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Instrumentation Engineer
July 2013

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

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pmrsufESmtTef;
taMumif;t&m
pma&;ol&JU oabmxm; tjrif
tcef; (1) PLC jzpfay:vmyHktaMumif;/
tcef; (2) PLC udk jcHKiHkavYvmoHk;oyfjcif;/
Size of PLC
PLC Architecture
Todays PLC applications

tcef; (3) PLC eJY

control vkyfyHk taMumif;/


PLC Hardware
PLC System
PLC wdkif;rSmyg0ifwJh tajccHtydkif; 5 ykdif;
Power Supply ykdif;
CPU ykdif;
Memory ykdif;
I/O Image Memory
Input Interface
Output Interface
(1) Relay Output
(2) Transistor Output
(3) TRIAC Output (SSR Output)
PLC Status Indicators and I/O Status Indicators

tcef; (4) PLC ukd wyfqiftoHk;jyKyHktaMumif;/


Advised Installation Practices
Grounding (Earthing)
Personal Safety
PLC ukd vHkNcHKatmifxkyfykd;rI tqihfowfrSwfcsuf/
IP eJY NEMA EIdif;,SOfcsuf/
PLC Specification

pmrsufESm
6
8
18
20
22
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30
32
34
35
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39
43
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62
63

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

tcef; (5) PLC Wiring jyKvkyfyHk/


1/ Power Supply Wiring
2/ Input Wiring
3/ Output Wiring
1) Relay Output
2) Transistor Output
3) Triac Output

tcef; (6) Sink & Source taMumif;/


tcef; (7) Fail- Safe taMumif;/
tcef; (8) PLC rSm oHk;wJh Number System taMumif;/
1) Decimal Number System (q,fvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;)
2) Binary Number System (ESpfvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;)
3) Octal Number System (&SpfvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;)

vrf; nTef

68
68
70
87
87
89
90
94
102
108
109
110
113

4) Hexadecimal Number System

(q,fhajcmufvDpepfjzifha&wGufjcif;)

114

5) BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System

(q,fvDyHkpHeJY a&;om;xm;wJh ESpfvD pepfjzifh a&wGufjcif;)


tcef; (9) Boolean logic taMumif;/
tcef; (10) PLC Program Overview
tcef; (11) PLC Basic Programming
Example program: 1
WPLSoft_V2.20.07 Software Installation
LD eJY User Program a&;NyD;wkdif;
Example program: 2
Example program: 3
SS2 Memory Map
Logical AND Function Program
Logical OR Function Program
Dominant-ON, Dominant-OFF
OFF-dominant Program
ON-dominant Program

115
118
124
128
130
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145
150
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157
160
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178

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

tcef; (12)

Scan Cycle taMumif;/


Input Scan
Program Scan
Output Scan
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHkudk vG,fvG,frSwfxm;csif&if

tcef; (13)
tcef; (14)

Programming Exercises 1 to 7

PLC xJu Counter taMumif;/


Up Counter
Latched Counter
Up/Down Counter

tcef; (15) PLC xJu Timer taMumif;/


(1) ON-delay Timer Function
(2) OFF-delay Timer Function
(3) ON/OFF-delay Timer Function
(4) Single Pulse Output (Single Shot Timer) Function
(5) Delayed Single Pulse Output Function
(6) Pulse Train Output Function (Flashing Output)
(7) Timing Extension
tcef; (16) Program Summary
WPLSoft keyboard shortcuts

tcef; (17)

Periodic Inspection and Preventive Maintenance


PLC System Maintenance
Troubleshooting the PLC Input Interface
Troubleshooting the PLC Output Interface
Terminology
Reference

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180
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268

aemufqufwJG
269
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Omron PLC Example Programs


Siemens PLC Example Programs

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

pma&;ol&JU oabmxm; tjrif


,aeYacwf pufHk? tvkyfHkawG rSm Automation System udk toHk;jyK aeMuygw,f/
Automation qkdwmu puf,E&m;awGudk rdrdtvkdqE&Sdovkd armif;ESifckdif;wJh tvdktavsmuf
aqmif&GufapwJh pepf System jzpfygw,f/ Automation System ukd oHk;NyD; ukefypnf; xkwf
vkyfwJh tcg? t&nftaoG; taumif;qHk;? xkwfukefypnf; rsm;rsm;udk jrefjref xkwfvkyfEdkifwJh
tjyif? vkyf&udkif&wmvnf; vG,fuloufom apygw,f/ Automation System ukd oHk;wJh
pufHkawGrSm Robot wkdY? C.N.C Machine wkdY? PLC wkdYukd wckr[kwfwck oHk;xm;wm awGUMu
&ygw,f/ PLC qkdwmu pufrIvufrIvkyfief;oHk; Industrial Computer wpfrsdK; jzpfygw,f/
'DaeYpufHkawGrSm PLC udk wGifwGifus,fus,f toHk;jyKaeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/ pufHk topf
wnfaqmufawmhr,fqkd&if PLC rygwJh pufHkqkdwm r&SdEkdifawmhyg/
pufHkykdif&SifawGu PLC taMumif;ukd odxm;cJh&if rdrd&JUvkyfief;rSm tusdK;aus;Zl; ykd
rsm;atmif pDrHaqmif&GufEkdifMuygr,f/ puftopfudk 0,f,lwnfaqmufwJh tcg Life Cycle
Cost oufomatmif pOf;pm;wGufcsuf&mrSm taxmuftuljzpfapygw,f/ Life Cycle Cost
qkdwm 0,f,lp&dwf? wyfqifp&dwf? Program p&dwf? xdef;odrf; p&dwf? tqifhjrifhwJh p&dwf eJY
pufoufwrf;wavQmuf vnfywfoHk;pGJwJh p&dwf pkpkaygif; jzpfygw,f/ Oyrm? pufHkwpfck
wnfaxmifawmhr,fqkd&if tJ'DpufrSm PLC ygcJh&if tpuwnf;u a&mif;oleJY 0,folMum;
oabmwlnDrI,lwJhtcg? PLC eJY ywfoufNyD; ndEdIif;&r,fY tcsufawGukd jynhfjynhfpHkpHk odxm;
zkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
PLC eJY ywfoufwJh documentation awGxJrSm Ladder Diagram (PLC Progarm) udk
azmfjyay;&r,f qdkwmavmufawmh odoifhygw,f/ aemufNyD;awmh PLC udk Password eJY
ydwfxm;vkdY &ygw,f/ Password rodcJh&if pufysufvkdYyJjzpfjzpf? pufukd wdk;csJUcsifvkdYyJjzpfjzpf
program xJ0ifNyD; jyifcsif&if jyifvkdYr&awmhygbl;/ pufa&mif;wJhol Vendor ukdomtm;ukd;&
awmhrSmjzpfygw,f/ 'DtcgrSmtcsdefvnf;ukef? aiGvnf; ykdukefwwf ygw,f/ Program udk
Hard Copy (Print) xkwfNyD; tpuwnf;u PLC documentation awGxJrSm ay;xm;cJh&ifawmh
em;vnfwwfuRrf;wJholu rl&if; PLC eJYyJ jzpfjzpf? oifhawmf&m PLC wpfrsdK;rsdK;eJYyJ jzpfjzpf
program udk ul;a&;NyD; rdrd&JUpufudk qufvuf vnfywfEkdifygw,f/
vuf&SdwnfaqmufNyD;om; bdvyfajrpufHk? tcsdK&nfpufHk? aomufa&oefYpufHk?
t&uf (bD,m) pufHk? aygifrkefY pufHk? pwJh vuf&SdpufHkwkdif; vkdvkdrSm PLC ukd toHk;jyKxm;
Muygw,f/ vuf&Sdwm0efxrf;aqmifaeMuwJhpufHk;rSL;awG?refae*smawG? tif*sifeD,mawG[m
PLC eJY qufpyfywfouf aeMu&ygw,f/
PLC taMumif; rSefrSefuefuef awG;qodjrifMuapzkYd 'DpmtkyfrSm a&;om;azmfjy xm;
ygw,f/ PLC rygbJeJY Computer rSm PLC program udk a&;NyD; Simulate vkyfMunhfEkdifwJh
WPLSoft qkdwJh Software udk tcrJh &,lEkdifwJh Website ukdvnf; azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

vkyfwwfzkdY? Program a&;wwfzkdY? udkvnf; wqifhNyD;wqifh tao;pdyf


a&;om; azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/ wu,fwrf; PLC ukd avhvmwJhtcg t"du tm;xm; &rSm
uawmh PLC udk xkwfvkyfwJh rl&if;ukrPD OEM (Original Equipment Manufacture) &JU
Specification awG? User Manual awG? Operation Manual awG? Programming Manual awG?
yJjzpfygw,f/
tck'DpmtkyfrSm a&;om;azmfjyxm;wmawGuawmh tJ'D Manual awGudkzwfI avhvm
wJhtcgrSm ydkNyD;&Sif;atmif? tvG,fwulem;vnfatmif? oabmaygufatmif taxmuftul
jzpfzkdY&nf&G,fNyD;a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ enf;ynm? twwfynm? topfawGudk wwfajrmuf
atmif? uRrf;usifydkifEkdifatmif? avhvm&mrSm taxmuftul jzpfapr,fY avhvmenf;?
oif,lenf;? awG;enf;wpfckukd ay;csifwJhqEeJY a&;om;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm PLC jzpfay:vmyHk? PLC &JU tajccHwnfaqmufyHk? PLC &JU trltusifh?
PLC &JU oabmobm0? PLC Program a&;om;enf;? a&;NyD;om; Program udk t"dyg,f
azmfenf;? Program udk tjypf&SmjyKjyifenf; pwmawGudk em;vnfatmif? vG,fulatmif
yHkawG eJY yl;wGJ azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/
Simulate

'DpmtkyfrSma&;jyxm;wmawGudk zwfNyD;? rSwfom;? pOf;pm;? vufawGYvkyfMunfhzdkY?


txl; wdkufwGef;ygw,f/
wdkufwGef;wJhtwdkif; vkyfMunfhMur,f qdk&if? PLC eJY tuRrf;w0if r&Sdao;olawG?
PLC eJY rvGJraoG oufqkdif? ywfouf&awmhr,fYolawG? PLC eJY &ifqkdif awGUBuHKae&NyD; PLC
taMumif; ususee? (usMueP) **ee? (*CeP) aoaocsmcsm? odcsifaeMuolawG?
vQyfppf tif*sifeD,mawG? pdwf0ifpm;olawGtm;vHk;twGuf tusdK;&SdwJhpmtkyf jzpfvdrfhr,fvkdY
,HkMunfygw,f/
tBuHwl? OmPfwl&if? aemufvlompNrJ jzpfwmrkdY? 'DpmtkyfukdzwfNyD; PLC taMumif;
ykdaumif;atmif a&;EkdifolawG? rsm;rsm;ay:xGuf vmygapvkdU qkrGeaf umif;awmif;vsuf?
oifq&m? jrifq&m? Mum;q&m? tm;vHk;wkdU&JU *kPfaus;Zl;udk &nfrSef; *g&0jyK OD;Twf
vkdufygw,f/

U Soe Tint
Instrumentation Engineer
AGTI (EC) Mandalay 1969
soetintengineer@gmail.com

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (1) PLC jzpfay:vmyHktaMumif;/


qkdwm Machine Control eJY Process Control
awGrSmoHk;zkdY txl;pDrHxkwfvkyfxm;wJh pufrIvkyfief;oHk;uGefysLwm Industrial Computer
wrsdK;jzpfygw,f/ Automation vkdY ac:wJh tvkdtavsmuf xdef;ausmif; armif;ESifwJhpepf
Automatic Control System rSm PLC udk oHk;Muygw,f/ Automatic Control System rSm
pufrIvkyfief;oHk;pufkyf Industrial Robot awGudk PLC ray:aygufcifuwnf;u toHk;jyK
aeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/
PLC ( Programmable Logic Controller )

Figure 1. pufrIvkyfief;oHk;pufkyf Unimate Robot

1954 ckESpf? U.S Patent No. 2988237 eJY rSwfyHkwifxm;wJh


udk George Devol u wDxGifcJhwmjzpfygw,f/

Unimate vkdY

ac:wJh

Robot

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

pufrIvkyfief;oHk;pufkyf Unimate Robot


General Motors Corporation &JU armfawmfum;xkwfvkyfwyfqifwJh vrf;aMumif;
assembly line ay:rSm spot welding vkyfzkdYeJY oH&nfusdK oGef;avmif;xm;wJh pufypnf;awG?
um;udk,fxnfawGudk csDro,fykd;? ykdYaqmif? ae&mcsxm; zkdYtwGuf Unimate Robot ukd 1962
ckESpfrSm pwiftoHk;jyKcJhygw,f/
1961 ckESpfuwnf;u puLpufHk eJY a&eHcsufpufHkawGrSm Computer ukd toHk;jyKNyD;
ukefypnf;awG? xkwfvkyfaeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/
Figure 2.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 3. 1961 ckESpfu IBM 1710 Computer

yHkrSmjyxm;wJh IBM1710 Computer udk oHk;NyD; xkwfukeft&nftaoG; jrifhrm;atmif


aqmif&GufcJhMuygw,f/ tJ'Dacwf? tJ'Dtcgu Computer [m yHkrSmawGU&wJhtwdkif; t&G,f
tpm; BuD;rm;ygw,f/ tyltat;ajymif;vJwJh'Pfukdvnf; rcHEdkifygbl;/ zHk0ifvkdYr&ygbl;/
'gaMumifh Computer udk yHk (Figure 4) rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; txl;pDrHjyKvkyf xm;wJh
tcef;? Computer Room xJrSm xm;&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

10

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 4. Computer Room

'DtcuftcJawGukd ausmfvTm;EkdifzkdY? Computer awGxuf tMurf;cHNyD; pufHk? tvkyfHk


awG&JUobm0ywf0ef;usifrSm aumif;aumif;tvkyfvkyfEkdifwJh PLC udk wDxGifzkdY BudK;pm;vmMu
ygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd BudK;pm;MuolawGxJu PLC udk atmifjrifatmif taumiftxnf azmfEkdifNyD;
vufawGUtoHk;csvkdY&wJh Modicon 084 vkdY emrnfay;xm; wJh PLC udk Richard Morley u
pwifxkwfvkyfcJhygw,f/ Richard Morley udk Dick Morley vkdYvnf; ac:Mu ygw,f/ olUukd
Father of PLC vkdY todtrSwfjyKMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

11

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 5a. Richard Morley [ Father of PLC ]

Figure 5b. Historical photo showing from left to right:


Dick Morley, Tom Boissevain, Modicon 084 PLC, George Schwenk, and Jonas Landau.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

12

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 6. 1968 ckESpfu xkwfvkyfwJh Modicon 084 PLC

yxrqHk; xkwfvkyfwJh PLC udk Modicon 084 vkdY trnfay;&wmuawmh


Associates &JU 84 ck?ajrmuf Project jzpfvkdY jzpfygw,f/

Bedford

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

13

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC ukdxkwfvkyfzkdY

tNydKifBudK;pm;MuwJh ukrPD av;ck &Sdygw,f/


tJ'D ukrPDawGuawmh
1/ Information Instruments, Inc. (aemuf 1ESpfMumwJhtcg Allen Bradley &JU tykdif
jzpfoGm;ygw,f)
2/ Digital Equipment Corp (DEC)
3/ Century Detroit eJY
4/ Bedford Associates wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
Bedford Associates &JU

tif*sifeD,mwpfOD;jzpfwJh Richard Morley [m PLC rSm yg&


r,fh tcsuftvuf tao;pdyfudk 1968 ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dv? 1&ufaeY? rSm tNyD;owfa&;qGJ
owfrSwf EkdifcJhygw,f/ olU&JU U.S Patent No. u 3761893 jzpfygw,f/
Bedford Associates &JU tif*sifeD,mrsm;jzpfMuwJh
1/ Richard Morley
2/ Mike Greenberg
3/ Jonas Landau
4/ George Schwenk eJY
5/ Tom Boissevain wkdY ig;OD;[m PLC xkwfvkyfzkdYtwGuf Modicon

qkdwJh ukrPD

topfudk wnfaxmifcJhygw,f/
Modicon qkdwJhemrnfuawmh Modular Digital Controller vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
Modular type PLC xkwfvkyfzkdY&nf&G,f BudK;pm;tm;xkwfcJhMuwm jzpfygw,f/ vkyfaqmifcsuf
Function wpfrsdK;udk Unit wpfck? Board wpfck? Module wpfck? tjzpf wnfaqmufxm;cJh&if
ysufvkdYjyif&wJhtcgrSm ysufwJh module ukdom topfeJY tpm;xkd;vJvS,f &wmjzpfvkdY vG,ful

ygw,f/ tcsdefukefoufomygw,f/
armfawmfum;xkwfvkyfwJh General Motors Corporation u tif*sifeD,mawG[m
ESpfpOf armfawmfum; Model ajymif;vJxkwfvkyfwJhtcgwkdif; awGUBuHKaeMu&wJh tcuftcJukd
ajyvnfzkdY enf;vrf;&SmazGaeMuygw,f/ tJ'Dtcgu Automation system udk relay logic eJY
wnfaqmufMuygw,f/ ta&twGuf&meJYcsDNyD;yg0ifwJh relay awGudk armfawmfum; armf',f
topf ajymif;wkdif; 0g,mqufoG,frItopf jyefvkyf&ygw,f/
tJ'DtwGuf vkyf&ukdif&wmcufcJNyD; tifrwef tcsdefukefygw,f/ vkyf&ukdif&wm
vG,fulNyD; 'DxufoufomwJh enf;vrf;udk &SmBuHaeMuwJh tcsdefrSm Bedford Associates u
PLC udk xkwfvkyfawmhr,fqkdwmudk Mum;awmh 0,fcsifwJhtaMumif; General Motors u p
wif urf;vSrf;vmygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

14

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yxrtokwftjzpf a':vm 1oef;zkd;0,f,lzkdY oabmwlnDrI&Muygw,f/ yxrqHk;


PLC jzpfwJh Modicon 084 udk 1969 ckESpf Ekd0ifbmvrSm General Motors u pwifvufcH&&Sd
toHk;jyKcJhygw,f/ oHk;&wmtqifajyvkdY aemufxyf a':vm 1oef;zkd;ukd General Motors u
xyfrH 0,f,ljyefygw,f/ PLC rlykdifcGifh OEM (Original Equipement Manufacturer) ukdvnf;
General Motors u &,loGm;ygw,f/
1977 ckESpfrSm Modicon ukd Gould Electronics u vTJajymif;&,lNyD; PLC ukd
qufvuf xkwfvkyfygw,f/ tJ'Daemuf *smrefukrPD wpfckjzpfwJh AEG u Modicon udk
qufvuf vTJajymif;&,lygw,f/
1997 ckESpfrSm Modicon ukd jyifopfukrPD wpfckjzpfwJh Schneider Electric u
qufvuf vTJajymif;&,ljyefygw,f/ Modicon &JU OEM u ,aeYtcsdefxd Schneider jzpfae
ygw,f/

Figure 7. 1973 ckESpfu xkwfvkyfwJh Modicon 184 PLC

1973 ckESpfrSm Michael Greenberg u yHkpHxkwfwJh Modicon 184 ukd xyfrH


xkwfvkyfcJhygw,f/
1975 ckESpfrSm Modicon 284 ukd microprocessor oHk;NyD; xkwfvkyfcJhygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

15

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

rSmwHk;u logic function yJ ygygw,f/ aemufykdif;xkwfwJh PLC awG


usrS ocFsmwGufcsufrIjzpfwJh taygif;? tEkwf? tajrmuf? tpm;? ukd xyfxnhfygw,f/
tJ'DaemufrSm Subroutine udkxyfxnhfygw,f/ 1970 ckESpf? ESpfv,frSmxkwfvkyfwJh PLC rSm
MIPS processor (MIPS : Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages) ESpfvHk;ukd
oHk;xm;ygw,f/ Memory u 128 kilo bytes &Sdygw,f/ tJ'Dacwf tJ'Dtcg rSmawmh
xl;jcm;aumif;rGefwJh t&nftaoG;jzpfygw,f/ 1971 ckESpfrSm Allen Bradley u olU&JU
yxrOD;qHk; PLC jzpfwJh Bulletin 1774 ukd xkwfvkyf ygw,f/
Modicon 084

Figure 8.

