other by networks.
In 1726, Swift described tensions in Lilliput and Blefuscu: whereas royal in Lilliput
requires cracking open one's soft- egg at the small end, inhabitants of the rival kingdom of
Blefuscu crack theirs at the .. end (giving them the moniker Big-endians). The terms littleendian and endianness have a similar.
"On Holy Wars and a for Peace" by Danny Cohen ends with: "Swift's point is that the
difference between breaking the egg at the little-end and breaking it at the big-end is.
Therefore, he suggests, that everyone does it in his own preferred way. We agree that the
difference between sending eggs with the little- or the big-end first is trivial, but we insist that
everyone must do it in the same way, to avoid. Since the difference is trivial we may
choose either way, but a decision must be made." (Adapted, Buchanan, William, Mastering
Computing, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, New York, p. 25)

VIII.Translate into Romanian:


Systems can be divided into two main classifications: digital systems and analogue
systems. A digital system only understands 0s and 1s (binary information), whereas an
analogue system can take on many values.
Imagine that you are an army scout whose job is to sit on a hill and watch for an
attacking army. You have been given two flags: a red flag and a green flag, which are
inserted into a single flagpole. You could now represent two different conditions or states.
The green flag could represent that there were no armies approaching, and the red flag
could represent that there was an army advancing on the city. Thus:
- red flag- approaching army;
- green flag- no approaching army.
Now, this does not give much information on the size of the army, at all, or if the
approaching army is an aggressive one or a friendly one. Thus, if we used two flags we
could represent four different conditions or states:
- red flag, red flag- approaching large aggressive army. Get troops ready for battle.
- red flag, green flag- approaching small aggressive army. Put troops on standby.
- green flag, red flag- approaching friendly army. Set up green parade.
- green flag, green flag- no approaching army.
It can be seen that we have to decide which of the flags is more significant than the other;
as we need to differentiate between a Green, Red and a red, Green condition. Thus, we
could signify that the flag on the left-hand side is more significant than the flag on the
right-hand side, as this flag represents that there is an aggressive army approaching. This
flag would be seen as the most-significant flag. Now, let us represent the flags with either
R (for red), and G (for green). Thus, the states now become:
- RR approaching large aggressive army. Get troops ready for battle.

RG approaching small aggressive army. Put troops on standby.


GR approaching friendly army. Set up green parade.
GG - no approaching army.
The number of flags that we have thus determines the number of conditions that we
can represent. If we only have one colour of flag, then we can only represent two states
with one flag, four states with two flags, eight states with three flags and so on. This type
of representation with two conditions for each representation is known as binary. In
computer systems the conditions for each representation is a 0 and a 1 (or,
sometimes, TRUE or FALSE). Thus, in binary, we could represent the red flag with a
1 and the green flag with a 0. Our condition or states are now: 00 (no approaching
army); 01 (approaching friendly army); 10 (approaching small aggressive army); and 11
(approaching aggressive army).
A particular problem that we might have when we are signalling the information about
the army is when our flags are changing. For example, say that we are currently in the
condition of GG, and a large aggressive army started to approach. The scout would then
have to change the flags from GG to RR. This will take two changes before he can reflect
the new condition. How would he do it? If he changed the most-significant flag first, he
would signal that there was an approaching friendly army, and the city would get a
greeting parade ready, only then to be told that there was a large aggressive army
approaching. This would obviously confuse anyone in the city. If he changed the leastsignificant flag, then the troops would be put on standby, only to be told that they would
immediately be put on full alert. The problem we have is that we need some way to
change the state of the flags, so that intermediate values are not taken as final values.
Thus, the only way to do this would be to hide the changeover of the flags. This also
occurs in a computer system where values of the binary digits change, and these should
not be taken as valid values. This is overcome with clock signals and handshaking lines,
which are used to define when the values on the computers bus are actually valid, or
not. (Buchanan, William, Mastering Computing, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, New York,
pp. 19-20)
-

IX.Translate into English:


BAZE DE NUMERAIE
Suportul matematic folosit de calculatoare pentru manevrarea i prelucrarea
informaiei binare este numeraia n baza 2 i n baze de numeraie care sunt puteri ale lui 2.
Principalele sisteme de numeraie pentru reprezentarea binar a informaiei sunt
prezentate mai jos. Ca regul general pentru numrarea ntr-o baz de numeraie N, cnd la
sfritul unui numr scris n baza N apar, la rnd, numai cifre N-1, numrul urmtor din ir (cu
1 mai mare dect precedentul) va primi, n locul fiecrei cifre N-1 de la dreapta, cifra 0, iar n
faa acestora la cifra existent se adaug 1, i irul continu.
Sistemul binar folosete baza 2, n care avem doar dou cifre, 0 i 1, astfel nct orice
numr va fi reprezentat numai cu aceste dou cifre. Regula este aceeai ca n orice baz de
numeraie N. Pentru primele N numere, ncepnd de la 0, se folosesc n ordine cele N cifre ale
bazei respective, dar pentru urmtorul numr (N+1), prima cifr din dreapta devine 0 i n faa
ei se adaug cifra 1 (aa cum numrul care urmeaz dup 9, n baza 10, se noteaz cu 10).
Sistemul octal folosete baza 8, cu cifrele de la 0 la 7. n acest caz, numrul 8 va fi
notat n octal cu 10, numrul 9 va fi notat n octal cu 11, numrul zecimal 10 va fi notat n
octal cu 12 etc. Sistemul octal este cel mai rar folosit.

BII I BYTES
Cantitatea de informaie stocat i vehiculat de calculator n format binar este
msurat n uniti de msur specifice. O cifr binar reprezint un bit de informaie, i
aceasta este unitatea de baz pentru msurarea informaiei.
Din motive practice, ns, informaiile sunt manevrate n grupuri de cte 8 bii. Un
grup de 8 bii se numete octet sau Byte (citit bait, ntr-o singur silab). Notaiile prescurtate
fac diferena ntre bit (notat cu "b") i Byte (notat cu "B"). Dar fiindc aceste uniti sunt
foarte mici, n multe cazuri practice, cel mai adesea se folosesc multiplii lor.
Pentru a avea o idee despre ce nseamn aceste cantiti de informaie, se poate spune
c:
1 Byte este, pentru calculator, cantitatea de informaie echivalent cu o liter de text.
1 KB nseamn un text de 1000 de litere, n general mai puin de o pagin de text.
1 MB poate cuprinde o carte foarte mare; o dischet are, de pild, 1.44 MB, iar un
ZIP-disk are 100 MB.
1 GB poate cuprinde o bibliotec de mii de cri; un CD are cam 2/3 dintr-un GB (640
MB), iar hard-diskurile cele mai uzuale la ora actual au de la civa GB pn la zeci de GB.
1 TB este deja un volum enorm de informaii, dar probabil i aceast dimensiune va
deveni uzual n viitorul apropiat. (Dana Dnciulescu, Introducere n informatic)

Word Focus
I.

Pay attention to the phrasal verb to bring:

to bring about

Meaning
to cause

to take something/someone with


you when you go somewhere
to
bring 1.to restore to consciousness
2.to persuade
around/round
3. to bring someone or something
to someones house
to bring along

to bring back

1.to start to use something that


was used in the past again;
2.to
make
you
remember
something;
3.to bring someone back means to
return someone to their previous
job or position;

to bring down

1.to reduce something to a lower


level;
2.to land;
3.to make something fall to the
ground by shooting at it;

Examples
What has brought about
this disaster?
If you come to the party,
bring along your harmonica.
1. The doctors managed to
bring her around.
2. I couldnt bring them
around to my point of view.
3. I want you to bring the
dictionary around today.
1. They should not bring
back that decision.
2. That picture has brought
back my memories from
childhood.
3. The fans urge the director
to bring the actress back in
the cast.
1. They try to bring down
the inflation.
2. The plane was brought
down safely.
3. The duck was brought

to bring forward
to bring in

to bring into
to bring off
to bring on
to bring out

to bring through

to bring together
to bring up

II.

4. to force a government or ruler down by the hunter.


to stop ruling a country;
4. Their intention was to
bring down the government.
to change an arrangement so that The meeting has been
something happens sooner
brought forward to today.
1.to introduce a new law;
1. The Parliament brought
2.to ask someone to become in a new law.
involved in a discussion or 2. They tried to bring in my
situation;
father to talk about this
science but he refused.
to cause someone or something to The land has been brought
be in a particular situation;
into cultivation.
to succeed in doing something He managed to bring off this
difficult
dangerous task.
to cause something bad;
Stress can bring on death.
1.to bring something easier to see, 1. The spices bring out the
taste, notice, etc.;
flavour of the meat.
2.to produce something that will 2. He has brought out a new
be sold to the public;
book.
3. to take something out of a 3. She brought out an empty
place;
bottle from the bag.
to help someone to successfully He helped me bring through
deal with a very difficult event or difficult times.
period of time;
to arrange for people to meet and He brought together all his
do something together;
friends at his party last year.
1. to educate;
1. She brought up two
2. to mention.
children.
2. Has she brought up the
subject I am interested in?

