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Table 29-3 Flexural Members of Frames

Intermediate and Ordinary CIP Moment Frames

General

Special Moment Frames

Intermediate Factored axial compressive


force Agf'c / 10

Minimum reinforcement shall not be less than

Same requirement, except as provided in 10.5.2,


10.5.3, and 10.5.4, although minimum reinforcement
need only be provided at sections where tensile
reinforcement is required by analysis.

3 fc bw d
fy

and

21.3.2
Ordinary No similar requirements.

200 bw d
fy

at any section, top and bottom, unless provisions


in 10.5.3 are satisfied.
21.5.2.1

10.5
The net tensile strain t at nominal strength shall
not be less than 0.004.
10.3.5

The reinforcement ratio () shall not exceed 0.025.


21.5.2.1

Flexural Requirements

Flexural frame members shall satisfy the following


conditions:
Factored axial compressive force Ag fc / 10
Clear span ln 4  effective depth
Width to depth ratio bw/h 0.3
Width bw 10 in.
Width bw width of supporting member c2 +
distances on each side of the supporting
member equal to the smaller of the width of
the supporting member c2 or three-fourths of
the overall dimension of supporting member c1
21.5.1

At least two bars shall be provided continuously at


both top and bottom of section.

Provide minimum structural integrity reinforcement.


7.13

21.5.2.1

Intermediate Positive moment strength at joint


face 1/3 negative moment strength at that face
of the joint.
21.3.4.1
Ordinary No similar requirement.

Positive moment strength at joint face 1/2


negative moment strength at that face of the joint.
21.5.2.2

Intermediate Same requirement, except it is


needed to provide only 1/5 of the maximum moment
strength at the face of either joint at every section
along the member.
21.3.4.1
Ordinary No similar requirement.

Neither the negative nor the positive moment


strength at any section along the member shall be
less than 1/4 the maximum moment strength
provided at the face of either joint.
21.5.2.2
Prestressing steel, where used, shall satisfy
the following:
The average prestress fpc shall not exceed the
smaller of 500 psi and f'c/10.
Prestressing steel shall be unbonded in potential
plastic hinge regions and the calculated strains in
the prestressing steel under the design displacement shall be less than 0.01.
Prestressing steel shall not contribute to more than
0.25 of the positive or negative flexural strength at
the critical section in a plastic hinge region and shall
be anchored at or beyond the exterior face of the joint.
Anchorages of the post-tensioning tendons resisting
earthquake-induce forces shall be capable of allowing
tendons to withstand 50 cycles of loading, bounded
by 0.40 and 0.85 of the specified tensile strength of
the prestressing steel.
21.5.2.5

No similar requirements.

continued on next page

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Table 29-3 Flexural Members of Frames (contd)

Splices

Special Moment Frames

Intermediate and Ordinary CIP Moment Frames

Lap splices of flexural reinforcement are permitted only if


hoop or spiral reinforcement is provided over the lap length.
Hoop and spiral reinforcement spacing shall not exceed d/4 or
4 in. Mechanical splices shall conform to 21.1.6 and welded
splices shall conform to 21.1.7.
21.5.2.3, 21.5.2.4

There is no requirement that splices be enclosed


in hoops.

Lap splices are not to be used:


Within joints.
Within a distance of twice the member depth from the
face of the joint.
At locations where analysis indicates flexural yeilding
caused by inelastic lateral displacements of the frame.

No similar requirement.

21.5.2.3
Hoops are required over a length equal to twice the member
depth from the face of the supporting member toward
midspan at both ends of the flexual member.
21.5.3.1

IntermediateSame requirement.
21.3.4.2
OrdinaryNo similar requirement.

Hoops are required over lengths equal to twice the member


depth on both sides of a section where flexural yielding may
occur in connection with inelastic lateral displacements of the
frame.

Reinforcement for flexural members subject to


stress reversals shall consist of closed stirrups
extending around flexural reinforcement. Also,
provide minimum structural integrity reinforcement.

