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PRACTICAL WORK BOOK

For Academic Session 2009

MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION
(TC-497)
For
B.E (TC)

Name:
Roll Number:
Batch:
Department:

Year :

Department of Electronic Engineering


NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi

LABORATORY WORK BOOK


For The Course
TC-497 Multimedia Communication

Prepared By:
Ms. Nida Nasir (Lecturer) & Muhammad Fahim Ul Haque (Lecturer)

Reviewed By:
Mr. Tahir Malik(Lecturer)

Approved By:

The Board of Studies of Department of Electronic Engineering

INTRODUCTION

Multimedia Communication Practical Workbook covers those practical that


are very knowledgeable and quite beneficial in grasping the core objective of
the subject. These practical solidify the theoretical and practical concepts
that are very essential for the engineering students.

This work book comprise of practical covering the topics of Multimedia


communication that are arranged on modern trainer boards. Above all this
workbook contains a relevant theory about the Lab session.

Contents
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

Telecommunications Laboratory
CONTENTS
Lab
No.

DATED

List of Experiments

Page
No.

To connect & control Bluetooth module

1-4

To control DC & STEP motor, power control


module using BT

5-7

To control temperature sensor & infra red


sensor

8-10

To control touch sensor & ultrasonic sensor

11-12

To control gas, pressure, humidity sensor

13-14

To examine the operation of CD player

15-17

To examine fault simulation of CD player

18-19

To examine the operation of DVD player

20-24

To examine fault simulation of DVD player

25-26

10

To check the operation of VTR

27-29

11

To become familiar with use of 4 telephones


connected to local switching center

30-32

12

13

To become familiar with time & space


switching
i.Determined
the
relationship
between
information held within the control memory
and the actual switching operation.
ii.Established the procedure to connect tones to
calling lines.

33-35

36-39

Remarks

Contents
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

Telecommunications Laboratory
CONTENTS
Lab
No.

List of Experiments

Page
No.

14

To learn how call state, call record, call


progress are made

40-43

15

To become
assignment

44-47

DATED

familiar

with

call

progress

Remarks

Multimedia Communication
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

LAB SESSION 01

OBJECT:
A) To introduce the parts of Bluetooth modules.
B) To connect and control Bluetooth modules.

THEORY & PROCEDURE:


1) System Connection
BT-3000 connection between the program and hardware is communicated through USB.
When a command is sent to server hardware from the server program, the server
hardware performs wireless communication with slave hardware and controls module
that is mounted on a slave. As shown in the figure, the server and slave communicate
wirelessly and the operation differs depending on the connected slave module.
2) Module Connection
Mount a module to be used in Con3 and Con4 practice on the right side of slave board.
All used modules are mounted here. When a user created his/her own module, it has to be
tested for power connector and ground before mounting.
Total 13 modules are given here. The serial number of module that is used in practice
ranges from BT-3000-04 ~ 16 are as follows;
BT-3000-4 : DC Motor Module
BT-3000-5 : Step Motor Module
BT-3000-6 : Regular Power Control Module
BT-3000-7 : Current Power Control Module
BT-3000-8 : Temperature Sensor Control1 Module
BT-3000-9 : Temperature Sensor Control2 Module
BT-3000-10 : Infrared Sensor Control1 Module
BT-3000-11 : Infrared Sensor Control2 Module
BT-3000-12 : Touch Sensor Control Module
BT-3000-13 : Ultrasonic Sensor Control Module
BT-3000-14 : Gas Sensor Control Module
BT-3000-15 : Humidity Sensor Control Module
BT-3000-16 : Pressure Sensor Control Module
When mounting the module, the module must be placed so that the module serial number
can be seen from the left or parts numbers must be seen clearly. If the direction of module
is incorrect, it cannot be mounted on the board.

Multimedia Communication
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

Con1 and Con2 in the center are connectors that mount the controller.
The currently provided controller can be used with other PIC controller that has same pin
arrangement. For this system, highly expandable controller has been selected for future
integration. In near future, 8051 series and ARM series processors will be supported. The
controller is created in socket format so that various CPU types can be used for different
user types.
3) Slave Board Parts Description
a) Bluetooth Chipset part
This part controls the communication to the slave. On the slave board, Class1 Bluetooth
chipset is used to enable nearby wireless communications. When a user becomes familiar
with programming, server side also can be embedded to reduce the communication
distance limitation.
b) Interface part
The interface part of a slave board can be used to individually learn Bluetooth chipset or
to load a program onto mycom. Direct programming through UART is not yet supported.
c) LED part
This part is used to check the currently operating slave status. This part is largely divided
into two parts.
LED part1 displays the operation status of Mycom and Bluetooth, and
LED part2 is a LED that notifies the type of currently connected modules.
When a user mounts a power group or a motor group onto a slave board, Mycom
recognizes the mounted module and displays a respective LED.
IDLE: In this status, only power is supplied to Bluetooth and no communication are
being processed.
CONN: This status shows that the device is in connection with a server.
d) Power & Audio part
BT-3000 system uses various powers to operate numerous sensors. Main power supplied
to a slave board is provided in adopter format and uses 9V, 1A.
Also, for voice communication during basic communication practices, audio jack (earmicrophone jack) is attached.
Wireless Control
Wireless communication is not as easy as it seems and the procedure is also complicated.
These procedures are organized with BT-3000. In wireless control a user will learn how
to communicate two devices wirelessly. It is composed of the following four practices.
Inquiry for nearby devices
ACL Connection (data communication connection)

Multimedia Communication
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

SCO Connection (voice communication connection)


Command Input (basic command repeat practice)
1) Inquiry for nearby devices
In this, a user will learn how to inquire other devices located in nearby network using
Bluetooth. Practice is processed in the following order.
Step 1: Equip server hardware and slave hardware as shown in the connection diagram.
Step 2: Make sure that a controller and a practice module is connected to a slave board
before supply power to slave side.
Step 3: When device setup is completed, turn on the power.
Step 4: Run the server program. Program is located in Windows Start menu
Step 5: Press the button located on the right top corner of the main screen.
Step 6: Click Search Near by Devices Button located on the bottom right corner.
Step 7: The server starts inquiring nearby Bluetooth devices.
Step 8: When the search is complete, the server program displays searched slave devices
on screen.
The list gives the addresses of Bluetooth devices that responded. NONAME in the list
means that no name has been recorded to the slave Bluetooth chip. The blank on top of
the list is used to display the address of selected device. The names of provided systems
are not recorded, and if there are any other Bluetooth devices nearby, the names of those
devices appear.
2) ACL Connection- Asynchronous connection Less (Data Communication
Connection)
The connection process for communication between two Bluetooth devices is studied. All
procedures after inquiring all nearby devices is done using search function.
Step 1 to Step 8: Same as nearby device search.
Step 9: Select a device from the searched devices screen.
Step 10: Select an address from nearby device selection screen and click basic practice
button.
Step 11: From ACL connection screen, click ACL connection button among the two
buttons.
Step 12: When the connection button is successfully pressed, the connection release
button on the right of the connection button is activated.
In this step, a user can send data that can control the module mounted on a slave board.
3) SCO Connection Synchronous Connection Oriented (Voice Communication
Connection)
Bluetooth requires ACL connection for voice communication with a slave device.
Step 1 to Step 12: Repeat steps in point 1 & 2.
Step 13: After ACL data connection, press basic practice button for SCO connection and
select SCO connection menu from wireless control basic practice screen.

Multimedia Communication
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

Step 14: Click SCO connection button located on the bottom of the screen and try voice
communication.
4) Command Input
Bluetooth commands used in HCI Layer are practiced using hexa-code that fits USB
communication method.
A user will be able to understand slave Bluetooth programming commands through this
procedure. Also, a user will learn commands that initialize Bluetooth, or change a device
to a slave/server.
Step 1: Click Wireless Basic Control Practice button on main screen
Step 2: Select command input menu
Step 3: Enter a correct command using the command input box on the bottom of screen.

RESULT:

Multimedia Communication
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

LAB SESSION 02

OBJECT:
A) To control DC and Step motor modules using BT devices.
B) To control power & current power modules using BT devices.