Pay attention to the difference among: to bring, to carry, to bear, to convey, to


take, to transport.

to bring
to take
to carry

to bear

to transport

Meaning
informal; it refers to movement towards the speaker; it is often
used imperatively;
informal; it refers to movement from the speaker; it is often
used imperatively;
it suggests the idea of supporting a load; it implies the
movement from place to place; it needs not emphasize the
heaviness of the thing being moved;
it suggests only the idea of supporting a load; in the case it
suggests movement, there is a case of dignity of behaviour and
style; it has an additional connotation of suffering not implied
by the verb to carry;
it is more formal and technical and it is normally restricted to
the shipment of goods or people considered as freight; more
than the verb to carry, it emphasizes movement to a goal or
destination; it refers to shipment as a problem in logistics;

to convey

when is used as a synonym of to bring and to take, it is


extremely formal and refers to the transmitting of a message
through an intermediary;

III. Homophones are words that sound the same but have different meanings. Their meaning
can be inferred from the context in which they occur. Therefore, one has to rely entirely on
the context in order to decide how to spell homophones.
There have been identified a few common mistakes that are made in point of
homophones, such as the confusion of the possessive form of a word with other forms (e.g.
its- its) or the confusion between words having silent letters (e.g. knight- night)

Exercises:

I.

Translate into English using the phrasal verb to bring whenever possible:
1. Ei tot ncearc s reduc omajul.
2. edina a fost devansat pentru mine.
3. Bunicii si au educat trei nepoi.
4. Prea mult lumin poate cauza orbirea.
5. Cntreaa a scos un nou CD.
6. M simt vinovat c nu am ajutat-o pe bunica s treac peste acea perioad
dificil.
7. Au ncercat s-l dea jos pe Prumul Ministru.
8. Melodia aceasta mi aduce aminte de vacana de var.
9. A scos dou pahare din dulap.
10. De ce nu a spus nimic despre greelile pe care le-a fcut?
11. Cnd au fost n Delt au mpucat rae slbatice.
12. A adunat la un loc toi colegii de la liceu.

II. Make sentences of your own using the following and translate them into Romanian: to
bring the conversation around; to bring forward legislation/plans/policies; to bring in a
verdict; to bring out the best/worst in somebody; to bring somebody out of
himself/herself; to bring somebody up short/with a start.
III.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: to bring, to
carry, to bear (x3), to convey, to take, to transport (x2).
1. She a small handbag when I met her.
2. My grandmother with her all her life the memory of her husbands death.
3. my best regards to your father.
4. Helicopters have been used to the injured to the hospital.
5. me back the book I lent you.
6. The donkey a heavy load today, dont you think so?
7. The bridge is designed to heavy loads.
8. The goods were to destination by buses.
9. away this glass and bring me a cup.

10. me to the nearest hospital.


III.Use one of the words provided to fill in each gap:
1. This is performed only by the lads of the village. (rite-right)
2. The candidates of this party usually in the neighbouring village. (canvas- canvass)
3. I must four hours a day if I want to become a brilliant violin player. (practicepractise)
4. I need a to buy a sheet of paper. (cent- sent)
5. The puppies every time I leave. (whine- wine)
6. He a black stallion. (rode-road)
7. Her grandparents bought her a straw hat from the .(fair- fare)
8. His wife is on how much he produces. (dependant- dependent)
9. The of the horse was fluttering in the wind. (mane-main)
10. They found a in the cup. (die-dye)

V.

Find homophones for the words given below and make sentences of your own:

write, would, whole, knight, break, week, meet, too, steal, fair, dependant, counsellor, hoard,
cote, hale, hire, hey, in, not, lynx, made, manner, moan, morning, ode.
VIII.Explain the manner in which humour is obtained in the following lines:
A teacher saw two boys fighting in the playground.
Stop! he shouted. You know the rules: no fighting allowed!
But, sir, we werent fighting aloud. We were fighting quietly.

Data, Information, Knowledge


The term data means groups of information that represent the qualitative or
quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data (plural of "datum", which is
seldom used) are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images,
or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction
from which information and knowledge are derived. Raw data refers to a collection of
numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert
physical quantities into symbols that are unprocessed.
The word data is the Latin plural of datum, neuter past participle of dare,
which means "to give"; hence, it means "something given". In discussions of problems in
geometry, mathematics, engineering, and so on, the terms givens and data are used
interchangeably. Also, data is a representation of a fact, figure, and idea. Such usage is the
origin of data as a concept in computer science: data are numbers, words, images, etc.,
accepted as they stand.
In English, the word datum is still used in the general sense of "something given".
In cartography, geography, nuclear magnetic resonance and technical drawing it is often used
to refer to a single specific reference datum from which distances to all other data are
measured. Any measurement or result is a datum, but data point is more common, albeit
tautological. Both datums and the originally Latin plural data are used as the plural of
datum in English, but data is more commonly treated as a mass noun and used with a
verb in the singular form, especially in day-to-day usage. For example: This is all the data
from the experiment. This usage is inconsistent with the rules of Latin grammar and
traditional English (These are all the data from the experiment). Even when a very small
quantity of data is referred to (one number, for example) the phrase piece of data is often
used, as opposed to datum.
Some British and international academic, scientific and professional style guides
require that authors treat data as a plural noun. Other international organizations, such as the
IEEE Computer Society, allow its usage as either a mass noun or plural based on author
preference. The Air Force Flight Test Center on the other hand, specifically states that the
word data is always plural, never singular.
Data is now often treated as a singular mass noun in informal usage, but usage in
scientific publications shows a divide between the United States and United Kingdom. In the
United States the word data is sometimes used in the singular, though scientists and
science writers more often maintain the traditional plural usage. Some major newspapers such
as the New York Times use it alternately in the singular or plural. In the New York Times, the
phrases "the survey data are still being analyzed" and "the first year for which data is
available" have appeared on the same day. In scientific writing data is often treated as a
plural, as in These data do not support the conclusions, but many people now think of
data as a singular mass entity, like information and use the singular in general usage.
British usage now widely accepts treating data as singular in standard English, including
everyday newspaper usage , at least in non-scientific use. UK scientific publishing still prefers
treating it as a plural. Some UK university style guides recommend using data for both
singular and plural use, and some recommend treating it only as a singular in connection with
computers.

Meaning of data, information and knowledge


The terms information and knowledge are frequently used for overlapping
concepts. The main difference is in the level of abstraction being considered. Data is the
lowest level of abstraction, information is the next level, and finally, knowledge is the
highest level among all three. Data on its own carries no meaning. In order for data to
become information, it must be interpreted and take on a meaning. For example, the height of
Mt. Everest is generally considered as "data", a book on Mt. Everest geological characteristics
may be considered as "information", and a report containing practical information on the best
way to reach Mt. Everest's peak may be considered as "knowledge".
Information, as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to
technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions
of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental
stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.
Beynon-Davies1 uses the concept of a sign to distinguish between data and
information; data are symbols while information occurs when symbols are used to refer to
something.
It is people and computers who collect data and impose patterns on it. These patterns
are seen as information which can used to enhance knowledge. These patterns can be
interpreted as truth, and are authorized as aesthetic and ethical criteria. Events that leave
behind perceivable physical or virtual remains can be traced back through data. Marks are no
longer considered data once the link between the mark and observation is broken.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data - cite_note-12

Raw data refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from
devices to convert physical quantities into symbols, that are unprocessed. Such data is
typically further processed by a human or input into a computer, stored and processed there,
or transmitted (output) to another human or computer (possibly through a data cable). Raw
data is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data"
from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next.
Mechanical computing devices are classified according to the means by which they
represent data. An analog computer represents a datum as a voltage, distance, position, or
other physical quantity. A digital computer represents a datum as a sequence of symbols
drawn from a fixed alphabet. The most common digital computers use a binary alphabet, that
is, an alphabet of two characters, typically denoted "0" and "1". More familiar representations,
such as numbers or letters, are then constructed from the binary alphabet.
Some special forms of data are distinguished. A computer program is a collection of
data, which can be interpreted as instructions. Most computer languages make a distinction
between programs and the other data on which programs operate, but in some languages,
notably Lisp2 and similar languages, programs are essentially indistinguishable from other
1

Paul Beynon-Davies is an academic, author and consultant. Born in the Rhondda, South Wales, he received his
BSc in Economics and Social Science and PhD in Computing from University of Wales College, Cardiff .
2
Lisp (formerly LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive,
fully parenthesized syntax. Originally specified in 1958, Lisp is the second-oldest high-level programming
language in widespread use today; only Fortran is older. Like Fortran, Lisp has changed a great deal since its

data. It is also useful to distinguish metadata, that is, a description of other data. A similar yet
earlier term for metadata is "ancillary data." The prototypical example of metadata is the
library catalog, which is a description of the contents of books.
Experimental data refers to data generated within the context of a scientific
investigation by observation and recording. Field data refers to raw data collected in an
uncontrolled in situ environment. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data)
I.