21.5.3.1

7.11.2, 7.13

Transverse Reinforcement

Where hoops are required, the spacing shall not exceed:

IntermediateSame requirement

d/4
8  diameter of smallest longitudinal bar
24  diameter of hoop bars
12 in.

21.3.4.2

OrdinaryNo similar requirement.


The first hoop shall be located not more than 2 in. from the
face of the supporting member.
21.5.3.2
Where hoops are required, longitudinal bars on the perimeter
shall have lateral support conforming to 7.10.5.3.

No similar requirement.

21.5.3.3
Where hoops are not required, strrups with seismic hooks at
both ends shall be spaced at a distance not more than d/2
throughout the length of the member.

IntermediateSimilar requirement except that


seismic hooks are not required.

21.5.3.4

21.13.4.3

Transverse reinforcement must also be proportioned to resist


the entire design shear force, neglecting the contribution of
concrete to shear strength, if certain conditions are met.
21.5.4

IntermediateTransverse reinforcement must


also be proportioned to resist the design shear
force.
21.13.3
OrdinaryProvide sufficient transverse reinforcement for shear and torsion.
11.4, 11.5

Ag = gross area of section, bw = width of web, d = effective depth of section

fc = specified compressive strength of concrete, fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement

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Table 29-4 Frame Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Loads

General

Special Moment Frames

Intermediate and Ordinary CIP Moment Frames

Frame members under this classification must meet the


following requirements:
Factored axial compressive force > A gfc / 10 .
Shortest cross-sectional dimension 12 in.
Ratio of shortest cross-sectional dimension to perpendicular dimension 0.4.

Intermediate Factored axial compressive force > A gfc / 10 .


21.3.2
Ordinary No similar requirements.

Flexural Requirements

21.6.1
The flexural strengths of columns shall satisfy the following:
Mnc (6/5) Mnb
where Mnc = sum of moments at the faces of the joint,
corresponding to the nominal flexural
strengths of the columns.
Mnb = sum of moments at the faces of the joint,
corresponding to the nominal flexural
strengths of the beams. In T-beam costruction, slab reinforcement within an effective
slab width defined in 8.12 shall be considered as contributing to flexural strength.
If this requirement is not satisfied, the lateral strength
and stiffness of the column shall not be considered when
determining the strength and stiffness of the structure,
and the column shall conform to 21.13.
21.6.2
The reinforcement ratio (g) shall not be less than 0.01
and shall not exceed 0.06.

Transverse Reinforcement

Splices

21.6.3.1

No similar requirements.

The reinforcement ratio (g) shall not be less than 0.01


and shall not exceed 0.08. For a compression member
with a cross section larger than required by considerations of loading, the reinforcement ratio (g)can be
reduced below 0.01, but never below 0.005 (10.8.4).
10.9

Mechanical splices shall conform to 21.1.6 and welded


splices shall conform to 21.1.7. Lap splices are permitted only within the center half of the member length,
must be tension lap splices, and shall be enclosed within
transverse reinforcement conforming to 21.6.4.2 and
21.6.4.3.
21.6.3.2

There is no restriction on the location of splices which


are typically located just above the floor for ease of
construction.

The transverse reinforcement requirements discussed


in the following five items on the next page need only be
provided over a length (lo) from each joint face and on
both sides of any section where flexural yielding is likely
to occur. The length (lo) shall not be less than:

Intermediate The length (lo) is the same as for special


moment frames.
21.3.5.2
Ordinary No similar requirements.

depth of member
1/6 clear span
18 in.
21.6.4.1

Ach = cross-sectional area of member measured out-to-out


of transverse reinforcement
Ag = gross area of section
f'c= specified compressive strength of concrete
fyt = specified yield stress of transverse reinforcement

continued on next page


bc = cross-sectional dimension of column core measured center-to-center
of outer legs of the transverse reinforcement comprising area Ash
hx = maximum horizontal spacing of hoop or crosstie legs on all faces of
the column
s = spacing of transverse reinforcement
so = longitudinal spacing of transverse reinforcement within the length lo.

