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Type

hereProcedure
Protection
Test
(For TCD Scope of Work)

Transmission Commissioning Department

Transmission Commissioning Department

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Index
Serial
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Description
CT Test Procedures
VT Test Procedures
Relays Definitions
Test Setup for Auxiliary / Trip Relays
Procedure for Auxiliary Relay Tests
Procedure for Trip Relay Tests
Procedure for Meter Tests
Relay wiring diagrams

Transmission Commissioning Department

Page
No
3
11
15
16
17
21
23
24

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Testing of Current Transformers (CTs)

1. General Checks:
The following general checks are performed before proceeding with the
CT Test:
GENERAL VISUAL INSPECTION FOR ANY DAMAGES/
PROPER MOUNTING
NAME PLATE VERIFICATION WITH DRAWING
TIGHTNESS CHECK AT CT SEC. TERMINALS
TIGHTNESS CHECK AT CT SEC. TB LV COMPARTMENT/
LCC
POSTION OF P1 - TOWARDS BUS/FEEDER
STAR FORMATION - S1/S2
COLOUR CODED CYLINDERS USED IN TERMINALS FOR
TESTS
EARTHING OF STAR FORMATION
The IEC Standard applicable is 60044-1.

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1.1
1.1.1

1.1.2

1.1.3

Precautions:
follow the test sequence of Test Formats. It is important to perform
mag. Curve test after winding resistance measurement and polarity
test.
Never keep the CT Secondary open while injecting current in the
primary of CT. Failure to observe this precaution would result in fatal
injury and/or CT Failure.
There is risk of electric shock during CT Tests. Observe necessary
safety precautions.

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.5
1.2.6

Test Instruments required:


Insulation Tester
Low Resistance Ohmmeter
Polarity Kit
Mag. Curve Set Up (Variac, Step up Transformer, Multimeters, Test Leads
Primary Injection Kit
Tong Tester

2.

Insulation Resistance Test:

2.1
This test is performed to confirm that no insulation detoriation has taken place during
transportation or installation.
2.2
The insulation resistance is measured between core to earth and across the core as
appropriate (Primary to secondary). The duration of test can be few second till a reasonable
good value is obtained.
2.3
Ambient temperature must be recorded with a calibrated temperature meter.
2.4
Generally any IR Value above 100M: is acceptable as there is no IEC Standard
Criteria for this test. The CT Test Results with low IR Value must be investigated for
insulation damage or dust contamination on terminals.
Example:
IR Values shall be measured up CT terminal blocks .

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T7L Sec. to Primary


T7L1 Sec. to Primary
T8L Sec. to Primary
T8L1 Sec. to Primary
T7L to T7L/1+T8L+T8L/1+Earth
T7L/1 to T7L+T8L+T8L/1+Earth
T8L to T7L+T7L1+T8L/1+Earth
T8L/1 to T7L+T7L1+T8L+Earth

DC V
applied
2.5kV
2.5kV
2.5kV
2.5kV
500V
500V
500V
500V

R Phase

Y Phase

B
Phase

3.
Winding Resistance Measurement:
The CT Secondary Winding resistance is measured in ohms and corrected to 75qC.
Temperature - t 0C
and Humidity
R Phase
CT
Ter.
TERMIN
Block
LAS
T7L (
1S1 1S2)

R at t0
C
(

Y Phase
R at 750
C(

R at t0 C
(

B Phase
R at 750
C(

R at t0 C
(

R at
750 C
(

XC

Resistance at 750 C = R t ( 1 + 0.00393 ( 75 t ) )


4.

Polarity Test

The CT Polarity Test is performed to verify that the primary and secondary polarity markings
are correct. Any wrong polarity will result in wrong measurement and protection mal-function.
The positive and Negative Supply of low DC Voltage (9V) is applied to P1 and P2 (Primary
Terminals) of the CT respectively. The Galvanometer positive and negative terminals are
connected to S1 and S2 (Secondary Terminals) of CT, should give a forward deflection.
Reverse deflection indicates a wrong polarity.
Refer to below sketch for test set up.

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POLARITY CHECKS.
R Phase
At CT Ter. Blocks in LV/
CT Terminals
LCC Comp
(1S1 - 1S2)
(2S1 - 2S2)
(3S1 - 3S2)
(4S1 - 4S2)
5.

Y Phase
At CT Ter. Blocks in
LV/ LCC Comp

B Phase
At CT Ter. Blocks in
LV/ LCC Comp

Test Procedure for Magnetization Curve of Current Transformer:

5.1
Objective of the Test:
To identify the knee-point Voltage (Vk) of a Current Transformer and to verify whether the
Mag. Curve Characteristics are matching with relay application requirements.