Answer the following questions:

1. What is data?
2. How can data be obtained?
3. Define raw data.
4. What is the origin of the word data?
5. What plural form of datum is used daily?
6. What singular form of data is used?
7. What is the difference between the usage of data in UK and in the United States?
8. What is the difference between information and knowledge?
9. Who collects data?
10. How can computing devices be classified according to the means by which they represent
data?
11. What are data in a computer program?
12. Define metadata, experimental data and field data.
II.

Match the following words with the correct definitions:

indistinguishable the collection of all points whose coordinates satisfy a given relation (as
a function); a diagram that represents the variation of a variable in
comparison with that of one or more other variables;
something that rouses or incites to activity;
prototype
academic discipline of creating standardized technical drawings by
abstraction
architects, interior designers, drafters, design engineers, and related
professionals;
not clearly recognizable or understandable; indeterminate in shape or
voltage
structure;
a place in which literary, musical, artistic, or reference materials (as
inconsistent
books, manuscripts, recordings, or films) are kept for use but not for
sale;
something conceived in the mind; an abstract or generic idea
informal
generalized from particular instances;
academic (noun) incoherent or illogical in thought or actions; lacking consistency;
interchangeably a distinctive manner of expression (as in writing or speech) or of
custom of behaving or conducting oneself; a particular manner or
technique by which something is done, created, or performed;
a property that magnetic nuclei have in a magnetic field and applied
qualitative
electromagnetic (EM) pulse or pulses, which cause the nuclei to absorb
energy from the EM pulse and radiate this energy back out;
early days, and a number of dialects have existed over its history. Today, the most widely known generalpurpose Lisp dialects are Common Lisp and Scheme.

quantitative
variable (noun)
graph
to collect
to convert
concept
cartography
nuclear
magnetic
resonance
technical
drawing
tautology
style
to recommend

peak
stimulus
to perceive
library

a general idea about a type of situation, thing or person rather than a


specific example from real life;
permitting mutual substitution;
to attain awareness or understanding of;
needless repetition of an idea, statement, or word;
an original model on which something is patterned;
a quantity that may assume any one of a set of values;
the top of a hill or mountain ending in a point; the highest level or
greatest degree;
relating to amounts;

electric potential or potential difference expressed in volts;


to present as worthy of acceptance;
a member of an institution of learning;
to change something into a different form of thing or to change
something so that it can be used for a different purpose or in a different
way;
characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary, casual, or familiar use;
marked by the absence of formality or ceremony;
to get things of the same type from different places and bring them
together;
relating to the standard of something;
the science or art of making maps.

III. Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:
hence
a)irrespective; b) therefore; c) despite; d) notwithstanding;
albeit
a)still; b) by contrast; c) despite; d) although;
overlapping (adj.)
a)different; b) unusual; c) lapidary; d) similar;
remains
a)remand; b) rest; c) relieved; d) relish;
means
a)ways; b) whey; c) menders; d) mealy;

ancillary
a)supplementary; b) suppository; c) supplicant; d) super powerful;
raw
a)fresh; b) unorganized; c) freeware; d) unpacked;

in situ
a) in the original shape; b) in the original manner; c) in the original situation; d) in the original
place.
IV.Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention that some
forms of the words must be changed:
use, to classify, notable, collection, types, columns, explicit, functions, store, combination,
model, unlike, enhanced, users.
A database consists of an organized of data for one or more multiple uses. One way of
databases involves the type of content, for example: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, image.
Other classification methods start from examining database models or database architectures.
Software organizes the data in a database according to a database . As of 2010 the
relational model occurs most commonly. Other models such as the hierarchical model and the
network model use a more representation of relationships.
There are a number of database architectures; many databases use a combination of strategies.
Databases consist of software-based "containers" that are structured to collect and
information so users can retrieve, add, update or remove such information in an automatic
fashion. Database programs are designed for so that they can add or delete any
information needed. The structure of a database is tabular, consisting of rows and of
information.
Online Transaction Processing systems (OLTP) often use a "row oriented" or an "object
oriented" data store architecture, whereas data-warehouse and other retrieval focused
applications like Google's BigTable, or bibliographic database (library catalog) systems may
a Column oriented DBMS architecture.
Document-Oriented, XML, knowledge bases, as well as frame databases and RDF-stores
(also known as triple stores), may also use a of these architectures in their implementation.
Not all databases have or need a database schema ("schema-less databases").
Over many years general-purpose database systems have dominated the database industry.
These offer a wide range of, applicable to many, if not most circumstances in modern data
processing. These have been with extensible datatypes (pioneered in the PostgreSQL
project) to allow development of a very wide range of applications.
There are also other of databases which cannot be classified as relational databases. The
most is the object database management system, which stores language objects natively
without using a separate data definition language and without translating into a separate
storage schema. relational systems, these object databases store the relationship between
complex data types as part of their storage model in a way that does not require runtime
calculation of related data using relational algebra execution algorithms.

V.Translate into English:


Cuvntul informaie - preluat din latin (informatio) prin intermediul limbii franceze
(information) - este polisemantic. El poate avea mai multe semnificaii (uneori total diferite
sau chiar contradictorii), ce sunt determinate de domeniile i contextele foarte variate n care
este folosit. n afara nelesurilor din limbajul comun, el poate dobndi i alte sensuri, cum ar
fi tiinific, ethnic sau filosofic. Termenul "informaie" este legat i de un proces
informaional (succesiunea aciunilor prin care se informeaz), dar i de rezultatul acestui
proces (volum, varietatea de informaii obinute) precum i de unele fenomene specifice
(fenomenul informaional, explozia informaional, etc.). De asemenea, informaia a
nceput s fie considerat ca factor ontologic primordial, ce st la originea universului,
mpreun cu materia i energia.
Nici una din definiiile sau conceptele existente pentru informaie nu sunt unanim
acceptate, fapt ce produce confuzii, ambiguiti, i uneori chiar pierderi economice.
n ultimul timp, tot mai muli cercettori i oameni de tiin i pun ntrebarea dac este
posibil de construit o teorie a informaiei unic. Pe de alt parte, datorit presiunii exercitate
n principal de impasul n care au ajuns cercetrile n unele domenii (biologie, psihologie,
robotic, inteligena artificial etc.), se remarc tot mai multe ncercri de a mbina i de a
suprapune diversele semnificaii i interpretri ntr-un singur concept universal acceptat.
Se poate spune c elaborarea a unui concept unic al informaiei se afl cam n acelai
stadiu n care se gsea elaborarea unui concept al energiei la mijlocul sec. XIX (dei acest
concept era cunoscut de cteva secole, oamenii de tiin au nceput s neleag cum poate fi
convertit o form de energie n alta i s scrie ecuaia acestor conversii abia prin anii 1940).
Aparenta contradicie ntre diferitele concepte ale informaiei existente astzi este cauzat
de faptul c majoritatea acestora sunt elaborate numai pentru un anumit domeniu, i pentru a
fi definit, informaia trebuie raportat ntotdeauna la un sistem oarecare, propriu domeniului
respectiv,
cum
ar
fi
ADN-ul,
limba
vorbit,
computerele
.a.
(http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informa%C8%9Bie)

VI.Write an essay entitled: The Part Played by the Data in the Information System.

Word Focus
I.

Pay attention to the phrasal verb to call:

to call back

to call by

to call down

Meaning
to telephone someone again, for
example because they were not at
home when you telephoned last time;
to stop and visit someone when you
are near the place where they love or
work;
to ask for someone, especially a god,
to make something unpleasant

Examples
Ill call her back tomorrow.

