International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
STUDY ON SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR SECOND ORDER SYSTEM
^{1} Venkatesha , ^{2} G G.K.Purushothama, ^{3} N.K.Philip
Abstract
This paper presents a robust control for a class of systems using Sliding Mode Control (SMC).The goal is to achieve the system robustness against disturbances. The chattering resulting from discontinuous controller is reduced by using Lyapunov stabilization technique. The Performance of the system with external disturbances for both PID control as well as SMC is compared and studied.
Keywords: Sliding Mode Control Disturbances, Lyapunov method.
I.
Introduction
The sliding mode control (SMC) is a variable structure control (VSC). The theory of SMC iw based on the concept of varying the structure of the controller by changing the states of the
system in order to obtain a desired response [1].Generally, a switching control action is used
to witch between different structures and the
system state is forced to move along the chosen
manifold, called the switching manifold which determines the closed loop system behavior [2]
[3].
When there are disturbances and uncertainties in
a system, an appropriate control should be
designed so that the system stability and desired system performances are achieved.
^{1} Professor, Dept of E&C Engg., Brindavan College of Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
^{2} Professor, Dept of E&E Engg, Malnad College
of Engg., Hassan, Karnataka, India.
^{3} Scientist / Engineer ‘SG’, Control Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
SMC is insensitive in the presence of external uncertainties and disturbances. The robustness
properties of SMC have led this approach to be intensive, popular and suitable method for the control of wide classes of linear and nonlinear systems. Various SMC approaches have been evolved [] during last four decades. Dynamic systems are controlled in order to follow prescribed trajectories with certain accuracy. The control is often based on a mathematical model of the system. An SMC can be evolved so that the system trajectories move onto a prescribed surface (sliding surface) in a finite time and tends to an equilibrium point along this surface []. The closed loop dynamics are completely governed by sliding surface equations as long as the system trajectories remain on this surface. In fact, the system in the sliding mode has one order less than the original system (except when compensator is designed for using SMC System).There are many advantages for using SMC, including flexibility of design and robustness [].
PID controllers have a simple control structure and systematic tuning methods. Whenever the system is nonlinear or there are bounded uncertainties in the system, PID controllers are not perfectly able to stabilize the system. Particularly, when non linearity is very high or the bound of uncertainty is large.
In many practical design problems, almost perfect disturbance rejection or control performance is required. SMCs may be applied to the system to obtain these performances. An SMC enforces the system trajectories to move on a prescribed surface and remain in it thereafter. On the other hand, a discontinuous SMC may be approx imated by a continuous control. In fact, the trajectories tend to an equilibrium point within a boundary of the sliding surface. When the trajectories move on the sliding surface, the system is internally controlled by a virtual control, the so called equivalent control. As already stated, SMCs are insensitive in the presence of uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics.
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
Most of the practical systems can be modeled with second order systems. Hence the control of the second order system is usually taken as baseline.
In this paper, SMC and PID control of second
order system are considered and the system responses are compared when the external bias is applied as disturbance to the system. In this study, PID controllers are selected such that both the steady state and transient responses are met. SMC methods yield nonlinear controllers which
are robust against unmodelled dynamics and against internal and external perturbations.
II. SMC Theory and Analysis
A. SMC Theory: SMC is a particular type of variable structure control. Variable structure