1971 ckESpfu xkwfvkyfwJh Allen Bradley &JU yxrqHk; PLC, Bulletin 1774

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

16

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

1977 ckESpfrSmxkwfvkyfwJh Allen Bradley PLC rSm 8080 microprocessor udk pwif
toHk;jyKcJhygw,f/ PLC udk pwifxkwfvkyfpOftcgu PC (Programmable Controller) vkdY
ac:wGif cJhMuygw,f/ 1980 ckESpf Personal Computer awG toHk; wGifus,fvmwJh tcgrSm
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) vkdY ajymif;vJ ac:a0:vmMuygw,f/ PLC qkdwm
Allen Bradley u ay;cJhwJh emrnfjzpfygw,f/ 1985 ckESpfrSm Rockwell Automation u
Allen Bradley ukd 0,f,lvkdufwJhtwGuf tcktcgrSm PLC [m Rockwell Automation &JU
Trade Mark jzpfaeygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

17

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (2) PLC udk NcHKiHkavYvmoHk;oyfjcif;/


PLC qkdwmudk wkdwkd&Sif;&Sif;ajym&&if pufrIvkyfief;awGrSm oHk;zkdY txl;wDxGifxm;wJh
Industrial Computer wpfrsdK; jzpfygw,f/ Relay Control System eJY aqmif&GufcJhwJh vkyfief;
awGukd Relay udk,fpm;? aqmif&GufzkdY &nf&G,fNyD; PLC ukd pwif wDxGifcJhMuwm jzpfygw,f/
Relay system rSm toHk;jyKcJhwJh sensor awG? actuator awGudk qufoG,fwwfqifzkdY t0ifikwf
Input Terminals awG? txGufikwf Output Terminals awG? PLC rSm yg&SdMuygw,f/
vQyfppform;awG tvG,fwul avhvmoif,lEdkifwJh Ladder Diagram Programming
Language (LD) eJY Program a&;NyD; ckdif;vkdY&atmif PLC udk wnfaqmuf xm;ygw,f/

Relay awG u k d t oH k ; jyKNyD ; zG J U pnf ; xm;wJ h control system


zGJUpnf;xm;wJh control system wYkdudk EIdif;,SOf Munhfr,fqkd&if?

eJY PLC udktoHk;jyKNyD;

rSm 0g,mqufoG,frI wiring vkyfzkdY uRrf;usifrItxl; vkdtyfygw,f/


pepfwusavhusifhxm;wJh engineer awG? technician awGu tcsdefMumjrifhpGm aqmif
&GufMu&ygw,f/ qufoG,frIwpHkw&m rSm;,Gif;cJh&ifvnf; trSm;ukd&Sm&wm Mumyg
w,f? cufygw,f? vuf0ifygw,f/
PLC System rSm wiring vkyf&wm vG,fulygw,f/ Input Terminal u oyfoyf?
Output Terminal u oyfoyf? ae&mcGJxm;ygw,f/ Input eJY Output udk PLC
program u qufoG,fay;wmjzpfygw,f/ Sensor wpfckudk Input terminal u ikwf
point wpfckeJY quf&ygw,f/ aemuf ikwf point wpfckeJY aemuf sensor wpfckudk
quf&wm jzpfygw,f/ wpfckukd wpfckcsif;pD quf&wmjzpfvkdY wiring vkyf&wm
vG,fulygw,f/ jrefqefygw,f/ rSm;qufrd&ifvnf; trSm;udk&SmNyD;jyif&wm jrefyg
w,f/
Relay System udk toHk;jyKNyD; xkwfukefypnf; wyfqif xkwfvkyfwJhtcg ypnf;
trsdK;tpm; Model ajymif;vJxkwfvkyfwkdif; wiring topfvkyf&wm cufcJNyD; tcsdef
Mumygw,f/ uRrf;usifrIvnf; txl;vkdtyfygw,f/
PLC System udk oHk;vkdufwJhtcgrSmawmh xkwfvkyfrIyHkpH model ajymif; csif&if PLC
program ukd ajymif;a&;vkdufHkeJY NyD;oGm;ygw,f/ qufoG,fxm;NyD;om; 0g,mawGudk
jzKwfp&m? jyifqufp&m? rvdkygbl;/ Wire topfxyfrH qufoG,fcsif&ifvnf;
tvG,fwul xyfwkd;vkdY &ygw,f/ tcsdefukef oufomygw,f/

#1 Relay System

#2

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

18

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

rSm pufwpfvHk; twGuf relay panel wpfck vdktyfygw,f/ rsdK;wlpuf


ESpfvHk; twGuf relay panel ESpfckrSm wiring ESpfcg vkyf&ygw,f/ Panel wiring
vkyfwkdif; rSm;Ekdifygw,f/ tcsdef ESpfq Mumygw,f/
PLC system rSmawmh pufwpfvHk;rSm PLC wpfck wyfqif&ygw,f/ puf ESpfvHk;
twGuf PLC ESpfck oHk;xm;&ayr,hf PLC program wpfckudk a&;xm;NyD;&if rsdK;wlpuf
tvHk;aygif;rsm;pGmtwGuf tJ'D program udkyJ PLC awGxJrSm a&;xnhfwm download
udk vkyfvkdufHkyJjzpfygw,f/ tifrwef vG,fulygw,f/ tcsdefukefrsm;pGm oufomyg
w,f/
tckacwfrSmxkwfvkyfMuwJh PLC awG&JU pGrf;aqmifEkdifrIu tifrwefjrihfrm;aeNyD
jzpfygw,f/ tjcm; control system awGeJY? PLC eJY? qufoG,fajymqkdrI communicate vkyfEkdif
MuNyD jzpfygw,f/ ukefxkwfvkyfrI tpD&ifcHpm production report awG? vkyfief;pDrH aqmif&Guf
rI scheduling production awG? rSm;wJhae&mudk xkwfazmfjywJh error report awG? apmifhMuyf
MunhfIrI self diagnosis awGudk PLC u vkyfukdifaqmif&GufEkdifMuNyDjzpfygw,f/
PLC eJY control vkyfxm;wJh ukefxkwfvkyfief;pOf&JU jzpfay:ajymif;vJrIukd aeY&uf?
tcsdef? em&D? eJYwuG aemufaMumif;jyef ajc&maumufMunhfvkdY &Ekdifygw,f/ BudKwifpDrH
umuG,fxdef;odrf;rI Preventive Maintenance twGuf ta&;ygwJh tcsuftvuf data awG
udk PLC system u &,lpkaqmif;ay;Ekdifygw,f/ PLC eJY HMI ukd qufoG,fNyD; PLC u
vwfwavmaqmif&GufaewJh tajctaeawGukd kyfyHkawG? Z,m;awG? eJY HMI ay:rSm azmfjy
Ekdifygw,f/ HMI ay:rSm zefwD;a&;qGJxm;wJh softbutton awGudk oHk;NyD; PLC &JU program
xJu setting awGudk ajymif;vJvkdY &ygw,f/ HMI (Human Machine Interface) ukd Operator
Interface vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ MMI (Man Machine Interface) vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Aquisition) eJY DCS (Distributed Control
System) awGvkd tqifhjrifhwJh control system awGtxd wufvSrf;EkdifzkdYtwGuf tajccHaumif;
awG&Sdxm;zkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ PLC ukd Computer tjzpf IjrifNyD;avhvmrSom tajccHaumif;
awG &&SdvmrSmjzpfygw,f/ PLC twGuf tajccHtkwfjrpfaumif;jzpfatmif 'DpmtkyfrSm BudK;
pm;NyD;a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ PLC vrf;Tef A Guide to PLC vkdY 'Dpmtkyfudk emrnfay;
xm;wJhtwkdif; enf;ay;vrf;TefjyrSm jzpfygw,f/
PLC ukd tckrS pwif avhvmr,hf olawGtwGuf &nf&G,fNyD;vG,fatmif? &Sif;atmif
a&;om;xm;ygw,f/
#3 Relay system

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

19

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

rSm ESpfrsdK; ESpfpm;&Sdygw,f/


1 / Modular PLC trsdK;tpm;eJY
2 / Compact PLC trsdK;tpm;wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/

PLC

1/

Modular PLC qkdwmu power supply module u wpfck? memory yg0ifwJh CPU
module u wpfck? Input module u wpfck? Output module u wpfck? tJ'D wpfckcsif;pDjzpfwJh
module awGudk atmufcHjym; backplane ay:rSm wwfqifvkdufawmhrS PLC wpfvHk; jzpfvm

ygw,f/

2 /

qkdwmuawmh tJ'D module wpfckcsif;pD&JU function awGtm;vHk;


yg0ifatmif pkpnf;NyD; yHk;cGH enclosure wpfckxJrSm xnhfoGif;wnfaqmufxm;wJh PLC rsdK;jzpf
ygw,f/ Compact PLC ukd Integrated PLC, Micro PLC, Monolithic PLC, All in one PLC
vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
PLC rSmyg&SdwJh Input eJY Output ukd aygif;NyD; I/O vkdY ac:ygw,f/ PLC &JU size tBuD;
tao;ukd I/O ta&twGufeJY owfrSwfygw,f/ PLC taMumif;a&;om;azmfjywJh catalog
pmtkyfawGrSm input (I) eJY output (O) ukd waygif;wnf;a&wGufxm;wJh I/O ta&twGufudk
azmfjyavh&Sdygw,f/ Oyrm? input 8 ckeJY? output 6 ckygwJh PLC ukd I/O 14 ckvkdY PLC &JU size
ukd a&;om;azmfjyygw,f/
Compact PLC

Size of PLC
&JU t&G,ftpm; tBuD;tao;udk Input eJY Output ESpfckaygif; ta&twGufeJY
cGJjcm; owfrSwfMuygw,f/
I/O ta&twGuf 15 ck txdukd
Nano PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 32 ck txdukd
Micro PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 128 ck txdudk Small PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 1024 ck txdudk Medium PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 4096 ck txdukd Large PLC
I/O ta&twGuf 8192 ck txdudk Very Large PLC
vkdY ac:Muygw,f/
'DaeY acwfrSmawmh Large PLC eJY Very Large PLC awGukd toHk;rjyKMuawmhygbl;/
Medium size PLC txdukdom Process Control System awGrSm DCS pepf Distributed
Control System eJY wGJzufNyD; network csdwfquf toHk;jyKMuygw,f/ toHk;trsm;qHk; uawmh
Micro PLC jzpfygw,f/ I/O wkd;csJUvkdY&wJh Micro PLC awGukd Machine Control rSma&m?
Process Control rSmyg toHk;jyKMuwmukd awGU&ygw,f/
PLC

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

20

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Programmable Logic Controller Architecture


External
Computer

Communication
Module

Microprocessor

PLC

Output Module

Input Module

Actuator

Process

Sensor

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wmu PLC ukd Process control rSm toHk;jyKxm;wJh Function Block yHk
jzpfygw,f/ wm0efcGJa0,lrIudk azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/ User Program (Application Program)
udk Personal Computer eJY a&;NyD; PLC xJ xnhfxm;&ygw,f/ PLC xJu memory rSm
a&;rSwfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ Input eJY Output ukd tJ'D user program u qufoG,fay;NyD;?
PLC &JU Output u Actuator awGudk ckdif;apygw,f/ Process &JU vuf&Sdjzpfay:aewJh
tajctaeudk Sensor awGu apmifhMunfhNyD;? PLC ukd owif;ykdYygw,f/ &&SdvmwJh owif;
tcsuftvufawGudk toHk;jyKNyD; user program u ckdif;wJhtwkdif; Microprocessor u aqmif
&Guf ygw,f/
PLC &JU Input Field Devices awGudkNcHKiHkNyD; Sensors vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Sensor qkdwmu physical condition udk electric signal jzpfatmifajymif;ay;wJh
device wkdif;udk NcHKac:wmjzpfygw,f/
'DvkdygyJ PLC &JU Output Field Devices awGukd NcHKiHkNyD; Actuators vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Actuator qkw
d mu electric signal udk physical condition jzpfatmif ajymif;ay;wJh
device wkdif;udk ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

21

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Programmable Logic Controller Architecture


PLC
Power Supply
Microprocessor + Memory
Operator
Workstation

PLC

&JU

Communication Module

I/O type

Discrete Input (DI) Module

Discrete Sensor

Analogue Input (AI) Module

Analogue Sensor

Discrete Output (DO) Module

Discrete Actuator

Analogue Output (AO) Module

Analogue Actuator

u ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/

Discrete I/O eJY Analog I/O wkdY

jzpfMuyg

w,f/
Electric signal

rSm

discrete signal

eJY analog signal qkdNyD;

signal

trsdK;tpm;? ESpfrsdK;

&Sdygw,f/
Discrete signal udk digital signal vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
Discrete signal qdkwmu signal &SdwJh? taetxm; ON state eJY signal r&SdwJh? tae
txm; OFF state qkdwJh tajctae ESpfrsdK;om&SdwJh signal trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ PLC rSm
discrete dc input eJY discrete ac input qkdNyD; discrete input type ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/
Analog signal qkdwmuawmh tjywftawmufr&SdbJ wqufwpyfxJ ajymif;vJaewJh
signal rsdK; jzpfygw,f/ PLC rSm toHk;rsm;wJh analog signal awG uawmh 0 to 20 mA dc,
4 to 20 mA dc eJY 0 to 10 Vdc signal awG jzpfMuygw,f/ Analog signal rSm ac signal
r&Sdygbl;/ PLC rSm analog ac signal udk roHk;ygbl;/
Discrete input ukd DI vkdY a&;NyD; discrete output udk DO vkdY a&;ygw,f/
Analog input ukd AI vkdY a&;NyD; analog output udk AO vkdY a&;xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

22

OD;pdk;wifh
PLC

PLC

eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh

Discrete sensor

Pushbuttons,
Selector switch,
Motor starter contacts,
Relay contacts,
Thumbwheel switch,
Limit switch,
Photoelectric eyes,
Proximity switches,
Liquid level switch,
Temperature switch,
Pressure switch
pwmawG
PLC

awGuawmh

jzpfMuygw,f/

eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh Discrete actuator awGuawmh


Lamps,
Alarms,
Fans,
Horns, buzzers,
Control Relays,
Magnetic contactors (MC),
Solenoid valves (SV),
Motor starters,

PLC

vrf; nTef

pwmawG jzpfMuygw,f/

eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh Analog sensor awGuawmh


Thermocouple (TC),
RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector),
Pressure Transducer,
pwmawG jzpfMuygw,f/
Load Cell

PLC

eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh Analog actuator awGuawmh


Analog meters,
Valve Positioners,
Motor Drives (Frequency Inverter),
Servo Drives
pwmawGjzpfMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

23

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'DaeYacwf PLC eJYvkyfaqmifaeMuwJh vkyfief;tcsdKUukd atmufrSmazmfjyvkdufygw,f/

Todays PLC applications


Aluminum making

Assembly machines

Amusement park control

Building automation

Burner control

Car manufacturing plant

Chemical plants

Conveyor systems

Cranes

Electro-plating plants

Factory automation

Food-processing plants

Material handling

Off-shore drilling

Plastic injection molding machines

Packaging machine

Paper and pulp industries

Pick and place robot control

Pump station control

Pipeline pump station control

Plant power system

Precast concrete industries

Semiconductor manufacturing machines

Storage and retrieval systems

Steel mills

Tobacco industries

Tire manufacturing

TV manufacturing plant

Water treatment

Warehouse automation

Modern Control Room

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

24

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

25

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

26

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

27

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

28

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

29

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (3) PLC eJY Control vkyfyHk taMumif;/


