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1)In .NET, an assembly is the basic unit of reuse, versioning, security,and deployment.

2)As in many object-oriented programming languages, in C#, a type is defined by a


class, and the individual instances of that class are known as objects
3)A method (sometimes called a function) is a contained set of operations that are
owned by the class. The member methods define what the class can do or how it
behaves.
4)The CLR calls Main( ) when your program starts. Main( ) is the entry point for your
program, and every C# program must have a Main( ) method
5)the dot operator (.) is used to access a method (and data) in a class
(in this case, the method WriteLine( )), and to restrict the class name to a specific
namespace (in this case, to locate Console within the System namespace).
6)The goal of namespaces is to help you divide and conquer the complexity of your object hi
7)The static keyword indicates that you can invoke Main( ) without first creating an
object
8)Type----------- Size (in bytes)-----.NET type Description
Byte------------- 1 Byte -------------Unsigned (values 0 to 255)
Char------------- 2 Char -------------Unicode characters
Bool ------------ 1 Boolean-----------True or false
Sbyte------------ 1 SByte ------------Signed values ( 128 to 127)
Short------------ 2 Int16 ------------Signed short values ( 32,768 to 32,767)
Ushort----------- 2 UInt16------------Unsigned short values (0 to 65,535)
Int-------------- 4 Int32-------------Signed integer values between 2,147,483,648 and 2,14
Uint------------- 4 UInt32 -----------Unsigned integer values between 0 and 4,294,967,295
Float------------ 4 Single -----------Floating-point number. Holds values from approximatel
Double----------- 8 Double -----------Double-precision floating-point. Holds values from ap
decimal---------- 16 Decimal ---------Fixed-precision value up to 28 digits and the positio
Long -------------8--Int64 -----------Signed integers from 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,
Ulong ------------8 -UInt64 ----------Unsigned integers ranging from 0 to 0xfffffffffffffff
In addition to these primitive types, C# has two other value types: enum and struct
9)A stack is a data structure used to store items on a last-in first-out basis (like a stac
dishes at the buffet line in a restaurant). The stack refers to an area of memory managed
by the processor, on which the local variables are stored.
10)The heap is an initially undifferentiated area of memory that can be referred to by item
placed on the stack.
11)You must initialize a constant when you declare it, and once initialized, it can t be
altered. For example:
const int FreezingPoint = 32;
12)An enumeration is a distinct value type, consisting of a set of named constants (called
enum ServingSizes :uint
{
Small = 1,
Regular = 2,
}
13)A string object holds a series of characters.
14)switch (expression)
{
case constant-expression:
statement
jump-statement
[default: statement]
}
Iterations
15) while (expression) statement
16)do statement while (expression
17for ([initializers]; [expression]; [iterators]) statement
18)The foreach statement is used for looping through the elements of an array or a collecti
19)The continue and break statements
There are times when you would like to return to the top of a loop without executing the re
skip the remaining steps in the loop.
The other side of that coin is the ability to break out of a loop and immediately end
all further work within the loop. For this purpose, the break statement exists.
20)The Ternary Operator
conditional-expression ? expression1 : expression2
21)Access modifier Restrictions
public--------------- No restrictions. Members marked public are visible to any method of a
private-------------- The members in class A that are marked private are accessible only to
protected-------------The members in class A that are marked protected are accessible to me
internal------------- The members in class A that are marked internal are accessible to met
protected internal----The members in class A that are marked protected internal are accessi
protected OR internal. (There is no concept of protected AND internal.)
22)The job of a constructor is to create the object specified by a class and to put it into
the object is undifferentiated memory; after the constructor completes, the memory holds a
23)The .NET Framework defines an ICloneable interface to support the concept of a copy cons
24)The keyword this refers to the current instance of an object
25)In C#, it is not legal to access a static method or member variable through an instance,
26)Mark your class Static to ensure that no instance of the class may be created. Static cl
however, that static classes may not contain nonstatic members or have a constructor
27)How Destructors Work
The garbage collector maintains a list of objects that have a destructor. This list is
updated every time such an object is created or destroyed.
When an object on this list is first collected, it is placed in a queue with other objects
waiting to be destroyed. After the destructor executes, the garbage collector collects
the object and updates the queue, as well as its list of destructible objects.
28)If you provide a Dispose( ) method, you should stop the garbage collector from calling
your object s destructor. To do so, call the static method GC.SuppressFinalize( ),
passing in the this pointer for your object. Your destructor can then call your
Dispose( ) method.