5.2

Test Equipment:

The test is carried out with a variable voltage applied to the secondary of the current
transformer. The test voltage can be obtained from a variable voltage source or through a
variable autotransformer. Voltmeter and Ammeter are required to measure the voltage and
current respectively in the secondary circuit.
5.3

Principle of Operation:

The core of the current transformer gets magnetized due the primary current flowing in the
circuit and this helps in faithful reproduction of the quantity in the secondary circuit. However,
it is a property of the magnetic core to get saturated, due to high value of currents.

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In case of core saturation, the CT will not reproduce the primary current into the exact
secondary current. In some application where primary protection relays are connected, the
CT has to remain unsaturated up to a desired value of primary current. This property of the
CT is designated with a parameter called as Knee-point voltage.
Knee-point voltage of the current transformer is defined as the voltage at which 10% increase
in secondary voltage results in 50% increase in the magnetization current, with the other
windings (i.e., primary & test) in open circuited condition.
The objective of this test is to plot the magnetization curve of the CT there by, locating the
knee-point voltage, Vk. This value of Vk is compared with the manufacturers design value.
5.4
Test Procedure:
5.4.1 Visual Check: Ensure that the surface of the transformer is clean and the wires
properly terminated.
Drawings checks for star point formation / ferrules /shorting link location.

The secondary circuit earthing lead is temporarily isolated from the ground.
5.4.4 Ensure that the primary circuit is open ie., the circuit breaker in the primary circuit is
kept open.
5.4.5 A typical test connection for a magnetization curve of current transformer is shown
below figure:

Fig.: Typical test connection for CT Mag. Curve test.


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5.4.6 Voltage is applied in the secondary core of the CT under test. The voltage is slowly
increased and the current (mA) in the secondary is noted.
5.4.7 This process is continued until the core saturates. The core saturation in indicated by
steep increase in the secondary current for a marginal increase in the secondary
voltage.
5.4.8 The values are plotted in a log scale and the knee-point voltage obtained. The
obtained value of Vk should be equal to or greater than the design value specified on
the CT nameplate.
5.4.9 Ensure a gradual increase or decrease of the secondary voltage during the test, as a
sudden variation in the voltage may produce dangerous flux variation which may
damage the secondary insulation.
5.4.10 A typical CT mag curve and Vk are shown in fig below.
5.4.11 The same procedure is repeated for the other phase CTs.
5.4.12 After completion of the test, ensure that all the CT secondary connections are restored
back.

MAGNETIZING CURVES FOR Vk.


Recored the test results in the following table:

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PH

Function:
Hz
Magnetizing Current measured in mA

V at 1A

Terminal

Ratio

CORE

Frequency of supply
Sec. Wdg.
Resistance
At 750C

5.5

Result:

This test establishes the actual value of Vk of the CT core. Also this test establishes that
correct core is used for the required application and also ensures that there is no mix-up of
cores.
5.6

Ratio Test

The ratio check is carried out by injecting current into the primary of CT and measuring the
secondary current. The results must be within the accuracy limits specified in the name plate
of CT.
This measured ratio should match with ratio specified in the CT Nameplate.
Refer to the below figure for Test Setup.

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CORE

Ratio

T7L

400 / 1

Record the test results in the following table:


R Phase
Pri-Amps

Sec-Amps

Transmission Commissioning Department

Y Phase
Pri-Amps

Sec-Amps

B Phase
Pri-Amps

Sec-Amps

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Testing of Voltage Transformers (VTs)


1. General Checks:

The following general checks are performed before proceeding with the VT Test:

R Phase

Y Phase

B Phase

GENERAL VISUAL INSPECTION


NAME PLATE
TIGHTNESS OF CONNECTIONS
AT VT SEC. TERMINALS
TIGHTNESS OF CONNECTIONS
AT VT SEC. TERMINAL BLOCKS
EARTHING OF PRIMARY
NEUTRAL TERMINAL
SECONDARY EARTHING
CORE1/CORE2
CONFIRMATION OF RATING OF
FUSES IN VT TERMINAL BOX AS
SPECIFIED IN DRAWINGS
SINGLE POINT EARTHING
FERRULES MATCHING WITH
DRAWING
COLOUR CODED CYLINDERS
USED IN TERMINALS FOR TESTS

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The IEC Standard applicable is 60044-2.

2.

