Sunteți pe pagina 1din 4

Prof. R. Paderni

Formal description of diphthongs.

General description of English diphthongs

Prominence of the element:

falling: (diminuendo) the first element is more prominent than the second one. rising: (crescendo) the second element is more prominent than the first one. Only  and  in unstressed position can be rising.

e.g. serious 

By default, all English diphthongs are falling.

influence 

Direction of the movement of the tongue:

closing glide:  centring glide: 

Distance bet. the first and second element:

narrow diph: short glide wide diph: long glide

Quality

1. Part of the tongue raised the highest; 2. Height

of the tongue; 3. Lips posture (us. the same as the first

pure vowel); 4. Opening bet. the jaws; 5. Tenseness;

6. Position of the soft palate; 7. Voicing.

Phonological distribution

All diphthongs occur in initial (except ), mid, and final position. Diphthongs do not occur before  except where word-final /n/ is assimilated to 

front centre back           
front
centre
back




 

 

close

mid-close

mid-open

open

Triphthong:. Especially closing diph Smoothing: elision of the second element.

Length variations in diphthongs are governed by the same rules as length variations affecting the relatively long pure vowels. The quantity variants of the English falling diphthongs mainly affect the first element.

Allophones. Diphthongs share some characteristics of long vowels.

· They are fully long before lenis sound and in

final position

· They undergoe the process of Pre-fortis clipping:

shortened before a fortis consonant or a nasal/liquid + fortis cons.

Spelling-to-sound rules, and exceptions.

Rules that determine wich letter or combination of letters correspond to the pronunciation of the diphthong described.

.
.

Quality

Highest part of the tongue:

Height of the tongue:

Lips position:

Opening bet. the jaws:

Tenseness:

Soft palate:

Vocal folds:

English diphthong: 

centre bet. Open-m & C-mid

neutrally to weakly rounded

closed (midC to C) tense raised vibration

front centre back  Prominence:    falling Glide:   central-closing  
front
centre
back

Prominence:

falling
Glide:


central-closing
 
Distance:

narrow
Length:
long
 

Phonological distribution

Initial position: own  Mid position: broke  Final position: toe   does not normally occur before 

Spelling-to-sound rules

<ow> know

<oa>

<o>

<ou> shoulder

<oe>

oak

broke

toe

close

mid-close

mid-open

open

Triphthong:  as lower  Smoothing: slower 

Allophones (different varation or realization)

·Fully long before lenis sound and in final position

go 

 

·Shortened before a fortis consonant or a nasal/liquid + fortis cons. (Pre-fortis clipping) post  boat 

Minority spelling (exceptions)

<oo>

<ew> sew 

brooch 

I know that he hit an oak and broke his shoulder and toe”

Prof. R. Paderni

Formal description of diphthongs.

English diphthong: 

Quality

Highest part of the tongue:

the front

Height of the tongue:

close-mid

Lips position:

spread

Opening bet. the jaws:

closed /closing

Tenseness:

tense

Soft palate:

raised

Vocal folds:

vibration

front centre back  Prominence:    falling Glide:   front-closing  
front
centre
back

Prominence:

 
falling
Glide:


front-closing
 

Distance:
narrow
Length:


long

close

mid-close

mid-open

open

Phonological distribution

Initial position: aim  Mid position: fame  Final position: pay   does not normally occur before 

Triphthong:  as in player  Smoothing: greyer cf. lair  layer homophones

Allophones (different varation or realization)

·Fully long before lenis sound and in final position

main  lay  ·Shortened before a fortis consonant or a nasal/liquid + fortis cons. (Pre-fortis clipping) mate  faint 

Spelling-to-sound rules

<a>

ape, ache, late, make, lady, waste, base

<ai>

waist, rail, aim, rain

(mid-position)

<ay>

day, may

(final-position)

<ei>

eight, veil, weigh, rein

<ey>

they, whey, prey, hey!

<ea>

great, steak, break

Minority spelling (exceptions) <au> gauge  <ao> gaol  French-ending words

<e>

fete, café

<et>

ballet, sachet

<eé>

matin, fianceé “You have to pay straight away eight

dollars to see the great cake”

.
.