29)Keep in mind that ref parameters are references to the actual original value: it is as
though you said, Here, work on this one. Conversely, value parameters are copies:
it is as though you said, Here, work on one just like this.
30)C# imposes definite assignment, which requires that all variables be assigned a value
before they are used.C# provides the out parameter modifier for this situation. The out mod
the requirement that a reference parameter be initialized.
31)To summarize, value types are passed into methods by value. ref parameters are
used to pass value types into a method by reference. This allows you to retrieve their
modified values in the calling method. out parameters are used only to return information
from a method.
32)overloaded methods or constructors have sane name but different signatures or different
type doesn t overload the method, and creating two methods with the same signature but dif
33)get set methods--------The two main advantages of this approach are that the client can
properties directly, without sacrificing the data-hiding and encapsulation sacrosanct
in good object-oriented design, and that the author of the property can ensure that
the data provided is valid.
34)The derived class inherits all the members of the base class, both member variables and
35)polymorphism refers to being able to use many forms of a type without regard to the deta
its base class.by using the keyword override in the derived class method definition, and th
36)Because classes can t inherit constructors, a derived class must implement its own const
explicitly.
public ListBox(
int theTop,
int theLeft,
string theContents):
base(theTop, theLeft) // call base constructor
37)Abstract classes establish a base for derived classes, but it is not legal to instantiat
an object of an abstract class. Once you declare a method to be abstract, you prohibit
the creation of any instances of that class.
38)If the derived class failed to implement the abstract method, that class would also be a
instances would be possible.
39)a sealed class doesn t allow classes to derive from it at all. Placed before the class d
the sealed keyword precludes derivation. Classes are most often marked sealed to prevent ac
40)In C#, the root class is Object. The methods of Object
Equals( )---------------- Evaluates whether two objects are equivalent
GetHashCode( )----------- Allows objects to provide their own hash function for use in coll
GetType( )--------------- Provides access to the type object
ToString( )---------------Provides a string representation of the object
Finalize( )---------------Cleans up unmanaged resources; implemented by a destructor (see C
MemberwiseClone( )------- Creates copies of the object; should never be implemented by your
ReferenceEquals( )------- Evaluates whether two objects refer to the same instance
41)A struct is a simple user-defined type, a lightweight alternative to a class. Structs ar
similar to classes in that they may contain constructors, properties, methods, fields,
operators, nested types, and indexers .There are also significant differences between class
structs don t support inheritance or destructors. More important, although a class is
a reference type, a struct is a value type. (See Chapter 3 for more information about
classes and types.) Thus, structs are useful for representing objects that don t require
reference semantics.
No destructor or custom default constructor in struct ,No initialization possible instruct
42)When you define an interface, you may define methods, properties, indexers, and events t
43)An array is an indexed collection of objects, all of the same type.For example:
int[] myIntArray;
44)The params keyword allows you to pass in a variable number of parameters without necessa
explicitly creating the array
45)An indexer is a C# construct that allows you to access collections contained by a
class using the familiar [] syntax of arrays. An indexer is a special kind of property,
and includes get and set accessors to specify its behavior.