He wants to call by and bring


her flowers.
She called down ruin on their
family.

to call for

to call in

to call off
to call on/upon

to call out

to call up

happen to someone or something;


1.to visit a place to collect a person
or thing;
2. to require, to demand;
3. to ask publicly for something to be
done;
1. to ask someone to come and help
you with a difficult situation;
2.
to
telephone
somewhere,
especially the place where you work,
to tell them where you are/what are
you doing, etc.;
3. to telephone a radio or television
show to give your opinion or to ask a
question;
to cancel, to abandon something
already in progress;
1.to formally ask someone to do
something;
2.to visit someone for a short time;

1. I leave the umbrella here


and Ill call for it later on.
2. Your success calls for
celebration.
3. The Association of
Ecologists calls for justice!
1. I called in my mother to
help me with the cooking.
2. Mary called in sick.
3. Many viewers called in
with questions for the Prime
Minister who was invited to
that show.

I dont want to call off my


visit to the hairdresser.
1. They called on both sides
to cease fire.
2. When you go to Paris, call
on Mary:
1. to say something loudly;
1.Freedeom the protesters
2.
to
ask
or
order
a called out.
person/organization
to
help, 2. The army was called out
especially in a difficult or dangerous to help the victims.
situation;
1.to summon for military service;
1. Has your son been called
2. to telephone; (especially AmE.)
up?
3. if you call up information on a 2. I want to call my cousin
computer, you make the computer up.
show it to you.
3. You should call up this
information on his blog.

II. Pay attention to the difference among: to call, to summon, to send for, to beckon, to
conjure, to invoke, to subpoena.

to call
to summon

to send for

to beckon
to conjure

Meaning
it indicates a summoning of someone by means of the
spoken word or a vocal exclamation;
(formal) it suggests that only the request itself is
important; it often implies an official or formal request
or demand that someone come or appear; it can also
apply to a mustering of forces or resources;
(informal) it suggests that only the request itself is
important; it often implies the delegation of a task;
it specifically refers to any summoning done by a
gesture of the hand;
it can indicate the summoning of spirits or

to invoke

to subpoena

recollections, but more often it refers to vivid


descriptions of an imagined state;
it refers to a call for supernatural favour, particularly at
the opening of a formal or official gathering; it can
refer to any action in which something real or
imaginary is called into play;
it refers exclusively to witness that are called to testify.

III. Latin terms and phrases: By the 1950s, Latin was compulsory in England. It was studied
in school as a sign of high education. In the pre-war era, there were English dictionaries that
contained a supplement with Latin terms. Nowadays, foreign terms and phrases can be used in
a text as a sign of distinction and, as a rule, are written in italics. Most of the Latin terms used
in the present belong to law.
Latin terms and phrases
a posteriori
a priori
ab initio
ad interim
ad literum
ad nauseam
anno domini
argumentum ad judicium
bona fide
circa
cogito, ergo sum
compos mentis
coram
corpus delicti
de facto
de jure
dei gratia
edition princeps
ex/ in curia
ex officio
exempli gratia
habeas corpus
hoc loco
ibidem
id est
in extennso
in nomine
in rerum natura
in situ
in toto
inter alia
ipso facto

Meaning
by induction; from the effect to the cause
by deduction; from the cause to the effect
from the beginning
meanwhile
to the letter
to a disgusting extent
in the year of our Lord
an appeal to common sense
in good faith
about
I think, therefore I am
of sane mind
in the presence of
the material evidence of the offence
in fact
by right
by the grace of God
original edition
out of/ in the court
by virtue of his office; as his position allows
by way of example
a writ to oppose detention of a person
in this place
in the same place
that is
in its entirely
in the name of
in the nature of things
in its original situation
entirely
among other matters
by the fact itself

jure divino/ humano


lapsus calami/ linguae/ memoriae
mala fide
modus operandi
nota bene
nunc aut nunquam
omnia vincit amor/ labor
pax vobiscum
per contra
per diem
per se
post meridiam/ mortem
primus inter pares
pro et con
probatum est
proximo
sic passim
sine die
sine qua non
sub rosa/ silentio
sufficit
talis patter, quails filius
una voce
ut infra/ supra
verba volant, scripta manent
vice

by divine/ human law


a slip of the pen/tongue/ memory
in bad faith
the manner of work
mark well
now or never
love/ work conquers all
peace be with you
on the contrary
by the day
by itself
after noon/ death
first among equals
for and against
thus proved
next month
so everywhere
without a day being appointed/ indefinitely
that which is indispensable
in secret/ silence
it is enough
like father, like sun
unanimously
as below/ as above stated
words fly, the written word remains
in place of

Exercises:

I.

Translate into English using the phrasal verb to call whenever possible:

1. Muli asculttori au sunat la postul de radio pentru a-i exprima opiniile referitoare la
tema emisiunii.
2. Protestatarii au strigat: ,,Hoiilor!
3. I-am chemat pe prietenii mei s m ajute s fac curat n cas.
4. F-i o scurt vizit bunicii cnd te duci la Sibiu.
5. A fost nrolat la scurt timp dup ce a izbucnit rzboiul.
6. Asociaia Veteranilor de rzboi au cerut public demitera guvernului.
7. Ai sunat-o pe Ana s-i spui despre invitaia la nunt?
8. Pot s las aici celul i s-l iau mai trziu?
9. Autoritile au cerut protestatarilor s plece acas.
10. Boala aceasta necesit repaus total.
11. i-a anulat vacana pentru c trebuie s termine de scris cartea.
12. O s i sun din nou peste cteva minute pentru c sunt ngrijorat.

II.Make sentences of your own using the following and translate them into Romanian:
phone call, to make a call, to give somebody a call, to get/receive a call, to return a call,
local call, long-distance call, incoming call, anonymous call, call box, to be on call, there
is/isnt much call for something.
III.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: to call, to
summon, to send for, to beckon, to conjure, to invoke, to subpoena.

1. The boy God to help him with the job.


2. He me to his side.
3. That invocation up her dead uncle.
4. I did not fill very well so I the doctor.
5. The Cabinet was to a meeting by the Prime Minister.
6. The witness was to Court.
7. He to her from the balcony.

IV.

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the above table containing Latin
words and phrases:

1. She received a(n) of Eminescus Poems as a gift for her birthday.


2. The proclamation of the Republic took place .
3. He needed a copy of the contract.
4. The first mechanical calculator was designed in 1500 .
5. There are several categories of computers, personal computers, mobile computers, game
consoles, servers, mainframes, supercomputers and embedded computers.
6. When he accidentally met her in Paris, he went straight to her in order to propose her,
saying to himself: .
7. Seeing that his son behaves as rudely as his father did, she exclaimed:
8. He was found guilty after the Police had found the .
9. He read a lesson about the bits that can be touched, ... the hardware.
10. I can not tell you the exact number of books I read in order to write this paper. I think is
50.
11. My schoolteacher taught me to work hard because .
12. My mother has always told me to take notes when my teacher is delivering a lecture
because .

Cabling and Wireless Transmission Media

I. Cabling is one of the most important elements in a network, and is typically the
limiting factor on the speed of the network. The four main types of networking media are:
- Shielded twisted-pair cable (STP);
- Unshielded twisted-pair cable (UTP) 3;
- Coaxial cable;
- Fiber-optic cable.
The type of network media determines how fast the data travels along the media, and also the
maximum data rate that can be carried. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use copper wires to
carry electrical signals, while fibre-optic cable carries light pulses. Fibre-optic cables
generally support the fast data transfer rate.
All signals are affected by degradation when they are applied onto networking media.
Signal attenuation can be either internal or external, such as:
a) Internal: In copper cables, electrical parameters such as resistance (opposition to the
flow of electrons), capacitance (the opposition to changes in voltage) and inductance (the
opposition to changes in current) can cause signals to degrade. Resistance causes a loss of
power (or signal attenuation), whereas capacitance and inductance cause the signals to lose
their shape.
b) External: There are external sources of electrical impulses that cause the electrical
signals to change their shape. They are caused either by electromagnetic interference (EMI) or
radio frequency interference (RFI), and are typically generated from lighting, electrical
motors and radio systems. In cooper cables, each wire of the cable acts as an antenna, and
absorbs electrical signals from other wires in the cable (know as crosstalk) and from EMI and
RFI sources outside the cable. These sources are known as noise and can distort the electrical
signals so that it is difficult to determine the original data.
Methods used to reduce signal attenuation and coupled noise are:
a) Cancellation: Electrical conductors produce a small circular magnetic field around
themselves when an electrical current flows in them. If two wires are placed beside each
other, and there is an opposite current flowing, then the magnetic field will tend to cancel.
This magnetic field can be reduced to almost zero by twisting the two opposite wires together.
This technique is called twisted-pairs. The same goes for external magnetic fields coupling
into the twisted-pairs, again they will cancel each other out. Thus, twisted-pairs (or selfshielding) are useful for reducing external coupling of electromagnetic noise and crosstalk.
The direction of these magnetic lines of force is determined by the direction in which current
flows along the wire. If two wires are part of the same electrical circuit, electrons flow from
the negative voltage source to the destination along one wire and from the destination to the
positive voltage source along the other wire.
b) Shielding: This combats EMI and RFI by wrapping a metal braid or foil around
each wire pair or group of wire pairs, which acts as a barrier from external noise. This
increases the size and cost of the cable, and is typically only used when there are large sources
of external radiation, such as when placed near electrical motors. However, as with increasing
the size of the conductors, using braid or foil covering increases the diameter of the cable, and
it will increase the cost as well. Therefore, cancellation is the more commonly used technique
to protect the wire from undesirable interference.