control systems are characterized by a suite of feedback control laws and decision rules. The decision rule, named the switching function selects a particular feedback control in accordance with the systems behavior. Note that
a bang bang control is a variable structure
control, but is not usually considered as an SMC.
In SMC, VSC systems are designed to drive the
system states to a particular surface in the states space, named sliding surface. Hence the SMC is two part controller design. The first part involves
the design of the switching function so that the sliding motion satisfies design specifications. The second is concerned with the selection of a control law that will make the switching surface attractive to the system state [].
The advantages of SMC is that dynamic behavior of the system may be designed by the particular choice of the sliding function. Secondly, the closed loop response becomes totally insensitive to disturbances. This principle extends to model parameter uncertainties, disturbance and nonlinearities that are bounded.
Due to its discontinuous in nature, SMC introduces chattering in the control loop. This problem can be overcome by using Lyapunov function in control law.
VSC systems are systems where the control law
is deliberately changed during the process to
predefined rules which depend on the state of the system [ ]. This yields to a switching surface in
the state space in the sliding mode control. In SMC full state feedback control structure is used
with an addition of a switching term that is aimed to cancel the effects of uncertainties.
Consider the second order system
x u(t)
(1)
is used for illustrating VSC system, where u is the control input and x is the angular position.
First consider effect of using only a negative feedback control law (k>0)
( )
and
u t
kx t
( )
xx
kxx
By integrating (3), we get
x
2
2
kx
c
(2)
(3)
(4)
where C is constant of integration.
Equation (4) represents an ellipse in the phase portrait, is a circle when k=1. Fig1 shows two ellipses with two different k values k _{1} <1 & k _{2} >1.
By changing the value of k during the system process it is possible to move the system states from an initial point on the phase portrait to the origin. This is equivalent to decreasing the distance of an initial point on state space to zero [ Fig2].
Therefore the control law may be changed to
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
SMC uses the same principle described above to take the states to the origin. In the above described controller approach,
sx, x xx sx, x
was used for switching controller
sx, x mx x
input. In SMC, the switching function is chosen .
as
Therefore, SMC would switch with the sign of
, which is called sliding surface [Fig3].
occurs at zero time, the frequency of the controller is infinity. This is called ideal sliding motion. This is depicted graphically in Fig 4.
B. SMC Analysis: An nth order uncertain nonlinear time invariant system with m control inputs is given by
x(t) Ax(t) f Bu(t) (t, x,u) f (t, x,u)
(6)
The function is assumed to be
unknown but bounded by some known functions of the states. Different restrictions can be placed on this function, which represents parameter uncertainties or nonlinearities in the system, or even disturbances.
SMC can be divided into two terms, one being the linear control and the other being discontinuous control. The first discussion is on linear control law. Second, we discuss the reachability of the sliding surface by using second order system
B.1 Linear Control Law: The system given by equation (6) is first assumed to be linear and is given by
x(t) Ax(t) Bu(t) Sx(t) SAx(t) SBu(t) Sx(t) 0
s x t
(
, )
( ),
Sx t
whereS
The sliding surface can be represented by
R
m
n
Also,
Once the sliding surface is reached, then
(7)
(8)
Therefore, from (8), the linear control laws can be obtained as
u
L
(
SB
)
1
( )
SAx t
(9)
law
SA , is designed such that
the states would remain on sliding surface. SB
which
equation
is
equivqlent
k
(
SB
)
to
1
linear
control
design
parameter and B has a rank of m. Because the
be
must
be
non
singular.
Here
S
is
a
rank of B is m, the system equations can
portioned to give equation (7) can be written as,
Figure4
x
x
where
(
(
)
t
1
2
t
)
x
A
11
A
21
x
1
1
1
( )
t
n
A
12
x
2
A
m
x
and
22
2
( )
t
( )
t
x
( )
R
t
S
S x
1
1
( S )
t
1
S S x
2
2
2
( )
t
0
x
2
2
( 10
(10
a
b
)
)
B u t
m
( )
R
The compatible transformation of the switching function would result in . Therefore during ideal sliding, the
motion
(11)
Dividing (11) by S _{1} and replacing by M, equation (10a) can be written as
S 2
1