REQUIRED DEVICES:

Server Hardware
Server Program
Slave Hardware (PN:BT-3000-1)
Controller Module (PN:BT-3000-2)
DC Motor Module (Appl 1, PN:BT-3000-4)
Step Motor Module (Appl 2, PN:BT-3000-5)
Regular Power Control Module (Appl 3, PN:BT-3000-6)
Current Power Control Module (Appl 4, PN:BT-3000-7)
PIC Compiler (CCS-C)

THEORY:
DC motor module receives a signal from a server and rotate/reverse-rotate the motor. A
user must refer to the provided circuit diagram to learn about the module properties, and
then write a PIC series controller program to confirm the normal operation of a module.
Motor Control
A user who has completely understood the previous practices will write a program that
controls DC motor and step motor from a remote location. Make sure to understand the
operating environment with the provided hardware and code and then follow practice
procedures.
Power Control
Power control practice is used to learn how to control power. A user will learn how to
turn on/off power, to control current in adjusting brightness of lighting type power. A
user should learn the operation type using the provided module and write a slave side
controller program.
Power Control module receives data from a server and turns on/off LED remotely. A user
should analyze the server data and control the LED of a power module. In addition,
wireless communication program needs to be created as well.

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Current power module controls the current and adjusts the brightness. A user should
analyze data received from a server and write a program that adjusts the brightness of the
light bulb.

PROCEDURE:
1) DC Motor Control
For DC motor control, the following procedures need to be followed.
Step 1: Mount DC motor Control module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the DC motor module
connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click motor control practice button
on the right of the screen.
Step 5: When motor Control practice button is selected, the button is deactivated. When
DC motor practice menu is selected, DC motor practice screen appears. In this screen,
click the button on the bottom to control DC motor. The leftmost button rotates the motor
in reverse direction and the rightmost button rotates the motor in forward direction. The
operation of the motor may vary depending on the users program. Every time a button is
clicked, slave side DC motor forward/reverse rotates. On screen, the shutter moves
up/down.
Step 6: When the practice is over, click the return button located on the button of the right
buttons to move to the initial screen. Here, the connection with slave side is also
automatically disconnected.
2) Step motor control
Step 1: Mount step motor control module onto a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL connection of wireless control basic practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that notifies step motor module
connection appears. Then, click motor control practice button on the right side of screen
and select step motor practice menu to display practice initial screen.
Step 5: Two buttons on the bottom of screen rotates a step motor forward/reverse
direction. When this button is pressed, the step motor rotates in designated direction and
the screen changes.
Step 6: When practice is completed, press the return button on the bottom of the right
buttons and move to initial screen. Here, the connection with the slave side is also
released.
3) Regular Power Control
This practice is about coding a program that turns on/off the remote power. A user will
learn how to control power while communicating wirelessly with a server.

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Step 1: Mount regular power control module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the power control module
connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click regular power control practice
button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: When the four toggle switch of the screen is clicked, four LED on the slave board
are turned ON/OFF. When the toggle switch is ON, the light bulb of the screen is lit as
well as the LED on the slave board.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.
2) Current Power Control
Current Power Control Practice is done in the following order.
Step 1: Mount current power control module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the power control module
connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click current power control practice
button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: Two buttons on the left/right side of the screen adjust the brightness of light
bulbs. A user can adjust the brightness using this button. A user should write a program
that analyzes the data received from a server and adjusts the brightness.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.

RESULT:

Multimedia Communication
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

LAB SESSION 03

OBJECT:
i.
ii.

To control Temperature Sensor 1 & 2 modules using BT devices


To control Infrared Sensor 1 & 2 modules using BT devices

REQUIRED DEVICES:

Server Hardware
Server Program
Slave Hardware (PN:BT-3000-1)
Controller Module (PN:BT-3000-2)
Temperature Sensor Control1 Module (Appl 5, PN:BT-3000-8)
Temperature Sensor Control2 Module (Appl 6, PN:BT-3000-9)
Infrared Sensor Control1 Module (Appl 7, PN:BT-3000-10)
Infrared Sensor Control2 Module (Appl 8, PN:BT-3000-11)
PIC Compiler (CCS-C)

THEORY:
Sensor Control
In sensor control practice, total 9 different sensors can be tested. A user will practice how
to read the sensor value with different sensors. Set up a threshold to produce alarm when
it goes over the threshold, and check any changes in the surrounding.
Temperature sensor 1 module retrieves the temperature sensors analog temperature and
uses the data in alarm or living environment control. A user should write a program that
can transfer temperature data to a server based on server request.
Temperature sensor 2 module measures the nearby temperature digitally and operates
devices such as a fan. A user should write a code that measures exact temperature and
notify the server.
Infrared sensor 1 module detects the disconnection of a signal when an object is placed
between two sensors. When an object is detected, the situation is depicted on the screen.
A user should write a program that notifies the disconnection of a signal to a server.
Infrared sensor 2 module detects human body with infrared sensors. When infrared
emitted from a human body is detected, this sensor goes off. A user should write a
program that transmits whether infrared is detected or not to a server.
8

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PROCEDURE:
1) Temperature Sensor Control1
In this practice, a user will learn how to read in the temperature of a remote location. A
user reads in the surrounding temperature of the location where the temperature sensor is
installed. For Temperature Sensor Control1 practice, the following steps need to be
followed.
Step 1: Mount Temperature Sensor module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Temperature Sensor
Control1 module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click
Temperature Sensor Control1 practice button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: When the initial screen appears, the server is ready to receive temperature data
transmitted from a slave. Then, the data received from a slave board is displayed on the
screen. Once the temperature sensor of the module detects any change in temperature, the
color of fan on the screen turns red. A user writes a code that reads in temperature and
transmits to a server.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.
2) Temperature Sensor Control2
Step 1: Mount Temperature Sensor module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Temperature Sensor
Control2 module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click
Temperature Sensor Control2 practice button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: When sensor detect button located in the center of the screen, the server prepares
to receive temperature data transmitted from a client and a slave reads the temperature
and transmits to a server. A user will write a program that reads in the temperature and
transmits to a server.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.
Infrared Sensor Control1
Step 1: Mount Infrared Sensor1 module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Infrared Sensor
Control1 module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click Infrared
Sensor Control1 practice button on the right of the screen.

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Step 5: When the sensor detection button on the bottom of screen is clicked, the sensor
module receives a signal that notifies the beginning of detection from a server. The
sensor notifies a server when detection occurs.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.
Infrared Sensor Control2
Step 1: Mount Infrared Sensor2 module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Infrared Sensor
Control2 module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click Infrared
Sensor Control2 practice button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: In this practice, human body detection sensor is tested. The detected data is
transmitted to a server. When a human body is detected, the following screen is
displayed.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.

RESULT:

10

Multimedia Communication
NED University of Engineering & Technology- Department of Electronic Engineering

LAB SESSION 04

OBJECT:
i.
ii.

To control Touch Sensor Module using BT devices


To control Ultra Sensor Module using BT devices

REQUIRED DEVICES:

Server Hardware
Server Program
Slave Hardware (PN:BT-3000-1)
Controller Module (PN:BT-3000-2)
Touch Sensor Control Module (Appl 9, PN:BT-3000-12)
Ultrasonic Sensor Control Module (Appl 10, PN:BT-3000-13)
PIC Compiler (CCS-C)

THEORY:
Touch sensor detect the magnetic energy found in a human body. Once a detection
command is transferred, the slave board detects the detection status of a touch sensor and
transmits the data to a server. A user should write a program that transfers data to a
server.
Ultrasonic sensor module detects nearby objects. When an object enters a threshold
distance, the sensor goes off. A user writes a program that measures the distance of an
object from the sensor and notifies the server.

PROCEDURE:
Touch Sensor Control
Step 1: Mount Touch Sensor Control module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Touch Sensor Control
module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click Touch Sensor Control
practice button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: Touch sensor detects a magnetic field of a human body. When sensor operation
button on the screen is clicked, the slave board sends the detected data to a server and
changes the screen. A user writes a program that notifies a server of the detected
situation.

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Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.
Ultrasonic Sensor Control
Step 1: Mount Ultrasonic Sensor Control module on to a slave board and turn on the
power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Ultrasonic Sensor
Control module connection appears on the bottom of the screen.Then click Ultrasonic
Sensor Control practice button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: Ultrasonic sensor notifies a server of any detected object within a set distance
range. When an object is detected via an ultrasonic sensor, the screen is displayed.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.

RESULT:

12

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LAB SESSION 05

OBJECT:
i.
ii.
iii.

To control Gas Sensor Module using BT devices.


To control Humidity Sensor Module using BT devices.
To control Pressure Sensor Module using BT devices.

