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9.1 Introduction:
Water tank is a structure used to store water..Tanks may be open or
covered on top. Design of liquid retaining structure is different from
ordinary R.C.C structure as their requirement, is that concrete should
not crack and tensile stresses in concrete should remain within
permissible limits.
There are three types of water tanks:
1. Tanks on ground
2. Tanks underground
3. Tanks elevated or water tower
These tanks maybe circular, square, or rectangular in shape. And there
are many used of tanks:
1. Water storage tanks or reservoirs.
2. Gas holder tanks.
3. Water purification tanks.

9.2 Recommended Materials:


Concrete:
It should use concrete for higher grades in water tanks, and its
better in this construction. Expect for those tanks with walls
thicker than 450mm.
Concrete mix shall be impervious and contain minimum cement
content 3.3kN/m3, and contain a maximum quantity 5.3kN/m3

Steel:
Mild steel is recommended and using in water tanks is more efficient
in controlling the shrinkage cracks in concrete. And since steel it
contacts with water, corrosion in steel will reduce the durability of
concrete structure. Therefore we should using working stresses
design because it stresses in both steel and concrete. And use Small

Diameter bars in reinforcement it will be useful for more efficient


controlling Cracks.

Cover For Steel


Minimum cover for steel shall not be less than:
Max o f

25 mm
{diameter
of bars }

And additional cover of 12mm for exposed to sea -water shall be


provided. And the minimum steel it will provided in water tanks is
about 0.2%, and for walls thicker than 225mm, two layers of steel are
recommended.
Minimum steel
Thickness
% of steel
Of wall(mm)
Fy=250 Mpa
Fy=415 or 500Mpa
100
0.3
0.24
150
0.26
0.21
200
0.24
0.19
250
0.23
0.18
300
0.21
0.17
350
0.20
0.16
400
0.20
0.16
>400
0.20
0.16
Table (9-1) for minimum steel ratio should be provided in
walls of tanks.

Control of cracking:
Control of cracking it will be effect by using this method:
1.

Use small diameter bar with deformed bars and put it in correct

placement of steel bars it will distribution of cracks

2.

Minimized the limiting of change in moisture content and

temperature it will be reducing the cracks by controlling of the


shrinkage effect.
3.

The risk of cracking can also minimized by using joints like


expansion or Contraction joints of the structure.

4.

Use cement with low rate of heat of evolution (like Portland


cement).
5.Decrease the (W/C) ratio.

9.3 Design Of Closed Underground Water Tanks :


Water tanks built from three components:
1. Roof slab:
Roof slab for closed tanks can be of any suitable flooring systems,
depending upon the dimensions of the slab. Like one way solid slab
or two way solid slab or continuous slab on T-beam or flat slab
.etc.
2. Side walls:
Behavior and bending tendencies of side walls will depend upon:
a. L/h and L/B ratios of wall panels.
b. End conditions of wall like top and bottom hinged and vertical
sides fixed or top free bottom hinged and vertical sides fixed
etc.
3.Base slab or floor slab:
The floor slab carries no effective structural loading and it's free from
bending moments

of large magnitude. So small moment are

induced due to the weight of walls, roof if any which causes tension

on the top slab. This slab may span in one or two direction and the
minimum thickness of this slab is 200 mm.

Roof Slab

Side
Wall

Base Slab

Figure (9.1) Components of water tanks.

9.3.1 Design of water tank:


Tank Long Direction (L) = 5.7 m
Tank Short Direction (B) = 3.9 m
Tank Height (h) = 4.25 m

Capacity = L x B x H = 5.7 x 3.9 x 4.25 = 94.47 m3

Figure 9-2 water tank dimensions top view

f y =420 Mpa
Es =200000 Mpa
f 'c =25 Mpa
Ec =4700 f c =4700 25=23500 Mpa

Allowable stresses:
f s=0.4 x f y =0.4 x 420=168 Mpa

'

f c =0.4 x f c =0.4 x 25=10 Mpa

n=

E s 200000
=
9
E c 23500

r=

f s 168
=
=16.8
f c 100

K=

n
9
=
=0.348
n+r 9+16.8

j=1

K
0.348
=1
=0.884
3
3

Design of roof slab:


Lb 5.7
=
=1.46<2(Two way slab)
La 3.9

Assume H =250 mm
d = 210 mm
Dead load calculations:
Tiles = 0.025x 25 = 0.625 KN/m2
Mortar = 0.20x 22= 0.44 KN/m2
Sand = 0.1x 14.6 = 1.46 KN/m2
Solid slab = 0. 25x 25 = 6.25 KN/m2
D.L = 8.87 KN/m2

L.L = 2.5 KN/m2

W = 8.87+2.5 = 11.88 KN/m2


m=

La 3.9
=
=0.68
Lb 5.7

+ ( D. L )=c a ( L . L ) =0.0068
ca
+ ( D. L )=c b ( L . L ) =0.016
cb
M a=c a ( D . L ) x W ( D . L ) x l 2a +c a ( L. L ) x W ( D . L ) x l 2a
2

0.068 x 8.87 x 3.9 + 0.068 x 25 x 3.9 =11.76 KN . m


M b=c b ( D . L ) x W ( D . L ) x l 2b +c b ( L. L ) x W ( D . L ) x l 2b
0.016 x 8.87 x 5.72+ 0.016 x 25 x 5.7 2=5.9 KN . m

d req .=

2xM
f c xb x k x j

2 x 11.76 x 106
=87.3 mm<210 mm OK
10 x 1000 x 0.348 x 0.884

Steel reinforcement:
Short direction:

As=

M
FS x j x d

11.76 x 106
=377 mm 2
168 x 0.884 x 210

As
bxd

377
=1.795 x 103
210 x 1000

A s min = min x b x d
0.00338 x 1000 x 210=709.8 mm2 Use A s min Use7 12 mm/m

For secondary steel:

use

Use 7 12 mm/m

Long direction:

As=

M
FS x j x d

5.9 x 106
=189 mm2
168 x 0.884 x 210

As
bxd

189
=9 x 104
210 x 1000

A s min = min x b x d
0.00338 x 1000 x 210=709.8 mm2 Use A s min Use7 12 mm/m

For secondary steel:

use

Use 7 12 mm/m

Check shear:
vc=

1
f xbxd
6 c

1
25 x 1000 x 210 x 103=175 KN
6

v c =148.75 KN
w=w D. L +w L. L
= 8.87 + 2.5 = 11.28 KN/m2
F=Wx B x L=11.28 x 5.7 x 3.9=251 KN

m=

la
lb

= 0.68

From tables
w a=0.81
w b=0.19
1- Short Direction :

Vu=F x wa
= 251 x 0.81 = 203.31 KN
v c =148.75 KN >

Vu
ok
2

2 Long Direction:
Vu=F x wb
= 251 x 0.19= 47.69 KN
Vu
=23.845 KN
2
v c =148.75 KN >

Vu
ok
2

Design of tank walls:


H=4.25 m
s=18 KN /m2
Internal friction angle

K a=tan 2 45

=30

K a=0.333
1) The water tank is empty with external pressure :

PS = s x H x K a
PS =25.5 KN /m
SHEAR: X-X

V max = -43.3kN @ 4.25m

MOMENTS: X-X

4.20

4.00

3.80

3.60

3.40

3.20

3.00

2.80

2.60

2.40

2.20

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

.800

.600

.400

-5.00
-10.0
-15.0
-20.0
-25.0
-30.0
-35.0
-40.0

.200

10.0
5.00

M max = -30.7kNm @ 4.25m

-30.0
-25.0
-20.0
-15.0

4.20

4.00

3.80

3.60

3.40

3.20

3.00

2.80

2.60

2.40

2.20

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

.800

.600

.400

-5.00

.200

-10.0

5.00
10.0

2) The water tank is full without external earth pressure :

pw = w x h
10 x 4.25=42.5 KN /m

SHEAR: X-X

V max = -72.2kN @ 4.25m

20.0

4.20

4.00

3.80

3.60

3.40

3.20

3.00

2.80

2.60

2.40

2.20

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

.800

.600

-10.0

.400

.200

10.0

-20.0
-30.0
-40.0
-50.0
-60.0
-70.0

MOMENTS: X-X

M max = -51.2kNm @ 4.25m

-50.0
-40.0
-30.0

4.20

4.00

3.80

3.60

3.40

3.20

3.00

2.80

2.60

2.40

2.20

2.00

1.80

1.60

1.40

1.20

1.00

.800

.600

.200

-10.0

.400

-20.0

10.0
20.0

d req .=

2xM
f c xb x k x j

2 x 51.2 x 106
=182.45 mm
10 x 1000 x 0.348 x 0.884

Use h = 350 mm
d = 310 mm

For main steel (vertical):


As=

M
FS x j x d
6

51.2 x 10
=1112.11 mm2
168 x 0.884 x 310

As
1112.11
=
=3.587 x 103
bxd 1000 x 310
6 16 mm/m

Use

Secondary steel (horizontal):


min =0.002

In wall design use

A s =0.002 x A g =0.002 x 1000 x 350=700mm 2


5 14 mm/m

Use

Check for cracks:


Y=

( A X Y ) = 1000 X 350 X 175+( 91 ) X 1112.11 X 310 =178.35 mm


1000 X 350+ ( 91 ) X 1112.11
A
3

I g=

3
b x Y b(hY )
+
3
3

+ (n1)

2
x A s (dY )

1000 x 178.35 3 1000(350178.35)


+
3
3

+ (91)

1112.11(350178.35)2
= 3.84 x

10 mm

fr

= 0.7 x

M Cr

'
c

=0.7 x 25=3.5 Mpa

f r x I g 3.5 x 3.84 x 109 x 106


=
=78.3 KN . m> M max
yt
350178.35

T h ickness is ok

Design of base slab:


B x L x t x c =5.7 x 3.9 x 0.25 x 25=138.938 KN

Roof slab weight =

Walls weight = 2( H x L x t x c +2(B x H x t x c )


2 ( 4.25 x 6.05 x 0.25 x 25 )+ 2 ( 4.25 x 4.25 x 0.25 x 25 )=547.1875 KN
Total weight = 648.938 KN
Actual Bearing Capacity (q) =

Weig h t 648.938
=
Area
8 x 6.2

= 13.083 KN/ m2

Lb 8
=
=1.29<2(Two way slab)
La 6.2

m=

La 6.2
= =0.8
Lb 8

From tables find

M =0.056 x 13.083 x 6.2

d req .=

C aC b for deadlive load

= 28.163 KN.m

2xM
2 x 28.163 x 106
=
=135.3 mm
f c xb x k x j
10 x 1000 x 0.348 x 0.884

Use h = 300 mm with C.C = 70 mm


d = 230 mm

A s (main)=

M
FS x j x d

28.163 x 106
=824 mm2
168 x 0.884 x 230

use

4 18 mm

As
824
=
=3.583 x 103 > min
bxd 1000 x 230

A s ( sec . ) =0.80 x 824=658 mm2


Use

4 16 mm

Figure (9.3) cross section n the water tank reinforcement