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Fourier analysis for the simulation of composite

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Fourier analysis for the simulation of composite

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Published online 27 November 2006 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/nme.1945

of composite pipes with defects

E. Baranger1, , , O. Allix1 and L. Blanchard2

1 LMT

2 Alcatel

Alenia Space, 100 Boulevard du Midi, Cannes la Bocca Cedex 06156, France

SUMMARY

Through the study of a linear problem, this paper introduces some of the ingredients that are needed in

order to conduct efficient non-linear calculations on composite pipes under thermo-mechanical loading

in the presence of defects. Based on the observation that the main degradation scenarios take place at

the extremity of a pipe, a refined model is used to describe this end zone while the rest of the pipe is

described using a beam model. This study focuses on the efficient resolution of the refined end zone.

For that, a dedicated Fourier expansion is used. The initial 3D problem is then transformed in a set of

coupled 2D ones. The questions of the expansion truncation and the resolution of the coupled problem

are then tackled. The use of a preconditioned conjugate gradient method allows to treat quasi-industrial

problems in a prototype code in Matlab. Copyright q 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Received 18 April 2006; Revised 24 October 2006; Accepted 24 October 2006

KEY WORDS:

1. INTRODUCTION

The long-term objective of this study is to derive quantitative tools enabling one to decide whether

a composite pipe with initial defects is usable or must be rejected. These defects (delamination,

porosity, cracking) are due to operations in the manufacturing process such as drilling or cutting.

The presence of such defects is not taken into account directly in the design of the structure so the

capability of each component to withstand thermo-mechanical loading must be verified on samples

after the manufacturing process. At this time, the tests performed on these samples are compared

with the reference values and determined whether a part can be used in this state or it should

be rejected. In some cases, this caution principle can unfortunately bring about rejection of parts

Correspondence

to: E. Baranger, LMT Cachan, 61 Avenue du President Wilson, Cachan Cedex 94235, France.

E-mail: baranger@lmt.ens-cachan.fr

Copyright q

82

Figure 1. Application.

which could have been able to withstand the loads even with the presence of defects. The purpose

of this study is to provide engineers with a numerical decision-making tool and, thus, reduce

both the cost of verification and the number of rejected pipes. In summary, the objective of this

study is to reduce the cost of these experimental verifications by means of a suitable calculation

strategy. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different kinds of defects (delamination,

transverse cracking, fibre breakage) in the simulation of the structure (a pipe with metallic linking

elements). For that, at least a mesoscale is needed, this scale is the one of the ply. It allows to

describe delamination using fracture mechanics [1] or continuum damage mechanics [25]. For

transverse cracking or fibre breaking, damage mechanics can be used [6, 7]. A major issue is the

ability to use this kind of fine models. Let us remind that the characteristic length of a mesomodel

is the ply thickness (0.2 mm in the present case) while the length of the structure is above 1 m

(Figure 1). Thus, the computational cost is decisive for the use of such a fine modelling.

The first idea is to use this fine modelling only in the damaged zone (ends of the pipes).

A simpler one (an elastic beam theory) is used for the middle part of the pipe. The question is then

to couple both zones without creating spurious edge effects at the link between them that would

lead to damage in a non-linear analysis. A possible approach would be to consider model coupling

as in [8]. The chosen one, is more classical and is to consider a unique 3D beam model and to

search an efficient computational strategy. It is then possible to use an asymptotic beam theory

to build the solution corresponding to the inner part of the pipe. A major issue is to separate the

calculation of the edge effect [9, 10]. To handle this issue, the exact beam theory developed by

Ladev`eze and Simmonds [11] is used to generate the Saint-Venant solution of the interior elastic

problem. More details can be found in [12, 13]. The fine modelling zone is then reduced, this

strategy is valid if the linking zone remains linear elastic which is the case because non-linearities

and edge effects are localized at the ends of the pipe.