REQUIRED DEVICES:

Server Hardware
Server Program
Slave Hardware (PN:BT-3000-1)
Controller Module (PN:BT-3000-2)
Gas Sensor Control Module (Appl 11, PN:BT-3000-14)
Humidity Sensor Control Module (Appl 12, PN:BT-3000-15)
PIC Compiler (CCS-C)

THEORY:
Gas sensor measures the concentration of certain gases that are above a set threshold. A
user should learn about how a sensor operates and write a program that notifies a server
when the sensor detects the gases.
Humidity sensor module measures the humidity of surrounding area and notifies it to a
server. This sensor is mainly used for humidity adjustment control, however, it is also
used to operate other device. A user writes a program that measures humidity and notifies
a server.
Pressure sensor module detects the difference in pressure when a sensor is pressed and
sends the data to a server. A user writes a program that reads in the pressure sensor data
and sends to a server.

PROCEDURE:
Gas Sensor Control
Step 1: Mount Gas Sensor Control module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Gas Sensor Control
module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click Gas Sensor Control
practice button on the right of the screen.
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Step 5: Gas sensor detects various types of gases in the air and analyzes the concentration
of it. The slave board sends the data received from the gas sensor to a server. When gas is
detected, the following screen in displayed.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released
Humidity Sensor Control
Step 1: Mount Humidity Sensor Control module on to a slave board and turn on the
power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Humidity Sensor
Control module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click Humidity
Sensor Control practice button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: In the humidity sensor practice, the surrounding humidity is measured and the
data is sent to a server. A user should understand the data transfer method between a
server and a slave before programming. When the humidity value is measured and sent to
a server, the screen is displayed.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.
Pressure Sensor Control
Step 1: Mount Pressure Sensor Control module on to a slave board and turn on the power.
Step 2: Run nearby device search of wireless control basic practice.
Step 3: Run ACL Connection of wireless control practice.
Step 4: When ACL connection is made, a message that shows the Pressure Sensor
Control module connection appears on the bottom of the screen. Then click Pressure
Sensor Control practice button on the right of the screen.
Step 5: In pressure sensor practice, a user presses the pressure sensor mounted on the
pressure sensor module after the sensor detection button of the screen is clicked. The
changed pressure value is sent to a server and displayed on the screen.
Step 6: When the practice is completed, press return button to move to initial screen. The
slave side connection is also automatically released.

RESULT:

14

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LAB SESSION 06

OBJECT:
To examine the operation of CD player.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

CD trainer M400
Oscilloscope
Multimeter
Frequency meter

THEORY & OBSERVATION:


1. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
POWER SUPPLY.
TP1/2 set multimeter to AC & check voltage across secondary winding is
19.5Vac
TP3 check there is voltage of 12Vdc which drops down to 10Vdc under load
TP4 check there is a stabilized voltage of 5Vdc
TP5 check there is stabilized voltage of -10Vdc
TP6 check there is stabilized voltage of -27.8Vdc
TP7 check there is stabilized voltage of 3.9Vdc
2. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
CONTROL, SELECTION & DISPLAY.
TP22 (power ON/standby switch) normally it is powered at 5Vdc & then falls to
0 when button is pressed
TP23 (open/close switch) normally it is powered at 5Vdc & then falls to 0 when
button is pressed
TP30 (standby ckt) it is always powered if plug is inserted
TP25 (IR remote control receiver) amplitude of signal is 4V when any key of
remote is pressed
TP26, 27,28,29(keyboard) a pulse of amplitude of 200mV is generated when any
key is pressed

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TP24 (reset) when player is powered through the plug , voltage level passes from
0 to 5 Vdc with a 100ms delay w.r.t. powered line(TP7)
3. Carryout the measurements setting the player to PLAY( MICROPROCESSOR,
DECODER & DIGITAL SERVO INTERFACE).
TP19 this is the reset signal the microcontroller sends to decoder & digital servo
to re program new data. Reset is enable when logic state is low (0 Vdc)
TP20 this is SDA (serial data) signal through which 2 ckts communicate in
bidirectional way for exchanging information. This line in available when logic
state is low (0 Vdc)
TP21 this is SILD signal that represents control line of load from microprocessor
to decoder & digital servo
SCL (serial clock signal) operates with previous signal even if there is not any
measuring TP
4. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
OPENING/ CLOSING OF CD TRAY.
TP18: signal for opening CD tray (tray switch). Normally it is at low logic level
(0Vdc) but when it is selected it switches to high level(5Vdc)
TP16, 17: control signal of loading/ eject motor. TP16 operates when tray is
closed while TP17 operates when tray is opened. The signals are usually at high
logic level (2.5Vdc) but they switch to low logic level (0Vdc) for approx 1sec
when tray switch is pressed.
TP15: control signal of driver for tray motor (loading/ eject motor). Normally it is
at 6Vdc
5. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
SERVOMECHANISM & MECHANICAL COMPONENTS.
TP9 (laser supply): control signal for switching the laser on (0.7V)off. Normally
it is at low logic level(0Vdc) when reading system must not work & it increases to
0.7Vdc in opposite case.
TP10, 11(turn table motor): control signal of turn table motor. Signal in TP10 is
a pulse with freq of 22kHz & 4Vpp. Signal in TP11 is available only when search
keys ( NEXT & PREVIOUS) are pressed.

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TP12 (turn table motor): control signal of driver for turn table motor. It takes
direct voltage of 5Vdc (select PLAY) that is reduced when friction opposes the
rotation of CD
TP13 (sledge motor): control signal of driver for the sledge motor. It takes direct
voltage of 5Vdc
TP14 (inner switch): stop signal of sledge carrying the pickup. At rest, when
switch is OFF, voltage is 0Vdc. When replay starts, switch is on , voltage rises to
4Vdc
6. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation
of
HF SIGNAL, D/A CONVERSION & AUDIO SECTION
TP8: high freq signal from relay pickup. When the system is not enabled(STOP)
it is at low logic level(0Vdc). When replay starts it takes an average value of
2Vdc & amplitude of 2Vpp
TP31: word select (WS) for coding right or left from serial data flow. His is a
square wave signal with freq 175 kHz & 5Vpp
TP32: serial data signal (DATA) including data of right & left channel in
alternating sequence
TP33: clock bit signal (BCK) of serial data flow. This is a sine wave signal of
freq 8.4672MHz & 4Vpp
TP34 (audio): reference voltage of 3.3Vdc for operational amplifiers at o/p of
both channels
TP35: muting signal (KILL) active at low logic level. This disables audio o/p
when player is set to PAUSE or it is off. Muting signal is disabled with a high
logic value (5Vdc)
TP36 (audio): analog signal of left o/p audio channel. If volume increases voltage
increases.
TP37 (audio): analog signal of right o/p audio channel. If volume increases
voltage increases.

RESULT:

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LAB SESSION 07

OBJECT:
To examine the fault simulation of CD player.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

CD trainer M400
Oscilloscope
Multi meter
Frequency meter

THEORY & OBSERVATION:


There are 16 faults which can be inserted through switches
Fault #
1.

TP35 normally high 5V, but when fault 1 inserted it is 0V(signal enabling
muting/ KILL o/p)

2.

TP32 data are available, but when fault 2 inserted data not available any more

3.

TP25 normally high 5V, but when fault 3 inserted it is 0V(infra red remote
control is out of service)

4.

TP22 normally high 5V, but when fault 4 inserted it is 0V( power on /
standby switch is faulty)

5.

TP18 normally high 5V, but when fault 5 inserted it is 0V( tray switch is
faulty)

6.

TP13 driving of sledge can be observed in PLAY, when fault 6 inserted ,


sledge motor is faulty(sledge cannot move onwards: listening stops)

7.

TP12 driving of central motor can be observed in PLAY, when fault 7


inserted, turntable motor is faulty

8.

TP7 normally 3.9V, but when fault 8 inserted it is 0V( zener diode is faulty)

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9.

TP36 normally there is an audio signal, but when fault 9 is inserted it is


0V(o/p stage of left channel is faulty)

10.

TP34 normally 3.3V, but when fault 10 inserted it is 0V(ckt that generates
reference voltage is faulty)

11.

TP29 normally 0V but rises to 0.2V when key is pressed, but when fault 11
inserted it is 0V(keyboard is faulty)

12.

TP23 normally 5V,it falls down to 0V when key is pressed for a short time but
when fault 12 inserted it is 0V(tray opening is faulty)

13.

TP15 motor driving signal, but when fault 13 inserted correct signal received
(tray motor is faulty)

14.

TP7 normally 0V but rises to 4V at start of replay, but when fault 14 inserted
it is 0V(sledge stops where replay ends)

15.

