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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL METHODS IN ENGINEERING

Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2007; 71:81101


Published online 27 November 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/nme.1945

A dedicated Fourier analysis for the simulation


of composite pipes with defects
E. Baranger1, , , O. Allix1 and L. Blanchard2
1 LMT
2 Alcatel

Cachan, 61 Avenue du President Wilson, Cachan Cedex 94235, France


Alenia Space, 100 Boulevard du Midi, Cannes la Bocca Cedex 06156, France

SUMMARY
Through the study of a linear problem, this paper introduces some of the ingredients that are needed in
order to conduct efficient non-linear calculations on composite pipes under thermo-mechanical loading
in the presence of defects. Based on the observation that the main degradation scenarios take place at
the extremity of a pipe, a refined model is used to describe this end zone while the rest of the pipe is
described using a beam model. This study focuses on the efficient resolution of the refined end zone.
For that, a dedicated Fourier expansion is used. The initial 3D problem is then transformed in a set of
coupled 2D ones. The questions of the expansion truncation and the resolution of the coupled problem
are then tackled. The use of a preconditioned conjugate gradient method allows to treat quasi-industrial
problems in a prototype code in Matlab. Copyright q 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Received 18 April 2006; Revised 24 October 2006; Accepted 24 October 2006
KEY WORDS:

Fourier expansion; pipe; composite; defect; end effect

1. INTRODUCTION
The long-term objective of this study is to derive quantitative tools enabling one to decide whether
a composite pipe with initial defects is usable or must be rejected. These defects (delamination,
porosity, cracking) are due to operations in the manufacturing process such as drilling or cutting.
The presence of such defects is not taken into account directly in the design of the structure so the
capability of each component to withstand thermo-mechanical loading must be verified on samples
after the manufacturing process. At this time, the tests performed on these samples are compared
with the reference values and determined whether a part can be used in this state or it should
be rejected. In some cases, this caution principle can unfortunately bring about rejection of parts
Correspondence

to: E. Baranger, LMT Cachan, 61 Avenue du President Wilson, Cachan Cedex 94235, France.
E-mail: baranger@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

Contract/grant sponsor: DGA/STTC

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2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

82

E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

Figure 1. Application.

which could have been able to withstand the loads even with the presence of defects. The purpose
of this study is to provide engineers with a numerical decision-making tool and, thus, reduce
both the cost of verification and the number of rejected pipes. In summary, the objective of this
study is to reduce the cost of these experimental verifications by means of a suitable calculation
strategy. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different kinds of defects (delamination,
transverse cracking, fibre breakage) in the simulation of the structure (a pipe with metallic linking
elements). For that, at least a mesoscale is needed, this scale is the one of the ply. It allows to
describe delamination using fracture mechanics [1] or continuum damage mechanics [25]. For
transverse cracking or fibre breaking, damage mechanics can be used [6, 7]. A major issue is the
ability to use this kind of fine models. Let us remind that the characteristic length of a mesomodel
is the ply thickness (0.2 mm in the present case) while the length of the structure is above 1 m
(Figure 1). Thus, the computational cost is decisive for the use of such a fine modelling.
The first idea is to use this fine modelling only in the damaged zone (ends of the pipes).
A simpler one (an elastic beam theory) is used for the middle part of the pipe. The question is then
to couple both zones without creating spurious edge effects at the link between them that would
lead to damage in a non-linear analysis. A possible approach would be to consider model coupling
as in [8]. The chosen one, is more classical and is to consider a unique 3D beam model and to
search an efficient computational strategy. It is then possible to use an asymptotic beam theory
to build the solution corresponding to the inner part of the pipe. A major issue is to separate the
calculation of the edge effect [9, 10]. To handle this issue, the exact beam theory developed by
Ladev`eze and Simmonds [11] is used to generate the Saint-Venant solution of the interior elastic
problem. More details can be found in [12, 13]. The fine modelling zone is then reduced, this
strategy is valid if the linking zone remains linear elastic which is the case because non-linearities
and edge effects are localized at the ends of the pipe.
Even with this reduction, the computational cost remains too expensive for multiple analysis
relative to different kinds of defects (more than a million degrees of freedom for a 3D finite element
model). An efficient and adapted numerical strategy is needed and is presented in this paper.
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83