Insulation resistance Test:

This test is performed to confirm that no insulation detoriation has taken place during
transportation or installation.
The insulation resistance is measured between core to earth and across the core as
appropriate. The reasonable duration of test can be 5 seconds.
Generally any IR Value above 100M: is acceptable as there is no IEC Standard Criteria for
this test. The VT Test Results with low IR Value must be investigated for insulation damage
or dust contamination on terminals.
Confirm Isolation of links of VT Terminal Blocks.
Confirm isolation Primary neutral earthing
Time duration of test voltage applied 5.. Secs.
Ambient Temperature Humidity

Primary to Earth
Primary to Sec.
Core 1
Sec. Core 1 to
Earth

DC
Voltage
Applied
2.5kV

R Phase

Y Phase

B Phase

2.5kV
500V

3.
Winding Resistance Measurement:
The Primary Winding Resistance is measured in k:. It is normally measured with a Digital
Multimeter. The secondary winding resistance is measured generally in milli:. It is normally
measured with a low resistance Ohmmeter. There are no specific criteria for passing the test
results. The results (at 75qC) must be close to the factory test values by r 10%.
Ambient Temperature - t 0C
CORE

R Phase

Y Phase

B Phase

R at t0 C R at 750
C(
(

R at t0 C R at 750
C(
(

R at t0 C R at 750
C(
(

Primary
Seconday
Resistance at 750 C = R t ( 1 + 0.00393 ( 75 t )

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4.

Polarity Test:

The VT Polarity Test is performed to verify that the primary and secondary polarity markings
are correct. Any wrong polarity will result in wrong measurement and protection mal-function.
The positive and Negative Supply of low DC Voltage is applied to P1 (or terminal A in the
sketch) and P2 (or terminal N in the sketch) , the Primary Terminals of the VT respectively.
The Galvanometer positive and negative terminals are connected to terminal a and terminal
b, the Secondary Terminals of VT, should give a forward deflection.

The test results must be recorded in the format given below:

VT

R PHASE
At VT
At VT
Sec.
Ter.
Terminals Blocks

Y Phase
At VT
At VT
Sec.
Ter.
Terminals Blocks

B Phase
At VT
At VT Ter.
Sec.
Blocks
Terminals

Core 1
5.

Magnetizing Current Measurement

The magnetizing current must be measured and recorded in the below format.
There are no specific criteria for passing this test.
The results may be compared with factory values (if available).
6.

Ratio Test

The ratio of a VT is checked out by applying voltage to the primary winding and measuring
the voltage across the secondary winding.
The measured ratio should match with ratio specified in the CT Nameplate
The ratio error must be calculated and it is defined as:
(Kn Vs) X 100%
Vp

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Where:
Kn is the nominal ratio
Vp is the primary voltage
Vs is the secondary voltage
The error must be within limits specified in the nameplate.
Record the test results in the following table:

R PhaseNeutral
Core
PriSecVolts
Volts
Core
1
Core
2

Y PhaseNeutral
PriSecVolts
Volts

Transmission Commissioning Department

B PhaseNeutral
PriSecVolts
Volts

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RELAYS DEFININTIONS

Definitions
Auxiliary relay
An electrical relay energized via the contacts of another relay for example an overcurrent
relay for the purpose of providing higher rated contacts or introducing a time delay.
Self Reset Relay
The contact operates when the voltage is applied and resets when the voltage is
removed.
Hand or Electrical Reset Relays
In these relays, the contact remains operated condition even after the voltage is
removed. The relay can be reset either by hand or by an auxiliary electromagnetic
element.
Pick-up
A relay picks up when it changes from the unenergized position to energized position.
Drop-out
A relay drops out when it changes from the energized position to un-energized position.
Operating Time
With a relay de-energized and in its initial condition, the time which elapses between the
application of a characteristic quantity (e.g., voltage) and the instant the relay operates.
Resetting or Drop-out Time
With a relay energized and in operated condition, the time which elapses between the
removal of the characteristic quantity (e.g., voltage) and the instant the relay resets (deenergizes)
Make Contact
A make contact closes when the relay picks up.
Break Contact
A Break Contact opens when the relay picks up.

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Test Set Up for Auxiliary / Trip Relay Tests

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Test Procedure for Auxiliary Relay


1. General
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11

1.12
1.13

For random test contractor has to complete 100% internal testing and test
reports must be ready before starting random test.
Get information from contractor about problems and defects noticed during
internal tests.
Check the relay datas (type, model, and contact details) with drawings and test
report.
Check the drawings for output contact configuration and function with reference
sheets (e.g., Z sheet of drawings).
Select the random relays (20% of total relays).
Check IR value with 500 V Megger with respect to body/case.
Check the test setup then start the voltage injection slowly and linearly when
relay changes the status record. Record the current and voltage at the time of
pickup or drop off. (Refer the test setup attach).
Compare the operating voltage and operating current with technical
specification.
Follow the test sequence in the test formats.
Check the operating time of the relay (use the contact to stop the timer which is
used for alarm). By injecting 0V to rated voltage.
Check the resetting voltage, current and operating, resetting time for relay. By
reducing the voltage from 110v to 0V or 110V to reference voltage according to
manufacturer recommendations. The resetting (drop-off) time must be as per
manufacturers specification.
Ensures that output contact resistance, make, and brake and change over
contact. Contact resistance must be less than 1 ohm.
Check the wiring and other data on at LV / Relay panels such as label, Relay
Identification etc.