TP9 normally 0.7V in play, but when fault 15 inserted it is 0V(laser diode is
faulty)

16.

TP6 normally -27.8V, but when fault 16 inserted it is 0V(power supply is


faulty)

RESULT:

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LAB SESSION 08

OBJECT:
To examine the operation of DVD player.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

DVD trainer M500


Oscilloscope
Multimeter
Frequency meter

THEORY & OBSERVATION:


1. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
POWER SUPPLY.
TP1
TP2
TP3

set multimeter to DC & check voltage 5Vdc


set multimeter to DC & check voltage 12Vdc
set multimeter to DC & check voltage 12Vdc

TP4

STBY control line (ENABLE / CUT-OFF) of the power supply. When the
equipment is operating, the level of this signal is 0V while when it is on
but the key STANDBY-ON has not been pressed the voltage value is
+3.2Vdc.

TP5

+5Vstby power supply always on with general switch of the equipment


ON. Voltage of +5Vdc in normal as well as in STANDBY operation.

TP6

Power supply voltage of the VDF display: -24V. It is generated directly


form the secondary of the transformer

TP7

Not_ STBY line with logic inverted in respect to STBY. When the signal
STBY is not active the value in normal operation of the DVD reader, is
+8Vdc When the equipment is in STANDBY, this value is 0V

2. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
CONTROL, SELECTION & DISPLAY.
TP8

Enable line of the VFD display circuit. With display ON, cheek the
presence of a square-wave of about 0.7V and frequency of about 50KHz.

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TP9

F1 signal of the VFD display. There is a square wave of DC component


having Negative voltage of 20Vdc with modulation at 50khz and
amplitude of about 2.5Vpp.

TP10 F2 signal of the VFD display. Square-wave with D.C component of


20Vdc, frequency of 50khz and amplitude of 10Vpp.
TP11 Infra-red remote control reception signal converted from IR 7404. The
commands reaching the remote control are detected and transformed into
pulses ranging between 0 and +5Vdc.Theduration of each packet of pulses
is about 24ms and the composition of pulses on the coded control.
TP12 DATA transmission line between the FRONT DISPLAY BOARD and
the MT1379_216 of the display card. The trains of pulses have a duration
of about 100s & 5Vdc.
TP13 CLOCK transmission line between the FRONT DISPLAY BOARD and
the MT1379_216 OF the display card. The trains of pulses have a duration
of about 100s & 5Vdc.
TP14 CS communication transmission line between the FRONT DISPLAY
BOARD and the MT1379_216 of the display card. The trains of pulses
have a duration of about 100s & 5Vdc.
TP15 Column of the matrix of the OPEN / CLOSE key. This line connects the
input KEY3 of the processor PT6312 with the OPEN /CLOSE key .If no
key is pressed and with equipment ON, the measured value in TP15 is
+0Vdc. If the OPEN / CLOSE key is pressed, a train of pulses is detected
of the duration of 200 ms & +4Vdc. (push previous key)
TP16 Column of the matrix of the STOP key. This line connects the KEY 3
input of the processor PT 6312 with the STOP key. If no key is pressed
and with equipment ON , the value measured in TP 16 is +0Vdc. If the
stop key is pressed a train of pulses of 200ms duration 5V is detected.
TP17 Column of the matrix of the PAUSE and PLAY key. This line connects
the KEY 4 input of the processor PT 6312 with the PAUSE and PLAY
key . If no key is pressed and with equipment ON, the value measured in
TP 17 is + 0V dc. If the PAUSE or PLAY key is pressed, a train of pulses
of 200ms duration is detected.
3. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
DVD LOADING & EJECTION.
TP 18 DVD drawer motor, closing operation ; LOAD +.

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When the drawer is opened with the OPEN / CLOSE push button, the
voltage measured in TP18is 0V.
When the drawer is closed with the same push button , the signal increases
to +4 Vdc for 1.2 s and then returns to OV dc .
TP19 DVD drawer motor, opening operation ; LOAD
When the drawer is closed with the OPEN / CLOSE push button, the
voltage measured in TP 19 is OV.
When the drawer is opened with the same push button , the signal
increases to + 4 V dc for 1.2 s and then returns to OVdc.
TP20 Switch closing when the DVD drawer is closing otherwise it keep open.
When the drawer is opened with the OPEN/CLOSE pushbutton, the
voltage measured in TP20 is +2.4Vdc.
When the drawer is closed with the same pushbutton, the signal returns to
0V.
TP21 STANDBY ON pushbutton.
If the key is not pressed, the voltage on TP21 is +3.3Vdc.
If the STAND-BY ON key is pressed the voltage becomes 0V when the
key is kept pressed and then returns to +3.3Vdc.
TP22 Central rotation motor DVD SP
The measured voltage is +4Vdc during a program execution and so while
DVD disk into rotation.
With a DVD disk on the reader , the variation of such voltage is analyzed
pushing the STANDBYON key , you can check the voltage change when
the motor making the DVD rotate is started when still , during the next or
last track selection and during the disk stopping with STANDBY ON
TP23 Radial shift motor of the optical pick up
The measured voltage is + 2.6Vdc during a program execution and so with
DVD disk into rotation.
With a DVD disk on the reader, the variation of such voltage is analyzed
pushing the STANDBY-ON key, you can cheek the starting voltage
change when DVD rotation is started and during the next or last track
selection and during the disk stopping with STANDBY-ON.
TP24 Switch closing when the DVD drawer is open otherwise it keeps closed.

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When the drawer is closed with the OPEN/CLOSE pushbutton, the


voltage measured across TP24 is +2.4Vdc while it is 0V when it is
opened.
When the drawer is closed with the same pushbutton, the signal returns to
+2.4Vdc.
TP32 TROPEN LINE. Such line constitutes the command for drawer opening
coming from the control logic (MT1336E) and controlled by the integrated
circuit BA6208 Which is a specific component for the control of the
drawer CLOSE/OPEN motor. When the DVD disk drawer is opened in
point TP32, there is a voltage of +2.2Vdc that returns to 0V when the
operation is finished and so with drawer opened (using the OPEN/CLOSE
close).
TP33 TRCLOSE line. Such line constitutes the command for drawer closing
coming from the control logic (MT1336E) and controlled by the integrated
circuit BA6208 which is specific component for the control of the drawer
CLOSE/OPEN motor. When the DVD disk drawer is closed in point
TP33, there is a voltage of +2.2Vdc that returns 0V when the operation is
finished and so with drawer closed (using the OPEN/CLOSE close).
4. Insert power plug in a socket powered by supply voltage & check the operation of
AUDIO/VIDEO card.
TP25 Coaxial outlet line (COAXL).
There is a wave-form corresponding to a digital flow of about 1Vpp and
variable frequency around 1.5MHz.
TP26 RCA VIDEO outlet line (S_CVBS).
There is a wave form with continuous component of about 1Vdc and a
value of about 600 mVpp. (DVD Disk Test, track 02 RED color).
TP27 SCART video outlet line (CVBS).
There is a wave form with d.c component of about 1Vdc and a value of
about 600mVpp .(DVD test Disk, track 02 color RED)
TP28 RED video signal (R/V-SCART) of the SCART outlet line.
The signal has a value of 300mVpp (DVD Test Disk, track 02 color RED)
TP29 GREEN video signal (G/Y-SCART) OF THE SCART outlet line.
The signal has a value of 300 mVpp (DVD Test Disk, track 03 color
GREEN):
TP30 BLUE video signal (B/U-SCART) of the SCART output line.

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The signal has a value of 300 mVpp (dvd Test Disk, track 04 color
BULE):
TP31 Left channel audio signal LOUT+.
The signal is sine shape and has a d.c. component of about 1.2Vd.c and
1.3Vpp (DVD Test Disk, track 06, 1 KHz left)
TP34 Video signal Y3.
The signal has a value of 800mVpp (DVD Test Disk, track 01, colors
spectrum).
TP35 Left channel audio signal of the SCART socket (SCART-L).
The signal has no d.c. component and a value of 4Vpp (DVD Test Disk,
track 06, 1KHz left).
TP36 Right channel audio of the SCART socket (SCART-R).
The signal has no d.c. component and a value of 4Vpp (DVD Test Disk,
track 08, 1 KHz right).
TP37 SCART socket FBOUT line.
If a SCART socket is inserted into the rear connector of the equipment, in
TP37 there is a voltage of +2.5Vdc or 0V on the contrary.
TP38 MUTE audio command line (A_MUTE).
The voltage measurement in point TP38 is +2Vdc with MUTE function
inserted (with track forward moved by the remote control) and 4Vdc
normally with audio and video.
TP39 Left channel audio signal of the RCA socket (LCH).
The signal has no d.c. component and a value of 5Vpp (DVD Test Disk,
track 06, 1 KHz left).
TP40 Right channel audio signal of the RCA socket (RCH).
The signal has no d.c. component and a value of 5Vpp (DVD Test Disk,
track 08, 1KHz right).