Twisted-pair cable consists of one or more twisted-pair wires bundled together. Each twisted-pair wire
consists of two separate insulated cooper wires that are twisted together. The wires are twisted together to reduce
noise. Noise is an electrical disturbance that can degrade communications.

c) Match cables: The characteristic impedance of a cable is important, and cables and
connectors must always be chosen so that they have the same characteristic impedance. If
they are not matched there can be a significant power loss or pulse reflections from the
junction between the cable and the connection. For twisted-pair cables, this characteristic
impedance is typically 100 , and for coaxial cable it is 50 (for networking) and 75 (for
TV applications).
d) Improve the cable: Increasing the thickness of the conductors reduces the electrical
resistance, and increasing the thickness of the insulating material reduces the amount of
crosstalk. These changes tend to be expensive and increase the size of the cable.
An important consideration when selecting a cable, especially in hazardous areas, is its
jacket. Typically, it is made from plastic, Teflon or composite material. Problem areas are:
a) Carrying fire: This is where the cable can carry fire from one part of a building to
another. Typically, it is where cables are installed between walls, in an elevator shaft or pass
through an air-handling unit.
b) Producing toxic smoke when lit: When burnt, plastic cable jackets can create toxic
smoke.
To protect against these problems, network cables must always comply with fire
codes, building codes and safety standards. These are the most important than other factors,
such as cable size, speed, cost and difficulty of installation.
Unshielded twisted-pair cable: The most popular type of cabling is unshielded twisted-pair,
which comprises four-wire pair. Unshielded twisted-pair cable does not have a shield around
each of the pairs, it thus relies on:
a) Cancellation effect: The twists of each pair produce a cancellation effect which limits
degradation caused by EMI and RFI.
b) Variation of twists: With this the number of twists in the wire pairs varies from one to the
other, which reduces the amount of crosstalk between the pairs. There are strict limits on the
maximum number twists or braids per foot of cable.
c) Accurate characteristic impedance: For this the characteristic impedance is around 100 in
order to produce a good match between the cable and any connection.
Among the advantages of UTP, mention can be made of the following:
- The cable is thin and easy to work with. This makes it easy to install.
- Less expensive than other types of networking media.
- When used with an RJ connector (RJ-45 or RJ-11), it provides a reliable connection.
- Data rates can be as fast as coaxial cable (as UTP cables now have an excellent
specification).
The main disadvantages are:
- More prone to electrical noise and interference than other types of networking media (as
there is no shield between the pairs).
- Can carry electrical surges.
Shielded twisted-pair cable: STP cable is similar to UTP but has shielding on each of the
pairs, thus reducing the effect of crosstalk, EMI and RFI. Unlike coaxial cable, the shielding
does not act as part of the circuit, but it must be properly grounded at each end to enhance the
shielding effect (as a non-ground shield will act like an antenna and pick up electrical noise).
Its only disadvantage is that it is more expensive than UTP, although it can suffer from the
same problems of coaxial cable if either end of the shield is not grounded.
Coaxial cable, often referred to as coax (pronounced KO-ax), consists of a single copper wire
surrounded by at least three layers: 1) an insulating material; 2) a woven or braided metal; and

3) a plastic outer coating. Cable television (CATV) network wiring often uses coaxial cable
because it can be cable over longer distances than twisted-pair cable. Most of todays
computer networks, however, do not use coaxial cable because other transmission media such
as fiber-optic cable transmit signals at faster rates.
Fiber-optic cables: One of the greatest revolutions in data communications is the usage of
light waves to transmit digital pulses through fibre-optic cables. A light carrying system has
an almost unlimited information capacity and, theoretically, it has more than 200,000 times
the capacity of a satellite TV system.
The core of fiber-optic cable consists of dozens of hundreds of thin strands of glass or
plastic that use light to transmit signals. Each strand, called an optic fiber, is as thin as a
human hair. Inside the fiber-optic cable, an insulating glass cladding and a protective coating
surround each optical fiber.
Optoelectrics is the branch of electronics which deals with light, and uses electronic
devices that use light which operate within the optical part of the electromagnetic frequency
spectrum. There are three main brands in the optical frequency spectrum, these are:
- Infrared- the band of light wavelengths that are too long to be seen by the human eye;
- Visible- the band of light wavelengths that the human eye responds to;
- Ultraviolet- band of light wavelengths that are too short for the human eye to see.
Among the advantages of fiber-optic cable, mention can be made of the following:
- Excellent reliability, and are extensively used as network backbones.
- Immune from crosstalk, EMI or RFI.
-Can be run for longer distances than copper cables.
- They do not create grounding problems, thus they can be used to connect between two sites
with a different ground potential.
- Very thin flat cable that can be easily run within confined spaces.
- Can be used in hazardous conditions, as it does not create electrical sparks.
- Immune from lightning strikes.
The main disadvantages are:
- More expensive and more difficult to install than any other networking media.
- Requires a trained installer to create a good cable connection.
- Too expensive in most situations to provide fibre connections to every work station.
(Adapted, Physical Transmission Media in Shelly, Gary B., Cashman, Thomas J., Vermaat,
Misty E., Discovering Computers: Fundamentals, Fourth Edition, 2008, USA, p. 319;
Adapted, Cables in Buchanan, William, Mastering Computing, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002,
New York, pp. 206-208)

II. Wireless Transmission Media


Many users opt for wireless transmission media because it is more convenient than
installing cables. In addition, businesses use wireless transmission media in locations where it
is impossible to install cables. Types of wireless transmission media used in communications
include infrared, broadcast radio, cellular radio, microwaves and communication satellites.
Infrared (IR) is a wireless transmission medium that sends signals using infrared light
waves. Mobile computers and devices, such as a mouse, printer and smart phone, often have

an IrDA4 port that enables the transfer of data from one device to another using infrared light
waves.
Broadcast radio is a wireless transmission medium that distributes radio signals
through the air over long distances such as between cities, regions and countries and short
distances such as within an office or home. Bluetooth 5, UWB 6, HomeRF, Wi-Fi7 and
WiMAX8 communications technologies use broadcast radio signals.
Cellular radio is a form of broadcast radio that is used widely for mobile
communications, specifically wireless modems and cellular telephones. A cellular telephone
is a telephone device that uses high-frequency radio waves to transmit voice and digital data
messages. Some mobile users connect their notebook computer or other mobile computer to a
cellular telephone to access the Web, send and receive e-mail, enter a chat room or connect to
an office or school network while away from a standard telephone line.
Microwaves are radio waves that provide a high-speed signal transmission.
Microwave transmission, often called fixed wireless, involves sending signals from one
microwave station to another. Microwaves can transmit data at rates up to 4,500 times faster
than a dial-up modem.
A microwave station is an earth-based reflective dish that contains the antenna,
transceivers and other equipment necessary for microwave communications. Microwaves use
line-of-sight transmission. To avoid possible obstructions, such as buildings or mountains,
microwaves stations often sit on the tops of buildings, towers or mountains.
Microwave transmission is used in environments where installing physical
transmission media is difficult or impossible and where line-of-sight transmission is available.
For example, microwave transmission is used in open-air areas such as deserts and or lakes;
between buildings in a close geographic area or to communicate with a satellite. Current users
of microwave transmission include universities, hospitals, city governments, cable television
providers and telephone companies. Home and small business users who do not have other
4