PLC

eJY

control

vkyfwmESpfrsdK;&Sdygw,f/

Machine control

eJY process control vkdY ac:

ygw,f/
Machine control qkdwmu pufudkxdef;ausmif;ay;wm jzpfygw,f/ ykvif;xJ t&nf
jznfhwJhpuf filling machine ukd control vkyfwmrsdK;? ykvif;awGudk 6 ykvif; 1 xkyf?
xkyfwJhpuf packaging machine ukd control vkyfwmrsdK;? yvyfpwpfypnf;awG yHkoGif;?
xkwfvkyfwJhpuf plastic injection molding machine ukd control vkyfwmrsdK;awGukd machine
control vdkY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
Process control qkdwmrSmygwJh process qdkwmu t&m0wKwpfckudk kyfqif; oPmef
tm;jzpfap? physically 'grSr[kwf? "gwkzGJUpnf;yHktm;jzpfap? chemically ajymif;vJ atmif
vkyfaqmifwmukd process vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Oyrm? *sHKrIHUukd aygifrkefYjzpfatmifvkyfwm ukdvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/ BuHuae
oMum;jzpfatmifvkyfwm ukdvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/ acsmif;a&? jrpfa&ukd oHk;a&?
aomufa&jzpfatmifvkyfwm udkvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/ a&&,f? av&,f? obm0
"gwfaiGU&,f oHk;rsdK;udk aygif;pyfNyD; Urea "gwfajrMoZm jzpfatmifvkyfwm ukdvnf; process

vkdY ac:ygw,f/ ukefxkwfenf;pOfvkdY ajymvkdY&r,fxifygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd ukefxkwfvkyf wJh


process ukd control vkyfwmukd process control vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
PLC qkdwm[m Machine control eJY Process control pepfawGrSm oHk;zkdY jyKvkyfxm;wJh
Special Computer jzpfygw,f/ TefMum;csuf Program awG a&;oGif;NyD; ckdif;apvkdY &wJh
Industrial (Computer ) Controller jzpfygw,f/
Control vkyfw,fqkdwm &nfrSef;csuf NyD;ajrmufatmif xdef;ausmif;ay;wm jzpfyg
w,f/ xdef;ausmif;wJh tvkyfukd vkyfEkdifzdkY Controller wkdif;ukd power ay;oGif;&ygw,f/ PLC
udkvnf; power ay;oGif;&ygw,f/
TefMum;xm;wJh TefMum;csufawGudk odrf;xm;zkdY PLC rSm memory yg&Sd&ygw,f/
ckdif;xm;wJh TefMum;csufawGukd ukdifwG,faqmif&GufwJh A[kduGyfuJa&;ykdif; CPU (central
processing unit) vnf; PLC rSm yg&Sd&ygw,f/ Signal t0ifykdif; (input ykdif;) eJY signal
txGufykdif; (output ykdif;) wkdYvnf; PLC rSm yg&Sd&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

30

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Block diagram of PLC

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

31

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC Hardware

rSm trsdK;tpm; ajrmufjrm;pGm &SdMuygw,f/ b,f


&wJh ikwf terminal awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ tJ'gawGuawmh
PLC

PLC

rSmyJjzpfjzpf

wire

qufvdkY

Power supply terminal,


Input terminal,
Output terminal eJY
Programming Port wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
PLC qdkwmu program a&;oGif;xm;rS cdkif;apvdkY&wJh Controller jzpfygw,f/
PLC wpfvHk;udk awGUwJhtcg b,fupNyD; odatmifvkyf&rvJqdkwmudk tvG,frSwv
f dkY

&atmif azmfjyygr,f/
PLC qdkwm Computer wpfrsdK;jzpfwmrdkYvdkY
w,f/
yxrqHk; avhvm&rSmuawmh

PLC

rSm

hardware

a&m?

software

yg? yg&Sdyg

Power Supply and I/O

vdkY jzpfygw,f/
Power supply &JU type,
Power supply &JU size;
Input &JU type,
Input &JU size;
eJY
Output &JU type,
Output &JU size;
wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
PS & I/O; Type & Size vdkY rSwfxm;yg/
PLC &JU hardware udk avhvmwJhtcg PS & I/O wdkY&JU type eJY size udk odatmif t&if
vkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
PS &J U type qdkwm tJ'D PLC udk AC power ay;&rSmvm;? DC power ay;&rSmvm;?
qdkwmudk cGJjcm;odzdkY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU Power supply terminal rSm AC voltage ay;&wJh PLC &Sdovdk? DC voltage
ay;&wJh PLC vnf; &Sdygw,f/
PS &J U size qdkwmuawmh AC power qdk&if 220V vm;? 100V vm;? DC power
qdk&if 24V vm;? qdkwm cGJjcm;odzdkY ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
AC power ay;&wJh PLC awGrSm 100VAC udk power supply tjzpf qufay;&wJh PLC
u wpfrsdK;? 220VAC udk power supply tjzpfqufoG,fay;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? 100VAC
a&m? 220VAC yg? 2rsdK;pvHk; qufoG,fay;vdkY&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? qdkNyD; oHk;rsdK;oHk;pm; &Sdyg
w,f/
Type and Size

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

32

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

DC power ay;&wJh PLC rSmawmh 24VDC


ay;&wJh PLC u tawGU&trsm;qHk;jzpfygw,f/

udk

power supply

vrf; nTef

tjzpf qufoG,f

I/O qd k w m uawmh PLC &JU Input eJY Output awGudk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ PLC &JU I/O
signal [m Discrete I/O signal eJY Analog I/O signal qdkNyD; type 2rsdK;? &Sdygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
Discrete Input vm;? Discrete Output vm;? Analog Input vm;? Analog Output vm;?
qdkwmudk cGJjcm;NyD;odatmif t&ifvkyf&ygr,f/ Discrete I/O udk Digital I/O vkdYvnf; ac:Mu

ygw,f/
Discrete Input xJay;oGif;&r,fh signal u AC signal vm;? DC signal vm;? qdkwmu
Input &JU type jzpfyg w,f/ AC220V signal vm;? AC100V signal vm;? DC24V signal vm;?
qdkwmu Input &JU size jzpfygw,f/
Discrete Output rSxGufvmr,fh signal u Relay Output vm;? TRIAC Output vm;?
Transistor Output vm;? qdkwmawGu Output &JU type awGjzpfMuNyD;? Relay &JU Output rating,
TRIAC &JU Output rating, Transistor &JU Output rating awGu Output &JU size awG
jzpfMuygw,f/ Transistor Output jzpfcJh&if PNP vm;? NPN vm;? cGJjcm;odzdkY vdktyfygw,f/
Sensor awGuay;ydkYwJh signal awGudk? PLC &JU input terminal awGu vufcH&,lygw,f/
Input terminal rSm qufoG,fvdkY&wJh devices awGudk Input Field Devices vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Output terminal rSm qufoG,fvdkY&wJh devices awGudk Output Field Devices vdkY ac:yg
w,f/ PLC &JU output terminal u xkwfay;wJh signal awGudk? Output Field Devices awGu
vufcH&,lygw,f/ Output Field Devices awGudk Actuators awGvdkYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/

k mu current vm;? voltage vm;?


Analog I/O &J U type qdw

cGJjcm;odzdkY jzpfygw,f/
Analog I/O &J U size qdkwmuawmh signal &JU range udk ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
Oyrm? 0 to 20mA, 4 to 20mA, 0 to 5V, 0 to 10V pwJU dc signal awGjzpfMuygw,f/

'DpmtkyfrSm

discrete I/O signal

taMumif;ukdom a&;om;azmfjyrSm jzpfygw,f/

Programming Port uawmh data awG t0iftxGufvkyfwmjzpfvdkY Port vdkY ac:wJh ikwf
terminal jzpfygw,f/ PLC xJudk program a&;xnfhwJhtcg? Computer eJY qufoG,f&wJh port
jzpfvdkYrdkY Programming Port vdkY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Programming cable udk PLC xkwfvkyfwJh OEM qDu? 0,f,ltoHk;jyKMu&ygw,f/ PLC eJY
Computer udk Programming cable eJY qufoG,fNyD; PLC xJ a&;xnfhwJh Program udk User
Program vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Application Program vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

33

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC wdkif;rSmryg&dSbJ? tcsdKU PLC awGrSmom ygavh&SdwJh terminal awGuawmh I/O


expansion terminal eJY Communication port wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/ Input eJY Output udk wdk;csJU
wwfqifcsif&if I/O expansion port yg&dSrS wdk;csJUwwfqifvdkY &ygw,f/ Communication port
uawmh PLC eJY HMI qufoG,fzdkY? PLC tcsif;csif; qufoG,fzdkY? toHk;jyK&wmjzpfygw,f/
PLC awGrSm RS-232 port eJY RS-485 port wdkY ygavh&SdMuygw,f/
ckacwfrSm Ethernet port ygwJh PLC awGudk toHk;jyKaeMuNyD jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

34

OD;pdk;wifh
PLC

PLC

vrf; nTef

wdkif;rSmyg0ifwJh tajccHtydkif; 5 ykdif; uawmh yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwdkif;

(1) Power Supply ykdif;?


(2) CPU ykdif;?
(3) Memory ykdif;?
(4) Input ykdif;? eJY
(5) Output ykdif;?wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
'Dtydkif; 5ydkif;udk wpfpkwpfpnf;xJ wnfaqmufxm;wJh PLC rsdK;udk Integrated PLC,
'grSr[kwf Compact PLC vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Compact PLC rSm yg&SdwJh Power supply ydkif;?
CPU ydkif;? Input ydkif;? pwmawGudk wpfydkif;csif;pD jzKwfvdkY? wyfvdkY? r&ygbl;/
tpdwftydkif; wpfckcsif;pD jzKwfvdkY? wyfvdkY? &wJh PLC rsdK;udk Modular PLC vdkY ac:yg
w,f/ Modular PLC qdkwmu Power supply module u wpfck? CPU eJY Memory udk
aygif;xm;wJh CPU module u wpfck? Input module u wpfck? Output module u wpfck? 'D
4ck udk atmufcHjym; backplane (baseplate) ay:rSm wyfqifvdkufawmhrS PLC wpfvHk; jzpfvm
ygw,f/
Power Supply ykdif;
Power Supply ykdif; qkdwmu PLC xJudk tjyifuaeay;oGif;wJh 220VAC 'grSr[kwf
24VDC udk ajymwmr[kwfygbl;/ PLC xJrSm xnfhoGif;wnfaqmufxm;wJh power ykdif;ukd
ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ PLC wkdif;ukd vQyfppf"gwftm;ay;oGif;&ygw,f/
AC power ay;oGif;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? DC power ay;oGif;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;?

qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/


AC power ay;&wJh PLC rSmvnf; 100VAC eJY 220VAC qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK; uGJjym;ygao;
w,f/
DC power ay;&wJh PLC rSmawmh 24 VDC ay;&wJh PLC u tawGU&rsm;ygw,f/
jyifyuae AC ay;oGif;onfjzpfap? DC ay;oGif;onfjzpfap? ay;oGif;vkdufwJh vQyfppf
power ukd PLC xJrSm&SdwJh CPU wkdY? Memory wdkY?twGuf oifhawmfwJh DC Voltage jzpfatmif
PLC xJu Power Supply ykdif;u aqmif&Gufay;ygw,f/
PLC xJudk Power supply terminal uae? pD;0ifwJYvQyfppf current eJY CPU xJ, I/O
interface xJ? pD;wJYvQyfppf current wkdYudk woD;wjcm;pDjzpfatmif vkyfay;wJYtvkyf? galvanic
isolation udkvnf; Power Supply ykdif;u vkyfay;ygw,f/ 'g[m PLC xJrSmygwJY Power
Supply ydkif;&JUtvkyf function 2ck? jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

35

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

wu,fvkdY? 100VAC om ay;&r,fh PLC udk rSm;NyD; 220VAC ay;cJhrd&if? 'grSr[kwf


24VDC om ay;&r,fh PLC udk 220VAC rSm;ay;cJhrd&if? PLC xJu Power Supply ykdif;yJ
ysufpD;oGm;ygw,f/ CPU wkdY? Memory wkdYukd rxdcdkufrysufpD; ap&atmif Power Supply
ykdif;u taocHumuG,fay;xm;ygw,f/
'DvkdumuG,fay;wmudk isolation vkdY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
CPU yk d i f ;
CPU (Central Processing Unit) udk microprocessor eJY zGJUpnf; wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
CPU eJY Memory uawmh tNrJyJ wGJNyD;? tvkyfvkyfygw,f/ User program udk Memory xJrSm
odrf;xm;ygw,f/ PLC udk RUN vdkufawmhrS memory xJrSma&;xm;wJh User program
rSmygwJhtwdkif; CPU u aqmif&Gufygw,f/ Input terminal rSm&SdwJh signal udk CPU u
MunfhNyD;? User program u cdkif;xm;wJhtwdkif; Output terminal udk signal xkwfay;ygw,f/
PLC awGrSm CPU ysufpD;rI[m 5% yJ jzpfwwfygw,f/ PLC tvHk; 100 ysuf&if CPU
ysufwm 5 vHk;yJ &Sdygw,f/ CPU [m PLC rSm A[kduGyfuJa&;tydkif; jzpfygw,f/ PLC xJu
CPU udk MPU (Main Processing Unit) vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ PLC aumif;aumif; tvkyf
vkyfaeovm;? rvkyfbl;vm;vdkY ppfaq;&wJh self-diagnosis wm0efukdvnf; CPU u xrf;

aqmifygw,f/
CPU &JU vkyfief;aqmifwmudk twdkcsKyfajym&&if PLC &JU input terminal awGrSm csdwf
qufxm;wJY sensor awGuay;ydkYwJY signal awGudk vufcH&,lw,f/ NyD;awmh PLC &JU
rSwfOmPf memory rSm a&;rSwfxm;wJY nTefBum;csufawG user program twdkif; aqmif&Guf
w,f/ NyD;&if tJ'Daqmif&Gufcsufu&wJY program result awGudk PLC &JU output terminal
awGqDudk ydkYvTwfay;ygw,f/
Modular PLC awG&JU CPU module xJrSm memory eJY microprocessor udk wGJNyD; xnfhoGif;
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ PLC &JUvkyfief;aqmifwmawGukd b,fvdkaqmif&Gufyg vdkY owfrSwf
ay;xm;wJY control program (operating system) [mvnf; tJ'D memory xJrSm yg&Sdygw,f/
'gaMumifh CPU module ysufpD;cJhvkdY&Sd&if CPU module ukd topfvJvS,f wyfqifHkeJYawmh
PLC [m e*dktwkdif; tvkyfrvkyf Ekdifao;ygbl;/ jyefvnfae&mcsxm; ay;&ygao;w,f/
tJ'gukd configure vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/ Program jyefa&;xnfh ay;&ygao;w,f/
Compact PLC awGrSmawmh CPU ykdif;[m PLC &JUtpdwftykdif; wpfckrQom jzpfvkdY CPU
ysuf pD;cJh&if PLC topf wpfvHk;eJY vJvS,fwyfqif&ygw,f/ Program ukdvnf; jyefa&;xnfh
ay;&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

36

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Memory yk d i f ;
Memory is the area that holds the operating system and user program.

xJrSm TefMum;csuf instruction code awG? owif;tcsuftvuf data awG?


f m;odrf;qnf;xm;wJh ae&mukd Memory vkdY
qHk;jzwfcsuf logic result awG? pwmawGudk rSwo
ac:ygw,f/
Memory rSm ESpfrsdK;?ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/ Volatile memory eJY non-volatile memory wkdY
jzpfMuygw,f/
Volatile memory vQyfppfyg0gtNrJ&&SdaerS a&;rSwfxm;wmawGudk raysmufrysuf
atmif odrf;qnf;xm;EkdifwJh memory trsdK;tpm; udk Volatile memory vkdY ac:ygw,f/
RAM (Random Access Memory) [m tJ'DtrsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ vQyfppf"gwftm;r&Sd&if
RAM xJrSm a&;rSwfxm;wmawG tm;vHk; taiGUysHvGifhys,foGm;ovkd aysmufysufukefygw,f/
RAM twGuf power supply tNrJwrf;&aeapzkdY PLC xJrSm "gwfcJ battery xnfhay;xm;
&ygw,f/ tJ'D"gwfcJ&JU oufwrf;[m 25C rSmyJtNrJoHk;cJh&if 5ESpf MumatmifcHygw,f/
ylvGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? at;vGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? "gwfcJoufwrf;wkdygw,f/
Non-volatile memory Non-volatile memory uawmh a&;rSwfxm;wmawGukd
raysmufrysuf&atmif vQyfppf"gwftm;r&SdyJeJY Mum&Snfodrf;xm;Ekdifygw,f/ EEPROM
(Electrically Erasible Programmable ROM) [m tJ'Dvkd trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ tck
vloHk;rsm;aeNyDjzpfwJh memory stick vkdrsdK;? Flash Memory trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ EEPROM
ukd toHk;jyKxm;wJh PLC awGrSm "gwfcJxnfhzkdY rvkdtyfygbl;/
PLC

PLC

'gaMumifh "gwfcJygwJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? "gwfcJ rygwJh


ESpfrsdK;? ESpfpm;? &Sdygw,f/

PLC

u wpfrsdK; qkdNyD;

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

37

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tJ'D"gwfcJ&JU oufwrf;[m 25C rSmyJtNrJoHk;cJh&if 5ESpf MumatmifcHygw,f/


ylvGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? at;vGef;&ifyJjzpfjzpf? "gwfcJoufwrf;wkdygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