RESULT:

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LAB SESSION 09

OBJECT:
To examine the fault simulation of DVD player.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:

DVD trainer M500


Oscilloscope
Multi meter
Frequency meter

THEORY & OBSERVATION:


There are 18 faults which can be inserted through switches
Fault 18

With the fault 18 inserted, the measured voltage at TP2 is 0Vdc, the
PAUSE PLAY and STOP commands are cut-off and the audio is not
reproduced.

Fault17

With fault 17 inserted, the measured voltage at TP5 is 1.5Vdc, the remote
control does not operate.

Fault 16

With fault 16 inserted, the measured voltage at TP11 is 0Vdc and the
remote control does not operate.

Fault 15

With fault 15 inserted, the voltage measured at TP20 is 0Vdc, the DVD
drawer dose not open. Pushing the OPEN/CLOSE key, the drawer opens
but it cannot be closed anymore.

Fault 14

With fault 14 inserted, the voltage measured at TP21 is 0Vdc, the


STAND-BY On key dose not operate.

Fault 13

With fault 13 inserted, the voltage measured at TP27 is 0Vdc, the video
output voltage is not present on the SCART connector.

Fault 12

With fault 12 inserted, the voltage measured at TP29 is 0Vdc, the video
output voltage related to the GREEN color is not present on the SCART
connector.

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Fault 11

With fault 11 inserted, the voltage measured at TP7 is 0Vdc, the DVD
rotation progressively stop and the equipment goes in STANDBY.

Fault 10

With fault 10 inserted, the voltage measured at TP40 is 0Vdc, the audio
related to the RIGHT channel is not reproduced.

Fault 9

With fault 9 inserted, the measured voltage at TP8 is 0Vdc and the VFD
display of the equipment switches off although the DVD program
operation and the PAUSE, PLAY, STOP keys and the remote control keep
operating.

Fault 8

With fault 8 inserted, the measured voltage at TP15 is 0Vdc, the OPEN /
CLOSE key does not operate

Fault 7

With fault 7 inserted, the measured voltage at TP18 is 0Vdc, the DVD
drawer does not open. Pushing the OPEN / CLOSE key, the drawer does
not open and after 5 seconds the measured value becomes + 5V dc.

Fault 6

With fault 6 inserted, the measured voltage at TP22 progressively ranges


between 4Vdc and 0Vdc with a gradual slowing down of the DVD disk
rotation until it stops.

Fault 5

With fault 5 inserted, the voltage measured at TP26 is 0Vdc, the video
output voltage is not present on the RCA connector.

Fault 4

With fault 4 inserted, the voltage measured at TP28 is 0Vdc, the video
output voltage related to the RED color is not present on the SCART
connector.

Fault 3

With fault 3 inserted, the voltage measured at TP30 is 0Vdc, the video
output voltage related to the BLUE color is not present on the SCART
connector.

Fault 2

With the Fault 2 inserted, the voltage measured is +2Vdc, the audio is not
reproduced.

Fault 1

With fault 1 inserted, the voltage measured at TP38 is 0Vdc, the audio
related to the LEFT channel is not reproduced.

RESULT:

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LAB SESSION 10

OBJECT:
To check the operation of VTR (Video Tape Recorder)
i. Troubleshooting on the supply and take up reel sensors circuit.
ii. Troubleshooting on the drum motor circuit

EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED:

VCR trainer EAV-VCT-M3


Color Television.
Digital multimeter

THEORY:
The reel spindle rotate to supply reel and take-up tape as it travels through the tape
transport mechanism. The supply reel and take-up reel have sensors. Each sensors detect
the spindle when is turning. The sensor regulates the tape & hold back according to how
much tape is on the supply reel and take-up reel.
The drum servo system has two control loops called speed servo loop and phase servo
loop. The speed servo loop controls the drum rotation to be precisely 29.97 rps. For 60
Hz system, which is for the frame frequency in color television. The phase servo loop
controls the phase, or timing to make sure that one of the two video heads, called the
reference head, crosses the spot on the track where vertical sync is to be recorded at the
precise instant it occurs in the video signal.

PROCEDURE:
( REEL SENSOR):
1. Prepare the VCR trainer and other equipment.
2. Connect Ribbon cable from VCR to Fault panel.
3. Use the Video/Audio cable (RCA cable). Connect it into Video/Audio line out of
VCR and into the Video/Audio line input of the color TV.
4. Operate VCR trainer and color TV monitor by pressing power buttons.
5. Set TV to receive VCR signal.
6. Insert video cassette into VCR.
7. Measure the TAKE-UP REEL sensor signal at TP16 and then record the result.
8. Activate the TAKE UP REEL sensor fault simulator by pressing the fault button
on block diagram panel.

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9. Press FF button to forward the cassette. Observe the forwarding process on VCR.
Did the forwarding process operate correctly?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. Measure again the take up sensor signal at TP16, compare the result to step 7
above.
11. Reset the fault simulator.
12. Activate the SUPPLY REEL sensor by pressing the fault button, the indicator
fault will lit.
13. Press REW button to rewind the cassette. Observe the rewinding process on VCR.
Did the rewinding process work correctly?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------14. Reset the fault simulator.
15. Eject the video cassette.
16. Turn off the VCR trainer and TV monitor.
(DRUM MOTOR):
1. Prepare the VCR Trainer and other equipment.
2. Connect Ribbon cable from VCR to Fault Panel.
3. Use the video/Audio cable (RCA cable). Connect it into video/ Audio line input
of the color TV.
4. Operate VCR trainer and Color TV monitor by Pressing power buttons.
5. Set TV to receive VCR signal.
6. Insert video cassette into VCR.
7. Press PLAY button to playback process.
8. Measure the Drum FG signal at TP 12. Observe the waveform and record.
9. Activate the drum FG fault simulator by pressing the fault button. Observe the
playback process on mechanic system of VCR.
Did the drum motor stop?

Did the playback process still run?


10. Measure again the Drum FG at TP12. Compare the result to step 8 above
11. Press RESET button to normal function.
12. Run the recording process and then activate the Drum FG fault simulator again.
13. Observe the fault effect on mechanic system.
14. Press RESET button to normal function.
15. Write down the fault effect of the Drum FG circuit malfunction at the time
playback process and at the time recording process.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
16. Eject the video cassette.
17. Turn off the VCR trainer and TV monitor.

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RESULT:

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LAB SESSION 11
OBJECT:
To become familiar with the use of 4 telephones connected to the local switching centre.

THEORY:
Local Signalling: The signalling between the telephone user, and the local Switching
Centre is known as local signalling.
The signals available to the user are the Switch Hook and the Keypad. The Switch Hook
operates as soon as the telephone is lifted. This is the Off Hook state of the telephone,
and is recognised by the Switching Centre. The Keypad is primarily used to send the
Destination Address to the Switching Centre; that is the number of the telephone to which
the connection is required.
Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signalling: The signals are in the form of a
combination of two audible tones, a different combination for each number on the
Keypad. Hence it is known as Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signalling.
The Switching Centre can send signals to the user, by using tones and by ringing the bell
or alerter in the telephone. The audible tones are known as call progress tones, and
indicate to the user important responses of the Switching Centre. Obviously they are only
useful if the user is listening to the telephone. If the telephone is not in use, i.e. if it is on
hook, then the Switching Centre can ring it.
ITU-T Standards: Standards for the telephone industry are agreed by an international
body. Up to 1994 it had a French name, Comite Consultatif International de
Telegraphique et Telephonique (CCITT). Since then it has been known as the
Telecommunications Standardisation Sector of the International Telecommunications
Union (ITU-T).The ITU-T produced a Standard Recommendation E.180 for the tones
used in local signalling.
Each telephone system is run by an Administration, sometimes a public Administration,
usually running the whole telephone system in one country, and sometimes privately
owned. Historically each Administration has often used different tones for the same
purpose. The ITU-T Recommendation aims to reduce these differences so that in
international calls operators and users understand easily the meaning of the tones. The
Recommendation includes 'acceptable' tones for each purpose, and 'recommended' tones
for new systems. The general nature of each tone, and the acceptable and recommended
limits are:
Dial Tone: Dial Tone should be a continuous tone, either a single frequency in the range
400-450 Hz, with 425 Hz preferred, or a combined tone of up to 3 frequencies, with at
least one frequency in the ranges 340-425 and 400-450 Hz, with at least 25 Hz difference