Even with this reduction, the computational cost remains too expensive for multiple analysis

relative to different kinds of defects (more than a million degrees of freedom for a 3D finite element

model). An efficient and adapted numerical strategy is needed and is presented in this paper.

Copyright q

DOI: 10.1002/nme

83

In the present case, the cost of a direct (monolithic) 3D finite element analysis is too expensive

because of the hoop description of the pipe. The perimeter is 1000 times bigger than the ply thickness and the stiffness matrix bandwidth is very large due to the field periodicity that introduces

a strong coupling between degrees of freedom. A possible solution would be to use a domain

decomposition method [1416]. Let us remark that the efficiency of such a method requires an

angular domain decomposition while the intuitive decomposition due to anisotropy is radial. The

way chosen in this study is the use of Fourier analysis. The classical case of axisymmetric structures (i.e. axisymmetric geometry and axisymmetric repartition of material), with an orthotropic

material in which each longitudinal section is a symmetry plane, can be found in [17] and is

implemented in major finite element codes. In this case, a 3D computation is fully uncoupled on

the different Fourier modes. For the case of buckling, Combescure and Gusic [18] studied theoretically axisymmetric structures with geometrical defects on the neutral surfaces of shells. The 3D

simulation is then by coupling different modes. The mode frequencies used in the simulation is defined a priori with regard to physical considerations. It has been implemented in the finite element

code INCA.

In the present case, the studied problem is geometrically axisymmetric but with a nonaxisymmetric material repartition (presence of defects). In addition, the orthotropic axes of the

material do not permit to apply the standard computations in the healthy case. The problem described on modes is then fully coupled. The use of a preconditioned conjugate gradient [19, 20]

allows to solve this problem efficiently as it can be done for problems with similar structures [21].

2. PROBLEM DEFINITION

The structure is divided in two kind of entities: the plies plies and the interfaces between plies

int as in [22]. The strain is noted in the Voigt notation. The stress field is noted in the Voigt

notation too. All the matrices and vectors are written in the cylindrical basis where ez is the axis

of revolution, r the radius and the polar angle. The basis is noted (ez , er , e ). K (resp. k) is the

Hooke matrix of the ply (resp. for the interfaces). The structure is submitted to the volumic force

f d in and with the surfacic force Fd on a part of the boundary noted *2 . On the complementary

part *1 , the displacement is imposed to u d . Notations are presented in Figure 2.

The problem we have to solve is then to find the displacement field u that verifies the virtual

work principle

(u)T K (u ) d

[u]T k[u ] d

plies

f dT u d +

int

*2

FdT u d = 0

u U0

(1)

To illustrate the following study, a simple example will be used. In this example, the behaviour

can be written as

K (z, r, ) = K 0 (z, r ) + K 1 (z, r ) cos ()

(2)

(3)

of course K 1 (resp. k1 ) must not be too large so that K (resp. k) remains positive definite.

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3.1. Finite element discretization

Our aim is to obtain a continuous problem to estimate the quality of the approximation relative

to the hoop description.

The displacement field can be written as

u(z, r, ) = N (z, r )U ()

(4)

where N is a vector containing the finite element form functions and U () is the vector containing

the nodal displacements. Two operators Bplies (z, r ) and Bint (z, r ) are introduced such as

(u) = Bplies (z, r )V ()

(5)

(6)

with

U ()

V () = dU

()

d

(7)

Remarks

The problem is discrete in axial and radial directions but continuous in the hoop direction.

A lot of work has been done to set up error estimators for finite element discretization as it

can be seen in [2325].

N (z, r ) is introduced such as u(z, r, ) = N (z, r )V ().

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2

V

0

plies strip

+

0

BTplies K Bplies

d +

int strip

BTint k Bint

strip

f dT N

d +

*2 strip

FdT N

ds

V d = 0

V d

ds

K ()

2

V V0

(8)

)T

F(

To solve the preceding problem, a complex Fourier series representation is used in the hoop

direction.

+

U () =

Un e jn

(9)

n=

1. Un = U n N (U n is the conjugate of Un ) because U is real.

2. limn> Un = 0 to ensure the convergence of the expansion.