38

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

I/O Image Memory


PLC wkdif;rSm wire qufoG,fvkdY&wJh Input terminal eJY Output terminal awG yg0ifMuyg
w,f/ tJ'gukd External input eJY External output vkdY ac:Muygw,f/ Physical input eJY
Physical output vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
Input terminal awGrSm&SdaewJh signal awG&JUtajctaeukd t&dyfyrm xif[yf azmfjywJh
memory xJu ae&mawGukd Input image memory vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Input memory, Input
relay vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Input image table vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Input terminal eJY wkdufkdufqufoG,r
f I&SdwJh memory area jzpfvkdY input image memory vkdY
ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Output terminal awGeYJ wkdufkdufqufoG,frI&SdwJh memory xJu ae&mukd output image
memory vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Output image table vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Output terminal eJY wdkufdkufqufoG,frI r&SdwJh internal memory udk Auxiliary Relay vkYd
ac:ygw,f/ Internal Relay vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Internal Output vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Internal Bit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Work Bit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ a&;vdkY? zwfvdkY? &wJh
Memory xJu Bit ae&m jzpfygw,f/
Delta PLC awGxJu DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm yg&SdwJh Physical I/O (X/Y) eJY internal
output (M) udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

39

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Omron PLC awGxJu CPM1A-20CDR rSm yg&SdwJh input image memory ukdusawmh
Input Bit vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Output image memory ukdawmh Output Bit vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Output terminal eJY wdkufdkufqufoG,frI r&SdwJh internal memory udk Work Bit vkdY ac:yg

w,f/
Omron PLC awGxJu CPM1A-20CDR rSm yg&SdwJh Physical I/O (IR 000/ IR 010)
internal output (IR 200) wdkYudk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

eJY

S7-200 CPU224 rSmyg&SdwJh internal output ukd Bit Memory (M)


vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Input image memory ukdusawmh Process-Image Input Register (I) vkYd
ac:ygw,f/ Output image memory ukdusawmh Process-Image Output Register (Q) vkdY
Simens PLC

awGxJu

ac:ygw,f/
Simens PLC awGxJu S7-200 CPU224 rSm

yg&SdwJh Physical I/O (I/Q) eJY internal output (M)


udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Siemens PLC S7-200

CPU 224

Process-image input register

I0.0 to I15.7

Process-image output register

Q0.0 to Q15.7

Bit memory (M)

M0.0 to M31.7

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

40

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Input Image Memory

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

41

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Output Image Memory

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

42

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Input Interface
When two different objects are linked together the boundary is known as the Interface.
PLC rSm signal 0ifwJh tykdif;ukd input ykdif;vkdY ac:ygw,f/ PLC &JU input rSm qufoG,f
&wJh Device awGukd input field devices vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Input Device awG jzpfMuwJh sensor
awGeJY PLC ukd qufpyfay;wmjzpfvkdY Input Interface vkdY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/ Modular PLC
rSm Input Interface [m oD;jcm; module wpfck jzpfNyD; input module vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Compact PLC rSmawmh Input Interface [m PLC &JU ukd,fwGif;t*Fg tpdwftykdif; wpfckom

jzpfygw,f/
Input ydkif;&JU tvkyfuawmh Input Field Devices awGu ay;ydkYwJh signal udk CPU u
em;vnf vufcHEdkifwJh signal jzpfatmif ajymif;ay;wJhtvkyfu wpfck? input terminal rSm
vSnfhywfpD;qif;wJhvQyfppf eJY PLC xJ vSnfhywfpD;qif;wJhvQyfppfwdkYudk wpfoD;wpfjcm;pD
jzpfatmif vkyfay;wJh isolation tvkyfu wpfck? pkpkaygif; tvkyf 2ckudk vkyfygw,f/
PLC

wkdif;&JU

input interface

tykdif;u 'Dtvkyf ESpfrsdK;udk vkyfaqmifMuygw,f/

Input terminal ukd signal strength rwefwq rSm;ay;rdcJh&if input interface tykdif;om
ysufpD; oGm;NyD; CPU ukd xdcdkufrI vHk;0r&Sdygbl;/ 'gaMumifh 24VDC signal ay;&r,fh Input
point rSm 220VAC ukd rSm;NyD;awmh qufoG,frdcJh&if CPU rysufygbl;/ Memory rysufygbl;/
Input interface yJ ysufoGm;ygr,f/ Modular PLC rSmqkd&ifawmh Input module topf wpfck
vJvS,fwyfqifvkdufHkeJY PLC [m e*kdtwkdif; tvkyfjyefvkyfEkdifygw,f/

rSm tajctaeajymif;vJrI ESpfrsdK;om &SdwJY Discrete Input eJY tajctae


ajymif;vJrI wqufxJ &SdwJY Analog Input qdkNyD; input ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/ Discrete input udk
digital input vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ PLC [m Computer jzpfwJY twGuf binary udkom
vufcHaqmif&Guf Edkifygw,f/ 'gaBumifh analog input interface rSm analog uae digital
signal (binary signal) udk ajymif;ay;wJY A/D Converter yg&Sdygw,f/
Input interface

&JU input signal ESpfrsdK;? ESpfpm; &SdwJYtxJu


taMumif;ukd 'DpmtkyfrSm tao;pdyf azmfjyoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/
PLC

discrete input signal

Discrete signal rSm signal &Sdaewmukd ON vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Signal r&Sdwmukd OFF vkdY
ac:ygw,f/ Signal &Sdjcif;eJY? Signal r&Sdjcif;? 'DESpfrsdK; om&Sdygw,f/ Discrete input interface
rSm signal type ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/ AC signal eJY DC signal jzpfygw,f/
Modular PLC rSm AC input module eJY DC input module qkdNyD; oD;jcm;pDxkwfvkyf
ygw,f/ Compact PLC rSmvnf; AC input signal om ay;vkdY&wJh PLC eJY DC input signal
om ay;vkdY&wJh PLC &,fvkdY ESpfrsdK; cGJjcm;xkwfvkyfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

43

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'DpmtkyfrSm Delta PLC udk ajccHNyD; a&;om;azmfjyoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/ taMumif; wkdufqkdif


wJh tcgwkdif; tjcm; PLC awGeJY EIdif;,SOfazmfjyay;oGm;ygr,f/
Discrete input interface
24 VDC Input

Figure 9a

yHk

(Figure 9a) rSm DC24V signal ukd vufcHaqmif&GufwJh discrete input interface
functional circuit diagram ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

&JU

Discrete input interface


110 VAC Input

Figure 9b

yHk

(Figure 9b) rSm AC110V signal ukd vufcHaqmif&GufwJh discrete input interface &JU
functional circuit diagram ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; AC input rSma&m? DC input rSmyg optocoupler ukd oHk;NyD;
isolation vkyfxm;ygw,f/ tajccHtusqHk;vnf;jzpf? tawGU&trsm;qHk;vnf;jzpfwJh 24VDC
input signal ay;&wJh Compact PLC ukd rlwnfNyD; input interface taMumif;udk a&;om;

azmfjy oGm;ygr,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

44

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 9c

yHk (Figure 9c) rSm oHk;xm;wJh Opto-coupler (Photo-coupler) xJrSm tvif;a&mif xkwf
vTwfay;wJh LED diode ESpfckudk tNrD;jyef? acgif;jyef? tNydKifquf antiparallel qufxm;yg
w,f/ Current direction b,fvkdyJpD;pD;? LED wpfvHk;vHk; uawmh rD;vif;rSm aocsmyg
w,f/ tJ'D LED ESpfvHk;uxGufwJh tvif;a&mifukd photo-transistor &JU base ay: wkdufkduf
usa&mufatmif csdefxm;ygw,f/ LED eJY photo-transistor twGJukd opto-coupler vkdY
ac:ygw,f/ olUukd jyifyutvif;a&mif r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif tvHkydwf? tvif;ydwf?
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh optocoupler xJu LED rD;vif;wmudk jyifyu rjrif
rawGUEkdifygbl;/
PLC &JU input point udk jzwfpD;vmwJhvQyfppf currrent [m opto-coupler xJu LED xJ
ukdvnf; jzwfoef;pD;qif;wmjzpfvkdY? tJ'D LED rD;vif;NyD; photo-transistor ay:udk tvif;
a&mif usa&mufygw,f/ tJY'DtcgrSm photo-transistor ukd ON jzpfapygw,f/ Phototransistor = ON jzpfoGm;wJhtcg internal circuit u PLC &JU input status indicator LED ukd
rD;vif;apygw,f/
Input point ukd signal a&mufvkdY ON jzpfwJhtcg tJ'D input eJY oufqkdifwJh input LED
rD;vif;wmjzpfvkdY? b,f point rSm signal &Sdw,fqkdwmukd tvG,fwul odEkdifygw,f/ Meter
eJY wkdif;MunhfzkdY rvkdygbl;/ Input point udk jzwfpD;wJh current eJY internal circuit xJ (phototransistor xJ) pD;wJh current wkdY[m woD;wjcm;pD jzpfMuygw,f/ tJ'gukd galvanically
isolated vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Input point u 0ifvmwJh signal ukd internal circuit xJ
a&mufatmif ydkYaqmifay;wmu tvif;a&mifeJY ykdYay;wm jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh photocoupling (opto-coupling) vkdY ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

45

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Output Interface
Output ydkif;uawmh CPU u xkwfay;wJh signal udk Output terminal twGuf oifhawmfwJh
signal trsdK;tpm;jzpfatmif ajymif;ay;wJhtvkyfu wpfck? PLC xJvSnfhywf pD;qif;wJh
vQyfppfeJY Output terminal rSm vSnfhywfpD;qif;wJhvQyfppf wdkUudk wpfoD;wpfjcm;pD jzpfatmif
isolation vkyfay;&wJh tvkyfuwpfck? pkpkaygif; tvkyf 2ck udk vkyfygw,f/
PLC

&JU

output rS m vnf ; signal type

ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/

Discrete output signal eJY Analog output signal wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/ CPU u xGufvmwJY
signal u binary signal (digital signal) jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D digital signal udk D/A Converter eJY
analog tjzpf ajymif;ay;jyD;rS output terminal u analog signal ukd xkwfay;wm jzpfygw,f/

w,f/

'DpmtkyfrSm

discrete output signal

taMumif;ukdom a&;om;azmfjyrSm jzpfyg

rSm discrete output type oHk;rsdK;&Sdygw,f/


(1) Relay Output
(2) Transistor Output
(3) TRIAC Output (SSR Output) wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
tJ'DoHk;rsdK;pvHk;udk galvanic isolation &atmif wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/

PLC

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

46

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Relay Output
Relay contact

Relay coil

Max. Switching Capacity : 2A, 250VAC (cos = 1) ; 2A, 24VDC


Figure 10. yHkrSm Relay contact eJY output point

wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk

azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
&JU qHk;jzwfcsufeJYtnD internal circuit u output signal xkwfay;vkdufwJhtcg
(1) Output status indicator LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
(2) Relay coil energize jzpfygw,f/
(3) Relay &JU N.O contact [m close jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Output wpfckpD rSm internal circuit wpfck? status LED wpfck? relay wpfck?wkdY yg&Sdygw,f/
Relay coil eJY tJ'D relay &JU contact wkdY[m galvanically isolated jzpfNyD; magnetically
coupled vkyfxm;ygw,f/
Relay coil xJpD;qif;wJh current eJY contact xJpD;qif;wJh current wkdY[m woD;wjcm;pD
jzpfygw,f/
PLC Output Relay [m N.O contact wpfckomygwJh Miniature Relay jzpfygw,f/
Voltage free contact jzpfvkdY AC a&m? DC yg jzwfoef;pD;qif;Ekdifygw,f/
CPU

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

47

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Transistor Output
Transistor Output rSm PNP eJY NPN qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK; &Sdygw,f/ CPU u ckdif;vkdY internal
circuit u output signal xkwfay;vkdufwJhtcg?
(1) Output status indicator LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
(2) Optocoupler xJu LED rD;vif;vkdY phototransistor [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
(3) Output transistor vnf; ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Output
Transistor

Photo-transistor

Max. Switching Capacity: 50 mA at 4.5 VDC to 300 mA at 26.4 V


Figure 11.

yHkrSm

Transistor Output (NPN) eJY output point

wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk

azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Output
Transistor

Opto-coupler

Photo-transistor

Max. Switching Capacity: 50 mA at 4.5 VDC to 300 mA at 26.4 V


Figure 12.

yHkrSm

Transistor Output (PNP) eJY output point

wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk

azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
PNP yJjzpfjzpf? NPN yJjzpfjzpf? transistor &JU collector ukd output point eJY qufoG,f
xm;ygw,f/ PLC &JU Output Transistor [m open collector output type jzpfNyD;? DC vQyfppf
om jzwfoef;pD;qif;Ekdifygw,f/ PLC &JU output [m transistor output jzpfcJY&if PNP
'grSr[kwf NPN wpfrsdK;om ygavh&Sdygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

48

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

TRIAC Output
TRIAC Output ukd SSR (Solid State Relay) output vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Triac
output rSm oHk;xm;wJh opto-coupler xJrSm LED eJY photo-diac wkdY yg0ifygw,f/
CPU u apckdif;wJhtwkdif; internal circuit u output signal xkwfay;vkdufwJhtcg
(1) Output status indicator LED rD;vif; ygw,f/
(2) Photodiac ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
(3) Output Triac ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Photo-diac

Output Triac

Opto-coupler

Max. Switching Capacity: 0.4 A at 100 to 240 VAC (50/60 Hz)

wdkY qufoG,fxm;yHkudk azmfjyxm;ygw,f/


Triac Output ukd AC vQyfppfeJYom toHk;jyK&ygw,f/ tu,f DC vQyfppfeJY
qufoG,f toHk;jyKcJhr,fqkd&if ON jzpfNyD;wJh output point [m Triac &JU obm0t& OFF
jyefrjzpfawmhygbl;/
PLC &JU output type oHk;rsdK;udk atmufrSm,SOfwGJazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Figure 14.

yHkrSm

Output Type

Triac Output eJY output point

Rated Valtage and Current


(Typical Value)

Switching Time

Relay

250VAC(2A) / 30VDC(2A) OFF to ON: 10 ms, ON to OFF: 10 ms

Transistor

30VDC, 300 mA

OFF to ON: 0.2 ms, ON to OFF: 0.2 ms

TRIAC (SSR) 85V to 240VAC, 400 mA

OFF to ON: 1ms, ON to OFF: 10 ms

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

49

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PLC

vrf; nTef

Typical value qkdwm tawGU&rsm;wJh wefbkd;ukd ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ PLC &JU output


awG[m isolated output awGjzpfMuwJhtwGuf output terminal rSmqufoG,frIrSm;,Gif;vkdY PLC
ysufoGm;cJh&if output interface ykdif;yJ ysufpD;wmjzpfygw,f/ CPU wkdY Memory wkdYukd rxdcdkuf
rysufpD;apygbl;/ Compact PLC rSmawmh output interface ysufoGm;cJh&if PLC topf
wpfvHk;eJY vJvS,fwyfqif&rSm jzpfNyD; program udkvnf; jyefa&;xnfh&ygw,f/ Modular PLC
rSmqkd&ifawmh Output module topf wpfck vJvS,fwyfqifvkdufHkeJY PLC [m e*kdtwkdif;

tvkyfjyefvkyfEkdifygw,f/
PLC Status Indicators and I/O Status Indicators
PLC wdkif;&JU rsufESmpmay:rSm PLC &JU tajctaeawGudk azmfjywJh Status Indicator
awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ LED indicator lamp awGeJY azmfjyavh&Sdygw,f/ Status Indicator 3rsdK;&Sdyg
w,f/
Input signal awG&JU tajctaeawGudk azmfjywJh LEDs awGudk Input Status LED vdkY
ac:ygw,f/ Input terminal ta&twGuf&Sdoavmuf Input Status LED ta&twGuf yg&Sd
ygw,f/ PLC &JU input terminal rSm signal &Sd&if Input LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
Output signal &JUtajctaeudk azmfjywJ LEDs awGudk Output Status LED vdkY ac:yg
w,f/ Output terminal ta&twGuf&Sdoavmuf Output Status LED ta&twGuf yg&Sd
ygw,f/ CPU u signal xkwfay;vdkuf&if output LED rD;vif;ygw,f/
NyD;awmh PLC Status LED vdkY ac:wJh power &&Sd&ifvif;wJh Power LED &,f? PLC udk
RUN vdkufrS vif;wJh RUN LED &,f? rSm;aeNyD Error vdkY azmfjywJh ERR LED &,f?
'DoHk;rsdK;?oHk;pm;?uawmh PLC wdkif;rSmyg&SdMuygw,f/
tcsdKU PLC awGrSm PLC xJudk program a&;xnfhwJhtcg rD;vif;wJh Communication
LED ygwwfygw,f/
tcsdKU PLC awGrSm PLC xJu battery &JU tajctaeudk azmfjywJh Battery LED vnf;
yg&SdwwfMuygw,f/
User program u ckdif;xm;wJhtwdkif; PLC [m vkyfaqmifaeNyDqdk&if RUN LED
rD;vif;aeygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

50

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Octal number

eJYa&wGufvdkY
Input u 24ck
jzpfygw,f/

Octal number

eJYa&wGufvdkY
Output u
16ck jzpfyg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

51

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (4) PLC ukd wyfqiftoHk;jyKyHktaMumif;/


PLC ukd wyfqiftoHk;jyKr,fqkd&if PLC ukd b,fvkd xkyfykd;xm;ovJ qkdwmudk azmfjy
wJh IP code number taMumif;ukd odzkdYvkdtyfygw,f/ IP udk Ingress Protection vkdYvnf; ac:
ygw,f/ International Protection vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ vHkNcHKatmifxkyfykd;rItqifhowfrSwf
csuf jzpfygw,f/ PLC awG[m vHkNcHKatmifxkyfykd;rItqifhowfrSwfcsuf IP 20 yJ &Sdygw,f/