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between any 2 frequencies. However any existing dial tones, including interrupted tones
are acceptable, because of the technical and social difficulties of changes.
Ring Tone: Ring tone is a slow period tone, in which the tone period is shorter than the
silent period. The recommended limits are 0.67 to 1.5 seconds for the tone and 3 to 5
seconds for the silence; and the acceptable limits are up to 2.5 sec and up to 6 seconds
respectively. The recommended frequency is 400-450 Hz, with 425 Hz preferred; and the
acceptable range is 340-500 Hz.
Busy Tone: Busy tone is a quick period tone, with the tone and silence periods equal.
The total duration of both tones is recommended to be 0.3 to 1.1 seconds; and the ratio of
tone to silent period should be between 0.67 and 1.5. The recommended frequency is
400-450 Hz, with 425 Hz preferred; and the acceptable range is 340-500 Hz.
Number Unobtainable Tone: No recommendations are made.
System Operation: The normal use of the 4 telephones connected to the local Switching
Centre is demonstrated in this Practical. By using the telephones to make calls, the basic
operation of the Switching Centre is examined. The telephones use single digit numbers.
The numbers to be dialed correspond to the Line numbers L1 to L4 shown on the Work
board i.e. 1, 2, 3 and 4.
The system uses 4 Call Progress Tones: Dial tone, Ring tone, Busy tone and Number
Unobtainable (NU tone). Using the telephones the tones can be heard. Also the
connection of them can be seen on the Switching Centre diagram. Ringing the telephone
requires a much larger voltage than the acoustic Tones. This is indicated by a different
colour inside the Switching Centre diagram. The Digital Switching Centre Work boards
used for this can operate as one of two types, A or B. The work board used for the single
Switch Assignments, must be set to type A, by the Switching Centre Type switch at the
far right hand corner of the board. If two boards are connected, the other should be type
B, and is not used for these Assignments.

PROCEDURE & RESULT:


1. This exercise is to become familiar with the use of the 4 telephones connected to
the local switching centre. The numbers for the telephones for the first
Assignments correspond to the line numbers on the work board, i.e. 1 to 4.
2. The work board must be set to Type A. If there is another board connected, it
must be type B, and is not used. The tones are preset but non-standard.
3. Put all 4 telephones face down (On Hook).
4. Pick up telephone 1. Dial Tone is heard, and the connection is shown on the
diagram. Press button 2. Ring Tone and Alerting (Ring) are applied to telephones
1 and 2. Pick up telephone 2. Speak into one of them to check the connection.
5. While the first connection is held, pick up telephone 3 and press button 1. Busy
Tone is heard. Then replace telephone 3.
6. Replace telephone 2. Is the connection broken? Replace telephone 1.

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7. Using any telephone, listen to Dial Tone, and then press button 8. Number
Unavailable Tone (NU Tone) is heard.
8. Try out other connections.

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LAB SESSION 12
OBJECT:
To become familiar with time switching & space switching.

THEORY:
Digital Transmission: Digital telephone signals use a synchronous transmission system,
which combines Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Pulse Code Modulation
(PCM). Each speech path has to send an 8 bit binary code at a rate of 8000 codes per
second. The codes are organized into groups called frames. Each code is transmitted in a
timeslot. The frames include special synchronizing codes so that each timeslot can be
identified and the code correctly converted back to analogue form.
In the CEPT system which originated in Europe there are 32 timeslots in each frame.
Each frame takes 125 s, and each 8 bit timeslot is transmitted in 3.9 s, at a rate of
2.048 Mbps. In the T1 system which was designed in North America there are 24
timeslots in each frame. Each frame also takes 125 s, and so each 8 bit timeslot is
transmitted in 5.2 s. An extra bit is used for synchronizing so the transmission rate is
1.544 Mbps.
The connection to each telephone uses 2 wires which carry analogue signals in both
directions. For Digital Switching, incoming and outgoing speech are separated by hybrid
circuits. Then combined Codec/Filter circuits provide analogue to digital and digital to
analogue conversion.
Speech Paths:

The Codec/Filter circuits are connected to the Digital switch through Inlet and Outlet
Busses. Each Bus can carry up to 24 or 30 speech connections, depending on the PCM
system in use. Each Codec is connected to the Inlet and Outlet Busses at a designated
time; for the period of one timeslot.

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Basic Digital Switching: The Digital Switch transfers the contents of each timeslot in the
Inlet Bus to the appropriate timeslot in the Outlet Bus. Switching of the data from each
timeslot in the Inlet Bus requires changing the time at which the data is transmitted along
the Outlet Bus. The process is known as Time Switching or Time Slot Interchange.
Time and Space Switching: Most switching systems have more than 24 or 30 channels
and use more timeslots than can be accommodated in one Bus. Therefore switching
between the Busses is required. The Digital Switch shown must switch between different
timeslots and also between different busses.

Time Switching: The basic process in Digital Switching for telephone systems is the
transfer of 8 bits of digital data from one Timeslot to another. The speech signals from
each telephone are connected through a Codec to the Switch during a specified Timeslot.
The connections are made along Inlet and Outlet serial busses. The simplest connection
between 2 telephones occurs if they are both using the same Inlet and Outlet busses. They
must, of course, use different Timeslots. Then 8000 times per second the contents of the
Inlet Timeslots for each telephone must be transferred to the Outlet Timeslots of the
other. This is Timeslot Interchange or Time Switching. The Timeslots are organized in
Frames. Each Frame has 32 (CEPT systems) or 24 (T1 systems) Timeslots. Successive
Frames are transmitted along the same physical connections i.e. the same Inlet and Outlet
busses.
The data for transmission is only available briefly, and the display flashes to suggest this.
Of course the actual data transmission is very much faster than the flashing. For
convenience one digit dialing is still used in this Assignment (Line numbers 1 to 4).
Time and Space Switching: One 30 channel CEPT serial bus can accommodate 30
telephones, and each T1 serial bus can accommodate 24 telephones. Hence any larger
system requires more Inlet and Outlet serial busses, particularly if they are public
systems. Hence switching between serial busses is required as well as time switching.
This is known as combined Time and Space Switching.

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The demonstration uses two Inlet and two Outlet serial busses. In a large system there are
many such serial busses, and complex combinations of Time and Space switching are
used.

PROCEDURE & RESULT:


Preliminary Procedure:
Check the Workstation set up as follows:
One Digital Switch Centre If there is only one Digital Switch Centre and
Telephone Tray (58-122 and 58-123) connected to the system controller 58-121,
make sure the Switching Centre Type Switch is set to 'A' (green LED on).

Two Digital Switch Centres If there are two Digital Switch Centres and
Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123), one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). A curly
trunk cable should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switch Centre 'A'
for the Practical.
Two Digital Switch Centres plus a Trunk Networks Board With two Digital
Switch Centres and Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123) and a Trunk Networks
Board, 58-140 included in the set-up, one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). Curly trunk
cables should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switching Centre 'A' for
the Practical.

Procedure for Time Switching:


1. Switching between 4 telephones, all of them connected to one bus. The data is
only available briefly in each timeslot, as suggested by the flickering display.
2. Make a connection between any two telephones. They have numbers 1 to 4.
Observe which timeslots have their contents exchanged to carry the speech signal
from one telephone to the other.
3. Make another connection without breaking the first one and observe the new
timeslot interchange.
4. Clear the connections and make new connections.
Procedure for Time & space switching:
1. The 4 telephones are now connected to 2 timeslots in different busses.
2. Again make different connections between the telephones. They are numbered 1
to 4.
3. In each case observe the timeslot interchanges required. Some of them are in the
corresponding serial bus, for example from Inlet bus 0 to Outlet bus 0 but some
require speech data to be exchanged into an unrelated bus.

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LAB SESSION 13

OBJECT:
i.
ii.

Determined the relationship between information held within the control memory and
the actual switching operation.
Established the procedure to connect tones to calling lines.