V can be written as

V () =

+

n=

with

Ln =

L U e jn

n n

(10)

Vn

1d

(11)

jn1d

+

+

m= n=

VnT

2

0

+

m=

2

0

jm

F()e

dVm

Vm

(12)

The Fourier series expansions of the stiffness and force are now introduced

K () =

+P

K p e j p

(13)

Fq e jq

(14)

p=P

F()

=

+Q

q=Q

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1.

2.

3.

4.

K n = K n N because K is real.

Fn = F n N because F is real.

K is positive.

The problem is to find Vn such as

+

+

m= n=

VnT K nm Vm =

+

m=

Fm Vm

Vm

(15)

Remarks

For the case of isotropic materials with homogeneous repartition, the formulation can be

found in [17].

If K is independent of then K n+m = 0 n = m. The problem to solve is uncoupled on

the different harmonics and posed on Q modes. This result has been used in [12, 13].

An equivalent coupled problem can be found in [18] for the case of cylindrical shells with

geometrical defects.

The structure of the problem is the following in the case of the example (P = 1). It is block

tridiagonal with invariant blocks.

..

.

K +1 V 3

..

..

.

= F2

..

.

+ K 0 V 2

.

+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 2

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V 0

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V 0

+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 0

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V +2

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V +2

+ K +1 V +3

= F+2

..

..

..

..

.

= F+1

= F0

= F+1

The last problem is countable but must be truncated (at the order N ) to be numerically solved. The

question is to estimate the truncation order that will lead to an acceptable error. In this study, the

discretization error done by finite elements is not studied as mentioned previously. The truncated

problem is to find Vn n [N , +N ] such as

+N

+N

m=N n=N

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VnT K nm Vm =

+N

m=N

Fm Vm

Vm

(16)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

87

e(N)

100

105

1010

0

10

15

20

The structure of the truncated problem for the illustrating example (P = 1) and for N = 2 is the

following:

K 0 V 2

+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 2

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V 0

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V 0

+ K +1 V +1

K +1 V 0

+ K 0 V +1

+ K +1 V +2

= F+1

K +1 V +1

+ K 0 V +2

= F+2

= F2

= F+1

= F0

For the simple example, the error is given in Figure 3 as a function of the truncation order N .

The error e is defined as follows:

e(N ) =

u N u th H 1 ()

u th H 1 ()

(17)

Because the theoretical solution is not available, a fine solution with very high truncation order

is used as reference (N = 256).

The aim of this study is to predict this kind of convergency behaviour a priori.

In this study, only the case of a second member concentrated on a single mode Q is treated,

the extension to a larger second member can be easily studied using the superposition principle. The

linear systems to solve for the theoretical and truncated cases are described and compared in the

Table I.

The two sets of equations are very similar, the only difference resides on the third group.

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lim

n+

lim

(20a)

(21a)

Vn = 0

(19a)

K p Vm+ p = 0

Truncated equation

(19)

(18)

j [1 P, 0]

j [0, P 1]

p= j

P

K pN + j VN j = 0

K p+N j VN + j = 0

p=P

j

[N + P, M 1 + P] [M + 1 P, N P[

K p VM+ p = F M

p=P

P

p=P

P

Vn = 0

[, M 1 + P] [M + 1 P, [

Theoretical equations

(21b)

(20b)

(19b)

88

E. BARANGER, O. ALLIX AND L. BLANCHARD

DOI: 10.1002/nme

89

3.4.1. Form of the solution. Both the theoretical and truncated solutions have the same form which

is deduced by the second type of equations (homogeneous part)

P

p=P

K p Vm+ p = 0

(22)

Hypothesis: To solve this equation, the general case is restricted by the following assumption:

K () = K0 + g() K

(23)

where g is a scalar function with a null mean (this is the case for the illustrating example). It can

be rewritten as

p = 0 K p = p K

(24)

where ( p ) are the Fourier coefficients of the expansion of g() and K is a function of (z, r ) that

has been discretized by finite elements.