'gaMumifh
(1) aea&mifjcnfeJY wkdufkdufxdawGU EkdifwJhae&mrSm PLC udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(2) tylcsdef 0C xufavsmheJwJh ae&meJY 55C xufykdrsm;wJh ae&mawGrSm PLC ukd
rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(3) a&aiGUpkdxkdif;q 10%RH xufavsmheJwJh ae&meJY 90%RH xufydkrsm;wJh ae&m
awGrSmvnf; PLC ukd rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(4) tylcsdef kwfw&uf ajymif;vJrIaMumifh aiGU&nfzGJUwwfwJh ae&mawGrSmvnf; PLC
udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(5) avmifpm;wwfwJh "gwfaiGU corrosive gas awG? qm;aiGUawG? rD;avmifvG,fwJh
"gwfaiGUawG? &SdwJhae&mrSmvnf; PLC udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
(6) qDwkdY? a&wkdY? "gwkaq;&nfwkdY? eJY jzef;yufcH&EdkifwJh ae&mrSmvnf; PLC ukd rwyf
qif&ygbl;/
(7) wkefcgrI? cg&rf;rI? jzpfay:EkdifwJh ae&mrSmvnf; PLC udk rwyfqif&ygbl;/
'gawGuawmU PLC ukd wyfqifzkdYtwGuf OEM &JU Manual awGxJu xkwfEIwfazmfjy
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ tck azmfjycJhwJh ae&mrsdK;rSm PLC ukd rwyfqifbJ? vGwfuif;wJh ae&m
rSm wyffqiftoHk;jyKr,f qkd&if PLC &JUoufwrf;&SnfMumpGm toHk;jyKEkdifrSm jzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU vHkNcHKatmif xkyfykd;rItqifh[m IP20 om &SdwJhtwGuf Panel 'grSr[kwf
Cabinet xJrSmom wyfqiftoHk;jyK&rSm jzpfygw,f/
tJ'Dvdk wyfqiftoHk;jyKwJh tcgrSm tylcsdefvGefuJrI'Pfudk rcH&atmif? av0if
avxGuf rQwrI &Sd&ygr,f/ 'DtwGuf tjcm;ypnf; awGeJY PLC &JUtMum;rSm&SdwJh tuGmta0;
udk 50mm (2 vufrcefY) cGmNyD; wyfqif&ygw,f/ 'Dae&mrSm OEM u owfrSwfwJh Mum;
tuGmta0;xuf ydkreD;ap&ygbl;/
tyl[m atmufbufuae tay:bufukd vGifhysHwufavh&SdvkdY tylxkwfvTwfwJh
ypnf;awG&JU tay:bufrSm PLC udk wyfqifjcif; rjyK&ygbl;/ rvTJom? ra&SmifomwJh
tajctaeaMumifh 55C xufausmfvGefwJh ae&mrSm PLC udk wyfqif&r,fqkd&if tat;ay;
ud&d,mukdoHk;NyD;? PLC ukd 55C txd ra&mufatmif pDrHxm;&ygr,f/ 'Dae&mrSmvnf;
OEM u owfrSwfwJh tjrifhqHk;tyl'D*&D Temperature xuf rausmfvGefap&ygbl;/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

52

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

xJrSm PLC udk wyfqifwJhtcg High Voltage Equipment awGeJY twlwla&mNyD;


Panel 1 ckxJrSm rwyfqif&ygbl;/
AkdYtm;jrifh0g,m Power cable awGeJY teJqHk; &SpfvufrcefY 200mm uGmjcm;atmif
PLC udk xm;&ygr,f/
Panel

Control panel xJrSm PLC udk

wwfqif&r,fhyHk jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

53

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC eJY

eH&HMum;
teJqHk;&dS&r,fh
tuGmta0;
jzpfygw,f/

Installation in Control Panel


When wiring input and output lines in ducts, keep a minimum space of 20 mm above
and below the PLC base unit for maintenance. To prevent excessive heat built-up, keep a
minimum space of 20 mm around the PLC unit for ventilation.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

54

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Advised Installation Practices


Shield the PLC
The most common method of shielding, is to install the PLC inside a grounded steel
enclosure.
Proper Cable Selection
Use twisted, shielded-pair cable for the power cable and field wiring. Properly terminate
the shields of all cables to a single-point high-quality ground.
Ground the PLC
The purpose of grounding the PLC is to protect the electronic equipment from electric
shock and harmful noise. To ground the PLC, connect a 12 to 16 gauge wire from the frame
ground terminal strip screw of the controller to a high quality earth ground (less then 2 ).
Since electrical currents always take the path of least resistance, the noise currents induced
by a magnetic field will flow through the PLC frame ground terminal screw to earth ground.
This essentially draws the noise away from the PLC modules.
The most effective method of grounding the PLC frame is to ground the PLC
independent of other equipment. Avoid grounding the PLC through a daisy chain of wire
connections with other equipment.
See figures below for good and bad examples:

'Dvdkqufyg

'DvdkrqufeJY

The length of the ground cable should not exceed 65 feet (20 m). For best results, the
resistance of the ground cable should be less than 2 .

Grounding (Earthing)
vQyfppfoHvkdufvdIif;rsm;aMumifh PLC udk taESmifht,Suf rjzpfapzkdYeJY ukdifwG,f toHk;
jyKwJhvludk vQyfppftE&m,frusa&mufatmif umuG,fzkdY twGuf Ground (Earth) aumif;
aumif; csxm;ay;&ygr,f/ Earth Resistance [m 100 (100 tkrf;) xuf rykdap&ygbl;/
Earth BudK;uvnf; 2mm (2 pwk&ef; rDvDrDwm) xufrao;i,fap&ygbl;/ Wire qufoG,f
wJhtcg wire lug (crimp connector) ukd toHk;jyK&ygr,f/ Terminal screw ukd wif;MuyfrI tight
vkyfwJhtcg wif;tm;u 0.5Nm to 0.6Nm twGif; &Sd&ygr,f/ Earth cswm&JU &nf&G,fcsufu
rawmfwq vQyfppf,kdpdrfhrI leakage jzpfcJh&if vludk tE&m,fuif;apzkdY jzpfygw,f/ Earth
terminal rSm PE (Protective Earth) vkdY a&;xm;avh &Sdygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

55

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

&JU Input eJY Output awGrSm yg&SdwJh COM (common) terminal udk b,fawmhrS
earth rcs&ygbl;/ Shielded cable &JUtpGef; 2zufpvHk;udk ground cscJY&if yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwdkif;
ground loop jzpfay:vmygw,f/
PLC

Ground loop

jzpfaeovm;qdkwmudk odcsif&if
'D
udk

'Dvdk jzKwfNyD;

eJY
'Dvdk wdkif;MunfhvdkY tkrf; ohm jycJh&if
ground loop &dSaeygw,f/

wdkif;yg

Procedure for identifying ground loops

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

56

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In normal low-noise environments such as closed-room control cabinets, it is possible to


operate the PLC without frame grounding. However, it is necessary to ground the PLC for
noisy environments, and is recommended for all installations regardless of electronic noise
levels.
For the frame ground, use a cable of at least 14 AWG (2 mm) in size. The ground should
be exclusive to the PLC. Sharing the ground connection with other devices can cause
problems due to ground loops and current feedback.
Safety
In any industrial design, safety must be a first priority in that the designer(s) must take
all reasonable steps to ensure a person or persons cannot be harmed in any way whilst the
system is being operated.
There are now European Machinery Safety Standards, which also include the control
systems of the machinery. These can be summarised as follows:
1. All emergency circuits such as emergency stop buttons and safety guard switches
must be hardwired and not depend on software, i.e. PLCs or electronic logic gates.
2. A designer(s) must carry out a risk assessment procedure. In addition the procedure
must be documented for possible inspection at any time.
3. Implement any changes to the design to limit any risk, as far as possible.
4. Ensure that where there are remaining risks, the use of safeguards must be
implemented into the design.

Personal Safety
twGuf odxm;oifhwJh vQyfppf"gwfvkdufwJhtcg jzpfay:vmwJh
cHpm;& rI eJY tE&m,fawGukd atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
vlUcEmukd,fxJ vQyfppfjzwfoef; pD;qif;oGm;wJhtcg cHpm;&wJhcHpm;rIudk tqifh (7)
qifh cGJjcm;jyxm;ygw,f/
(1) 0 to 1 mA cHpm;od&SdrI? r&Sdyg/ Oyrm 5VDC
(2) 1 to 5 mA "gwfvkdufaMumif;? od&SdcHpm;&ygw,f/ Oyrm? 24VDC
(3) 10 to 20 mA tE&m,f&SdwJh "gwfvkdufrIvkdY owfrSwfygw,f/ Oyrm? 120VAC
(4) 20 to 50 mA taMumqGJNyD; tE&m,fBuD;ygw,f/ Oyrm? 220VAC
(5) 50 to 100 mA tjyif;txef emusifNyD; arharsmoGm;Ekdifygw,f/
(6) 100 to 300 mA ESvHk;ckef &yfoGm;Ekdifygw,f/
(7) 300 mA xuf ykdrsm;&if? toufI&yfoGm;wm? rD;avmifuRrf;wm? jzpfEkdifygw,f/
Personal Safety

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

57

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

58

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC uk d vH k N cH K atmif xk y f y k d ; rI t qih f owf r S w f c suf /


vHkNcHKatmif xkyfykd;rI tqifhtwef;udk IP eJYvnf; owfrSwfygw,f/ NEMA eJYvnf;
owfrSwfygw,f/
IP qkdwmu IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) u owfrSwfwJh
standard jzpfygw,f/ IP udk Ingress Protection vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ International
Protection vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
IP 00 to IP 68

txd&Sdygw,f/

vkdY a&;om;xm;cJh&if a&SU*Pef;jzpfwJh 6 udk 1st characteristic vkdY ac:ygw,f/


aemuf*Pef;jzpfwJh 5 udk 2nd characteristic vkdY ac:ygw,f/
1st characteristic u xkyfykd;xm;wJh yHk;cGH? tdrfcGH? enclosure xJukd t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fwJh tqihftwef;ukd cGJjcm;owfrSwfazmfjyygw,f/
2nd characteristic u xkyfykd;xm;wJh enclosure xJukd a&awG? t&nfawG? r0ifa&muf
Ekdifatmif umuG,fwJh tqifhtwef;ukd cGJjcm;owfrSwfazmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
IP65

1st characteristic ud k 0 to 6

txd tqihftwef; (7) rsdK; cGJjcm;xm;ygw,f/

rSm ygwJh 0 &JUt"dyg,fu? umuG,frI vHk;0rjyKbl; vkdY jzpfygw,f/


rSm ygwJh 1 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 50mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP2_ rSm ygwJh 2 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 12mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP3_ rSm ygwJh 3 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 2.5mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP4_ rSm ygwJh 4 &JUt"dyg,fu? t&G,ftpm; 1.0mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG
r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP5_ rSm ygwJh 5 &JUt"dyg,fu? trIHY powder awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif umuG,f xm;
w,fvkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP6_ rSm ygwJh 6 &JUt"dyg,fu? trIeftrTm; dust awG vHk;0 r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,fxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP0_
IP1_

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

59

OD;pdk;wifh
2nd characteristic

PLC

ukd

0 to 8

vrf; nTef

txd tqifhtwef; ukd;rsdK;cGJjcm;xm;ygw,f/

rSm ygwJh 0 &JUt"dyg,fu? a&r0ifEkdifatmifumuG,frI? vHk;0rjyKbl; vkdY jzpfyg


w,f/
IP_1 rSm ygwJh 1 &JUt"dyg,fu? tay:uusqif;wJh a&pufa&aygufawG r0ifa&muf
Ekdifatmif? umuG,fwnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_2 rSm ygwJh 2 &JUt"dyg,fu? 15 apmif;wJhae&mu pifusvmwJh a&puf a&ayguf
awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif? umuG,w
f nfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_3 rSm ygwJh 3 &JUt"dyg,fu? tay:ujzef;wJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif?
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_4 rSm ygwJh 4 &JUt"dyg,fu tzufzufu jzef;yufwJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_5 rSm ygwJh 5 &JUt"dyg,fu? ykdufeJYxdk;yufwJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_6 rSm ygwJh 6 &JUt"dyg,fu? tiftm;oHk;NyD;xkd;oGif;wJha&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_7 rSm ygwJh 7 &JUt"dyg,fu? a&xJjyKwfusoGm;&ifvnf; a&awG r0ifa&muf
Ekdifatmif umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
IP_8 rSm ygwJh 8 &JUt"dyg,fu a&xJepfjrKyfae&ifvnf; a&awG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmif
umuG,f wnfaqmufxm;w,f vkdY jzpfygw,f/
Oyrm? IP00 vkdY a&;xm;&if? t&m0wKawG r0ifa&mufEkdifatmifvnf; umuG,f
rxm;bl;? a&r0ifEkdifatmifvnf; umuG,frxm;bl;? bmtumtuG,frS vkyfrxm;bl;? vkdY
qkdvkdygw,f/
Oyrm? IP20 vkdY a&;xm;&ift&G,ftpm; 12mm xufykdBuD;wJh t&m0wKypnf;awG r0if
a&mufEkdifatmifom umuG,fxm;NyD;? a&r0ifEkdifatmif umuG,frI vkyfrxm;bl;? vkdY
qkdvdkygw,f/
Oyrm? IP65 vkdY a&;xm;&if trIHtrTm;awGudk vHk;0r0ifEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;NyD;? ykdufeJY
xkd;yufwJha&udkvnf; r0ifEkdifatmif umuG,fxm;w,f? vkdY qkdvkdygw,f/
IP_0

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

60

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NEMA 1 to NEMA 13

PLC

vrf; nTef

txd&Sdygw,f/

u owfrSwfxm;wJh vHkNcHK
atmifxkyfykd;rI tqihftwef; owfrSwfcsufukd atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 1 qkdwmu trkd;tumatmuf Indoor rSmom wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;?
tay:u usvmwhJ trIHIUawG r0ifEkdifatmif? rawmfwqvufeJY xdrd? udkifrdvkdY r&atmif?
wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
NEMA 2 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD; tay:uusvmwJh trIHYawG?
tay:u usqif;vmwJh a&awGr0ifEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 3 qkdwmu trkd;tumrygbJ Outdoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD; rkd;a& r0if
Ekdifatmif? ESif;uswJh'Pfukd cHEkdifatmif? trIHU powder eJY trIeftrTm; dust awG r0if
Ekdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 3S qkdwmu NEMA 3 twkdif; umuG,fay;wJhtjyif a&cJwJh 'Pfudkyg cHEkdif
atmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 4 qkdwmu Indoor a&m? Outdoor rSmyg wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;? ykdufeJY yufwJh
a&udk cHEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 4X qkdwmu NEMA 4 twkdif; umuG,fay;wJhtjyif "gwkavmifpm;rI
corrosion 'Pfukd cHEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 6 qkdwmu Indoor a&m? Outdoor rSmyg wyfqiftoHk;jyKEdkifNyD;? trIHIUawGeJY
trIeftrTm;awG r0ifEkdifatmif? ykdufeJY a&xkd;yufwmudk cHEkdifatmif? a&xJjyKwfuswmudk
cHEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 6P qkdwmu NEMA 6 twkdif; umuG,frIay;wJhtjyif a&xJrSm MumMum
epfaeNyD;rS jyefvnfq,f,l toHk;jyKwJhtcg ysufpD;rIr&Sdatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 7 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;? aygufuGJapwwfwJh "gwfaiGU
awG? trIHU powder awG &SdwJhae&mrSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEdkifygw,f/
NEMA 9 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD; rD;avmifvG,fwJh trIeftrTm;
dust awG&SdwJh ae&mrSm wyfqifEkdifygw,f/
NEMA 12 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;NyKEkdifNyD;? powder awG? dust awG?
yufjzef;wJh a&awG? pD;qif;vmwJh qDawG? r0ifEkdifatmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA 13 qkdwmu Indoor rSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKEkdifNyD;? yufjzef;wJh qDawG r0ifEkdif
atmif? wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/
NEMA (National Electrical Manufactures Association)

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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PLC

EIdif;,SOfcsuf/
IP eJY azmfjyxm;wJh enclosure &JU ae&mrSm
enclosue udk tpm;xkd;oHk;pGJr,fqkd&if?

vrf; nTef

IP eJ Y NEMA

wJh

IP 20 &JUae&mrSm
IP 22 &JUae&mrSm
IP 55 &JUae&mrSm
IP 24 &JUae&mrSm
IP 66 &JUae&mrSm
IP 53 &JUae&mrSm
IP 67 &JUae&mrSm

NEMA standard

NEMA 1 udk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/


NEMA 2 udk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
NEMA 3, 3X, 3S, 3SX wdkYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
NEMA 3R, 3RX wkdYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
NEMA 4, 4X wdkYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
NEMA 5 udk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/
NEMA 6 eJYtpm;xdk;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/

NEMA Class No. eJY azmfjyxm;wJh enclosure


enclosure ukd tpm;xkd; oHk;pGJr,fqkd&if?

eJY owfrSwfazmfjyxm;wJh

&JU ae&mrSm

IP Class No.

eJY azmfjyxm;

NEMA 1 &JUae&mrSm IP 10 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/


NEMA 2 &JUae&mrSm IP 11 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 3 eJY 3S wkdY&JUae&mrSm IP54 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 3R &JUae&mrSm IP14 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 4 eJY 4X &JUae&mrSm IP56 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 5 &JUae&mrSm IP52 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 6 eJY 6P wkdY&JUae&mrSm IP67 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 13 &JUae&mrSm IP54 udk tpm;xdk;oHk;vkYd &ygw,f/
NEMA 12 eJU 12K &JUae&mrSm IP52 wkdYudk tpm;xkd;oHk;vkdY &ygw,f/

eJY tpm;xkd;oHk;pGJvkdY r&wJh NEMA Class awGuawmh NEMA 7, 8, 9, 10,


eJY 11 wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
IP class No. rSm "gwkavmifpm;rI corrosion 'Pfudk cHEkdifaMumif; azmfjyxm;wm
r&Sdygbl;/
NEMA 4 eJY 4P u corrosion 'Pfukd cHEkdifygw,f/
NEMA 6 eJY 6P u a&xJjyKwfuswJh 'Pfukd cHEkdifygw,f/
NEMA 6P u a&xJ tMumBuD; epfjrKyfwJh 'Pfukd cHEkdif&nf &Sdygw,f/
IP Class No.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