THEORY:
Digital Switch Architecture:
The Switch has an Inlet Buffer (Serial In and Parallel Out), and an Outlet Buffer (Parallel
In and Serial Out) for each Serial Bus connected.
The Buffers and the Data Memory are connected internally by a parallel bus, which can
operate much faster than the serial busses.
The Connection Memory is used to control the time at which the contents of each
timeslot are sent to the Outlet Buffer.

Switch Operation:
The incoming serial data along one Inlet Bus enters the Inlet Buffer. The data in each
timeslot is read into a location in the Data Memory in sequence as it arrives. Thus the
position in the Data Memory indicates which timeslot was connected.

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To achieve Time Switching, the data from each location in the Data Memory must be
read at the correct time, and sent to the Outlet Buffer.
Each location in the Connection Memory is used for the same timeslot as the
corresponding location in the Data Memory. However each Connection Memory location
contains an address, not data. The address is that of the Data Memory location which
should be read and the data sent to the Outlet Buffer for each timeslot.
Thus by writing data into the Data Memory sequentially, but reading it when required,
Time Switching is obtained.
Combined Time and Space switching is obtained using the same principle. More Inlet
and Outlet Buffers are used for the additional busses, all connected by the parallel bus to
the Data Memory, which is more extensive.
A limit on switch capacity is reached when the internal bus cannot reach the speed
required for transfer of all the data. In that case combinations of switches are used.
Control of Time Switch:
Switching using RAM
The method used for Time Switching is to write the 8 bits of data in each Timeslot into a
location in a random access memory (RAM). Then at the correct time the data is read
from the RAM and transmitted through the Switch Outlet.
To do this the Digital Switch writes the data from each Timeslot in the Inlet serial Bus
into the Data memory. Each location in the Data Memory corresponds to a particular
Timeslot in the Inlet Serial Bus.
The data is read out from the Data Memory and sent to the Outlet Serial Bus in the
correct sequence for the particular connection required.
Switch Control:
The output sequence is controlled by the Connection Memory. Each location in the
Connection Memory also corresponds to a Timeslot in the Outlet Serial Bus.
The Connection Memory contains the addresses of the Data Memory from which each
Timeslot data can be read. The addresses are inserted when the connection is set up.
At the time for the data to be transferred to the Outlet, the address is read in the
corresponding location in the Connection Memory, and used to find the data in the Data
Memory.

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The data is held for a complete Frame; ie, 125 s, in the Data Memory before being
written over by the data from the next corresponding Timeslot. This is indicated by the
display not flashing as quickly as the serial data.
Connection of Tones:
The Digital Switch is used to connect each of the 4 tones used for signalling to the
telephone user. The tones are Dial tone (DT), Ringing tone (RT), Busy tone, and Number
Unobtainable (NU tone).
The tones are continuously available in particular timeslots, and are connected to each
line as required. Each tone can be connected to as many telephones as necessary
simultaneously.
Each tone can be programmed (see the Local Signalling Assignment). Whether it is the
programmed or preset tones that are used, they are available in the same timeslots.

Procedure:
Preliminary Procedure:
Check the Workstation set up as follows:
One Digital Switch Centre If there is only one Digital Switch Centre and
Telephone Tray (58-122 and 58-123) connected to the system controller 58-121,
make sure the Switching Centre Type Switch is set to 'A' (green LED on).

Two Digital Switch Centres If there are two Digital Switch Centres and
Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123), one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). A curly
trunk cable should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switch Centre 'A'
for the Practical.
Two Digital Switch Centres plus a Trunk Networks Board With two Digital
Switch Centres and Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123) and a Trunk Networks
Board, 58-140 included in the set-up, one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). Curly trunk
cables should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switching Centre 'A' for
the Practical.

Procedure for Control of Time Switch:


1. Make a connection between any two telephones.
2. Observe the addresses written into the Connection Memory. These tell the system
where in the Data Memory to find the data for the output timeslot.
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Procedure for Connection of Tones:


The 4 tones for signalling to the telephone are available in specified timeslots, in one
serial bus. They are connected as required to the telephone timeslots, again under the
control of the connection memory.

1. Pick up one telephone and listen to the dial tone. Dial another telephone, see that
dial tone stops, and then ring tone starts. Answer the telephone.
2. Then try to connect a third telephone to one of the first two. Finally try to connect
to an invalid number.

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LAB SESSION 14
OBJECT:
To learn how the call state, call record, call progress are made.

THEORY:
Call Records: A Call Record is an area of memory in which the essential data for any
call is held. Each time a telephone goes off hook in order to start a call, a new Call
Record is opened. The essential items are:
The call state, which indicates the position which a call has reached in the sequence of
events.
The identity of the calling line
The identity of the required line
The duration of the call
The timing of the Ring Count.
These items, together with the Line Scan inputs, are the total requirements for the Control
microprocessor to handle the call. The Call Records are numbered R1 to R4. For a very
small system it is possible for all telephones to be Off Hook together and so there has to
be a Call Record for each one. However you will probably notice as you work with the
system that it is unusual for all 4 to be needed.
In large systems an assumption is made that most telephones are not in use most of the
time, and so only a small proportion of possible connections are ever made

Call States and Transitions:

The first Practical uses this diagram to illustrate the progress of a Call through various
Call States. The diagram is the basis of a 'Process' diagram as defined in the ITU-T
Specification and Description Language (SDL). It serves as an introduction to the SDL
concepts.

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Call State: The concept of Call State is the method for organizing the control of the
telephone system. The Call States in this system are numbered S0 (Idle) to S7 (Speech).
The progress of a call is monitored by reference to its State. Most of the time of the
Control in the Switching Centre is spent waiting for the next input from a user. When the
Line Scan detects a change of Input from the Hook Switch, or from the DTMF Receivers,
it refers to the Call State, if any, for that Line to determine the significance of the Input.
Dialing: In this 2 digit dialing is used. This is more realistic, and enables the Call
Processing to be more clearly observed. The preset numbers for the 4 Lines are 21, 22, 31
and 32, respectively.
State S3: Note that local calls, in the single Switch used for this Assignment, do not need
to dwell in State S3 - Find Line. This is because the processor can determine immediately
whether the required line is free, busy or unobtainable, and is an internal transition. A
short pause at State S3 is imposed, but would not normally be used. State S3 is examined
more closely in other Assignments.
As an example, consider the system starting in State S0, Idle. When the Line Scan shows
an unused handset off-hook, it responds with dial tone. A Transition is made to State S1 Call Request. As the call progresses more Transitions occur. At any point, if the call is
released, then the system reverts to State S0 - Idle. The Call State is recorded at each
stage in the Call Record.
Use of Call State Transition Diagram: The advantages of the Call State Transition
Diagram include:

It provides an exact specification of the operation of the system and at the same time it
enforces a discipline on the system designer.

The control software is designed and tested by considering the possible States.
The complexity of a large system is thus reduced to a number of simple steps.
For design if a system is in a particular State, only certain Transitions are possible, and
only those need to be provided. For testing, from any State it is only required to ensure
that the required Transitions, and only those, occur.

Line Identities: For the Call Record the lines are identified by their Equipment Numbers,
which correspond to the Telephone Line numbers L1 to L4 on the Work board. There are
2 Line Identities used in the Call Record. The Calling Line Identity CLI is entered when
the Call Record is opened. The Required Line Identity RLI is entered when it is
identified by the dialed numbers.
Call Progress: The basic information required by the Control to process a call comprises
the Call State CS and the Line Identities CLI and RLI. With that information, incoming
signals from the telephone are correctly interpreted. All switching whether of Tones or
Ringing or final Connection can be performed. Release of a call may happen at any State
of the call. Hence correct disconnection also requires all the 3 items, CS, CLI and RLI.

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Call Duration: The duration of any telephone call is important to a telephone company
for various reasons. The main reason is for charging the user for the call. When the call is
completed, the details of the call are recorded and used for calculating the bill. Also it is
useful to keep some statistics on the system performance. For example the time required
to set up a call, for which the company is not paid, affects the amount of computing
equipment needed by the system. Finally if calls are not completely established, e.g. a
phone is left off-hook without dialing, after a certain period it may be disconnected or an
alarm message may be sent.
Ring Count: According to the ITU-T recommendation, Ring Tone and the Ringing
signal should commence as soon as the connection is made. To achieve this without
distorting the normal Ring cadence, the Tone period must start immediately. Hence the
cadences for each line are not synchronous, and must be counted independently. The unit
of time for the Ring Count is 0.1 second. It is convenient to provide a location for the
count with the Call Record. However no further use is made of the data.