public string this[int index]
{
get
{
if (index < 0 || index >= strings.Length)
{}
return strings[index];
}
set
{
// add only through the add method
if (index >= ctr)
{
// handle error
}
else
strings[index] = value;
}
}
46)Collection Interface
ICollection<T>---------------- Base interface for generic collections
IEnumerator<T>
IEnumerable<T>----------------Enumerate through a collection using a foreach statement
ICollection<T>--------------- Implemented by all collections to provide the CopyTo( ) metho
IComparer<T>
IComparable<T>----------------Compare two objects held in a collection so that the collecti
IList<T> ---------------------Used by array-indexable collections
IDictionary<K,V> -------------Used for key-/value-based collections such as Dictionary
47)The List class is an array whose size is dynamically increased as required
Capacity------------------- Property to get or set the number of elements the List can cont
if count exceeds capacity; you might set this value to reduce t
Trim( ) to reduce this value to the actual Count
Count---------------------- Property to get the number of elements currently in the array
Item( ) --------------------Gets or sets the element at the specified index; this is the in
Add( ) ---------------------Public method to add an object to the List
AddRange( )---------------- Public method that adds the elements of an ICollection to the e
AsReadOnly( )-------------- Public method that returns a read-only instance of the current
BinarySearch( )------------ Overloaded public method that uses a binary search to locate a
Clear( )------------------ Removes all elements from the List
Contains( )--------------- Determines whether an element is in the List
ConvertAll( )-------------- Public method that converts all elements in the current list in
CopyTo( )------------------ Overloaded public method that copies a List to a one-dimensiona
Exists( )------------------ Determines whether an element is in the List
Find( ) ------------------- Returns the first occurrence of the element in the List
FindAll( ) ---------------- Returns all the specified elements in the List
FindIndex( ) -------------- Overloaded public method that returns the index of the first el
FindLast( )--------------- Public method that finds the last element that matches a condit
FindLastIndex( )----------- Overloaded public method that returns the index of the last ele
ForEach( )----------------- Public static method that performs an action on all elements of
GetEnumerator( )----------- Overloaded public method that returns an enumerator to iterate
GetRange( )---------------- Copies a range of elements to a new List
IndexOf( )----------------- Overloaded public method that returns the index of the first oc
Insert( )------------------ Inserts an element into the List
InsertRange( )------------- Inserts the elements of a collection into the List
LastIndexOf( )------------- Overloaded public method that returns the index of the last occ
Remove( )------------------ Removes the first occurrence of a specific object
RemoveAll( )--------------- Removes all elements that match a specific condition
RemoveAt( )---------------- Removes the element at the specified index
RemoveRange( )------------- Removes a range of elements
Reverse( )----------------- Reverses the order of elements in the List
Sort( )-------------------- Sorts the List
ToArray( )----------------- Copies the elements of the List to a new array
TrimExcess( )-------------- Reduce the current list s capacity to the actual number of elem
TrimToSize( )-------------- Sets the capacity of the actual number of elements in the List

48)A queue represents a first-in, first-out (FIFO) collection


Count Public property that gets the number of elements in the Queue
Clear( ) -----------------Removes all objects from the Queue
Contains( ) --------------Determines whether an element is in the Queue
CopyTo( )---------------- Copies the Queue elements to an existing one-dimensional array
Dequeue( ) ---------------Removes and returns the object at the beginning of the Queue
Enqueue( ) ---------------Adds an object to the end of the Queue
GetEnumerator( ) ---------Returns an enumerator for the Queue
Peek( )------------------ Returns the object at the beginning of the Queue without removing
ToArray( )--------------- Copies the elements to a new array
TrimExcess( ) ------------Reduces the current queue s capacity to the actual number of elem
49)A stack is a last-in, first-out (LIFO) collection, like a stack of dishes at a buffet ta
Count----------------------- Public property that gets the number of elements in the Stack
Clear( )-------------------- Removes all objects from the Stack
Contains( )----------------- Determines whether an element is in the Stack
CopyTo( )------------------- Copies the Stack elements to an existing one-dimensional array
GetEnumerator( ) ------------Returns an enumerator for the Stack
Peek( )--------------------- Returns the object at the top of the Stack without removing it
Pop( ) --------------------- Removes and returns the object at the top of the Stack
Push( )--------------------- Inserts an object at the top of the Stack
ToArray( )------------------ Copies the elements to a new array
TrimExcess( )--------------- If the number of elements in the current stack is less than 90
reduces the current stack s capacity to the actual number of e
50)A dictionary is a collection that associates a key to a value.
Count-------------------------- Public property that gets the number of elements in the Dic
Item( ) ------------------------The indexer for the Dictionary
Keys--------------------------- Public property that gets a collection containing the keys
Values Public property that gets a collection containing th
Add( )------------------------- Adds an entry with a specified Key and Value
Clear( )------------------------Removes all objects from the Dictionary
ContainsKey( )----------------- Determines whether the Dictionary has a specified key
ContainsValue( ) ---------------Determines whether the Dictionary has a specified value
GetEnumerator( )--------------- Returns an enumerator for the Dictionary
GetObjectData( ) ---------------Implements ISerializable and returns the data needed to ser
Remove( )---------------------- Removes the entry with the specified Key
TryGetValue( )----------------- Gets the Value associated with the specified Key; if the Ke
Dictionaries implement the IDictionary<K,V> interface (where K is the key type, and V
is the value type).