In the present case, the cost of a direct (monolithic) 3D finite element analysis is too expensive
because of the hoop description of the pipe. The perimeter is 1000 times bigger than the ply thickness and the stiffness matrix bandwidth is very large due to the field periodicity that introduces
a strong coupling between degrees of freedom. A possible solution would be to use a domain
decomposition method [1416]. Let us remark that the efficiency of such a method requires an
angular domain decomposition while the intuitive decomposition due to anisotropy is radial. The
way chosen in this study is the use of Fourier analysis. The classical case of axisymmetric structures (i.e. axisymmetric geometry and axisymmetric repartition of material), with an orthotropic
material in which each longitudinal section is a symmetry plane, can be found in [17] and is
implemented in major finite element codes. In this case, a 3D computation is fully uncoupled on
the different Fourier modes. For the case of buckling, Combescure and Gusic [18] studied theoretically axisymmetric structures with geometrical defects on the neutral surfaces of shells. The 3D
simulation is then by coupling different modes. The mode frequencies used in the simulation is defined a priori with regard to physical considerations. It has been implemented in the finite element
code INCA.
In the present case, the studied problem is geometrically axisymmetric but with a nonaxisymmetric material repartition (presence of defects). In addition, the orthotropic axes of the
material do not permit to apply the standard computations in the healthy case. The problem described on modes is then fully coupled. The use of a preconditioned conjugate gradient [19, 20]
allows to solve this problem efficiently as it can be done for problems with similar structures [21].
2. PROBLEM DEFINITION
The structure  is divided in two kind of entities: the plies plies and the interfaces between plies
int as in [22]. The strain is noted  in the Voigt notation. The stress field is noted  in the Voigt
notation too. All the matrices and vectors are written in the cylindrical basis where ez is the axis
of revolution, r the radius and  the polar angle. The basis is noted (ez , er , e ). K (resp. k) is the
Hooke matrix of the ply (resp. for the interfaces). The structure is submitted to the volumic force
f d in  and with the surfacic force Fd on a part of the boundary noted *2 . On the complementary
part *1 , the displacement is imposed to u d . Notations are presented in Figure 2.
The problem we have to solve is then to find the displacement field u that verifies the virtual
work principle



(u)T K (u ) d
[u]T k[u ] d
plies

f dT u d +

int


*2 

FdT u d = 0

u U0

(1)

To illustrate the following study, a simple example will be used. In this example, the behaviour
can be written as
K (z, r, ) = K 0 (z, r ) + K 1 (z, r ) cos ()

(2)

k(z, r, ) = k0 (z, r ) + k1 (z, r ) cos ()

(3)

of course K 1 (resp. k1 ) must not be too large so that K (resp. k) remains positive definite.
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E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

Figure 2. Problem definition.

3. FORMULATION OF THE COUPLED PROBLEM


3.1. Finite element discretization
Our aim is to obtain a  continuous problem to estimate the quality of the approximation relative
to the hoop description.
The displacement field can be written as
u(z, r, ) = N (z, r )U ()

(4)

where N is a vector containing the finite element form functions and U () is the vector containing
the nodal displacements. Two operators Bplies (z, r ) and Bint (z, r ) are introduced such as
(u) = Bplies (z, r )V ()

(5)

[u] = Bint (z, r )V ()

(6)

with

U ()

V () = dU

()
d

(7)

Remarks
The problem is discrete in axial and radial directions but continuous in the hoop direction.
A lot of work has been done to set up error estimators for finite element discretization as it
can be seen in [2325].
N (z, r ) is introduced such as u(z, r, ) = N (z, r )V ().
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Problem (1) has to find V that verifies






2

V
0

plies strip

+
0

BTplies K Bplies

d +

int strip

BTint k Bint

strip

f dT N


d +

*2 strip

FdT N


ds

V d = 0

V d

ds

K ()

2 

V V0

(8)

)T
F(

3.2. Fourier series expansion


To solve the preceding problem, a complex Fourier series representation is used in the hoop
direction.
+

U () =
Un e jn 
(9)
n=

with the following properties:


1. Un = U n N (U n is the conjugate of Un ) because U is real.
2. limn> Un = 0 to ensure the convergence of the expansion.
V can be written as
V () =

+

n=

with


Ln =

L U e jn 

n n

(10)

Vn

1d

(11)

jn1d

The problem to solve can be rewritten as: find Vn n N that verifies


+


+


m= n=


VnT

2
0

K ()e j(n+m) dVm =

+


m=

2
0

jm 

F()e
dVm

Vm

(12)

The Fourier series expansions of the stiffness and force are now introduced
K () =

+P


K p e j p

(13)

Fq e jq 

(14)

p=P

F()
=

+Q

q=Q

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E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

with the following properties:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Each development is limited to an order noted P and Q.


K n = K n N because K is real.
Fn = F n N because F is real.
K is positive.

For this simple example take as illustration: P = 1, K +1 = K 1 and k+1 = k1 .


The problem is to find Vn such as
+


+


m= n=

VnT K nm Vm =

+

m=

Fm Vm

Vm

(15)

Remarks
For the case of isotropic materials with homogeneous repartition, the formulation can be
found in [17].
If K is independent of  then K n+m = 0 n  = m. The problem to solve is uncoupled on
the different harmonics and posed on Q modes. This result has been used in [12, 13].
An equivalent coupled problem can be found in [18] for the case of cylindrical shells with
geometrical defects.
The structure of the problem is the following in the case of the example (P = 1). It is block
tridiagonal with invariant blocks.
..

.
K +1 V 3

..

..
.
= F2

..

.
+ K 0 V 2

.
+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 2

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V 0

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V 0

+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 0

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V +2

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V +2

+ K +1 V +3

= F+2

..

..

..

..
.

= F+1
= F0

= F+1

3.3. Truncation of the Fourier expansion


The last problem is countable but must be truncated (at the order N ) to be numerically solved. The
question is to estimate the truncation order that will lead to an acceptable error. In this study, the
discretization error done by finite elements is not studied as mentioned previously. The truncated
problem is to find Vn n [N , +N ] such as
+N


+N


m=N n=N

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VnT K nm Vm =

2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

+N

m=N

Fm Vm

Vm

(16)

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87

e(N)

100

105

1010
0

10

15

20

Figure 3. Example of evolution of the truncation error.

The structure of the truncated problem for the illustrating example (P = 1) and for N = 2 is the
following:
K 0 V 2

+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 2

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V 0

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V 0

+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 0

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V +2

= F+1

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V +2

= F+2

= F2
= F+1
= F0

For the simple example, the error is given in Figure 3 as a function of the truncation order N .
The error e is defined as follows:
e(N ) =

u N u th  H 1 ()
u th  H 1 ()

(17)

Because the theoretical solution is not available, a fine solution with very high truncation order
is used as reference (N = 256).
The aim of this study is to predict this kind of convergency behaviour a priori.

3.4. Estimation of the truncation error


In this study, only the case of a second member concentrated on a single mode Q is treated,
the extension to a larger second member can be easily studied using the superposition principle. The
linear systems to solve for the theoretical and truncated cases are described and compared in the
Table I.
The two sets of equations are very similar, the only difference resides on the third group.
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DOI: 10.1002/nme

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2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

lim

n+

lim

(20a)

(21a)

Vn = 0

(19a)

K p Vm+ p = 0

Truncated equation

(19)

(18)

j [1 P, 0]

j [0, P 1]

p= j

P


K pN + j VN j = 0

K p+N j VN + j = 0

p=P

j


[N + P, M 1 + P] [M + 1 P, N P[

K p VM+ p = F M

p=P

P


p=P

P


Vn = 0

[, M 1 + P] [M + 1 P, [

Theoretical equations

Table I. Description of the problems to solve.