Remark

The p coefficients are calculated or estimated a priori. In this study, the stiffness variation is

introduced as damage. The p coefficients can then be estimated from the Fourier series expansion

of the damage.

The equation to solve is then

1

p=P

p K Vm+ p + K 0 Vm +

P

p=1

p K Vm+ p = 0

(25)

Introducing the following generalized eigenvalue problem to uncouple the preceding system

( K K 0 )W = 0

(26)

where Wi is the eigenvector associated with the eigenvalue i . Introducing the matrix P such that

Wi is the column i of P, a basis changing can be introduced.

Vm = P X m

(27)

1

p=P

p X m+ p + X m +

P

p=1

p X m+ p = 0

(28)

Remark

If K is reduced to a small part of the mesh, the eigenvalues can be computed. For the case of

a delamination defect located in an interface, the maximum eigenvalue is approximately equal

to 0.5.

The components xm,i of the vector X m is searched in the form

xm,i = (yi )m

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DOI: 10.1002/nme

90

1

p=P

p+P

p i yi

+ yiP+1 +

P

p=1

p+P

p i yi

=0

(30)

Assuming that i is known, leads to 2P different roots yi, j of this polynomial that can be solved

numerically. We have

2P

ci, j (yi, j )m

(31)

xm,i =

j=1

(ci, j ) j are constants to be determined. Then, the solution can be written in the following form:

Vm = P X m =

2P

C j (Y j )m

(32)

j=1

where Y j is a diagonal matrix containing the yi, j , and C j are constant vectors to be determined.

The form of the solution given by Equation (32) is available on both sides of M. Thus, constants

C j (in fact one for each domain) must be compatible because of the covering part of the solution.

3.4.2. Constants determination and error estimation. The difference between the two solutions

(the theoretical one and the truncated one) relies in the difference of determination of the constants

(C j ) j , i.e. the equation of group 3.

Remark

If all the i are known, the problem can be solved directly. In the case of local modifications of the

Hooke matrix as for delamination, the eigenproblem can be solved but it is too expensive in other

cases. On top of this, as it will be shown, the Hooke operator decomposition is not calculated and

so only estimations of i are known.

The estimation of the error is done for the slowest rate of decreasing, i.e. for the greater yi, j . To

verify the third group of equations, this value must have a modulus lower than one. This value is

assumed to be given for i maximum which corresponds to the amplitude maximum of the defect.

This value can be estimated from the defect form. Thus, the different steps of the analysis are

1.

2.

3.

4.

To

To

To

To

estimate i maximum.

compute the roots yi, j .

solve the constant ci, j for both theoretical and truncated cases.

estimate the error on the estimation of ci, j .

Remark

As the equations of group 3 for the truncated problem play the role of penalizing conditions, the

system to solve may be badly scaled for high order of truncation even if, in practice, the truncation

order is not so high.

Figure 4 gives an illustration for the simple example treated in this study. For an error imposed

to 1%, the truncation order is given for a magnitude noted (0 means no defect and 1 means

maximum defect preserving positive definiteness of the stiffness).

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50

40

30

20

10

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Figure 4. Example of the truncation order needed function of the defect magnitude

for an truncation error of 1%.

Thus, for a given defect (form and magnitude), the truncation order can be determined a priori

for a given error.

For the case of defects that do not respect Equation (23), a first extension would be to treat the

defect slide by slide, the truncation order will be taken as the maximum truncation order for each

slide.

3.5. Application

To illustrate this strategy, a more industrial case is used (Figure 5). It is a composite pipe composed

of G939/M18 plies (thickness 0.2 mm). The stacking sequence is [+20/ 20/0/ 20/ + 20] and

the inner radius is 16 mm. Only one end of the pipe is treated, as in [12]. The pipe is considered

in tension and clamped at the end by a titanium sleeve. The covering length is 20 mm.