S
1
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
x
1
t
( )
(
A
11
A M x t
12
1
)
( )
(12)
Equations (11) & (12) represent ideal sliding motion. Note that the order of the system is reduced to m or to equation (10b) as soon as S is defined so that
s
11
A
A
11
A M
12
B.2 Reachability of the sliding surface:
The second order system is given as
x(t) f (x,t) u(t)
(13)
Sliding mode control for this system may be selected as
( )
u t
k x t k x t sign s t
1
( )
2
( )
( ( ))
(
14)
The linear part of this control input is state feedback law, which is in agreement with the structure of equation (5) and the discontinuous part is to be arranged so that the system is insensitive to disturbances.
To check the stability of sliding surface, one can use Lyapunov second method. It states that if the projection of the system trajectories on the sliding surfaces is stable then the system is stable. The theorem [4] is reproduced here for completeness.
Theorem: If there exists a function v(s,x,t) where s is the distance from the sliding surface and x is the state variable, which is positive definite. i.e., it satisfies the following conditions
1. v(s,x,t) > 0 with s 0 and arbitrary x and t.
2. v(s,x,t) is continuous and differentiable.
3. v(0,x,t) = 0 for all x and t and its derivative v(s, x,t) is negative definite every where except the discontinuity surface, then the system is stable.
There is no specific method to find Lyapunov function candidate however VI Utkin [5] has discussed the method of using quadratic form to find the sliding domain.
In
written as
this
analysis,
the
sliding
st mx(t) x(t)
surface,
can
be
by selecting S for m ( one of S
and S _{2} is enough to define the
sliding surface). Once sliding surface is reached
the system would behave as the first order system and is given by
as 1 and using
1
2
S 2
1
S
1
mx(t) x(t) 0
(15)
which is insensitive to the disturbances. Then next step is to reach the sliding surface, which is possible if
ss 0
where
x(t) ss s(mxx)
(13)
.
and
Equations
replace
(14)
(16)
are
used
to
ss s mx k x k xsign ( s f
(
1
2
(
)
The convenient selection of k _{1} and k _{2} are
)
k m and k m all are positive
1
2
then replacing
mx
x with
s
results
and s
sign with
s
2
ss
s
s
fs
Since, then replacing
f
(
is small positive design parameter)
would give
sss s
2
(18)
(17) ),
Equation (18) is negative by the definition of the parameters. Therefore sliding surface can be reached in finite time.
It can be shown that
if small parameter η in equation(18) is neglected.
(
s t
)
s
(0) e
t
Therefore sliding mode control input given in equation (14) takes the system to the sliding surface in finite time keeps the state on the sliding surface that decays to the origin provided that the design parameters are selected as described above. Here the second order system is decreased into two first order subsystems when the sliding mode control input is applied to the system. It depends on the selection of poles Φ and m of the two first order systems. First one is responsible to take the system to the sliding surface and the second one is responsible for taking the system to the origin by sliding on the sliding surface. It must be noted that if some part
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
of the non linearity or uncertainty term could be
represented in terms of linear combination of the states then it would be possible to obtain a lower magnitude of the discontinuous term of the
sliding mode control input given by equation
(14).
State feedback law parameters, k _{1} and k _{2} can be designed by pole placement.
C. PID Controller:
PID Controller is widely used in many control applications because of its simplicity &
effectiveness. Tuning PID controllers have been
a challenging problem since its appearance
(Ziegler –Nichols 1942) in control engineering. Alternative tuning methods have been recently presented including disturbance rejection magnitude optimum [6], pole placement and optimization methods [7]. These methods provide relatively fast and non oscillatory disturbance rejection responses. In particular, these methods do not require any additional tuning parameters. The trade off between performance, robustness and control activity is considered while arriving at the PID control parameters.
The transfer function of a PID controller is given by
Ks
Kp
1
1
Tis
Td s
III. Design, Simulation and Results
A. SMC Design for Second Order System:
Consider a second order system given by transfer function
X 
( 
s 
) 