(21b)

(20b)

(19b)

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3.4.1. Form of the solution. Both the theoretical and truncated solutions have the same form which
is deduced by the second type of equations (homogeneous part)
P

p=P

K p Vm+ p = 0

(22)

Hypothesis: To solve this equation, the general case is restricted by the following assumption:
K () = K0 + g() K

(23)

where g is a scalar function with a null mean (this is the case for the illustrating example). It can
be rewritten as
p  = 0 K p =  p K

(24)

where ( p ) are the Fourier coefficients of the expansion of g() and K is a function of (z, r ) that
has been discretized by finite elements.
Remark
The  p coefficients are calculated or estimated a priori. In this study, the stiffness variation is
introduced as damage. The  p coefficients can then be estimated from the Fourier series expansion
of the damage.
The equation to solve is then
1

p=P

 p K Vm+ p + K 0 Vm +

P

p=1

 p K Vm+ p = 0

(25)

Introducing the following generalized eigenvalue problem to uncouple the preceding system
( K  K 0 )W = 0

(26)

where Wi is the eigenvector associated with the eigenvalue i . Introducing the matrix P such that
Wi is the column i of P, a basis changing can be introduced.
Vm = P X m

(27)

The uncoupled system is


1

p=P

 p X m+ p + X m +

P

p=1

 p X m+ p = 0

(28)

 is a diagonal matrix containing the eigenvalues.


Remark
If K is reduced to a small part of the mesh, the eigenvalues can be computed. For the case of
a delamination defect located in an interface, the maximum eigenvalue is approximately equal
to 0.5.
The components xm,i of the vector X m is searched in the form
xm,i = (yi )m
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E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

The scalar yi is a root of


1

p=P

p+P

 p i yi

+ yiP+1 +

P

p=1

p+P

 p i yi

=0

(30)

Assuming that i is known, leads to 2P different roots yi, j of this polynomial that can be solved
numerically. We have
2P

ci, j (yi, j )m
(31)
xm,i =
j=1

(ci, j ) j are constants to be determined. Then, the solution can be written in the following form:
Vm = P X m =

2P


C j (Y j )m

(32)

j=1

where Y j is a diagonal matrix containing the yi, j , and C j are constant vectors to be determined.
The form of the solution given by Equation (32) is available on both sides of M. Thus, constants
C j (in fact one for each domain) must be compatible because of the covering part of the solution.
3.4.2. Constants determination and error estimation. The difference between the two solutions
(the theoretical one and the truncated one) relies in the difference of determination of the constants
(C j ) j , i.e. the equation of group 3.
Remark
If all the i are known, the problem can be solved directly. In the case of local modifications of the
Hooke matrix as for delamination, the eigenproblem can be solved but it is too expensive in other
cases. On top of this, as it will be shown, the Hooke operator decomposition is not calculated and
so only estimations of i are known.
The estimation of the error is done for the slowest rate of decreasing, i.e. for the greater yi, j . To
verify the third group of equations, this value must have a modulus lower than one. This value is
assumed to be given for i maximum which corresponds to the amplitude maximum of the defect.
This value can be estimated from the defect form. Thus, the different steps of the analysis are
1.
2.
3.
4.

To
To
To
To

estimate i maximum.
compute the roots yi, j .
solve the constant ci, j for both theoretical and truncated cases.
estimate the error on the estimation of ci, j .

These different steps are computed for different truncation orders.


Remark
As the equations of group 3 for the truncated problem play the role of penalizing conditions, the
system to solve may be badly scaled for high order of truncation even if, in practice, the truncation
order is not so high.
Figure 4 gives an illustration for the simple example treated in this study. For an error imposed
to 1%, the truncation order is given for a magnitude noted  (0 means no defect and 1 means
maximum defect preserving positive definiteness of the stiffness).
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91

50
40

30
20
10
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Figure 4. Example of the truncation order needed function of the defect magnitude
 for an truncation error of 1%.

Figure 5. Example definition.

Thus, for a given defect (form and magnitude), the truncation order can be determined a priori
for a given error.
For the case of defects that do not respect Equation (23), a first extension would be to treat the
defect slide by slide, the truncation order will be taken as the maximum truncation order for each
slide.
3.5. Application
To illustrate this strategy, a more industrial case is used (Figure 5). It is a composite pipe composed
of G939/M18 plies (thickness 0.2 mm). The stacking sequence is [+20/ 20/0/ 20/ + 20] and
the inner radius is 16 mm. Only one end of the pipe is treated, as in [12]. The pipe is considered
in tension and clamped at the end by a titanium sleeve. The covering length is 20 mm.
A defect is inserted in the inner interface [+20/ 20]. It is a 22 mm long opening under the
sleeve. The hoop description of the defect is given Figure 6 in term of damaging.
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E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

0.8

damage

0.6

0.4

0.2

(rad)

Figure 6. Hoop description of the defect (damage evolution).