IrDA: Some computers and devices use the IrDA specification to transmit data wirelessly to each other via
infrared (IR) light waves. Infrared requires a line-of-sight transmission; that is, the sending device and the
receiving device must be in line with each other so that nothing obstructs the path of the infrared light wave.
5
Bluetooth: It is a standard, specifically a protocol that defines how two Bluetooth devices use short-range radio
waves to transmit data. To communicate with each other, Bluetooth devices often must be within about 10
meters (about 33 feet) but can be extended to 1000 meters with additional equipment. Examples of Bluetooth
devices can include desktop computers, notebook computers, handheld computers, PDAs, smart phones,
headsets, microphones, digital cameras, fax machines and printers.
6
UWB: UWB, which stands for ultra-wideband, is a network standard that specifies how two UWB devices use
short-range radio waves to communicate at high speeds with each other. For optimal communications, the device
should be within 2 to 10 meters (about 6.5 to 33 feet) of each other. Examples of UWB uses include wirelessly
transferring video from a digital video camera, printing pictures from a digital camera, downloading media to a
portable media player, or displaying a slide show on a projector.
7
Wi-Fi: Developed by IEEE, Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity), also known as 802.11, is a series of network standards
that specifies how two wireless devices communicate over the air with each other. Using Wi-Fi, computers or
devices, that have the appropriate wireless capability, communicate via radio waves with other computers or
devices. The Wi-Fi standard uses techniques similar to the Ethernet standard to specify how physically to
configure a wireless network.
8
WiMAX: WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), also known as 802.16, is a newer
network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide
area. Using the WiMAX standard, computers or devices with the appropriate WiMAX wireless capability
communicate via radio-waves with other computers or devices via a WiMAX tower. The WiMAX tower, which
can cover up to a 30-mile radius, connects to the Internet or to another WiMAX tower. The WiMAX standard
provides wireless broadband Internet access at a reasonable cost over long distances to business and home users.
The WiMAX standard, similar to the Wi-Fi standard, connects mobile users to the Internet via hot spots (= a
wireless network that provides Internet connections to mobile computers and other devices; two popular hot spot
technologies are Wi-Fi and WiMAX). The next generation of game consoles also plans to support the WiMAX
standard.

high-speed Internet connections available in their area also opt for lower-cost fixed wireless
plans.
A communication satellite is a space station that receives microwave signals from an
earth-based station, amplifies (strengthens) signals and broadcasts the signal back over a wide
area to any number of earth-based stations.
These earth-based stations often are microwave stations. Other devices, such as smart
phones and GPS receivers, also can function as earth-based stations. Transmission from an
earth-based station to a satellite is an uplink. Transmission from a satellite to an earth-based
station is a downlink.
Applications such as air navigation, television and radio broadcasts, weather
forecasting, video conferencing, paging, global positioning systems and Internet connections
use communications satellites. With the proper satellite dish and a satellite modem card,
consumers access the Internet using satellite technology. With satellite Internet connections,
however, uplink transmissions usually are slower than downlink transmissions. This
difference in speeds usually is acceptable to most Internet satellite users because they
download much more data than they upload. Although a satellite Internet connection is more
expensive than cable Internet or DSL 9 connections, sometimes it is the only high-speed
Internet option in remote areas. (Adapted, Physical Transmission Media in Shelly, Gary B.,
Cashman, Thomas J., Vermaat, Misty E., Discovering Computers: Fundamentals, Fourth
Edition, 2008, USA, pp. 320-321).
WORD STUDY
Fiber (AmEn) = fibre (BE) = a thread or filament from which a vegetable tissue, mineral
substance or textile is formed.
I.

A. Answer the following questions:

1. What limits the speed of a network?


2. Name the main types of networking media.
3. What does internal signal attenuation consist of?
4. What does external signal attenuation consist of?
5. Enumerate the main methods used to reduce signal attenuation.
6. What do we have to take into account when selecting a cable?
7. Enumerate the main problems that can be generated by the cable jacket.
8. Enlarge upon unshielded twisted-pair cables.
9. Enlarge upon shielded twisted-pair cables.
10. Enlarge upon coaxial cables.
11. Enlarge upon fibre-optic cables.
12. Define optoelectrics.
13. What is the optical frequency spectrum made up of?
14. Why do users prefer wireless transmission media?
15. Give a definition of IR.
16. Define broadcast radio.
17. Give a definition of cellular radio.
18. Define microwaves.
9

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) is a popular digital line alternative for the small business or home user. It
transmits at fast speeds on existing standard copper telephone wiring. Some DSL installations include a dial
tone, providing users with both voice and data communications. Others share services with an existing telephone
line.

19. What is a communication satellite?


20. Name some applications that use communication satellites.
B. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1. There are signals that are not degraded in a network.
2. The most popular type of cabling is STP.
3. Microwave stations are seldom placed on tops of high buildings.
4. Bluetooth protocol uses short-range radio waves to transmit data.
5. UTP is more expensive than STP.
6. The thickness of an optic fiber is equal to that of a human hair.
7. UWB uses infrared waves.
8. Copper cables can be run for longer distances than fibre-optic cables.
9. Microwave transmission is used in enclosed areas.
10. Fibre-optic cables can be affected by lightning strikes.
11. A satellite Internet connection as expensive as cable Internet.
12. STP and UTP are twisted because, in this way, noise is reduced.

II.
coaxial
copper
capacitance
inductance
interference
antenna

wire

noise
to couple

crosstalk
to wrap
conductor

impedance

to insulate

Match the following words with the correct definitions:


to cover (a metal) with another metal by bonding;
a radio transmitter-receiver that uses many of the same components
for both transmission and reception;
involving or exposing one to risk;
to bring (two electric circuits) into such close proximity as to permit
mutual influence; to join for combined effect;
not affected by something that happens or is done;
the apparent opposition in an electrical circuit to the flow of an
alternating current that is analogous to the actual electrical resistance
to a direct current and that is the ratio of effective electromotive force
to the effective current;
a central and often foundational part usually distinct from the
enveloping part by a difference in nature; a tiny doughnut-shaped
piece of magnetic material (as ferrite) used in computer memories;
having coincident axes; mounted on concentric shafts;
a very small piece of burning material produced by a fire or by hitting
o rubbing two hard objects together; a flash of light caused by
electricity passing across a space;
a common reddish metallic element that is ductile and malleable and
is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity;
to separate from conducting bodies by means of nonconductors so as
to prevent transfer of electricity, heat, or sound;
situated beyond the visible spectrum at its violet end used of
radiation having a wavelength shorter than wavelengths of visible
light and longer than those of X-rays;
the property of an electric nonconductor that permits the storage of
energy as a result of the separation of charge that occurs when
opposite surfaces of the nonconductor are maintained at a difference
of potential;
unwanted signals in a communication channel (as in a telephone,

hazardous
composite

elevator

core
strand
to clad
infrared
ultraviolet
immune

spark

transceiver

radio, or computer) caused by transference of energy from another


circuit (as by leakage or coupling);
one of the wires twisted together or laid parallel to form a wire rope
or cable;
a property of an electric circuit by which an electromotive force is
induced in it by a variation of current either in the circuit itself or in a
neighbouring circuit;
an unwanted signal or a disturbance (as static or a variation of
voltage) in an electronic device or instrument (as radio or television);
a disturbance interfering with the operation of a usually mechanical
device or system; loud, confused, or senseless shouting or outcry;
situated outside the visible spectrum at its red end used of radiation
having a wavelength between about 700 nanometers and 1 millimeter;
to cover especially by winding or folding; to enclose as if with a
protective covering;
a usually metallic device (as a rod or wire) for radiating or receiving
radio waves;
one that raises or lifts something up; a cage or platform and its
hoisting machinery for conveying people or things to different levels;
metal in the form of a usually very flexible thread or slender rod;
a solid material which is composed of two or more substances having
different physical characteristics and in which each substance retains
its identity while contributing desirable properties to the whole; a
structural material made of plastic within which a fibrous material (as
silicon carbide) is embedded;
the mutual effect on meeting of two wave trains (as of light or sound)
that constitutes alternating areas of increased and decreased amplitude
(as light and dark lines or louder and softer sound);
a material or object that permits an electric current to flow easily.

III.

Give the synonyms of the following: change, distort, internal, shape, to


generate, circular, to cancel, pair, cost, shield.

IV.

Give the antonyms of the following: shielded, internal, desirable, reliable,


advantage, limited, useful, thin, to connect, necessary.

V.

Match the following words with the right definition according to the text:

to distort
a) to divert; b) to enlarge; c) to destroy; d) to pervert;
cancellation
a) method of annulment; b) method of eradication; c) method of erasure; d) method for
reducing unwanted sound;
braid
a) thick sheet; b) thin sheet; c) large sheet; d) little sheet;

foil
a) foliage like thin coat; b) follicle like thin coat; c) leaf like thin coat; d) leaflet like thin
coat;
specification
a) instruction; b) recommendation; c) description; d) behaviour;
surges
a) modifications; b) elements; c) rises and falls; d) successive states;
to enhance
a) to fortify; b) to increase; c) to double; d) to magnify.
VI.