A defect is inserted in the inner interface [+20/ 20]. It is a 22 mm long opening under the

sleeve. The hoop description of the defect is given Figure 6 in term of damaging.

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0.8

damage

0.6

0.4

0.2

(rad)

20

r (mm)

19

18

17

16

15

10

15

20

z (mm)

25

30

35

40

A fine mesh is used to catch edge-localized effects, it is shown in Figure 7. The size of the

mesh is one-tenth of millimetre.

Sixty-four modes are used in the expansion and leads to a coupled problem of 1.3 millions of

degrees of freedom (dofs). A classical 3D equivalent mesh would require above 5 millions of dofs.

The estimated error is very low, above 107 . The solution and the resolution of the technique are

given in the next section.

In this section, the numerical implementation of the strategy is discussed. First, the finite element

discretization is presented and then two points which are more specific to the resolution of the

coupled problem. In practice, the problem written as Equation (16) is not solved directly except if it

is fully uncoupled, in this case, the parallelism can be used very efficiently [12]. In the general case

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of a coupled problem, the cost of a direct resolution is too high and a parallelized iterative technique

is used: a preconditionate conjugate gradient. The choice of the preconditioner is essential [19, 20]

and is discussed in the following paragraph. The problem to solve involves quantities in terms of

Fourier coefficients. In fact, because the stress field must be known at different points to apply

non-linear behaviour relations, the different quantities are sampled. Some problems arise from this

sampling and are treated too.

4.1. Description of the finite element discretization

The displacement field is described using finite elements in the axial and radial directions. To use

efficiently the different libraries available (here, Matlab), the Fourier expansion is not done in the

complex form but in the sines and cosines form as described in [12]. The displacement field is

then developed as follows:

u z = u 0z +

u r = u 0z +

u = u 0 +

N

n=1

N

n=1

N

n=1

u nz cos(n) + u n

z sin(n)

(33)

u rn cos(n) + u rn sin(n)

(34)

u n sin(n) + u z n cos(n)

(35)

Thus, the Fourier coefficients are no more complex but real, and then one complex coefficient

is replaced by two real ones. In other words, the modes in cosines and sines of the same harmonic

(called [+n, n] mode) are coupled.

To be close to the solution space (at least for the elastic case), non-isoparametric elements are

used (Figure 8).

For plies, a degree 3 Hermite interpolation in the axial direction and a degree 2 Lagrange one

for the radial direction are used. For interfaces, a degree 3 Hermite interpolation is used for the

axial direction. Thus, the unknowns at each nodes are:

0 , u0, u0 .

For the mode 0: u 0z , u 0z,z , u r0 , u r,z

,z

n

n

n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n , u n .

For a mode [+n, n] : u z , u z,z , u rn , u r,z

z,z

r

r,z

,z z

,z

er

ez

Ply

Interface

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Condition number

1012

10

0

1

2

106

103

100

102

101

100

z/r

101

102

Figure 9. Evolution of the condition number with the length to height ratio of the ply element.

The ply elements are integrated using 12 Gauss points, four in the axial direction and three

in the radial one. Four Gauss points in the axial direction allow to integrate exactly the degree

3 interpolation. In the radial direction, Gauss points do not allow to integrate exactly a degree 2

interpolation (presence of a 1/r term in the expression of the deformation in the cylindrical basis).

Numerical tests lead to choose three Gauss points in the radial direction to avoid hourglass modes

and a too bad condition number.

In order to get accurate results in the non-linear case using a Newton-like algorithm, the condition

number of the elastic problems associated with the Newton algorithm search directions must not

be too large, 106 in practice. The evolution of the condition number is given in Figure 9 for

different length to height ratio for modes 0, 1 and 2. Then to have accurate numerical results in

the non-linear case, this ratio must not exceed 10 and therefore, the element length is about 1 mm

because the ply thickness is about 0.2 mm.