English diphthong: 

first element slightly rounded bet.  and

Quality

Highest part of the tongue: the back

Height of the tongue:

mid-O glides near mid-C

Lips position:

open rounded to neutral

Opening bet. the jaws:

medium

Tenseness:

tense

Soft palate:

raised

Vocal folds:

vibration

front centre back  Prominence:    falling Glide:   back-closing  
front
centre
back

Prominence:

 
falling
Glide:


back-closing
 

Distance:
wide
Length:


long

close

mid-close

mid-open

open

Phonological distribution

Initial position: oil  Mid position: coin  Final position: boy   does not normally occur before 

Triphthong:  as in loyal 

Smoothing: employer

cf. lair  layer homophones

Spelling-to-sound rules

<oi>

boil, noise, choice

<oy>

toy, oyster, joy

Minority spelling (exceptions) <uoy> buoy 

Don’t destroy the coin to pay the buoy”

Allophones (different varation or realization)

·Fully long before lenis sound and in final position

soil 

Roy 

·Shortened before a fortis consonant or a nasal/liquid + fortis cons. (Pre-fortis clipping) voice  point 

Prof. R. Paderni

Formal description of diphthongs.

English diphthong: 

Quality

Highest part of the tongue:

behind the front

Height of the tongue:

fully open

Lips position:

neutral loosely spread

Opening bet. the jaws:

wide to medium

Tenseness:

tense

Soft palate:

raised

Vocal folds:

vibration

front centre back  Prominence:    falling Glide:   front-closing  
front
centre
back

Prominence:

falling
Glide:


front-closing
 

Distance:
wide
Length:


long

close

mid-close

mid-open

open

Phonological distribution

Initial position: ice  Mid position: rise  Final position: tie   does not normally occur before 

Spelling-to-sound rules

<i>

write, hide, pile

<y>

dry, cycle, fly

<igh> high, night, right

<ie>

die, lie, tie

Triphthong:  as in tired  Smoothing: fire 

Allophones (different varation or realization)

·Fully long before lenis sound and in final position

time 

pie 

 

·Shortened before a fortis consonant or a nasal/liquid + fortis cons. (Pre-fortis clipping) pipe advice  tight 

Minority spelling (exceptions) <eye> eye

<ei>

<ais> aisle

either, height, neither

<uy>

buy

<ig>

design, sign

<ae>

maestro 

The sky might be quite wild”

.
.

English diphthong: 

Quality

Highest part of the tongue: centre

Height of the tongue:

Lips position:

Opening bet. the jaws:

Tenseness:

Soft palate:

Vocal folds:

open

neutrally open to weakly rounded

wide to medium tense raised vibration

Phonological distribution

Initial position: owl  Mid position: loud  Final position: cow   does not normally occur before 

front centre back  Prominence:    falling Glide:   closing  
front
centre
back

Prominence:

falling
Glide:


closing
 

Distance:
wide
Length:
 
long
Spelling-to-sound rules

<ou> house <ow> flower, allow

Minority spelling (exceptions) <au> ablaut 

Triphthong:  as in tower 

Smoothing: shower

<eo>

Macleod 

We found a flower

Allophones (different varation or realization)

·Fully long before lenis sound and in final position

found  how  ·Shortened before a fortis consonant or a nasal/liquid + fortis cons. (Pre-fortis clipping) shout  mouth

close

mid-close

mid-open

open

Centring diphthongs

.
.

English diphthong: 

front centre back Quality  Prominence:  Highest part of the tongue: centre  
front
centre
back
Quality

Prominence:

Highest part of the tongue: centre
falling
Height of the tongue:
open
Glide:

Lips position:
neutrally open to weakly rounded

closing
 
Opening bet. the jaws:
wide to medium
tense
raised
vibration

Distance:
Tenseness:
wide
Soft palate:
Length:
 
Vocal folds:
long
Phonological distribution
Spelling-to-sound rules
Initial position: owl 
Mid position: loud 
Final position: cow 
<ou> house
<ow> flower, allow
 does not normally occur before 
Minority spelling (exceptions)
to be continued

Triphthong:  as in tower 

Smoothing: shower

Allophones (different varation or realization)

·Fully long before lenis sound and in final position

found  how  ·Shortened before a fortis consonant or a nasal/liquid + fortis cons. (Pre-fortis clipping) shout  mouth

<au> ablaut 

We found a flower

close

mid-close

mid-open

open