Make sentences of your own with the following:

to be affected by degradation;
to lose shape;
to cancel each other out;
to act as a barrier;
to protect against problems;
to comply with;
to be prone to something;
to suffer from;
to opt for;
to download/ upload data.

VII.

Choose from the following words to complete the text below. Pay attention
that some forms of the words must be changed:

satellite, carrier, optical, skin, data, communications, around, spectrum, wave, radar,
indigo, frequency, to transmit, metre, indirect, ozone, outer, to propagate, eye, information,
wavelength, to bounce off, solid, water.
An information source transmits to a destination through a transmission media. This
transmission can either be with a direct communication or through an communication.
The information itself can be either directly sent through an electrical cable, or it can be
carried on an electromagnetic . Electromagnetics waves act as a of the data, in the
same way that the postal service or telephone providers support channels for post and
telephone information to be sent and received in a reliable way. The type of electromagnetic
carrier depends on the communication media which the data is to be sent through. Each
carrier has a specific (which is indirectly proportional to its wavelength), which is used
to tune into the wave at the receiver. The frequency typically defines how well the carrier
through a media channel. Typical electromagnetic carrier types are: radio waves,
microwaves, infrared, light and ultraviolet.
Radio waves: The lower the frequency of a radio wave the more able it is to bend
objects. Low frequency communications transmit over large distances and up and over

objects, such as hills and mountains. The trade-off is that the lower the frequency of the
radio wave, the less the that can be carried.
Microwaves have the advantage over waves (light, infrared and ultraviolet) in that
they propagate reasonably well through and thus can be transmitted through clouds, rain
and so on. One of the first applications of microwaves was in , as the microwave pulses
could propagate through clouds and a metal target (normally an airplane, a missile or a
ship) and return to the transmitter. If the microwaves were of a high enough frequency they
can even propagate through the ionosphere and out into space. This is the property that is
used in communications where the transmitter bounces microwave energy off a satellite,
which is then picked up at a receiving station. The main disadvantage is that they will not
bend round large objects, as their . is too small.
Infrared is used in optical and allows for a much greater amount of data to be sent,
than radio and microwaves. Infrared is extensively used for line-of-site communications
(and fibre optic communication), especially in remote control applications. The amount of
data that can be is normally limited by the electronics at the transmitter and the receiver,
but it is possible to get many billions of bits to be transmitted, in each second.
Light is the only part of the electromagnetic that humans can see. It is a very small
part of the spectrum and ranges from 300 to 900 nm (a nanometre is one billionth of a ).
Colours contained are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet (ROY.G.BIV or
Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain).
Ultraviolet is used in optical communications (typically with fibre optic
communications). In high enough exposures, it can cause cancer. Fortunately for
humans, the layer blocks out much of the ultraviolet radiation from the sun. You should
not look directly into a fibre optic cable which is currently operating, as invisible radiation
may damage your . (Adapted, Buchanan, William, Mastering Computing, Palgrave
Macmillan, 2002, New York, p. 74).

VIII. Translate into Romanian:


The main types of cables used for digital communications channels include: coaxial
cables, fibre optic cables and unshielded twisted-pair cooper cables.
Coaxial cable has a grounded metal sheath around the signal conductor. This limits the
amount of interference between cables and thus allows higher data rates. Typically, they
are used at bit rates of 100 Mbps for maximum lengths of 1 km.
The highest specification of the three cables is fiber optic, and allows extremely high
bit rates over long distances. Fiber optic cables do not interfere with nearby cables and
give greater security. They also provide more protection from electrical damage by
external equipment and greater resistance to harsh environments, as well as being safer in
hazardous environments.
Twisted-pair and coaxial cables transmit electric signals, whereas fiber-optic cables
transmit light pulses. Unshielded twisted-pair cables are not shielded and thus interfere
with nearby cables. Public telephone lines generally use twisted-pair cables. In LANs they
are generally used up to bit rates of 100 Mbps and with maximum lengths of 100 m. UTP
cables are typically used to connect a computer to a network. There are various standards
for twisted-pair cables, such as Cat-5 cables, which can transmit up to 100
Mbps(100,000,000 bits per second) and Cat-3, which support the transmission of up to 16
Mbps (16,000,000 bits per second). (Buchanan, William, Mastering Computing, Palgrave
Macmillan, 2002, New York, p. 75).

IX.

Translate into English:

Principalele medii fizice de transmitere a datelor sunt cablurile coaxiale, cablurile


torsadate (acestea fiind, la rndul lor, de dou tipuri: neecranate i ecranate) i cablurile
optice.
Cablul coaxial a avut si are inca o larga folosire in retelele locale, datorita retelelor
Ethernet si 802.3. Viitorul insa nu ii este favorabil, datorita faptului ca ofera un mediu de
transmisie partajat, imposibil de utilizat in retele de mare viteza. El consta dintr-un miez de
cupru, numit conductorul central, izolat de al doilea conductor, conductorul exterior, de obicei
un ecran realizat cu tesatura de fire subtiri. Tot cablul este invelit intr-o teaca de plastic.
Datorit modului de realizare a cablurilor coaxiale influena reciproc a dou canale
adiacente (diafonie) este extrem de redus chiar la frecvne mari ale semnalului. Aceasta se
datoreaz distribuiei sarcinilor electrice ctre interiorul conductorului exterior i exteriorul
conductorului central. Datorit efectului redus al diafoniei i zgomotelor, semnalul util poate
fi refcut chiar dac are un nivel sczut, ceea ce nu este posibil n cazul transmisiilor clasice
folosind perechi de conductoare.
Avantajul cablului coaxial const n faptul c ofer posibilitatea unor comunicaii de
band larg pe distane relativ mari, echipamentele fiind conectate la o magistral unic
folosind conectoare adaptoare n form de T.
Principalele dezavanatje ale acestul cablu, care au dus la nlucuirea sa aproape total,
sunt urmtoarele: este relativ fragil i fr o rezisten mecanic deosebit, are un cost ridicat,
o dimensiune a cablului semnificativ ( grosime de 1 cm sau mai mult, n funcie de tip) i nu
n ultimul rnd dificultile de a asigura adaptarea de impedan a magistralei de comunicaie.
Torsadarea (procedeul de rsucire a firelor) reduce efectul de degradare a semnalului
cauzat de interferena cu radiaiile electromagnetice. Unele dintre avantajele cablurilor
torsadate sunt faptul c este ieftin, uor de instalat, suport curbri i ndoiri, este subire. n
prezent, este cel mai utilizat mediu de transmisie n reelele locale (LAN). Principalele
dezavantaje sunt susceptibilitatea la interferene electrice, distana de transmisie a informaiei
relativ sczut.
Cablul cu fire rasucite este un mediul de transmisie bazat pe fir de cupru, traditional
folosit in telefonie. Perechea de fire rasucite consta din doua fire metalice (din cupru) rasucite
dupa un anumit pas. Diametrul firului este de 0,5mm, iar pasul de rasucire depinde de cablu,
mai precis de numarul de perechi de fire rasucite ce alcatuiesc cablul.
Rasucirea firelor este necesara pentru a reduce distorsiunile electromagnetice, prin
faptul ca un camp electomagnetic extern va actiona in mod egal asupra celor doua fire. Daca
pentru transmisia in fire se adopta o metoda de transmisie diferentiala, echilibrata, atunci
efectul distorsionant al campului extern este aproape nul. Pentru un cablu cu mai multe
perechi de fire rasucite, pasii de rasucire trebuie sa fie diferiti pentru fiecare pereche, si ei se
calculeaza in asa fel ca diafonia intre perechi sa devina minima.
Cablul cu fibr optic (fiber optic) Fibra optic const dintr-un fir de material sticlos,
numit nucleu sau miez (core), acoperit de un nvelis de sticl cu alte proprietai de difracie i
mai puin dens ca primul, numit manta (cladding). La exterior se prevede un nveli protector
din plastic. Dimensiunea nucleului este de ordinul a 125 m, dar cu nveliuri, firul de fibr
optic ajunge la un diametru de 0,25mm (deci foarte redus, cu implicaii pozitive asupra
numarului de fibre din cablu i a posibilitailor de cablare). Succesul cablului cu fibra optica
in comunicatiile de date a survenit deabia dupa anii 70, la multi ani dupa descoperirea
fenomenului fizic ca atare. Proprietatile care il fac astazi mediul ideal pentru retelele de mare
viteza si intindere medie, sau pentru legaturi principale (trunchiuri de comunicatie) intre retele
locale, sunt urmatoarele:

- atenuare redusa, ceea ce face ca lungimile tronsoanelor de fibra optica sa fie de ordinul
kilometrilor;
- imunitate totala la efectele campurilor electromagnetice, elementele fizice de transport
nefiind purtatorii cu sarcina electrica, ci fotonii, total neutri;
- capacitate de transmisie in mediu de ordinul Giga, retelele de astazi lucrand deja la
viteze de transmisie de Gbps;
- dimensiunile si greutatile cablului, precum si flexibilitatea, il fac usor de cablat.
(Adapted, http://www.runceanu.ro/adrian/curs/retele2008/retele5.pdf;
Adapted,http://complexvirtual.ro/facultate/documente/1257014668_complexvirtual_ro_03_D
efinitiamediilor.doc)

WORD FOCUS:
III.