For interfaces elements, in case of high-stress gradients (as it could occur with edge effects),

some spurious oscillations may occur. Schellekens and De Borst [4] gave a solution to avoid these

oscillations for degree 1 and 2 elements. It consists of using a Lobatto integration scheme which

links the nodes by pair. In fact, the oscillations are driven by a characteristic length based on the

ratio of the interface stiffness and the ply one. To avoid oscillations, the element size must be

close to the characteristic length. Thus, two solutions are available: to reduce the interface stiffness

(Lobatto integration) or to reduce the element size. Because, with the Hermite interpolation two

unknowns are present by node (a field and its z derivative), a Lobatto integration would lead to

hourglass modes. The solution is then to take small elements (already they are small in the treated

application) to avoid oscillations. In this case, it can be shown numerically that degree 3 Hermite

elements are cheaper than linear ones.

4.2. Choice of the preconditioner

As it has been written before, axisymmetric problem have the property to lead to uncoupled

equations and then to efficient resolutions by the use of parallelism. The idea is then to use such

an axisymmetric problem as a preconditioner, which takes the form

M = K0 + K

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theoretical value and computed value.

N

th

num

1

2

24

4.5001

8.0659

18.4494

4.5005

8.0671

18.6510

where is a parameter that will differentiate the case of a healthy pipe from the case of a damaged

one. A first approximation of the efficiency of the preconditioner can be determined from the

condition number of the preconditioned system. This one is the ratio between the maximum and

minimum eigenvalues ( max and min )

=

max

min

(37)

In this case with respect to Equation (23), it can be numerically proved that the condition number

is independent of . The eigenproblem to solve is

1

p=P

p K Vm+ p + ( K 0 ( K0 + K ))Vm +

P

p=1

p K Vm+ p = 0

(38)

1

p=P

p X m+ p + (1 (1 + ))X m +

P

p=1

p X m+ p = 0

(39)

=

r ()

1 +

(40)

1

p=P

p X m+ p + (1 r )X m +

P

p=1

p X m+ p = 0

(41)

because rmax and rmin depend on max (the magnitude of the defect), is independent of . Thus,

the healthy pipe behaviour is taken as preconditioner because this construction is very easy and

independent of the damage state.

For the simple example treated in this paper, the condition number can be calculated numerically

and is compared with the theoretical one in the Table II which shows a very good agreement.

4.3. Effects of the sampled representation

In this paper, the stress calculation has been presented in a continuous form

()

= K ()()

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0.7

0.65

20

0.6

15

10

0.55

5

0

0.5

0.45

0.4

60

0.35

20

40

10

0

0.3

20

0

In fact, because the stress field must be known at different points to apply non-linear behaviour

relations, the different quantities are sampled

(i ) = K (i )(i )

(43)

2

n sam

(44)

with

i = i

i [0, n sam 1]

Then, the classical Fourier transform of a continuous signal is replaced by a fast Fourier

transform (FFT) of a sampled signal. The sampling frequency is f s = n sam /2. The resulting

spectrum consists in the copy of the continuous signal spectrum with a period n sam /2. To avoid

the problems due to spectrum folding, the Shannon theorem imposes to verify

2 f max f s

(45)

where f max is the highest frequency contained in the continuous signal. In this study, it is

f max =

N

2

(46)

For higher frequencies, the truncation is used. Then, the sampled vision is equivalent to the

continuous one if

n sam 2N

(47)

If not, the residual may be misestimated and the convergency properties may be lost.

To illustrate the effect of spectrum folding on the convergency of the conjugate gradient, a

simple example is used: a pipe in bending composed of a single ply at [+22.5] of G969/RTM6.

A pre-damage is imposed on the shear coefficient G 12 (Figure 10).

d12 = 0.5 + 0.25 cos(k),

Copyright q

k [1, 10]

(48)

DOI: 10.1002/nme

97

N = 2b n sam = 2a

b=1

b=2

b=3

b=4

b=5

b=6

a=1

a=2

a=3

a=4

a=5

a=6

NC

5

NC

5

8

NC

4

4

4

NC

4

4

4

8

10

4

4

4

8

8

10

damage

0.5

0

0

100

200

(degrees)

300

damage

0.5

0

0

100

200

(degrees)

300

In Table III, n sam = 2a represents the number of sampling points and N = 2b n sam the truncation

order. The number of iterations of the conjugate gradient is given. On the diagonal, in some cases,

the conjugate gradient is not converging (NC).