1 

U 
( 
s 
) 
s 2 
0.2 
s 

1.01 

X 
( 
s 
)( 
s 
2 

0.2 s 1.01) 



x 

0.2 
x 

1.01 x 

u 

x 




x 
1 
x 2 
x
2
0.2
x
2
1.01
x
1
u
U
(
s
)
x
x
1
x
2
Ax
Bu
0
1.01
1 0
1
0.2
s mx x 5x x
1
2
Sx t
( )
5 0 x
1
0
1
x
2
0
( )
u t
kx t
( )
where k
(
SB
u
)
1 SA
SB
(
SB
)
SA
1
5 0
0
5
1
[0
0
0 1
0
1
0
1
1]
0
1.01
1
0.2
0
1.01
k
(
SB
)
1
SA
[0
1]
0
1.01
5
0.2
k
[
Therefore the control law is given by
1.01
0.2]
u
^{L}
kx
1.01
sign s
x
1
)
0.2
(
x
2
sign
(5
x
1
5
0.2
x
2
)
u(t) 1.01 x(t)0.2 x(t) sign (5x x)
(19)
The value of ρ can be selected such that the sliding surface is reached in minimum time.
B.
Simulation:
The MATLAB Simulink design of the SMC for second order system is shown in Fig 3.2a. The SMC for second order system with step bias and sinusoidal bias as disturbances at input level are shown in Fig 3.2b and Fig 3.2c respectively.
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
Fig 3.2 a
Fig 3.2e
C. Results Discussion:
The results of SMC for second order system
show the stabilized performances and robustness of SMC.
The simulink design of PID controller for the second order system is shown in Fig 3.2d and the PID controller for the second order system with disturbance is shown in Fig 3.2e.
The phase portait plot of SMC for second order system for the control law (equation 19) is
depicted in Fig3.3a. This shows that the phase portrait takes a longer timt to reach origin from
initial conditions for k _{1} = 1.01 and k _{2} = 0.2 values. Fig3.3b shows the phase portrait for the
increased values of k where, k _{1} =5.01 and k _{2} =4.8. It reveals that with increased values of k the
control law can be optimized to reach the stability at the earliest.
Fig 3.2b
Fig3.3c.
and
Fig3.3d
show
the
variation
of
x and x wrt time .
Fig 3.2c
Phase Portrait for gains k1=1.01, k2=0.02
x
Fig 3.3a
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
Phase Portrait for gains k1=5.01, k2=4.8
dx 
100
80
60
40
20
0
20
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
x 

Fig 3.3b 

x v/s time at k1=5.01, k2=4.8 

0 

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 

x 

0 10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 

time> 

Fig 3.3 c 

dx v/s time at k1=5.01, k2=4.8 

dx 
100
80
60
40
20
0
20


0 10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
100 
time>
Fig 3.3d
The phase portrait and the variation of x and x wrt time of SMC second oder system (Fig 3.2 b) with step bias as disturbances at input level are shown in Fig3.3e, Fig3.3f and Fig3.3g respectively.
Also,
the
phase
portrait
x and x wrt time
of
system
(Fig
3.2c)
with
and
SMC
the
variation
oder
as
second
bias
sinusoidal
disturbances at input level are shown in shown in Fig 3.3h, Fig 3.3i and Fig 3.3j respectively
These results reveal that the SMC gives same result for an undisturbed system as well as for the disturbed system. This shows the robustness of SMC for the external disturbances.
dx
x
dx
Dx
Phase Portrait for gains k1=5.01, k2=4.8
x
Figure 3.3e
time>
Fig 3.3f
dx v/s time at gains k1=5.01, k2=4.8
time>
Fig 3.3g
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
dx
x
dx
1.4
1.2
Amplitude
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
phase portrait at gains k1=5.01, k2=4.5
Time>
Fig 3.3k
Step Response of PID controller with Disturbance
1.4
1.2
10
20
30
40
50
60
time t>
Fig 3.3l
70
IV. Conclusion
80
90
100
x
Fig 3.3h
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
time>
Fig 3.3i
time>
Fig 3.3j
In this paper, a robust control system with sliding mode control is presented for a second order system. According to simulation results, the SMC controller can provide the properties of insensitivity and robustness to extenal disturbances where as the PID controller takes longer settling time than the SMC. The proposed SMC controller is a robust controller.
References:
2. Young K.D., Utkin V.I., Ozguner U., A
control engineer’s guide to sliding mode control, IEEE Trans. Conttr. Syst., Vol. 7(3), Pg 328 342, 1999.
3. Utkin V.I., Variable structure systems with sliding modes, IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., Vol. AC22, Pg 212
The simulated results for PID controller for a second order system without and with disturabance at input level is depicted in Fig 3.3k and Fig 3.3l respectively. The results show that the PID controller takes longer settling time compare to that of SMC. The PID controller for the system with disturbance also introduces steady state error.
222, 1977.
4. J.J.E. Slotine and S. S. Shastry, Tracking and control of Nonlinear Systems using sliding surfaces with
applications to Robotic Manipulators,
Intl Journal .Contr., Vol 38, No.2,pp
465492, 1983.
5. M.Fallahi,S.Azadi, Robust control of
DC motor using fuzzy sliding mode
International J. of Research &Innovation in Computer Engineering , Vol 2, Issue 4, ISSN 22496580, ( 296304)
control 
with 
PID 

compensator,Proceeding 
of 
the 

international 
multiconference 
of 
engineering and computer scientists Vol
II, IMECS 2009,March 18 – 20, 2009, Hong Kong.
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