Pay attention to the phrasal verb to come:


Meaning
to happen, especially in a way
that is not planned;
across/ to meet, find or discover
someone/something by chance;

to come about
to come
upon

to come after

to come along

to look for someone in order to


hurt/punish/get something from
him/her;
1. to appear, to arrive;
2. to go to a place with someone;

to come apart

1. to split or fall into pieces;


2. to begin to fail;

to come (a)round

1.to come to someones home or


the place where they work in
order to visit them;
2.to change your opinion so that
you now agree with someone or
are no longer angry with them;
3. if a regular event comes
around, it happens as usual;
4. to become conscious again
after you have been unconscious;

to come at

1. to move towards someone in a


threatening way;
2. to approach a problem in a
particular way;

Examples
How did this tragedy
come about?
While I was looking for
the dictionary I came
across this letter.
The thieves were scared
because the Police was
coming after them.
1. The train should come
along in less than 5
minutes.
2. Will you come along
with me in this trip?
1. The petals of the flower
came apart in my hand.
2. I felt that my life was
coming apart.
1. Ill come around for
lunch.
2. After a while, she came
around though I was
afraid she would not.
3. By the time the festival
comes around, she will
have finished the new
album.
4. I slapped her and she
came round.
1. He came at me with a
pistol.
2. I came at this problem
from a different point of

to come away

to come back

to come before

to come by

to come down

to come in

to come into

to come off

to come out

to come over
to come up

view.
to become separated from the The pages of the book
main
part
of
something; came away in my hand.
synonym with to come off;
1. to return to a particular place 1. I came back home after
or person;
ten oclock.
2.to become
fashionable or 2. Maxi dresses are
popular again;
coming back into fashion.
to be brought to someone in He was brought before
authority, especially a judge in a the judge.
law court, to be judged or
discussed by them;
1. to manage to get something 1. Pearls are hard to come
that is rare or difficult to get;
by.
2. to make a short visit to a place 2. I promise I will come
on your way to somewhere else;
by later.
1. to get lower (about prices, 1. I no longer hope that
levels, etc.);
the prices will ever come
2. to fall to the ground;
down.
2. The tree came down
last night and destroyed
two cars.
1.to enter;
1. He knocked at the door
2. to arrive (about trains, buses, and then came in.
planes, ships);
2. The train came in and
we hurried to the platform.
1. to receive money, land or
property from someone after
they have died;
2. to be involved in something;
1. to become removed from
something; synonym with to
come away;
2. to fall off something;
3.to take place, happen as
arranged;
1. to be revealed, exposed,
especially about something that
has been kept secret;
2. to disappear (of stains);
3. to be published (of books,
records, etc.);
to visit somebody at his/her
house or in his/her country;
1. to come close to somebody;
2. to be mentioned (about a
subject);
3. to appear;

1. He came into a castle.


2. He came into the movie
from the very beginning.
1. The pages of the book
came off in my hand.
2. I came off the bike.
3. When is the wedding
coming off?
1.
The
truth
will
eventually come out!
2.
The
wine
stain
eventually came out!
3. His latest book came
out in August!
They came over to tell me
the good news.
1. He came up and kiss
her hand.
2. This subject came up in
the conversation.
3. Something has come up

and I have to postpone the


meeting.

II. Pay attention to the difference among the adjectives that refer to the facial appearance:
beautiful, good-looking, handsome, gorgeous, pretty, cute and comely.
Beautiful

Good-looking
Handsome

Gorgeous

Pretty

Cute

Comely

used to express the beauty of a womans face; it may


imply elegance and nobility;
used for both men and women;
used to express beauty in the case of men; in rare
cases, it may refer to mature women;
used hyperbolically to say that somebody is
extremely beautiful or handsome;
used to express beauty in the case of women; it is
more superficial than beautiful; it may imply
sweetness and vivacity;
used informally to say about a woman that is cheerful
and wholesome;
used informally to say about men who are boyish and
sweet-tempered;
obsolete; used to suggest the beauty of the peasant
women.

!!!. There is a growing degree of intensity from cute to pretty and then to beautiful.

EXERCISES
I.

Translate into English using to come as phrasal verb:

1. Prul lung a revenit n tendine.


2. S-a apropiat i i-a optit ceva la ureche.
3. M-am ntlnit din ntmplare cu Mary cnd eram la Paris.
4. Paginile crilor s-au disprins din cauza cldurii.
5. Vrei s vii cu mine? tiu c este trziu dar trebuie s-i art ceva.
6. Cnd i-a revenit din anestezie, copiii ei stteau lng ea.
7. Rata dobnzilor va scdea anul viitor.
8. Cartea sa de poezii a fost publicat anul trecut.
9. A intrat i s-a aezat la mas.
10. Vreau ca autobuzzul s soseasc ct mai curnd posibil pentru c a nceput s plou.
11. A czut din copac i i-a rupt mna.
12. Va iei la iveal faptul c a chiulit ieri.
13. S-a ndreptat spre noi cu un cuit n mn.
14. O s-i fac o scurt vizit pe la ora dou.
15. A abordat aceast problem greit.

II. Make sentences of your own using the following phrases and translate them into Romanian:
to come open/loose; to take something as it comes, to come a long way; to come of age;

to come into view/sight; to come into leaf/flower/blossom; to come to a


decision/conclusion/agreement; when it comes to something;

III. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word from the ones given below: beautiful,
handsome, gorgeous, cute, comely.
1. She is a fan of Brad Pitt. She considers him a man.
2. He considers his mother a woman.
3. She fell in love with a , boyish guy she met in the general store.
4. He is a fan of Claudia Schiffer. He considers her a woman.
5. He was fascinated by the milkmaid in Constables painting.

IV. Translate into English using in each sentence one of the following words: beautiful, goodlooking (x 2), handsome, gorgeous, pretty, cute (x 3), comely.
1. Este o feti drgu i foarte vesel.
2. n tabloul ,,Viaa la ar, sunt pictate femei frumoase.
3. Miss Univers este o americanc extreme de fromoas.
4. i el i ea sunt artoi.
5. Este o fat drguic dei nu seamn cu nimeni din familie.
6. Este o femeie frumoas n ciuda vrstei naintate.
7. Membrii familiei sale sunt toi artoi.
8. Are un biat dragu, dar cam copilros.
9. Din 10 femei, una e frumoas, restul sunt drgue.
10. Tatl ei este un brbat chipe.

III.

TEME DE CONTROL

SEMESTRUL I
1. Write an essay on the most important moments in the history of
computers. (va fi transmis pn la data de 20 decembrie 2010)
SSEMESTRUL II
2. Write an essay on data communications (va fi transmis pn la
data de 20 mai 2011)

IV. BIBLIOGRAFIE
1. Boeckner, Keith; Brown, P. Charles, Oxford English for Computing, Oxford University
Press, 1997.
2. Deaconu, Mdlina, English for IT, Bucureti, Editura UTM, 2010.
3. Cornilescu, Alexandra, Iclezian-Dimitriu, Ioan, The Infinitive, Iai, Editura Institutul
European, 2000.
4. Esteras, Santiago Remacha, Infotech- English for Computer Users, Cambridge University
Press, 2004.
5. Glendinning, Eric H.; McEwan, John, Basic English for Computing, Revised and Updated,
Oxford University Press, 2002;
6. Jones, Daniel, English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
7. Lagoutte, Franois, 1000 de cuvinte-cheie n informatic, Bucureti, Editura Compania,
2003.
8. Paidos, Constantin, English Grammar- Theory and Practice, Iai, Editura Polirom, 2001.
9. Thomson, A. J., Martinet, A. V., A Practical English Grammar, Oxford University Press,
1997.
10. Vldoiu, Ion, Verbele modale ale limbii engleze, Bucureti, Editura Antet, 2004.