62

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC Specification

qdkwm tJ'D PLC eJUomoufqdkifwJh tcsuftvufawG? pkdufvuPm


awGukd azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ PLC &JUudk,fa&;rSwfwrf; jzpfygw,f/ ukd,fodcsifwJh PLC
&JU specification ukd Internet website rSm&SmazG&,lEkdifygw,f/ Google Search Engine rSm PLC
&JJU model number eJY specification qdkwJhpmvHk;ukd space jcm;NyD;? kdufxnfhNyD; &SmvkdY&ygw,f/
PLC ukd 0,f,lvkduf&if PLC eJY wygwnf; Specifications a&m User Manual ukdyg vufcH
&&SdrSm jzpfygw,f/ PLC wpfvHk;csif;pD&JUtaMumif;udk tao;pdyfodzdkYtwGuf OEM &JU Manual
xJrSm Specification udk &SmMunfh&rSmjzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU udk,fxnfay:rSm twdkcsKyfazmfjyxm;wmudk Name Plate vdkY ac:ygw,f/
tao;pdyfodzdkYtwGuf OEM &JU Manual awGjzpfMuwJh Hardware Manual, Operation Manual,
User Manual awGrSm &SmMunfh&rSmjzpfygw,f/
erlemtjzpf Delta Automation u xkwfvkyfwJh PLC awGxJu DVP-14SS-11R2 &JU
Name Plate udk yHkrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Specification

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

63

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'D PLC [m DVP series jzpfNyD; I/O 14 ck yg&SdaMumif;udk DVP14 eJY azmfjyxm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ DVP-14SS rSmygwJha&ShpmvHk; S uawmh PLC udk,fxnf[m yg;vswJhudk,fxnf
Slim type jzpfNyD; Standard Function MPU (Compact PLC) jzpfwmudk azmfjyygw,f/ SS udk
PLC &JU type tjzpf rSwf,l&ygr,f/
DVP-14SS rSmygwJh aemufpmvHk; S u MPU (Main Processing Unit) jzpfaMumif;udk
az:jyNyD;? DVP-14SM vdkY a&;xm;&if Input Point Expansion Unit jzpfygw,f/
11R qdkwmuawmh 24VDC udk power supply tjzpfay;&NyD; Relay output ygwJh PLC
jzpfaMumif; azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
11T vdkY a&;xm;&if 24VDC udk power supply tjzpfay;&NyD; Transistor output ygwJh
PLC jzpfygw,f/

DVP14SS11R2T225020 vdkY a&;xm;wmu Serial eHygwfjzpfygw,f/ 14SS11R u


PLC &JU Model No. jzpfNyD;? R &JU aemufrSm&dSwJh 2 u Version No. jzpfygw,f/ T u
xkwfvkyfwJhae&m (Taoyuan) udk azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/ T &JU aemufrSm&dSwJh 2 u xkwfvkyfwJh
ckESpf 2002 jzpfNyD; 25 u xkwfvkyfwJh week udk azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ (1 ESpfrSm 52 weeks
&Sdygw,f) / 020 u Batch No. jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

64

OD;pdk;wifh
DVP-14SS-11R2 &JU Specification udk

PLC

vrf; nTef

atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/

DVP-14SS-11R2 ukd 24VDC power supply ay;&ygw,f/ Clean and Regulated


24VDC ukd DVP-PS02 power supply unit u xkwfay; ygw,f/
Power supply &JU t&G,ftpm; capacity ukd a&G;cs,fwJh tcgrSm vuf&SdtoHk;jyKaewJh
power (watt) xuf tenf;qHk; 15% ykdNyD;wGuf&ygw,f/ aemifwkd;csJU wyfqifr,fh I/O Device

awGtwGufjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

65

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tJ'DrSmygwJh Program Capacity: 3792 Steps; Built-in EEPROM udk MunfhNyD;


"mwfcJxnfhp&m rvdkwJh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfaMumif; odEdkifygw,f/ 1 Step [m 1 Word (16
bits) eJY wlnDygw,f/

Input Point Electric Specifications

qdkwmu tJ'D

PLC

&JU

Input

ydkif; taMumif;udk

azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Input Type qdkwmu signal [m DC24V jzpfNyD; S/S terminal udk positive (+ ) jzpfjzpf?
negative () jzpfjzpf Sink or Source qufoG,fvdkY&wJh taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
Motion Level qdkwmu switching voltage udk ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ ON signal jzpfzdkY
twGuf 16V xuf rsm;&rSm jzpfNyD; OFF signal jzpfzdkYtwGuf 14.4V xuf enf;&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/
Responding Time About 10ms qdkwmu Input terminal rSm ON signal a&mufNyD;
10ms MumrS PLC u signal udk &&dSwm? todtrSwfjyKwm? jzpfygw,f/ Input interface &JU
signal transfer delay udk 10ms rSm xm;&dSw,fvdkY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ 10ms xuf
wdkawmif;wJh (jrefqefwJh) electrical noise voltage awGudk signal tjzpf todtrSwf rjyKcsifvdkY
aESmifhaES;atmif delay vkyfxm;ay;&wmjzpfygw,f/ tJ'D delay time udk Data Register
D1020 eJY D1021 xJrSm0ifNyD; jyifa&;vdkY &ygw,f/
Input Interface taMumif;udk 'Dpmtkyf&JU pmrsufESm (43) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Output Point Specifications qdkwmu output interface taMumif;udk azmfjyxm;wm


jzpfygw,f/ PLC &JU type [m DVP-14SS-11R jzpfcJh&if Relay output jzpfNyD; output terminal
1ck [m 1.5A (AC or DC Load) 0efudk xrf;aqmifEdkifygw,f/ tJ'gudk Load current vdkY
ac:ygw,f/ COM (common) terminal uawmh 5A Load udk xrf;aqmifEdkifygw,f/ AC
Load udk oHk;&if 250VAC xuf rausmfzdkYeJY DC Load udkoHk;&if 30VDC xuf rausmfvGefzdkY

owfrSwfazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

66

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC xJrSm xnfhoGif;wnfaqmufxm;wJh Output Relay &JU contact [m OFF (open)


uae ON (close) jzpfzdkY MumwJhtcsdefu 10ms jzpfaMumif;udk Responding Time About 10ms
vkdY azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ Contact travelling time = 10ms jzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU type [m DVP-14SS-11T jzpfcJh&if tJ'D PLC [m Transistor Output jzpfNyD;
output terminal 1ck [m 0.1A (100mA) DC Load udkom 0efxrf;Edkifygw,f/
30VDC xuf rydkwJh Load udkom toHk;jyKEdkifygw,f/ Output delay uawmh OFF to
ON = 15s eJY ON to OFF = 25s wdkY jzpfygw,f/
The PLC I/O Response Time:
The total response time of the PLC from the input signal to the output signal is
calculated as follows:
Response Time = input interface delay time + program scan time + output interface delay time

Input delay time

MumwJh pkpkaygif;tcsdefudk

&,f?

Program Scan time &,f? Output delay time


PLC &JU Total response time vdkY ac:ygw,f/

&,f oHk;ck aygif;

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

67

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (5) PLC Wiring jyKvkyfyHk/


ukd wyfqif toHk;jyKawmhr,f qkd&if Panel xJrSm
w,f/ wyfqifNyD;&if wiring jyKvkyf&ygw,f/
PLC Wiring udk
1/ Power Supply Wiring
2/ Input Wiring
3/ Output Wiring qkdNyD; 3 rsdK;cJGJjcm;a&;om;azmfjyygr,f/
PLC

Mount

vkyf wyfqif&yg

Power supply Wiring


AC power supply ay;&wJh PLC trsdK;tpm;
trsdK;tpm; qkdNyD; PLC 2rsdK; 2pm; &Sdygw,f/

eJY

DC power supply

ay;&wJh

PLC

AC power supply ay;&wJh PLC rSmvnf; voltage range 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/ AC100V eJY
AC220V wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/ tJ'D 2rsdK; xJu 1rsdK; ukd a&G;cs,fwJh cvkwf selector switch
wyfqifNyD; xkwfvkyfwJh PLC vnf; &Sdygw,f/ Autovoltage tjzpf 100VAC eJY 240VAC Mum;
BudKufwJh voltage ay;vkdY&wJh PLC rsdK;ukdvnf; xkwfvkyfygw,f/

trSm;t,Gif; rjzpfay:atmifvkdY PLC ay:rSma&;xm;wmukda&m? Manual xJrSm


a&;om;azmfjyxm;wmukdyg aoaocsmcsmzwfMunhfNyD;rS Power supply connection ukd quf
oG,foifhygw,f/
AC power supply ukd qufoG,fwJh tcgrSm isolation transformer udk oHk;NyD;? qufwm
taumif;qHk; jzpfygw,f/ Primary winding u oyfoyf? Secondary winding u oyfoyf?
separate winding yg&SdNyD; Faradays Shield ygwJh transformer rsdK;udk isolation transformer vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
Power Supply wiring vkyfwJhtcg two pole switch eJY fuse udk xnfhoGif;wyfqif
oifhygw,f/ Servicing jyKvkyfwJhtcgrSm personal safety &&SdzkdYjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

68

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

DC power supply ay;&wJh PLC trsm;pk[m 24VDC ukd power supply tjzpf
toHk;jyKMuygw,f/ Clean and Regulated 24VDC ukd oHk;wm taumif;qHk; jzpfygw,f/
Power supply &JU t&G,ftpm; capacity ukd a&G;cs,fwJh tcgrSm vuf&SdtoHk;jyKaewJh
power (watt) xuftenf;qHk; 15% ykdNyD;wGuf&ygw,f/ aemifwkd;csJU wyfqifr,fh I/O Device

awGtwGufjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

69

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Input Wiring
Warning
Emergency and interlocking circuits must be configured outside the PLC. If such a circuit
is configured inside the PLC, failure of the PLC may cause disorder of the control system,
damage, or accidents.
Caution
Use a power supply of the rated value. Use of a wrong power supply may cause fire
hazard.
Use an IEC127-approved fuse on the power line outside the PLC. This is required when
exporting equipment containing PLC to Europe.
Use an EU-approved circuit breaker. This is required when exporting equipment
containing PLC to Europe.
Do not connect to the ground directly from the PLC. Connect a protective ground to the
equipment containing PLC using an M4 or larger screw. This is required when exporting
equipment containing PLC to Europe.
If relays or transistors in the PLC output circuit fail, outputs may remain on or off. For
output signals which may cause heavy accidents, provide a monitor circuit outside of the
PLC.
PLC rSm Analog Input (AI) eJY Discrete Input (DI)
wiring taMumif;ukd qufvufazmfjyygr,f/

vkdY 2rsdK; &SdwJhtxJu

discrete input

Discrete input trsdK;tpm;rSmvnf; signal 2rsdK; uGJjym;ygao;w,f/ tJ'guawmh AC


input signal eJY DC input signal wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/ AC input signal ay;vkdY&wJh PLC &JU
signal range uvnf; 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/ wpfrsdK;u AC100V signal jzpfNyD; aemufwpfrsdK;u
AC200V signal jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

70

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

a&m? DC signal yg? BudKufwm ay;vkdY&wJh


atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
AC signal

vrf; nTef

Omron PLC C200H-IM211

ukd

12 to 24VAC/DC Input Terminal { Omron PLC C200H-IM211 }


C200H-IM211 rSm 12~24VAC/DC ukd Input signal tjzpf owfrSwf xm;ygw,f/
qkdvkdwmu C200H-IM211 [m Input Terminal ukd 12 to 24VDC signal jzpfjzpf? 'grSr[kwf
12 to 24VAC signal jzpfjzpf? input signal ay;vkdY&wJh PLC jzpfygw,f/
AC220V ukd power supply tjzpf ay;oGif;&wJh PLC awGrSm input signal u AC type
jzpfcJh&if 220VAC ukd signal voltage tjzpf ay;oGif;&ygw,f/ AC100V ukd power supply
tjzpf ay;oGif;&wJh PLC awGrSm input signal [m AC type jzpfcJh&if 100VAC ukd signal
voltage tjzpf toHk;jyKMuygw,f/

atmufrSm erlemtjzpf Omron PLC CQM1 ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

71

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Omron PLC CQM1-IA121

vrf; nTef

Omron PLC CQM1-IA221

Power Supply ukd AC voltage ay;oGif;&NyD; input signal u DC type jzpfcJh&if tJ'D
DC voltage udk PLC xJuae xkwfay;avh&Sdygw,f/ tay:yHkrSmaz:jyxm;ygw,f/ tJ'D DC
voltage source udk sensor power output vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

72

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

erlemtjzpf Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000 ukd atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

olU&JU

DC24V udk PLC &JU Power supply tjzpfay;oGif;&wJh PLC


input signal uvnf; DC24V yJ jzpfavh&Sdygw,f/

trsdK;tpm; jzpfcJh&if

erlemtjzpf Mitsubishi PLC FX1N-24MR-DS ukd atmufrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/


DC24V
Power
Supply

Input

DC24V
Output
for
sensors

Output

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

73

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

ay;oGif;&wJh PLC trsdK;tpm;awGrSm ay;oGif;&wJh input signal


range twkdif;twm[m trsdK;rsdK;&Sdygw,f/ OyrmtaeeJY azmfjy&&if Omron PLC jzpfwJh
CQM1-ID111 eJY ID112 wdkYrSm 12VDC ukd input signal tjzpf owfrSwfxm;ygw,f/
DC input signal

CQM1-ID211 rSm 12 to 24VDC ukd Input signal tjzpf owfrSwfxm;NyD;?


CQM1-ID212 rSm 24VDC ukd Input signal tjzpf owfrSwfxm;ygw,f/

atmufu ykHukd

Munfhyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

74

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Omron PLC CQM1-ID112

vkdY&wJh

vrf; nTef

Omron PLC CQM1-ID111

Input common ikwfukd S/S vdkYra&;yJ COM vkdY a&;xm;NyD; sink eJY source ajymif;quf
PLC awGvnf; &SdMuygw,f/ tay:ykHukdMunfhyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

75

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Omron PLC CQM1-ID211

vrf; nTef

Omron PLC CQM1-ID212

Omron PLC CQM1-ID211 eJY CQM1-ID212 wkdYuawmh sink or source


COM vkdY a&;xm;wJh PLC trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ tay:ykHukdMunfhyg/

qufvkdY&wJh

t0ifikwf Input terminal eJY bHkoufqkdifwJhikwf COM Mum;rSm 24 VDC udk sensor eJY
series cHNyD; qufay;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? Input terminal eJY COM terminal Mum;rSm Sensor
ukdom wkdufkdufqufay;&wJh PLC u wpfrsdK;? qkdNyD;awmh 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
PLC &JU jyifyuae 24VDC ay;p&mrvkdyJ input device udk t0ifikwf eJY COM ikwfMum;
wkdufkdufquf&wJh trsdK;tpm;ukd No-voltage contact input vkdY ac:ygw,f/
24VDC signal input type PLC

xm;&ygr,f/

awGrSm 'Dvkd 2rsdK; uGJjym;ao;w,fqkdwmukd rSwfom;

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

76

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

No-Voltage Contact Input trsdK;tpm;ukd

yHk(A) C200H-ID001 Source Input PLC

vrf; nTef

yHk(A) eJY yHk(B) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

yHk(B) C200H-ID002 Sink Input PLC

No-Voltage Contact Input Terminals of Omron PLC


type

atmufyHkrSm Internal 24VDC sensor supply ygwJh


PLC ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

COM

vdkY a&;xm;wJh

source input

yHk(A) C200H-ID001 Omron PLC


The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

77

OD;pdk;wifh
type

atmufyHkrSm Internal 24VDC


PLC ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

PLC
sensor supply

ygwJh

COM

vdkY a&;xm;wJh

vrf; nTef
sink input

yHk(B) C200H-ID002 Omron PLC


yHk(A) C200H-ID001 eJY yHk(B) C200H-ID002 rSm azmfjyxm;wmukd aoaocsmcsm
Munhfvkduf&if PLC xJrSm 24VDC udk series jzpfatmifqufxm;wmukd awGU&ygr,f/
COM vkdY a&;xm;NyD; sink input vm;? source input vm;?qkdwm od&zkdY vufawGU
wkdif;wm cGJjcm;EkdifwJh enf;vrf;udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
1/ udk,fhvufxJrSm&SdaewJh PLC &JU t0ifikwfawGrSm bm0g,mrQ qufoG,f rxm;
bJeJY PLC ukd owfrSwfxm;wJh power supply ukd ay;oGif;vkdufyg/
2/ PLC ukd power supply ay;oGif;vkduf&if PLC ay:rSm&SdwJh power rD; vif;vm
&ygr,f/ PLC u power vufcH&&Sdwmukd azmfjywJh LED rD;vHk; ukd Power,
PWR, Pow, pojzifh a&;xm;wwfygw,f/
3/ PLC &JU t0ifikwfeJY bHkikwf COM Mum;rSm voltmeter ukd qufoG,fNyD; 24VDC
&Sdaeovm;? r&Sdbl;vm;? qkdwmukd wkdif;Munhfyg/ DC voltmeter rSm 24V jycJh&if
yHk(A) eJY yHk(B) rSm azmfjyxm;ovkdrsdK; t0ifikwfeJY COM ikwfMum;rSm 24VDC ukd
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

78

OD;pdk;wifh
4/

5/
6/

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC xJu qufxm;NyD;om; jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D PLC ukd tjyifuae aemufxyf