20

r (mm)

19
18
17
16
15

10

15

20
z (mm)

25

30

35

40

Figure 7. Longitudinal section mesh.

A fine mesh is used to catch edge-localized effects, it is shown in Figure 7. The size of the
mesh is one-tenth of millimetre.
Sixty-four modes are used in the expansion and leads to a coupled problem of 1.3 millions of
degrees of freedom (dofs). A classical 3D equivalent mesh would require above 5 millions of dofs.
The estimated error is very low, above 107 . The solution and the resolution of the technique are
given in the next section.

4. NUMERICAL RESOLUTION OF THE TRUNCATED PROBLEM


In this section, the numerical implementation of the strategy is discussed. First, the finite element
discretization is presented and then two points which are more specific to the resolution of the
coupled problem. In practice, the problem written as Equation (16) is not solved directly except if it
is fully uncoupled, in this case, the parallelism can be used very efficiently [12]. In the general case
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93

of a coupled problem, the cost of a direct resolution is too high and a parallelized iterative technique
is used: a preconditionate conjugate gradient. The choice of the preconditioner is essential [19, 20]
and is discussed in the following paragraph. The problem to solve involves quantities in terms of
Fourier coefficients. In fact, because the stress field must be known at different points to apply
non-linear behaviour relations, the different quantities are sampled. Some problems arise from this
sampling and are treated too.
4.1. Description of the finite element discretization
The displacement field is described using finite elements in the axial and radial directions. To use
efficiently the different libraries available (here, Matlab), the Fourier expansion is not done in the
complex form but in the sines and cosines form as described in [12]. The displacement field is
then developed as follows:
u z = u 0z +
u r = u 0z +
u  = u 0 +

N

n=1
N

n=1
N

n=1

u nz cos(n) + u n
z sin(n)

(33)

u rn cos(n) + u rn sin(n)

(34)

u n sin(n) + u z n cos(n)

(35)

Thus, the Fourier coefficients are no more complex but real, and then one complex coefficient
is replaced by two real ones. In other words, the modes in cosines and sines of the same harmonic
(called [+n, n] mode) are coupled.
To be close to the solution space (at least for the elastic case), non-isoparametric elements are
used (Figure 8).
For plies, a degree 3 Hermite interpolation in the axial direction and a degree 2 Lagrange one
for the radial direction are used. For interfaces, a degree 3 Hermite interpolation is used for the
axial direction. Thus, the unknowns at each nodes are:
0 , u0, u0 .
For the mode 0: u 0z , u 0z,z , u r0 , u r,z
 ,z
n
n
n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n .
For a mode [+n, n] : u z , u z,z , u rn , u r,z
z,z
r
r,z
 ,z z

,z

er

ez

Ply

Interface

Figure 8. Elements description (ply and interface).


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Condition number

1012
10

0
1
2

106
103
100
102

101

100
z/r

101

102

Figure 9. Evolution of the condition number with the length to height ratio of the ply element.