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Test Format (Typical) for Supply Supervision Relay


Relay Data.
Relay Type

Aux DC Supply

Model No.

MVAA11
General Inspection and Checks.
i.
ii.

Correctness of Installation and wiring.


Earthing connection for Relay case to Earth Bar
IR of relay circuit & associated wiring to earth
iii.
(500V Megger)
iv.
Operation of Output contacts
v.
Operation of Mechanical Flag and Resetting arm
vi
Sr.No. on Modules, Case and Cover Identical
No. of NO Contacts v
Contact Configuration
No. of NC Contacts Relay Test Results.

Relay
Designation &
Sr No.

Pick Up

Volts

Current
at 110 V
mA

Drop OFF

mA

Volts

mA

Timings at
Rated Voltage
Opera
te
time
mSec

Reset
time
(msec
)

Operation
at

88V

150
V

Operating time at 110V DC- < 25 mSec.


Note:
Slight chattering at the time of pick up may be acceptable. There should not be any chattering
within the operating range of the relay rated voltage.

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Test Format (Typical) for Trip Circuit Supervision Relay


Relay Data.
Relay Type

Aux DC Supply

Model No.

MVAX31
General Inspection and Checks.
i.
Correctness of Installation and wiring.
ii.
Earthing connection for Relay case to Earth Bar
IR of relay circuit & associated wiring to earth
iii.
(500V Megger)
Operation of Output contacts & Contact
iv.
Resistance
v.
Operation of Mechanical Flag and Resetting arm
vi
Sr.No. on Modules, Case and Cover Identical
No. of NO Contacts
vii
Contact configuration
No. of NC Contacts
Relay Test Results.
Relay
Designation &
Sr. No.

COIL

PICK UP

DROP OFF

mA

C 2728
A1314
B 2122
C 2728
A1314
B 2122
Expected Operating Time < 70 msec.
Resetting time (C+A) or (C+B) )

Transmission Commissioning Department

mA

Current
at 110V
mA

Resetting Time

Operat
ing
Time
in
mSec.

Resetting
Reset
Time in
time m
mSec.
Sec at
(C+A)/(C+
110V
B)

> 400 msec

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Test Format (Typical) for Voltage Supervision Relay


Relay Data.
Relay Type

Rating of relay

Model No.

Relay
Designation

MVAP22
General Inspection and Checks.
i.
Correctness of Installation and wiring.
ii.
Earthing connection for Relay case to Earth Bar
IR of relay circuit & associated wiring to earth
iii.
(500V Megger)
iv.
Operation of Output contacts
v.
Operation of Mechanical Flag and Resetting arm
vi
Sr.No. on Modules, Case and Cover Identical
3
vII
Contact Configuration
No. of CO Contacts
Relay Test Results.
Apply 3 phases voltage to the relay and check relay operation
1
Check Phase Rotation
2
Apply 80% of Vn and check voltage on terminals: 15,16, 22
23 - 15
3
Check Phasing terminals
25 - 16
27 - 22
With R Phase removed, apply 80 % of Vn and check across
4
terminals 16-22
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

With R Phase restored, apply 125 % of Vn and check across


terminals: 15, 16, 22
Test (same as 4) with Y Phase
Test (same as 5) with Y Phase
Test (same as 4) with B Phase
Test (same as 5) with B Phase
Check rated Voltage Vn on terminals: 15, 16, 22 (Inject
voltage at: 17 18 24)
17 - 15
Check Phasing Terminals
18 - 16
24 - 22
Check for fuse failure operation for R, Y, B Phase
Relay operation checked by reducing one phase voltage only
Operates approximately 50% of rated voltage

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Test Procedure for Trip Relays


1. General
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7

1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.16
1.17
1.18
1.19
1.20
1.21
1.22
1.23
1.24