24VDC ay;p&m rvkdawmhaMumif; xif&Sm;ygw,f/
tJ'D PLC &JU &Sd&SdorQ? t0ifikwfawGukd 24VDC &Sdr&Sd? wkdif;Munhfyg/ wdkif;Munhf
wkdif;vnf; DC voltmeter u 24V jyaeygvdrfhr,f/ 'gqkd&if 'D PLC [mtjyif
u 24VDC qufoG,fay;p&m rvkdwJh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ COM
ikwfu tzkd (+) positive vm;? tr (-) negative vm;? qkdwmukdyg DC
voltmeter u jyygvdrfhr,f/
txufygenf;twkdif; DC voltmeter eJY wkdif;MunhfwJhtcgrSm b,ft0ifikwf
rSmrS? bm voltage rS? r&Sdbl;qkd&if (voltage rjybl;qkd&if) 'D PLC [m jyify
uae 24VDC ukd qufoG,fay;&r,fh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/
PLC 1vHk;udk power supply ay;NyD; input terminal awGukd DC voltmeter eJY
wkdif;MunhfvkdY voltage awGU&SdcJh&if jyifyuae 24VDC ukd xyfrHqufoG,f
ay;p&mrvdkwJh PLC trsdK;tpm;jzpfNyD;? wkdif;MunhfvkdY voltage rawGUcJh&if
jyifyuae 24VDC ukd xyfrHqufoG,f ay;&r,fh trsdK;tpm; jzpfw,f

qkdwmukd tvG,fwul cGJjcm;odEdkifygw,f/

eJY tvkyfvkyfwJh PLC u tawGU&rsm;wJhtwGuf 'DtrsdK;tpm;eJY


qufpyfNyD; qufvufa&;om; azmfjyoGm;ygr,f/
24VDC signal

ukd input signal tjzpfqufoG,fwJh ae&mrSm PLC type tay:rlwnfNyD;


uGJjym;jcm;em;rI&Sdygw,f/
PLC twGuf input signal awG &,lay;wJhypnf;awGukd input devices vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Input devices tcsdKUukd azmfjy&&if? Push Button awG? Toggle switch awG? Limit switch awG?
Porximitty switch (sensor) awG? Motor overload relay contact awG? Photo sensor awG?
Liquid level switch, Pressure switch, Temperature switch, Flow switch, pwhJ ON/OFF
vkyfay;wJh device awG jzpfMuygw,f/
Input device awGeJY PLC udk qufoG,fzkdY t0ifikwf input terminal awG PLC ay:rSm
yg&SdMuygw,f/ tJ'D t0ifikwfawGukd input point vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Input channel
vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ IN0 (input zero), IN1 (input one) pojzifh 0 (zero) u pNyD;eHygwf
a&;xdk; wwfMuygw,f/ CH0 (channel zero), CH1 (channel one) pojzifhvnf; a&;avh
&Sdygw,f/ Input point awGeJY bHkoufqkdifwJh signal t0ifikwfukd COM0, COM1 pojzifh
a&;avh &Sdygw,f/
Input device awGeJY PLC ukd qufoG,fwJhtcg PLC &JU type ukd vkdufNyD; sink input
a&m? source input ukdyg? BudKufwm 1rsdK; a&G;qufvkdY&wJh PLC &Sdovkd? sink input om
qufvkdY&wJh PLC eJY source input om qufvkdY&wJh PLC qkdNyD; oHk;rsdK;oHk;pm; &SdMuygw,f/
24VDC

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

79

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

eJY Source input 2rsdK; xJu BudKufovkdajymif;vJ qufoG,fEdkifwJh PLC


trsdK;tpm;u toHk;jyKol User awGtwGuf tqifajyvkdY toHk;rsm;ygw,f/
PLC &JU Input terminal rSm S/S vkdY a&;xm;wJh t0ifikwf[m sink input 'grSr[kwf
source input tjzpf ajymif;vJqufoG,fvkdY&wJh PLC &JU input common ikwf jzpfygw,f/ Input
common ikwfukd S/S vdkYra&;yJ COM vkdY a&;xm;NyD; sink eJY source ajymif;qufvkdY&wJh PLC
awGvnf; &SdMuygw,f/
Sink input

yHkrSm

sink eJY

C1, C2, C3, C4 vkdY a&;xm;wmu COM1, COM2, COM3, COM4


source ajymif;qufvkdY&wJh COM awGjzpfMuygw,f/

wdkYjzpfNyD;

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

80

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

DC Source Input (AC Power Type)


When using the sensor power supply from the DC OUT terminals
built-in 24VDC eJYvnf; sensor udk supply ay;vdkY&ygw,f/

atmufrSmjyxm;ovdk

DC Source Input (AC Power Type)


When using an external power supply
sensor udk supply ay;vdkY&ygw,f/

atmufrSmjyxm;ovdk tjyifu

24VDC

eJYvnf;

DC Source Input (DC Power Type)

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

81

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

DC Sink Input (AC Power Type)


When using the sensor power supply from the DC OUT terminals

DC Sink Input (AC Power Type)


When using an external power supply

DC Sink Input (DC Power Type)

AC Input

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

82

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

OyrmtaeeJY azmfjy&&if Omron PLC jzpfwJh CPM1A-30CDR rSm input signal common
ikwfukd COM vkdY a&;xm;ygw,f/ Sink input tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ovkd source
input tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ygw,f/
Power supply
Input

Battery

Output

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wJUtwkdif;
sink input tjzpf qufoG,f
csif&if COM qkdwJh t0ifikwfukd
24VDC &JUtrikwf(-) Negative
eJY quf&ygw,f/
Source
input
tjzpf
qufoG,f csif&if COM ukd
24VDC &JUtzkdikwf (+) Positive
eJY quf&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

83

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Sink input

omqufvkdY&wJh

Siemens PLC S7-200 CPU224

vrf; nTef

ukd atmufrSm azmfjy

xm;ygw,f/

Output

Input

u xkwfvkyfwJh Micro PLC trsdK;tpm;xJu S7-200 CPU224 qkdwJh PLC


rSm bHkoufqkdifwJh t0ifikwf (common terminal) ukd 1M, 2M vkdY M eJY a&;om;azmfjy xm;yg
w,f/ *smrefvkd (Masse = reference potential) bHkoufqkdifaomqkdwJh t"dyg,feJY M vYkd a&;
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Siemens

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

84

OD;pdk;wifh
Source input

PLC

vrf; nTef

omqufvkdY&wJh COM trsdK;tpm; GE Fanuc PLC ukd atmufrSm


azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

S/S vkdYa&;xm;wmawGU&if Sink/Source qkdwJh t"dyg,fjzpfygw,f/ S/S


[m input signal common ikwfjzpfygw,f/ COM vkdY t0ifikwfrSma&;xm;&if sink input
tjzpfom qufvkdY&wJh COM vm;? source input tjzpfom qufvkdY&wJh COM vm;? sink
input eJY source input BudKufovkdqufvkdY&wJh COM vm;qkdwm aocsmodatmif avhvm

t0ifikwfrSm

MunfhI &ygr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

85

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

OyrmtaeeJY azmfjy&&if Delta PLC jzpfwJh DVP-32EH rSm input common ikwfukd S/S
vkdY a&;xm;wJhtwGuf sink input tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ovkd source input
tjzpf qufcsif&ifvnf; qufvkdY&ygw,f/
DVP-32EH [PLC]

atmufyHkrSm

COM vdkYa&;xm;NyD; sink input tjzpfqufjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

86

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Output Wiring

wkdif;rSm t0ifikwfeJY txGufikwfawGukd ae&mcGJjcm;NyD; wyfqifxkwfvkyfavh &Sdyg


w,f/ txGufikwfawGrSm 0g,mqufoG,fr,fqkd&if PLC &JU txGuftrsdK;tpm; Output
type ukd odatmift&if Munhf&ygr,f/
Discrete Output type PLC rSm Output trsdK;tpm; 3 rsdK;&Sdygw,f/ PLC 1vHk;rSm Output
type 1rsdK;om yg0ifavh &Sdygw,f/ PLC &JU Output type oHk;rsdK; uawmh
(1) Relay output
(2) Transistor output eJY (3) TRIAC Output wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
PLC

(1) Relay Output

trsdK;tpm;

Relay output PLC &JU txGufykdif;rSm Miniature Electromechanical Relay awG yg&Sd
ygw,f/ Relay &JU coil ukd 5V ay;&NyD; N.O contact 1ckomygwJh relay awGukd oHk;pGJavh
&Sdygw,f/ Relay coil udk PLC &JU internal circuit uae energize jzpfapygw,f/ Energize
jzpfzkdY? rjzpfzkdYukd CPU u qHk;jzwfcsufay;ygw,f/ Output contact eJY output terminal ukd
pmrsufESm 47 rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; qufoG,fay;xm;ygw,f/ Output point 1cktwGuf Relay
1vHk; oHk;xm;ygw,f/ Output point 8ck &Sd&if tJ'D PLC xJrSm Relay 8vHk; yg&Sd ygw,f/ N.O
contact rSm 0g,mqufp&m tp 2p &Sdygw,f/ 1p udk Output terminal eJY qufxm;NyD;? usef
1p ukd COM (common) terminal eJY qufxm;ygw,f/ tJ'D 2p pvHk; PLC xJrSm qufxm;

wmjzpfygw,f/
2ck? 3ck? yg&SdcJh&if COM0, COM1, COM2, ..... pojzifh a&;rSwfxm;
b,ftxGufikwfeJY oufqkdifw,f? COM1 u b,ftxGufikwfeJY
oufqkdifw,f? qkdwm wdwdusus od&zdkYtwGuf PLC &JU specifications okdYr[kwf Hardware
Manual odkYr[kwf User Manual awGrSm &SmazGMunfhI&ygw,f/
COM terminal
ygw,f/ COM0 u

yHkrSm FX1N-24MR udk erlemtjzpfazmfjyxm;ygw,f/


yHkrSm COM0 u Y0 eJY? COM1 u Y1 eJY? COM2 u Y2 eJY? om oufqkdifygw,f/
COM3 u Y3, Y4, Y5 eJYom oufqkdifygw,f/ COM4 u Y6, Y7, Y10, Y11 eJYom
oufqkdifygw,f/ Octal number udk toHk;jyKxm;vkdY Y8 eJY Y9 ryg&Sdwm jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

87

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

&JU coil eJY contact Mum;rSm vQyfppfqufoG,frI vHk;0r&Sdygbl;/ oHvkduf


tm;vrf;aMumif;eJYom qufoG,frI &Sdygw,f/ tJ'gudk electrically isolated, magnetically
coupled vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Output relay

&JUyHkukd erlemtjzpf azmfjyxm;ygw,f/


odoGm;apcsifvkdY jzpfygw,f/
Relay

Relay

tvkyfvkyfyHk oabmw&m; ukd

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

88

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

&JU coil xJpD;wJh current eJY contact xJpD;wJh current wkdY[m woD;
wjcm;pD jzpfMuygw,f/ Relay output &JU capacity ukd contact rating eJY azmfjyMuygw,f/
awGU&avh&SdwJh wefzkd; typical value u 250VAC, 2A okYdr[kwf 30VDC, 2A jzpfygw,f/
Contact open uae close jzpfzkdY MumwJhtcsdefumvukd OFF to ON transition delay
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Switching delay vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Relay output PLC rSm OFF to ON = 10 ms MumjrifhNyD;? ON to OFF = 10 ms Mumyg
w,f/ ON jzpfvkduf OFF jzpfvkduf tBudrfaygif; 300000 txd rysufrpD; toHk;jyK
Ekdifw,fvkdY specifications rSm a&;xm;ygw,f/ Relay Output [m voltage free contact
output jzpfvkdY output terminal udk AC eYJqufoG,f toHk;jyKvkdY&ovkd? DC eJYvnf;
qufoG,ftoHk;jyKvkdY &ygw,f/
Output relay

(2) Transistor Output trsd K ;tpm;

&JU txGufykdif;rSm Transistor udk output device tjzpf


xnhfoGif; wnfaqmuf xm;ygw,f/ Output transistor 2rsdK; 2pm; &Sdygw,f/ wpfrsdK;u PNP
transistor jzpfNyD; usefwpfrsdK;u NPN transistor jzpfygw,f/ Transistor output type PLC &JU
txGufikwfawGudk qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJh tcg DC wpfrsdK;wnf;udkom qufoG,fvkdY&ygw,f/
Transistor output PLC

eJY output transistor Mum;rSm optocoupler ukd Mum;cH xnhfoGif;


wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ tJ'gudk electrically isolated, optically coupled vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Internal circuit xJrSm pD;wJh current eJY Output transistor xJrSm pD;wJh current wkdY[m woD;
wjcm;pD jzpfMuygw,f/ Typical output capacity uawmh 30VDC, 200mA jzpfygw,f/
Switching delay uawmh OFF to ON = 20s jzpfNyD; ON to OFF = 50s jzpfMuygw,f/
Output ikwfuae current pD;xGuf&if source output vkYd ac:NyD; Output ikwfxJukd current
pD;0if&if sink output vdkY ac:ygw,f/ yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd NPN output jzpfcJh&if sink output vdkY
ac:ygw,f/ COM terminal uae current pD;xGufNyD; Output terminal xJukd pD;0ifygw,f/
Internal circuit

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

89

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd PNP Output jzpfcJh&if source output trsdK;tpm;vdkY ac:ygw,f/


Output terminal uae current pD;xGufNyD; COM xJukd pD;0ifygw,f/
PNP output qkd&if source output tjzpf COM ikwfukd tzkd (+) positive voltage eJY
qufay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ NPN output qkd&if sink output tjzpf COM ukd tr () negative
voltage eJY qufay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/
(3) TRIAC Output trsd K ;tpm;

&JU txGufykdif;rSm TRIAC ukd output device tjzpf xnfhoGif;


wnfaqmufxm; ygw,f/ Triac output udk SSR (Solid State Relay) output vkdYvnf;
ac:ygw,f/ yHkrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Triac output PLC

eJY Output Triac Mum;rSm optocoupler ukd Mum;cHtjzpf xnfhoGif;


wnfaqmufxm;ygw,f/ 'Dae&mrSmoHk;wJh optocoupler u LED eJY photodiac twGJ
jzpfygw,f/ DIAC ukd diode AC vkdY vnf;ac:ygw,f/ Optocoupler xJrSmyg&SdwJh LED
uxGufwJh tvif;a&mif[m photodiac ay:usa&mufNyD; photodiac udk ON jzpfapygw,f/
Internal circuit

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

90

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Photodiac ON jzpfwJhtcg olYxJukd AC jzwfpD;EkdifNyD; Output Triac &JU Gate current


pD;oGm;vdkY Output Triac [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Triac Output PLC &JU typical output capacity u 250VAC, 400mA jzpfygw,f/
Switching delay u OFF to ON = 1ms eJY ON to OFF = 10ms jzpfygw,f/ txGufikwfukd
qufoG,ftoHk;jyKwJhtcg AC eJYom qufoG,ftoHk;jyKEkdifygw,f/ DC eJYqufoG,ftoHk;jyK
cJh&if Output ON jzpfNyD;&if b,fawmhrS OFF jyefrjzpfawmhygbl;/ bmaMumifhvJqkdwmukd
Triac taMumif; em;vnfod&SdNyD;olwkdif; rSwfrdMuvdrfhr,fxifygw,f/
tckxd &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;cJhwmawG[m Compact PLC (Integrated PLC) ukd tajccH
NyD; a&;om;cJhwmjzpfygw,f/ Modular PLC rSmvnf; 'Dvkyfaqmifcsuf function awGtwkdif;yJ
aqmif&Gufygw,f/ Power supply module u oD;jcm;oyfoyf? Input module u oyfoyf?
Output module u oyfoyf? cGJjcm;wnfaqmufxm;wmyJ uGmjcm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

91

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Compact PLC

(1)
(2)

vrf; nTef

rSm yJjzpfjzpf? Modular PLC rSmyJjzpfjzpf PLC wiring eJY ywfoufNyD; jyefvnf
pkpnf; azmfjy&&if

Power supply ay;wJhtcg AC eJY DC qkdNyD; 2rsdK;


isolation transformer ukd oHk;oifhygw,f/
Input signal ay;wJhtcg Analog eJY Discrete

2pm; uGJjym;ygw,f/

AC

qkd&if

qkdNyD;

signal type

2rsdK;uGJjym;

eJY

qkdNyD;

ygw,f/
(3)

Discrete siganl

ay;oGif;wJh ae&mrSmvnf;

AC

DC

signal

2rsdK;2pm;

&Sdygw,f/
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
(12)

DC signal ay;oGif;wJh tcgrSmvnf; Sink eJY Source qkdNyD; uGJjym;ygw,f/


PLC &JU output rSmvnf; Analog eJY Discrete qkdNyD; output 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
Discrete output rSm (1) Relay Output (2) Transistor Output PNP or NPN eJY
(3) TRIAC output qkNd yD; Output type 3rsdK; uGJjym;ygw,f/
Relay Output udk AC okdYr[kwf DC eJY qufoG,ftoHk;jyK Ekdifygw,f/
Transistor Output rSm PNP Output u source output jzpfNyD; NPN Output u
sink output jzpfygw,f/
Transistor Output ukd DC eJYom qufoG,ftoHk;jyKEkdifygw,f/
Triac Output ukd AC eJYom qufoG,ftoHk;jyKEkdifygw,f/
Discrete Input rSma&m? Discrete Output rSmyg isolation yg&Sdygw,f/
Isolation &JU obm0owdaMumifh Power supply ukd rSm;qufrdvkdYyJjzpfjzpf? I/O
wiring ukd rSm;qufrdwmyJjzpfjzpf? PLC ysufpD;oGm;cJh&if CPU eJY Memory wkdYukd

vHk;0rxdckduf rysufpD;apEkdifygbl;/
(13) Compact PLC rSm txufyg (12) rSmvkd rSm;vkdY PLC ysufcJh&if? PLC topf
1vHk; vJvS,fwyfqifNyD;? Configuration vnf; jyefvkyf&ygw,f/ Program
vnf; jyefa&;xnfh&ygw,f/
(14) Modular PLC rSm txufyg (12) rSmvkd rSm;vkdY PLC ysufcJh&if Power Supply
Module aMumifhqkd&if? Power Supply Module topf 1ck vJvS,f wyfqifHkeJY
PLC ukd jyefoHk;vkdY &Ekdifygw,f/ Output wiring aMumifh PLC ysufwmjzpfcJh&if?
tJ'D Output module udk topf vJvS,fwyfqifHkeJY PLC ukd jyefoHk;vkdY
&ygw,f/ Configuration jyefvkyfzkdYrvkdygbl;/ Program jyefa&;zkdY rvdkygbl;/
Modular System u Module wpfckcsif;pDom ysufpD;avh &SdwJh twGuf
troubleshoot vkyf&wmvnf; vG,fulygw,f/ jyKjyif&wmvnf; jrefqefygw,f/
'gaMumifh Process Control awGrSm Modular PLC ukdom toHk;jyKMuygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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Control panel xJ r S m PLC ud k

vrf; nTef

wwfqifxm;yHk

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

93

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tcef; (6) Sink & Source taMumif;/