The ply elements are integrated using 12 Gauss points, four in the axial direction and three
in the radial one. Four Gauss points in the axial direction allow to integrate exactly the degree
3 interpolation. In the radial direction, Gauss points do not allow to integrate exactly a degree 2
interpolation (presence of a 1/r term in the expression of the deformation in the cylindrical basis).
Numerical tests lead to choose three Gauss points in the radial direction to avoid hourglass modes
and a too bad condition number.
In order to get accurate results in the non-linear case using a Newton-like algorithm, the condition
number of the elastic problems associated with the Newton algorithm search directions must not
be too large, 106 in practice. The evolution of the condition number is given in Figure 9 for
different length to height ratio for modes 0, 1 and 2. Then to have accurate numerical results in
the non-linear case, this ratio must not exceed 10 and therefore, the element length is about 1 mm
because the ply thickness is about 0.2 mm.
For interfaces elements, in case of high-stress gradients (as it could occur with edge effects),
some spurious oscillations may occur. Schellekens and De Borst [4] gave a solution to avoid these
oscillations for degree 1 and 2 elements. It consists of using a Lobatto integration scheme which
links the nodes by pair. In fact, the oscillations are driven by a characteristic length based on the
ratio of the interface stiffness and the ply one. To avoid oscillations, the element size must be
close to the characteristic length. Thus, two solutions are available: to reduce the interface stiffness
(Lobatto integration) or to reduce the element size. Because, with the Hermite interpolation two
unknowns are present by node (a field and its z derivative), a Lobatto integration would lead to
hourglass modes. The solution is then to take small elements (already they are small in the treated
application) to avoid oscillations. In this case, it can be shown numerically that degree 3 Hermite
elements are cheaper than linear ones.
4.2. Choice of the preconditioner
As it has been written before, axisymmetric problem have the property to lead to uncoupled
equations and then to efficient resolutions by the use of parallelism. The idea is then to use such
an axisymmetric problem as a preconditioner, which takes the form
M = K0 +  K
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Table II. Comparison of the condition number between


theoretical value and computed value.
N

th

num

1
2
24

4.5001
8.0659
18.4494

4.5005
8.0671
18.6510

where  is a parameter that will differentiate the case of a healthy pipe from the case of a damaged
one. A first approximation of the efficiency of the preconditioner can be determined from the
condition number  of the preconditioned system. This one is the ratio between the maximum and
minimum eigenvalues ( max and min )
=

max
min

(37)

In this case with respect to Equation (23), it can be numerically proved that the condition number
is independent of . The eigenproblem to solve is
1

p=P

 p K Vm+ p + ( K 0 ( K0 +  K ))Vm +

P

p=1

 p K Vm+ p = 0

(38)

which can be rewritten as


1

p=P

 p X m+ p + (1 (1 + ))X m +

P

p=1

 p X m+ p = 0

(39)

Then, the eigenvalues are


=

r ()
1 + 

(40)

with r eigenvalue of the following problem:


1

p=P

 p X m+ p + (1 r )X m +

P

p=1

 p X m+ p = 0

(41)

because rmax and rmin depend on max (the magnitude of the defect),  is independent of . Thus,
the healthy pipe behaviour is taken as preconditioner because this construction is very easy and
independent of the damage state.
For the simple example treated in this paper, the condition number can be calculated numerically
and is compared with the theoretical one in the Table II which shows a very good agreement.
4.3. Effects of the sampled representation
In this paper, the stress calculation has been presented in a continuous form
()

= K ()()
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E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

0.7
0.65
20
0.6

15
10

0.55

5
0

0.5
0.45
0.4

60

0.35

20
40

10
0

0.3

20
0

Figure 10. Evolution of d12 for k = 2.

In fact, because the stress field must be known at different points to apply non-linear behaviour
relations, the different quantities are sampled
(i ) = K (i )(i )

(43)

2
n sam

(44)

with
i = i

i [0, n sam 1]

n sam is the number of sampling points in the hoop direction.


Then, the classical Fourier transform of a continuous signal is replaced by a fast Fourier
transform (FFT) of a sampled signal. The sampling frequency is f s = n sam /2. The resulting
spectrum consists in the copy of the continuous signal spectrum with a period n sam /2. To avoid
the problems due to spectrum folding, the Shannon theorem imposes to verify
2 f max  f s

(45)

where f max is the highest frequency contained in the continuous signal. In this study, it is
f max =

N
2

(46)

For higher frequencies, the truncation is used. Then, the sampled vision is equivalent to the
continuous one if
n sam 2N

(47)

If not, the residual may be misestimated and the convergency properties may be lost.
To illustrate the effect of spectrum folding on the convergency of the conjugate gradient, a
simple example is used: a pipe in bending composed of a single ply at [+22.5] of G969/RTM6.
A pre-damage is imposed on the shear coefficient G 12 (Figure 10).
d12 = 0.5 + 0.25 cos(k),
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k [1, 10]

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97

Table III. Number of iterations that converge in function of the sampling.


