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The Cebuano language is spoken by about 25,000,000 people in the country is the
most widely spoken of the Visayan languages. Most speakers of Cebuano are found
in Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Biliran, Western and Southern Leyte, eastern Negros and
most of northern Mindanao.
entire Central Visayas, parts of Eastern Visayas, northeastern parts of Negros
Occidental, southern parts of Masbate, most parts of Mindanao
Culture and festivities
Along with the rest of the Philippines, Cebu was governed from Spain and Mexico,
and as a result received heavy Spanish and Mexican influence. There are thousands
of Mexican Spanish loanwords in Cebuano. Mexican and Spanish influence is evident
in the cuisine, traditional costumes, dances, music, festivals, traditions and crafts.
Cebuano culture is traditionally characterized as a blend of Malay and tradition with
influences from Asian culture, Spain, and the United States. The majority of
Cebuanos areRoman Catholic.
Among the island's notable festivities are the Sinulog festival, which is a mixture of
Christian and animist elements, celebrated annually every third week of January.
The Waray people speak the Waray-Waray language, a major Visayan language.
They also speak Cebuano as their second language. Some people who are of Waray
descent also speak Waray-Waray as their second or third language, especially
among emigrants to Metro Manila, other parts of the Philippines and in other parts
include English, Spanish, Chinese and Japanese which is spoken by its community
and among others.
Eastern Visayas (entire Samar and northeastern portions of Leyteprovince), eastern
parts of Biliran and some parts of Masbate and Sorsogon
Many Waray traditions can be traced to pre-colonial times. For example,
the Kuratsa dance is a very popular traditional dance of the Waray-Waray at many
social gatherings, especially weddings. It is very common throughout Samar. The
couple who dances the Kuratsa are showered with money by the people around
them. The belief is that the more money showered upon them, the more blessings
will come their way.

The Hiligaynon language is part of the Visaya (Bisaya) family of languages in the
central islands of the Philippines, and is particular to the Hiligaynon people.
Ultimately, it is a Malayo-Polynesian language like many other languages spoken by
Filipino ethnic groups, as well as languages in neighboring states such
as Indonesia and Malaysia. This language is marked by its song-like intonation in
speech, while also having a more prevalent "l" sound than "r" sound. Its related
language on Panay, Kinaray-a, is similar to Hiligaynon but older. Throughout the
nation, the Hiligaynon speak Tagalog and English as second languages, especially
outside of Western Visayas. There has also been overlap between the Visayan
languages in terms of vocabulary and the knowledge of the languages by the
Hiligaynon. For example, some towns in Capiz use Aklanon words in their
competency of Hiligaynon, while Kinaray-a and Hiligaynon are spoken by the
residents of Guimaras, as well as residents in some parts of southern Iloilo.
Western Visayas, some parts ofMasbate, most parts ofSOCCSKSARGEN, and some
parts of Northern Mindanao
Hiligaynon culture is part of the culture of the wider Visayan ethnic group, who
constitute one of the largest Filipino ethnic groups.
Many cultural festivals are organized, serving a purpose of cultural preservation and
celebration against the "homogenizing of the Philippine culture.", while also serving
well for local and national tourism. The Dinagyang festival is celebrated every fourth
Sunday of January in Iloilo City. The festival name is derived from the
word dagyang meaning "merry-making". Modeled after Ati-atihan in Kalibo, Aklan,
Dinagyang venerates the Santo Nio, and specifically commemorates the purchase
of Panay Island from the indigenous Ati by 10 fleeing Bornean datus (chiefs). Arts
festivals, such as the Ilonggo Arts Festival, have used contemporary media such as
film and radio, in addition to public performances, and they have also sponsored
engagement in dialogue over cultural preservation. The Iloilo Paraw Regatta, held
each year in February, also has goals for cultural preservation: the ships used in the
regatta, the paraw, are traditional sailboats that have long been used by the
Hiligaynon. Competitors in the Paraw Regatta are local fishermen, who compete in a
week-long competition at sea, accompanied by a festival on land.
A prominent Hiligaynon profile exists in national and regional sports, notably
in football.
popular national
team players Phil and James
Younghusband have a mother who is Ilonggo. Football is very popular in Western
Visayas, and the Iloilo town of Barotac Nuevo has been known to contribute many
football players to the national team. Also of note are Hiligaynon athletes on the
national track team.
Kapampangan, the Pampango language, is one of the major languages of the
Philippines. It is the language spoken in the province of Pampanga, the southern
half of the province of Tarlac and the northern portion of the province of Bataan.

Kapampangan is also understood in

Ecija and by the Aitas or Aeta of Zambales.