The second issue relative to sampling is to ensure the positivity of the Hooke matrices. As

mentioned, defects are represented as damage having a value between 0 and 1. If damage is

greater than one, then the positivity is lost. The problem is that setting a damage to an acceptable

value on the sampling point does not imply that the damage is less than 1 between the sampling

points. Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the construction of the underlying analytical function from

Copyright q

DOI: 10.1002/nme

98

101

relative error

102

103

104

105

0

10

20

iteration

30

40

Figure 14. Evolution of the damage (representing a defect) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

a set of sampling points. In the presented case, the damage can be greater than one and then the

conjugate gradient diverges. A lot of care must be taken on this point to be sure that the algorithm

will work in good conditions.

4.4. Application

The resolution technique presented has been used to solve the quasi-industrial problem presented

before (Section 3.5), where more than a million of dofs are required. The evolution of the relative

error is shown in Figure 13. Thirty iterations are necessary to converge and it takes about 2 h and

a half to solve the problem with a prototype code under MATLAB.

Figure 14 represents, in a developed manner, the damage inserted at the inner interface.

Figures 1517 show the stress levels at the inner interface. A free edge effect (for z = 5 mm)

is visible but inferior to the stress concentration created at the sleeve extremity. It is remarkable

that the stress concentration created by the end of the defect is two times lower than the one

created by the end of the sleeve.

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99

Figure 15. Evolution of zr (in MPa) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

Figure 16. Evolution of rr (in MPa) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

Figure 17. Evolution of r (in MPa) at the inner interface [+20/ 20].

Figure 18 compares the evolution of a damage indicator for the same defect included in the

inner interface or in the outer one in a longitudinal section including the defect. This indicator (d)

is a criterion calculated directly from the shear stress state

d = 12 k zr [Uz ]2

Copyright q

(49)

Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng 2007; 71:81101

DOI: 10.1002/nme

100

1

outer interface

damage

0.8

inner interface

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

10

15

20

25

z (mm)

30

35

40

Figure 18. Evolution of the damage indicator for defects in the inner or outer interface.

The loading is amplified to have a maximum damage indicator value equal to 1. It can be seen

that a defect included in the outer interface is more severe than a defect introduced in the inner

interface because the damage indicator is two times greater for the outer interface defect.

5. CONCLUSION

This study focuses on the efficient resolution of composite pipes (or revolution solids). For that, a

dedicated Fourier expansion is used. The initial 3D problem is then transformed in a set of coupled

2D ones. The question of the influence of the expansion truncation on the quality of the solution

is studied. Then, this coupled truncated problem is solved using a conjugate gradient technique

with the healthy pipe behaviour as preconditioner because it permits to use very efficiently parallel

computers. In fact, to be implemented in a non-linear resolution scheme, the different quantities

involved in the computation (stress, displacement, behaviour) are sampled on a set of points instead

of being represented by Fourier coefficients. The equivalence between the two representations is

studied and some possible traps in the numerical implementation are explained. The strategy is

illustrated on a basic example and used on a quasi-industrial problem on the elastic case. A

prototype code in Matlab has been developed to implement the presented strategy and is now used

in space industry. The next step is to introduce the non-linear behaviour at interfaces and in plies

to be able to simulate defect propagation and then to cope the defect tolerance problem.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was carried out as part of the AMERICO project (Multiscale Analyses: Innovative Research

for CFRPs) directed by ONERA (the French Aeronautics and Space Research Center) and funded by

DGA/STTC (the French Ministry of Defense), whose support is gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES

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3. Corigliano A. Formulation, identification and use of interface models in the numerical analysis of composite

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