51)Strings can also be created using verbatim string literals
Thus, the following two definitions are equivalent:
string literalOne = "\\\\MySystem\\MyDirectory\\ProgrammingC#.cs";
string verbatimLiteralOne = @"\\MySystem\MyDirectory\ProgrammingC#.cs";
52)Another common way to create a string is to call the ToString( ) method on an
object and assign the result to a string variable
53)Method or field Purpose
Chars The string indexer
Compare( ) -------------------Overloaded public static method that compares two strings
CompareTo( )------------------Compares this string with another
Concat( )-------------------- Overloaded public static method that creates a new string fro
Copy( ) ----------------------Public static method that creates a new string by copying ano
CopyTo( )--------------------- Copies the specified number of characters to an array of Uni
EndsWith( )-------------------- Indicates whether the specified string matches the end of t
Equals( )------------------------ Overloaded public static and instance method that determi
Format( )----------------------- Overloaded public static method that formats a string usin
Join( )--------------------------Overloaded public static method that concatenates a specif
Length---------------------------- The number of characters in the instance
Split( )---------------------------- Returns the substrings delimited by the specified char
StartsWith( )------------------------- Indicates whether the string starts with the specifi
Substring( )-------------------------- Retrieves a substring
ToUpper( )----------------------------------------- Returns a copy of the string in upperca
Trim( ) -----------------------------------------Removes all occurrences of a set of specif
TrimEnd( )------------------------------------- Behaves like Trim( ), but only at the end
54)The System.Text.StringBuilder class is used for creating and modifying strings.
Unlike String, StringBuilder is mutable. Example 10-4 replaces the String object in
Chars---------- The indexer
Length---------- Retrieves or assigns the length of the StringBuilder
Append( ) -------Overloaded public method that appends a string of characters to the end of
AppendFormat( )- Overloaded public method that replaces format specifiers with the formatte
Insert( )------- Overloaded public method that inserts a string of characters at the specif
Remove( )------- Removes the specified characters
Replace( )------ Overloaded public method that replaces all instances of specified characte
55)A regular expression consists of two types of characters: literals and metacharacters.
A literal is a character you wish to match in the target string. A metacharacter is a
special symbol that acts as a command to the regular expression parser. The parser is
the engine responsible for understanding the regular expression.
The namespace System.Text.RegularExpressions is the home to all the .NET Framework
objects associated with regular expressions.The central class for regular
expression support is Regex, which represents an immutable, compiled regular
expression. Although instances of Regex can be created, the class also provides a
number of useful static method
56)It is important to distinguish between bugs, errors, and exceptions. A bug is a programm
mistake that should be fixed before the code is shipped. Exceptions aren t a
protection against bugs. Although a bug might cause an exception to be thrown, you
should not rely on exceptions to handle your bugs. Rather, you should fix the bugs.
An error is caused by user action. For example, the user might enter a number where
a letter is expected. Once again, an error might cause an exception, but you can prevent
that by catching errors with validation code. Whenever possible, errors should
be anticipated and prevented.
Even if you remove all bugs and anticipate all user errors, you will still run into predict
but unpreventable problems, such as running out of memory or attempting to
open a file that no longer exists. You can t prevent exceptions,
57) unwinding the stack refers to the process
of finding the return address of the calling method and returning to that method
peremptorily, looking for a catch block to handle the exception. The stack may have
to unwind through a number of called methods before it finds a handler. Ultimately,
if it unwinds all the way to main and no handler is found, a default handler is called,
and the program exits.
58)The throw Statement
To signal an abnormal condition in a C# class, you throw an exception. To do this,
use the keyword throw. This line of code creates a new instance of System.Exception
and then throws it:
throw new System.Exception( );
Throwing an exception immediately halts execution of the current thread while the CLR se
If an exception handler can t be found in the current method, the runtime unwinds the stack
If the runtime returns all the way through Main( ) without finding a handler, it terminates
the program
59)In C#, an exception handler is called a catch block and is created with the catch
keyword.
60)The code in the finally block is guaranteed to be executed regardless of whether an
exception is thrown
61)The StackTrace property of the exception can provide
a stack trace for the error statement. A stack trace displays the call stack: the
series of method calls that lead to the method in which the exception was thrown.
62)In the output, the stack trace lists the methods in the reverse order in which they
were called; that is, it shows that the error occurred in DoDivide( ), which was called
by TestFunc( ). When methods are deeply nested, the stack trace can help you understand
the order of method calls.
61)Technically, a delegate is a reference
type used to encapsulate a method with a specific signature and return type.*
You can encapsulate any matching method in that delegate.