some barangays of Bulacan and Nueva

Central Luzon
Many Kapampangan festivals display an indigenous flavor unique only to the
Kapampangan people. Consider the Curaldal or "street dancing" that accompanies
the Feast of Santa Lucia in Sasmuan or the Aguman Sanduk were men cross-dress
as women to welcome the New Year in Minalin or the Batalla Festival to reenact the
battle between the native Muslim Moor and the new colonist Native Capampangan
Christians, the historical battle between the two religious native Kapampangans.
They start the battle in Ugtung-aldo or afternoon and they end it in Sisilim or sunset
with the tune of what Macabebeanons and Masantuleios called BATTALA Masantol,
Macabebe and Lubao.
The Pistang Danum of the barrios of Pansinao, Mandasig, Lanang and Pasig
in Candaba - where food is served on floating banana rafts on the waters of the
Pampanga River - was originally a non-Christian holiday that is now made to
coincide with the baptism of Christ. The Kapampangan New Year or Bayung
Banwa that welcomes the coming of the monsoons and the start of the planting
season is made to coincide with the feast of John the Baptist. The colourful Apung
Iru fluvial procession of Apalit, once a thanksgiving celebration in honour of the
river, has become the feast of Saint Peter.
The most dramatic festivals can be witnessed during the Mal ay Aldo, which is the
Kapampangan expression of the Holy Week. These include the erection of a
temporary shrine known as the puni where the pasion or the story of Christ's
suffering is chanted in archaic Kapampangan. The melody of the
Kapampangan pasion was said to have been taken from their traditional epic, whose
original words were lost and replaced by the story of Christ. The highlight of the mal
ay aldo celebration is the procession of the magdarame orsasalibatbat penitents
covered in blood from self-flagellation. Some of them even have themselves
crucified every Good Friday at the dried up swamp of barrio Cutud in San Fernando.
The Ilokano or Iloko people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group. They
predominantly speak Ilokano and reside within the Ilocos Region in the Philippines.
Northern Luzon and most parts of Central Luzon
Customs and Traditions
Ilocanos strive hard to make a living, difficulty is never a hindrance to their success.
To and Ilocano, hardships can easily be overcome. He believes in the value of study,
industry and patience; thus, every Ilocano family encourages the children to go to
school and learn skills to find better paying jobs and consequently, have a better

Most customs and traditions of the Ilocanos are influence by their frugality. From the
cradle to the grave, the Ilocano rituals reflect what they believe in.
Death to the Ilocanos means great sorrow. If the father dies, the wife dresses the
deceased alone so that her husband's spirit can tell her any messages or wish he
was not able to convey when he was still alive.
The body is placed in a coffin in the middle of the house parallel to the slats of the
floor. A big log is then lighted in front of the houses so that the spirit of the dead will
go to heaven with the smoke. As long as the dead body is in the house, the log is
kept burning to keep the evil spirit away.
During the wake, the members of the family keep vigil. The women wear black
clothes and a black manto (handkerchief) to cover the head and the shoulders.
Before the coffin is carried out of the house all windows must be closed; No part of
the house must be touched by the coffin; otherwise the man's spirit will stay behind
and bring trouble to the family.
Family members shampoo their hair with gogo as soon as the funeral is over to
wash away the power of the dead man's spirit. Prayers are said every night for the
next nine nights. After each night's prayer, rice cakes and basi are served to all
guests. The period of mourning ends on the ninth day when relatives and friends
spend the day feasting and praying. The first death anniversary will then be another
occasion for feasting and praying.
The above customs and traditions are purely Catholic rituals and practices. It does
not includes the belief of some religion in the places.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the
population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority. Its
standardized form, officially named Filipino, is the national language and one of
two official languages of the Philippines, the other being English.
It is related to other Philippine languages such as the Bikol languages, Ilokano,
the Visayan languages, and Kapampangan, and more distantly to other
the Formosan
languages, Indonesian, Hawaiian and Malagasy.
Central and South Luzon
The Tagalog culture of the pre-Hispanic times was significantly different from its
current expression. Traditionally, it was essentially a river and water-based culture,
where fishing and agriculture were predominant means of livelihood. Most of the
ancient Tagalog cultural centres were founded on riverbanks, specifically near the
delta and the "wawa" or the mouth of the river. Riverine communities, especially
those by the delta and river-mouth became centers of trade and commerce. In pre-

Hispanic Philippines, some of these trade centers were Maynila, Tondo, Sapa, Pasig
through the Pasig River; Talim, Bay, Pila, Lumbang through the Laguna de Bai;
Balayan though Pansipit River; Lipa and Taal through Bonbon or Taal Lake.
Tagalogs are notable for having very strict adherence to polite conduct and respect,
and this is exemplified by both mannerisms and linguistic structure. Tagalogs are
also depicted by examples of bravery and courage, as manifested by historical
events, e.g., thePhilippine Revolution and World War II.
Contemporary Tagalog culture is highly Westernised due to their habitation and
geographical proximity to Manila which was chosen as the Philippine colony's capital
by the Spaniards and Americans. Despite this, a considerable amount of preHispanic customs and traditions, largely resembling those of the Chinese, Malays
and Japanese, survives.
The Pangasinan language is an Austronesian language, which is one of the twelve
major languages in the Philippines.
Pangasinan is the name for the language, people, and province. The Pangasinan
language, also called "Pangasinense", its hispanicized name, is spoken by more
than one and a half million Pangasinan people (indigenous speakers) in the province
ofPangasinan alone. Pangasinan is also spoken in other Pangasinan communities in
the Philippines, and by Pangasinan immigrants in the United States. Pangasinan is
the primary language in the province of Pangasinan, located on the west central
area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf. It is the official regional
language in the province of Pangasinan, with a total population of the province of
2,434,086 (National Statistics Office: 2000 Census).
Ilocos Region and Central Luzon
The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly on
the Bicol Peninsula of the island ofLuzon and also parts of Catanduanes and Burias
Islands and Masbate province. There is a dialect continuum between theVisayan
languages and the Bikol languages; the two together are called the Bisakol
Culture & Traits
The Bicolano cuisine is primarily noted for the prominent use of chili
peppers and gata (coconut milk) in its food. A classic example is the gulay na lada,
known outside the region as Bicol Express, a well-loved dish using siling
labuyo (native small chillies) and the aforementioned gata.
Like their other neighboring regions, Bicolanas are also expected to lend a hand in
household work. They are even anticipated to offer assistance after being married.

On the other hand, Bicolano men are expected to assume the role of becoming the
primary source of income and financial support of his family.
Bicolanos are also known for being very religious, the place is known for Senora De
Penafrancia. Bicolanos are often sweet, regionalistic, friendly, adventurous, puts
high importance on education and social status. Contrary to what is believed, not all
Bicolanos are fond of chili. Men often knows how to cook.