For random test contractor has to complete 100% internal testing and test reports
must be ready before starting random test.
Get information from contractor about problems and defects during internal tests.
Check the relay datas (type, model, and contact details) with drawings and test report.
Check the drawings for output contact configuration and function with reference sheets
(compare Z sheet).
Select the random relays (20% of total relays).
Check IR value with 500 V Megger with respect to body/case.
Check the test setup then start the voltage injection slowly and linearly when relay
changes the status record. Record the current and voltage at the time of pickup or
drop off. (Refer to the test setup).
Compare the operating voltage and operating current with technical specification of
relay manufacturer.
Check the current at 110 V which must be zero or very low value (confirm cut-off or
economizer function of the relay)
Zero (0) or low current as per specification of the manufacturer if the relay is high
burden. Low burden relays check the technical specification.
Check the operating time of the relay (use the contact to stop the timer which is used
for
tripping).
The expected operating time is 8 ms for AREAVA Trip relays. ( at Rated Voltage)
The expected operating time is 10 ms for VA Tech Trip relays. ( at Rated Voltage)
Check the resetting voltage, current and operating, resetting time for relay has reset
coil or self reset trip relays. Compare the test results with technical specification.
Confirm that the cut-off contact is present in both trip coil & Reset coil.
Confirm minimum one spare NO contact available.
Check the capacitance discharge test for High Burden trip relay. Relay should not trip.
with Capacitor connected (Refer test setup).
For Areva relays there is a shorting across 22 and 24 for high burden application.
First charge the capacitor to 150V
Discharge the capacitor through relay. Relay should not operate.
Ensures that output contact resistance, make, and brake and change over contact.
Contact resistance must be less than 1 ohm.
Check the wiring and other data on at LV Compartment/ Relay panels such as label,
Relay Identification etc.
During pick up and drop off test the capacitor (of test setup) circuit must be in OFF
Condition.
Capacitor must be connected to correct polarity during capacitor discharge test.

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Test Format (Typical) for a Trip Relay


Relay Data.
Relay Type

Aux DC Supply

Model No.

MVAJ 055
General Inspection and checks.
i.
Correctness of Installation and wiring.
ii.

v.

Earthing connection for Relay case to Earth Bar


IR of relay circuit & associated wiring to earth
(500V Megger)
Operation of Output contacts & Contact
Resistance
Operation of Mechanical Flag and Resetting arm

vi

Sr.No. On Modules, Case and Cover Identical

Contact configuration

iii.
iv.

No. of NO Contacts

No. of NC Contacts

Relay Test Results


Relay Designation
Sr. No.

Operating Coil
PICK UP
VOLT
mA
S

Reset coil
PICK UP
VOLT
mA
S

Current
at 110V
mA

Operating Time in
mSec. at Voltage
110V

66 V

150 V

Capacitor Discharge Withstand test:


Operation on Discharge of 150 Volts with 10 F Capacitor
Operated Not Operated.
If operated at 150 V, The discharge voltage below 150 V at which relay not operated must be
recorded.
Mechanical Reset Test:
Reset the relay with front cover closed and check all contacts resetting properly.
Operating time at 110V DC
< 8 mSec.
Note:
1. The reset test is not applicable for Hand reset relays.
2. There would be chattering at the time of pick up. This is acceptable. There should not
be any chattering within the operating range of the relay rated voltage.

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Testing of Meters

1.

Objective:

The objective of test is to verify whether the measurement is within the accuracy class specified by the
manufacturer and DEWA.
2.

General:

Verify the nameplate details (e.g., range, CT/VT Ratio, Accuracy Class etc are matching with the
specification given in the approved drawings).
3.

Calibration
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Connect the meter to be tested (e.g., a 0 1200A, CTR 1000/1A Ammeter) to the test kit.
Inject current till the meter dial under test reads 1200A. Record it in the test format Actual
Reading.
Note down the current injected in the Input current. (e.g. 0.99A)
Calculate the expected current by multiplying the input current with CT Ratio. It would be
990A (for this example). Record this value in the Expected Current.
Calculate the Percentage Error with the following equation:

Actual Reading Expected Reading X 100%


Full Scale Reading
3.6 Record 3 to 4 Readings (e.g., at 20%, 50%, 75%, 100% and Full Scale of readings).
AMMETER TYPE:

ACCURACY CLASS:

CT RATIO

FULL SCALE READING

FEEDER
NO.

:
AMMETER SR
NO.

INPUT
CURRENT(mA)

Transmission Commissioning Department

EXPECTED
READING (A)

RATING:
:
ACTUAL
READING(A)

%ERROR

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Wiring diagram: Typical Trip Circuit Diagrams

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Wiring diagram: Typical Trip Circuit Supervision Relay Type MVAX 31

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Wiring Diagram: Typical Trip Relay Type MVAJ055

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Wiring Diagram: Typical Voltage Supervision Relay Type MVAP22

Diagrams: Courtesy Areva

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