62)C# offers anonymous methods that allow you to pass a code block rather than the
name of the method. This can make for more efficient and easier-to-maintain code,
and the anonymous method has access to the variables in the scope in which they are
defined:
63)In ADO.NET, the functionality that was in Record Sets now resides in two places.
Navigation and retrieval are in the IDataReader interface, and support for disconnected
operation is in the (tremendously more powerful) DataSet and DataTables.
64)The DataSet represents a subset
of the entire database, cached on your machine without a continuous connection to
the database.Periodically, you ll reconnect the DataSet to its parent database, update the
with changes you ve made to the DataSet, and update the DataSet with changes in
the database made by other processes
65)The DataSet is composed of DataTable objects as well as DataRelation objects. These
are accessed as properties of the DataSet object. The Tables property returns a
DataTableCollection, which in turn contains all the DataTable objects.
66)ADO.NET uses a DataAdapter
as a bridge between the DataSet and the data source, which is the underlying database.
DataAdapter provides the Fill( ) method to retrieve data from the database and
populate the DataSet.
67)The DBConnection object represents a connection to a data source. This connection
can be shared among different command objects. The DBCommand object allows you to
send a command (typically, a SQL statement or a stored procedure) to the database.
68)The
DataReader provides connected, forward-only, read-only access to a collection of
tables by executing either a SQL statement or stored procedures. DataReaders are
lightweight objects that are ideally suited for filling controls with data and then
breaking the connection to the backend database.
69)SqlDataAdapter DataAdapter =
new SqlDataAdapter(
commandString, connectionString);
DataSet DataSet = new DataSet( );
DataAdapter.Fill(DataSet,"Customers");
DataTable dataTable = DataSet.Tables[0];
foreach (DataRow dataRow in dataTable.Rows)
{
lbCustomers.Items.Add(
dataRow["CompanyName"] +
" (" + dataRow["ContactName"] + ")" );
}
70)Metadata is information about the data that is, information
about the types, code, assembly, and so forth stored along with your program
71)Attributes are a mechanism for adding metadata, such as compiler instructions and
other data about your data, methods, and classes to the program itself. Attributes are
inserted into the metadata and are visible through ILDASM and other metadatareading
tools.
72)Reflection is the process by which a program can read its own metadata, or metadata
from another program. A program is said to reflect on itself or on another program,
extracting metadata from the reflected assembly and using that metadata either to
inform the user or to modify the program s behavior.
73)An attribute is an object that represents data you want to associate with an element
in your program
74)Files and Directories The classes you need are in the System.IO namespace
75)Principal methods of the Directory class
Method Use
CreateDirectory( ) Creates all directories and subdirectories specified by its path paramet
GetCreationTime( ) Returns and sets the time the specified directory was created
GetDirectories( ) Gets named directories
GetLogicalDrives( ) Returns the names of all the logical drives in the form <drive>:\
GetFiles( ) Returns the names of files matching a pattern
GetParent( ) Returns the parent directory for the specified path
Move( ) Moves a directory and its contents to a specified path
76)Principal methods and properties of the DirectoryInfo class
Method or property Use
Attributes ----------------Inherits from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the attributes of the
CreationTime-------------- Inherits from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the creation time of
Exists-------------------- Public property Boolean value, which is true if the directory ex
Extension----------------- Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; that is, the file
FullName ------------------ Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; that is, the ful
LastAccessTime------------- Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the
LastWriteTime-------------- Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the
Name----------------------- Public property name of this instance of DirectoryInfo
Parent--------------------- Public property parent directory of the specified directory
Root----------------------- Public property root portion of the path
Create( )------------------ Public method that creates a directory
CreateSubdirectory( )------ Public method that creates a subdirectory on the specified path
Delete( ) ------------------Public method that deletes a DirectoryInfo and its contents fro
GetDirectories( )---------- Public method that returns a DirectoryInfo array with subdirect
GetFiles( ) ----------------Public method that returns a list of files in the directory
GetFileSystemInfos( )------ Public method that retrieves an array of FileSystemInfo objects
MoveTo( )------------------ Public method that moves a DirectoryInfo and its contents to a
Refresh( )----------------- Public method inherited from FileSystemInfo; refreshes the stat
77)Like the methods of Directory, all
the File methods are static; like DirectoryInfo, all the methods of FileInfo are
instance methods.