PROCEDURE & RESULT:


Preliminary Procedure:
Check the Workstation set up as follows:
One Digital Switch Centre If there is only one Digital Switch Centre and
Telephone Tray (58-122 and 58-123) connected to the system controller 58-121,
make sure the Switching Centre Type Switch is set to 'A' (green LED on).

Two Digital Switch Centres If there are two Digital Switch Centres and
Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123), one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). A curly
trunk cable should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switch Centre 'A'
for the Practical.
Two Digital Switch Centres plus a Trunk Networks Board With two Digital
Switch Centres and Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123) and a Trunk Networks
Board, 58-140 included in the set-up, one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). Curly trunk
cables should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switching Centre 'A' for
the Practical.

Procedure for Call state:


1. The Call State is used by the control to determine the progress of any call. The
active Call State Transition Diagram shows the possible Transitions between
States.
2. 2 digit dialing is now needed to demonstrate reasonable call progress. The lines
L1 to L4 have preset numbers 21, 22, 31, 32. These can be changed in the Line
Records, Numbering Practical.
3. Lift just one telephone and go through the stages of a call.

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4. The Call State table shows which State each Call Record has reached. The related
Call State Transition Diagram (CSTD) shows the progress of any call. If
necessary use the Select Record button to find the current CSTD.
5. Make two calls simultaneously and follow their progress on the 2 CSTDs. Try to
connect to a telephone already in use; and to a nonexistent directory number.
Procedure for Call progress:
1. There are 2 Line Identities required for the Call Record. The Calling Line
Identity CLI is entered into the Call Record when a new Record is started.
2. The Dialed Number is stored as the digits are dialed. When it is complete, if the
required line is not Busy or Unobtainable, the Required Line Identity RLI is
entered into the Call Record.
3. Use the telephones to make various connections (2 digit dialing). Observe when
the Identities are entered and removed from the Call Records.
Procedure for Call duration:
1. The duration of each call, in seconds, is maintained in each Call Record. Timing
starts as soon as the Call Record is opened.
2. When a connection is made, the Set Up duration is recorded for the Traffic
statistics. The Call Duration is then restarted.
3. The control of Ringing also needs a location for counting the course of the
Ringing cadence. The Ring Count is counted in units of 0.1 second.
4. Make some connections (2 digit dialing), and observe the timing.

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LAB SESSION 15
OBJECT:
To learn about Call Progress Assignment.

THEORY:
This shows the complete system records for actual successful or unsuccessful calls. The
Call Progress Practicals are:
Call Set Up
Call Supervision
Call Release
Call Progress:
In large telephone systems the computer system must be able to deal with many different
calls, at different stages as each call progresses. It is convenient to divide the control into
different phases, each dealing with a particular aspect of the call.

A common system is to divide the control into 3 phases:


Call Set Up: This includes all the initial phases from the Calling Line going Off Hook to
receiving the tones, Ringing, Busy or NU. After this the Call is transferred to
Supervision. Of course, the user may go On Hook at any time, in which case the call is
transferred to Release.
Supervision: This watches for Off Hook at the required line, and then connects the
speech, or for On Hook at the Calling Line, when it transfers to Release.
Release: This stops the call at whatever stage it has reached.
The timing requirements of the different stages vary, so it is possible to have different
scan rates for the different phases. The computer software is also partitioned to deal with
the different phases independently.

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Manual Control: The original telephone services were of course operated manually. The
operation of a modern automatic system can still be understood as simulating the actions
of a manual operator. The initial actions of an operator were to recognize the Off Hook
state, hear the identity of the required line given by the caller, and either select the
connection and start Ringing or announce that the line is Busy or Unobtainable. That
constituted the Set Up phase. Then the operator would turn his/her main attention to
another call, while watching for a reply or for the caller to hang up. That was the
Supervision phase. Finally at any stage of the call, it might be finished, and the
connections would be cleared, and the call released.
The similarity between the manual system and the modern systems also applies to the
main structure of the control system. In both cases the control system is separate from the
switched speech path. That did not apply to the Strowger electromechanical system
which was the main automatic system for most of the twentieth century. In that case the
speech path was set up step by step as the digits were dialed, using most ingenious
techniques.
Call Set Up: The first stage of Setting up a Call is to recognize the Off Hook state in a
Line which is not otherwise related to an existing call. In other words the Line is not in
any Call Record. The Set Up phase starts with the first Transition to State S1, Call
Request. Set Up is deemed to continue until one of States S4, S5 or S6 are reached.
During this phase the tone pulses may come very rapidly, and so the system must be
prepared to respond quickly. Then the system can wait for a response from either the
Required Line, or from the Caller, in the Supervision phase. The Caller may abandon the
Call at any time, in which case control is passed to the Release phase.
Release Convention: There are different possible ways of ending a Call, which has been
connected:

Calling Party Clear. This is the most common convention. With this convention
the Call is released when the original Caller clears his Line by putting the
telephone On Hook. The justification for this is that the Caller is responsible for
the cost of the Call, and so should be in control. However if the original Line is
not cleared, the Required Line is blocked and cannot be used. Whatever
convention is chosen during this Practical, the system reverts to Calling Party
clear immediately on exit from the Practical. This is to avoid confusion!
Either Party Clear. With this convention, either party can release the Call by
going On Hook.
Either Party Clear with Delay. If the Caller goes On Hook, the Call is released
immediately. However if the Required Line goes On Hook, the Call is not
released until after a preset delay. In this system the delay is 5 seconds. If the
Required Line goes Off Hook again before the delay is complete, the Call is not
released. This convention avoids the Required Line clearing the Call accidentally.

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Further memory locations in the Call Record are required for the count of time during the
delay. Whichever convention is used, when the relevant condition is met, control is
passed to the Release stage. Under Supervision, the signals expected by the Control all
derive from the Switch Hooks, at one or the other telephone. Thus a slower rate of scan is
possible e.g. 100 ms. However there is no advantage for the Work board in using a
slower rate so the same rate of 20 ms is used.

PROCEDURE & RESULT:


Preliminary Procedure:
Check the Workstation set up as follows:
One Digital Switch Centre If there is only one Digital Switch Centre and
Telephone Tray (58-122 and 58-123) connected to the system controller 58-121,
make sure the Switching Centre Type Switch is set to 'A' (green LED on).

Two Digital Switch Centres If there are two Digital Switch Centres and
Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123), one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). A curly
trunk cable should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switch Centre 'A'
for the Practical.
Two Digital Switch Centres plus a Trunk Networks Board With two Digital
Switch Centres and Telephone Trays (58-122 and 58-123) and a Trunk Networks
Board, 58-140 included in the set-up, one Switching Centre Type Switch should
be set to A (green LED on) and the other to B (yellow LED on). Curly trunk
cables should interconnect the Trunks connectors. Use Switching Centre 'A' for
the Practical.

Procedure for Call setup:


1. The data needed to control a call is shown in the Call Record. The progress of the
call can be observed in the Call Record, and in the current CSTD. The Input and
Output for each transition is also shown.
2. The first phase of the call is Call Set Up, up to the start of Ringing.
3. Start a call and observe the changes in the Call Records, step by step. If more then
one call is handled simultaneously, the CSTD shows the state of the call with the
most recent transition.
4. Observe the sequences for busy line and NU calls.
Procedure for Call Supervision:
1. This is the second stage of Call Progress. The Line has been identified, and the
system is waiting for action by a User. In a normal case, the first action will be
Answer (Off Hook) at the Required Line, and the Call moves to state S7, still
under Supervision. In other cases there may be no answer, or the Line is in State
S5 (Busy) or S6 (Number Unobtainable). Then the Supervision waits for the
Release condition.

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2. This is the second stage of Call Progress. The Call is in Ringing or Busy or NU
state. The system is waiting for a response from a user. The practical includes a
choice of conventions for releasing a call.
3. Set up a call to the Ringing state. Answer the call and observe the system
response. Determine how to clear the call.
4. Set up more calls and determine the operation of the different release conventions
by clicking on the Set Release Convention button.
Procedure for Call Release:
1. This is the final stage of Call Progress. The action taken at Release depends on the
state of the call when it was cleared.
2. Any Tones or the Ringing signal must be cleared. The speech path may need
disconnecting. If the Call had reached State S7 and was connected details of the
call are transferred to Call Accounting. Finally the Call Record and the maps are
cleared.
3. The final stage of Call Progress. The action required depends on the Call State
reached before Release.
4. Set up several calls to various stages and observe the actions taken. There is not
space for every action. Consider what may have been omitted.

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