N = 2b n sam = 2a
b=1
b=2
b=3
b=4
b=5
b=6

a=1

a=2

a=3

a=4

a=5

a=6

NC

5
NC

5
8
NC

4
4
4
NC

4
4
4
8
10

4
4
4
8
8
10

damage

0.5

0
0

100

200
(degrees)

300

Figure 11. Given damage at the sampling points.

damage

0.5

0
0

100

200
(degrees)

300

Figure 12. Damage built on sampling points with 32 modes.

In Table III, n sam = 2a represents the number of sampling points and N = 2b n sam the truncation
order. The number of iterations of the conjugate gradient is given. On the diagonal, in some cases,
the conjugate gradient is not converging (NC).
The second issue relative to sampling is to ensure the positivity of the Hooke matrices. As
mentioned, defects are represented as damage having a value between 0 and 1. If damage is
greater than one, then the positivity is lost. The problem is that setting a damage to an acceptable
value on the sampling point does not imply that the damage is less than 1 between the sampling
points. Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the construction of the underlying analytical function from
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E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

101

relative error

102

103

104

105
0

10

20
iteration

30

40

Figure 13. Convergency of the conjugate gradient.

Figure 14. Evolution of the damage (representing a defect) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

a set of sampling points. In the presented case, the damage can be greater than one and then the
conjugate gradient diverges. A lot of care must be taken on this point to be sure that the algorithm
will work in good conditions.
4.4. Application
The resolution technique presented has been used to solve the quasi-industrial problem presented
before (Section 3.5), where more than a million of dofs are required. The evolution of the relative
error is shown in Figure 13. Thirty iterations are necessary to converge and it takes about 2 h and
a half to solve the problem with a prototype code under MATLAB.
Figure 14 represents, in a developed manner, the damage inserted at the inner interface.
Figures 1517 show the stress levels at the inner interface. A free edge effect (for z = 5 mm)
is visible but inferior to the stress concentration created at the sleeve extremity. It is remarkable
that the stress concentration created by the end of the defect is two times lower than the one
created by the end of the sleeve.
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99

Figure 15. Evolution of zr (in MPa) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

Figure 16. Evolution of rr (in MPa) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

Figure 17. Evolution of r  (in MPa) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

Figure 18 compares the evolution of a damage indicator for the same defect included in the
inner interface or in the outer one in a longitudinal section including the defect. This indicator (d)
is a criterion calculated directly from the shear stress state
d = 12 k zr [Uz ]2
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E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

1
outer interface

damage

0.8

inner interface

0.6
0.4
0.2
0

10

15

20
25
z (mm)

30

35

40

Figure 18. Evolution of the damage indicator for defects in the inner or outer interface.

The loading is amplified to have a maximum damage indicator value equal to 1. It can be seen
that a defect included in the outer interface is more severe than a defect introduced in the inner
interface because the damage indicator is two times greater for the outer interface defect.
5. CONCLUSION
This study focuses on the efficient resolution of composite pipes (or revolution solids). For that, a
dedicated Fourier expansion is used. The initial 3D problem is then transformed in a set of coupled
2D ones. The question of the influence of the expansion truncation on the quality of the solution
is studied. Then, this coupled truncated problem is solved using a conjugate gradient technique
with the healthy pipe behaviour as preconditioner because it permits to use very efficiently parallel
computers. In fact, to be implemented in a non-linear resolution scheme, the different quantities
involved in the computation (stress, displacement, behaviour) are sampled on a set of points instead
of being represented by Fourier coefficients. The equivalence between the two representations is
studied and some possible traps in the numerical implementation are explained. The strategy is
illustrated on a basic example and used on a quasi-industrial problem on the elastic case. A
prototype code in Matlab has been developed to implement the presented strategy and is now used
in space industry. The next step is to introduce the non-linear behaviour at interfaces and in plies
to be able to simulate defect propagation and then to cope the defect tolerance problem.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was carried out as part of the AMERICO project (Multiscale Analyses: Innovative Research
for CFRPs) directed by ONERA (the French Aeronautics and Space Research Center) and funded by
DGA/STTC (the French Ministry of Defense), whose support is gratefully acknowledged.
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DOI: 10.1002/nme