78)Principal public static methods of the File class
Method Use
AppendText( ) Creates a StreamWriter that appends text to the specified file
Copy( ) Copies an existing file to a new file
Create( ) Creates a file in the specified path
CreateText( ) Creates a StreamWriter that writes a new text file to the specified file
Delete( ) Deletes the specified file
Exists( ) Returns true if the specified file exists
GetAttributes( ),
SetAttributes( )
Gets or sets the FileAttributes of the specified file
GetCreationTime( ),
SetCreationTime( )
Returns or sets the creation date and time of the file
GetLastAccessTime(),
SetLastAccessTime()GetLastWriteTime(),
SetLastWriteTime( )
Returns or sets the last time the specified file was written to
Move( ) Moves a file to a new location; can be used to rename a file
OpenRead( ) Public static method that opens a FileStream on the file
OpenWrite( ) Creates a read/write Stream on the specified path
79) Methods and properties of the FileInfo class
Method or property Use
Attributes( ) Inherits from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the attributes of the current file
CreationTime Inherits from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the creation time of the current fi
Directory Public property that gets an instance of the parent directory
Exists Public property Boolean value that is true if the directory exists
Extension Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; that is, the file extension
FullName Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; that is, the full path of the file
LastAccessTime Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the last access
LastWriteTime Public property inherited from FileSystemInfo; gets or sets the time when the
or directory was last written to
Length Public property that gets the size of the current file
Name Public property Name of this DirectoryInfo instance
AppendText( ) Public method that creates a StreamWriter that appends text to a file
CopyTo( ) Public method that copies an existing file to a new file
Create( ) Public method that creates a new file
Delete( ) Public method that permanently deletes a file
MoveTo( ) Public method to move a file to a new location; can be used to rename a file
Open( ) Public method that opens a file with various read/write and sharing privileges
OpenRead( ) Public method that creates a read-only FileStream
OpenText( ) Public method that creates a StreamReader that reads from an existing text file
OpenWrite( ) Public method that creates a write-only FileStream
Returns
80)Reading and writing data is accomplished with the Stream class
Principal I/O classes of the .NET Framework
Class Use
Stream Abstract class that supports reading and writing bytes
BinaryReader/BinaryWriter Read and write encoded strings and primitive datatypes to and fro
File, FileInfo, Directory,
DirectoryInfo
Provide implementations for the abstract FileSystemInfo classes, including creating,
moving, renaming, and deleting files and directories
FileStream For reading to and from File objects; supports random access to files; opens fil
synchronously by default; supports asynchronous file access
TextReader, TextWriter,
StringReader, StringWriter
TextReader and TextWriter are abstract classes designed for Unicode character I/
O; StringReader and StringWriter write to and from strings, allowing your
input and output to be either a stream or a string
BufferedStream A stream that adds buffering to another stream such as a NetworkStream;
BufferedStreams can improve the performance of the stream to which they are
attached, but note that FileStream has buffering built in
MemoryStream A nonbuffered stream whose encapsulated data is directly accessible in memory,
most useful as a temporary buffer
NetworkStream A stream over a network connection
81)The term binary read is used to distinguish from a text read. If you don t know for
certain that a file is just text, it is safest to treat it as a stream of bytes, known as a
binary file.
82)A buffered stream object creates an internal buffer, and reads bytes to and from the
backing store in whatever increments it thinks are most efficient. It will still fill your
buffer in the increments you dictate, but your buffer is filled from the in-memory
buffer, not from the backing store. The net effect is that the input and output are
more efficient and thus faster.
83)If you know that the file you are reading (and writing) contains nothing but text, you
might want to use the StreamReader and StreamWriter classes
84)synchronous I/O, meaning that
while your program is reading or writing, all other activity is stopped. It can take a
long time (relatively speaking) to read data to or from the backing store, especially if
the backing store is a slow disk or (horrors!) a source on the Internet.
85)With large files, or when reading or writing across the network, you ll want asynchronou
I/O, which allows you to begin a read and then turn your attention to other
matters while the CLR fulfills your request. The .NET Framework provides asynchronous
I/O through the BeginRead( ) and BeginWrite( ) methods of Stream.
86)Network I/O is based on the use of streams created with sockets. Sockets are very
useful for client/server and peer-to-peer (P2P) applications, and when making remote
procedure calls.
87)When an object is streamed to disk, its various member data must be serialized
that is, written out to the stream as a series of bytes. The object will also be serialized
when stored in a database or when marshaled across a context, app domain, process,
or machine boundary.
The CLR provides support for serializing an object graph an object and all the
member data of that object. By default, types aren t serializable. To be able