29-23

Table 29-4 Frame Members Subjected to Bending and Axial Loads (contd)
Special Moment Frame

Intermediate and Ordinary CIP Moment Frames

Ratio of spiral reinforcement (s) shall not be less than the value
given by:

f'
s = 0.12 c 0.45
fyt

Ag
f'

1 c
Ach
f yt

Ag

1
s = 0.45
Ach

Total cross-sectional area of rectangular hoop reinforcement for


confinement (Ash) shall not be less than that given by the following two equations:

'

'

) [(A g / Ach ) 1]

Ash = 0.09 sbc fc / fyt

fc'
fyt

and shall conform to the provisions in 7.10.4.


10.9.3

21.6.4.4

Ash = 0.3 sbc fc / fyt

Ratio of spiral reinforcement (s) shall not be less


than the value given by:

Transverse reinforcement must be provided to


satisfy both shear and lateral support requirements
for longitudinal bars.

21.6.4.4

7.10.5, 11.1

If the thickness of the concrete outside the confining transverse


reinforcement exceeds 4 in., additional transverse reinforcement
shall be provided at a spacing 12 in. Concrete cover on the
additional reinforcement shall not exceed 4 in.

No similar requirements.

Transverse Reinforcement (continued)

21.6.4.7
Transverse reinforcement shall be spaced at distances not exceeding 1/4 minimum member dimension, 6  longitudinal bar
diameter,
4 in. so = 4 + [(14 - hx)/3] 6 in.
21.6.4.3

IntermediateMaximum spacing so is 8  smallest


longitudinal bar diameter, 24  hoop bar diameter,
1/2 smallest cross-sectional dimension, or 12 in.
First hoop to be located no further than so/2 from
the joint face.
21.3.5.2
Ordinary No similar requirement.

Cross ties or legs of overlapping hoops shall not be spaced more


Vertical bars shall not be farther than 6 in. clear from
than 14 in. on center in the direction perpendicular to the longitudia laterally supported bar.
nal axis of the member. Vertical bars shall not be farther than 6 in.
clear from a laterally supported bar.
7.10.5.3
21.6.4.2, 7.10.5.3
Where the transverse reinforcement as discussed above is no
longer required, the remainder of the column shall contain spiral
or hoop reinforcement satisfying 7.10 spaced at distances not to
exceed
6  longitudinal bar diameter
6 in.
unless a larger amount of transverse reinforcement is required by
21.6.3.2 or 21.6.5
21.6.4.5

Intermediate Outside the length lo, spacing of


transverse reinforcement shall conform to 7.10
and 11.4.5.1.

Transverse reinforcement must also be proportioned to resist the


design shear force (Ve).

Intermediate Transverse reinforcement must also


be proportioned to resist the design shear forces
specified in 21.3.3.

21.3.5.4
Ordinary Transverse reinforcement to conform
to 7.10 and 11.4.5.1.

Ordinary Provide sufficient transverse reinforcement for shear.


11.5.4, 11.5.6

21.6.5

Columns supporting reactions from discontinued stiff members,


Intermediate Similar to 21.6.4.6
such as walls, shall have transverse reinforcement as specified in
21.6.4.2 through 21.6.4.4 over their full height, if the factored axial
21.3.5.6
compressive force, related to earthquake effects exceeds (Agfc /
10).Where design forces have been magnified to account for the
overstrength of the vertical elements of the seismic-force-resisting Ordinary No similar requirements.
system, the limit of Agfc / 10 shall be increased to Agfc / 4. This
transverse reinforcement shall extend into the discontinued member for at least the development length of the largest longitudinal
reinforcement in the column in accordance with 21.7.4.
If the column terminates on a footing or mat, the transverse reinforcement shall extend at least 12 in. into the footing or mat.
21.6.4.6

29-24