'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcgrSm?
1/ Sink/Source &JUt"dyg,f?
2/ Sink output sensor ukd Source input PLC eJY qufoG,f&r,f?
3/ Source output sensor ukd Sink input PLC eJY qufoG,f&r,f?
4/ b,f PLC udk? b,fvdk sensor rsdK;eJY? qufoG,f&r,f? qdkwmawGukd aumif;pGm
em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
Sink/Source qdkwm dc current direction udk ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ PLC eJY wGJzuftoHk;
jyK&wJh discrete sensor awGrSm contact output sensor eJY transistor output sensor qkdNyD; 2rsdK;
2pm; &Sdygw,f/ Transistor output sensor qkd&if dc current om jzwfoef;pD;qif;vkdY &ygw,f/
yHkrSm 3-wire type sensor 1ckeJY Lamp ukd qufoG,f
+24V
xm;ygw,f/ DC power supply ukd yHkxJrSmazmfjy xm;wJh
twkdif; +24V eJY 0V vkdY a&;xm;&if Battery &JU (+) terminal
+
Sensor OUT

Lamp

0V
+24V

Lamp
+
Sensor

0V

OUT

+24V line eJY qufxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ Battery &JU ()


terminal u 0V line eJY qufxm;ygw,f/
'DyHkrSmvkd qufoG,fxm;wJY sensor ukd positive
switching sensor vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Sensor activate jzpfwJhtcg
+24V line eJY OUT ukd qufoG,fay;vkdufvkdY positive
switching vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Sensor activate jzpfwJhtcg
Sensor &JU OUT terminal uae vQyfppf? pD;xGufvmNyD; Lamp

xJukd pD;0ifoGm;ygw,f/ Lamp uvnf; ON jzpfygw,f/


Sensor [m transistor output jzpfcJY&if PNP type transistor udk
toHk;jyKxm;ygw,f/
'DyHkrSmu negative switching yHkpH jzpfygw,f/
Sensor activate jzpf&if negative line 0V eJY OUT ukd
qufoG,f ay;vkdufvkdY negative switching vkdY ac:wm
jzpfygw,f/ Sensor = ON jzpf&if Lamp = ON jzpfygw,f/
Lamp = ON jzpfwJhtcg Lamp xJu current pD;xGuf vmNyD;
sensor &JU OUT terminal xJukd pD;0ifoGm;ygw,f/ Sensor [m
transistor output jzpfcJY&if NPN type transistor udk toHk;jyK
xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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OUT terminal uae

vQyfppf current pD;xGufvmwJh sensor rsdK;ukd source output sensor


vkdY ac:ygw,f/
OUT terminal xJ u k d current pD ; 0if o G m ;wJ h sensor rsd K ;uk d sink output sensor vk d Y
ac:ygw,f/
Sensor activate jzpf w J Y tcsd e f r S m output transistor u ON jzpf c J Y & if ol Y u d k N.O vd k Y
ac:ygw,f/
Sensor activate jzpf w J Y tcsd e f r S m output transistor u OFF jzpf c J Y & if ol Y u d k N.C vd k Y
owfrSwfygw,f/

PLC eJY wGJzuftoHk;jyK&wJh discrete sensor awG[m transistor output trsdK;tpm;


jzpfcJh&if open collector output trsdK;tpm; jzpfMuygw,f/ PNP transistor ukd output
transistor tjzpfoHk;cJh&ifvnf; tJ'D transistor &JU collector ukd output terminal eJY qufoG,f

xm;ygw,f/

tay:yHkrSm PNP transistor ukd


sensor ukd azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
emitter to collector jzpfygw,f/

output transistor tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;wJh source output


PNP transistor xJ pD;qif;wJh dc current direction [m

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

95

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NPN transistor ukd output transistor tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;&ifvnf;


collector ukd output terminal eJY qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/

tJ'D

vrf; nTef

transistor

&JU

tay:yHkrSm NPN transistor ukd output transistor tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;wJh sink output
sensor ukd azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ NPN transistor xJ pD;qif;wJh dc current direction [m
collector to emitter jzpfygw,f/
PLC eJY qufoG,fwJh Sensor wpfck[m PNP vm;? NPN vm;? qdkwmudk cGJjcm;odzdkY
vdktyfygw,f/ 'grSom b,f PLC udk? b,fvdk sensor rsdK;eJY? qufoG,f&r,f qdkwmudk
odEdkifygw,f/
Contact output sensor qkd&if dc current a&m ac current yg jzwfoef;pD;qif;vkdY
&ygw,f/ Contact output ukd voltage free contact (potential free contact) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Oyrmjy&&if Electromagnetic Relay &JU output contact jzpfygw,f/
Contact qkd&if current direction 2rsdK;pvHk; jzwfoef;pD;qif;vkdY &ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
contact output trsdK;tpm;ukd sink jzpfap? source jzpfap? BudKufovkd qufoG,fvkdY &ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

96

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Oyrm? Limit switch [m contact output trsdK;tpm; sensor wpfckjzpfygw,f/


Momentary contact awGrSm contact form oHk;rsdK;&Sdygw,f/
Form A, Form B eJY Form C wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
N.O udk Form A vdkY ac:ygw,f/
N.C udk Form B vdkY ac:ygw,f/
N.O a&m? N.C yg? ESpfrsdK;pvHk;ygwmukd Form C vdkY ac:ygw,f/

yHkrSm

limit switch ukd sink output tjzpf


source input PLC eJY qufoG,f&ygw,f/

qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/

Sink output sensor ukd

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

97

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yHkrSm limit switch ukd source output tjzpfqufoG,fxm;ygw,f/ Source output


sensor udk sink input PLC eJY qufoG,f&ygw,f/
Sink / Source eJY N.O / N.C udk qufpyfNyD;? aumif;aumif; em;vnfoabmaygufzdkY
vdktyfygw,f/ 'grSom PLC program udk zwfwJYtcg rSefrSefuefuef bmomjyefEdkifrSm jzpfyg
w,f/
Sensor &JU specification rSm wcgw&H sink / source eJY azmfjyNyD;? rsm;aomtm;jzifh
PNP/NPN tjzpfeJYom azmfjyavh&Sdygw,f/
PLC eJY qufoG,fzkdY sensor ukd a&G;cs,fwJhtcgrSmyJjzpfjzpf? vuf&Sd sensor eJY PLC ukd
qufoG,fwJhtcgrSmyJjzpfjzpf? sensor &JU output type ukd odatmif t&ifvkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
Sensor type ukd odNyD;awmhrS sink yHkpHeJY qufoG,f&rSmvm;? source yHkpHeJY qufoG,f&rSmvm;
qkdwmukd a&G;cs,f pDpOfEkdifrSmjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

98

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yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wJh proximity sensor [m


transistor ukd output tjzpfoHk;xm; ygw,f/

source output type

vrf; nTef

jzpfwJhtwGuf

PNP

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wJh proximity sensor [m sink output


transistor ukd output tjzpfoHk;xm;wJh trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/

type

jzpfwJhtwGuf

NPN

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

99

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PLC &JU input rSmyg&SdwJh COM (common) terminal ukd sensor power supply &JU
negative (-ve) eJY wkdufkdufqufoG,fxm;&if sink input PLC jzpfNyD; COM terminal ukd sensor
twGufay;wJh power supply &JU positive (+ve) eJY wkdufkduf qufoG,fxm;&if source input
PLC jzpfw,fvkdY rSwfom;xm;Ekdifygw,f/
Sink input qkdwm input terminal xJukd DC current pD;0ifwmukd ac:wmjzpfNyD;? source
input qkdwm input terminal xJu DC current pD;xGufwmukd ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
Sink output qkdwm output terminal xJukd DC current pD;0ifwmukd
source output qkdwm output terminal xJu DC current pD;xGufwmukd ac:wm

yHkrSm Flame sensor A, B, C 3ck pvHk;ukd


PLC yHkpH jzpfygw,f/

PLC

ac:wmjzpfNyD;?
jzpfygw,f/

eJY qufoG,fxm;wJY yHkpH[m

sink input

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

100

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vrf; nTef

Inductive Proximity Sensors

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

101

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PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (7) Fail-Safe taMumif;/


'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcgrSm?
1/ Fail-safe &JU t"dyg,fu b,fvkd&Sdw,f?
2/ Alarm system udk fail-safe jzpfatmif b,fvkd design jyKvkyf&r,f?
3/ Control system udk fail-safe condition &&Sdatmif b,fvkd pOf;pm;aqmif&Guf&r,f?
4/ N.O/N.C udk Fail-safe jzpfatmif b,fvkd pOf;pm;a&G;cs,f&r,f? qdkwmawGukd
aumif;pGm em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
rSma&m? process control rSmyg? control system csdKU,Gif;rIqdkwm
jzpfwwfygw,f/ tJ'DvkdcsKdU,Gif;wmukd system fail jzpfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/
Fail-safe qkdwmu csdKU,Gif;rIwpHkw&mjzpfay:cJh&if vla&m? pufyg xdckdufepfemqHk;HI;rI
tenf;qHk;jzpfatmif vkyfaqmifay;wmukd ac:ygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd fail-safe jzpfatmif tum
tuG,fay;wJh tpDtrHukd fail-safe design vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
csdKU,Gif;rI failure jzpfEkdifwJh tajctaeoHk;rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
yxrwpfrsdK;u power supply failure jzpfygw,f/ Power fail vkdY ac:ygw,f/ 'kwd,
wpfrsdK;u signal failure jzpfygw,f/ Signal fail vkdY ac:ygw,f/ wwd, wpfrsdK;u
xdef;ausmif;wJhpepfcsdKU,Gif;rI control system failure jzpfygw,f/ System fail vkdY ac:ygw,f/
pufHk? tvkyfHkawGrSm 'Dvdk csdKU,Gif;rI failure awG jzpfay:vmcJh&if vla&m? pufyg?
rxdckdufrysufpD;ap&atmif pDrHaqmif&GufrIawGukd BudKwifpOf;pm;? pDpOfvkyfaqmif xm;Mu&
ygw,f/ vHk;0 rxdckdufatmif? rysufpD;atmif? rvkyfEkdifcJh&ifawmifrS? xdckdufepfemqHk;IH;rI?
tenf;qHk;jzpfatmif pDrHxm;Mu&ygw,f/
Machine control

Fail safe design taMumif ; uk d process control Oyrmwpf c k e J Y

&Sif;vif;azmfjyay;ygr,f/

a&uae a&aEG;aiGUjzpfatmif jyKvkyfay;wJh steam generating plant (boiler) wpfckrSm


boiler tkd; steam drum xJukd a&jznfhoGif;wJh ykdufvkdif;rSm a&oGif;Am; control valve wyfqif
xm;ygw,f/ tJ'D valve udk boiler feed water control valve vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Boiler water
level udk automatic level controller eJY control vkyfxm;ygw,f/
owfrSwfxm;wJh water level rSm a&tNrJ&Sdaeatmif? vkdtyfwJh setpoint xuf avsmhenf;
oGm;&if? a&ukdykdjznfhay;NyD;? vkdtyfwJh setpoint xufykdrsm;vm&if a&jznfhoGif;wmukd avQmhay;
&ygw,f/ Control valve ukd enf;enf;zGifh? rsm;rsm;zGifhvkdY? ckdif;wJh signal ukd controller u
xkwfvTwf ay;ygw,f/ Control valve wkdif;rSm signal r&&if (signal fail jzpfcJh&if) open jzpf
oGm;wJh valve trsdK;tpm; eJY? signal r&&if close jzpfoGm;wJh valve trsdK;tpm;? qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK;
ESpfpm; &Sdygw,f/
Signal r&&if yGifhaewJh valve trsdK;tpm;ukd F.O (Failure Open) trsdK;tpm;vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ Signal r&Sd&if valve [myGifhaeNyD;? signal ay;rS valve ydwfoGm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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Signal r&&if ydwfaewJh valve trsdK;tpm;ukd F.C (Failure Closed) vkdY ac:NyD;? signal
r&Sd&if valve [m ydwfaeygw,f/ Signal ay;rS valve yGifhoGm;ygw,f/
Fail-safe jzpfatmifvkdY boiler feed water control valve ukd F.O (Failure Open) trsdK;
tpm; valve ukdyJ oHk;Mu&ygw,f/ 'grSom control signal jywfawmufoGm;cJh&if (control valve
qDukd signal ay;ykdYwJh line csdKU,Gif;oGm;cJh&if) valve [m fully open jzpfoGm;rSmjzpfygw,f/
Boiler rSm a&awGjynhfNyD; vQHusoGm;&ifvnf; steam qufrxkwfEkdifawmhwJhtwGuf
xdckdufepfemrI jzpfrSmygyJ/ 'gayr,fh boiler rSm a&vHk;0cef;ajcmufoGm;vkdY jzpfay:vmr,fh
xdckdufepfem qHk;IH;rIu ykdNyD;awmh BuD;rm;ygw,f/ Boiler a&cef;vkdY boiler tube awG
uGJcJhMu&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh fail-safe jzpfzkdY boiler feed water control valve ukd signal-to-close
(Failure Open) F.O trsdK;tpm;ukd a&G;cs,fwyfqif toHk;jyKMu&ygw,f/
Industrial alarm system awGtm;vHk;ukd fail-safe jzpfatmif pDrHxm;Muygw,f/ Power
supply rjywfawmuf&atmifvkdY UPS (Un-interruptable Power Supply) ukd toHk;jyKMu&yg
w,f/ tE&m,fBuD;rm;wJh pufHkawGrSmqkd&if UPS ESpfvHk;ukd hot stand-by pepfeJY wyfqif
xm;Muygw,f/ tJ'gukd redundancy vkdY ac:ygw,f/ UPS ESpfxyfuGrf; wyfqif xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ Hk;oHk; computer eJY tdrfoHk; computer awGrSm wyfqif toHk;jyKavh&SdwJh UPS
pepfu Off-line UPS pepfjzpfygw,f/ Computer ukd ay;ykdYxm;wJh vQyfppf"gwftm; jywf
awmuf oGm;rS UPS u tpm;0ifa&mufNyD; power ay;wJh tvkyfukd vkyfwm jzpfygw,f/
pufHkawGrSm oHk;wJh UPS u Online UPS pepfjzpfygw,f/ UPS uae xkwfay;wJh power
supply udk control system rSm tNrJwrf;oHk;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ vQyfppf"gwftm; jywfawmuf
oGm;rS UPS u power ukd ,loHk;wmr[kwfygbl;/ UPS rSmyg&SdwJh battery uae xkwfvkyfwJh
AC power udk tNrJoHk;aewm jzpfygw,f/ vQyfppf"gwftm;&&SdaewJhtcgrSm UPS &JU battery
ukd charge tNrJvkyfaeygw,f/ tJ'D battery u xkwfvkyfay;wJh AC power supply ukd control
system, eJY alarm system awGu tNrJ&,loHk;pGJaeMuwm jzpfygw,f/
Fail-safe alarm system wckukd Oyrmtjzpfjy&&if?
tylcsdefvGefuJvm&if toHjrnfNyD;? tcsufjyrD; vif;wJh Temperature High Alarm wckukd

pOf;pm;MunhfMu&atmif/

owfrSwfay;xm;wJhtylcsdefxuf ausmfvGefNyDjzpfaMumif;ukd temperature sensor for high


(TSH) u apmifhMunhfNyD; alarm system udk owif;ykdY&rSm jzpfygw,f/
Sensor uae alarm system ukd vQyfppftcsufjy signal eJY owif;ykdYwJhtcgrSm
enf;ESpfenf; eJY owif;ykdYvkdY&ygw,f/ wpfenf;u vQyfppfpD;aMumif;jzpfay:apwJh closed
contact (ON signal) eJY owif;ykdYwmjzpfygw,f/ aemufwpfenf;uawmh vQyfppfpD;aMumif;
jywfawmufapwJh open contact (OFF signal) eJY owif;ydkYwmjzpfygw,f/
Temperature Switch for High (TSH) u xkwfvTwfay;wJh alarm signal ukd &&SdwJh tcgrSm
alarm system u toHjrnfNyD; oufqkdif&m tcsufjyrD;jzpfwJh TSH qkdwJh annunciator lamp
rD;vif;&rSm jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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Industrial alarm system awGukd fail-safe jzpfatmif design vkyfxm;MuwmjzpfvkdY OFF


signal (open contact) &rSom alarm jrnfygw,f/ Alarm sensor eJY alarm system udk quf
oG,fxm;wJh 0g,m signal line jywfawmuf oGm;cJh&ifvnf; oufqkdif&m alarm jrnfygw,f/
'DtcgrSm jrnf&r,fhtaMumif; r&SdygbJeJY alarm jrnfwmukd operator u odwJhtcg ppfaq;

MunfhI vkdufawmh 0g,mjywfwmudk csufcsif; odEkdifygw,f/


tu,fom industrial alarm system ukd ON signal &rS alarm jrnfatmif design
vkyfxm;r,fqkd&if alarm sensor uae ON signal (closed contact) ay;rS oufqkdif&m alarm
jrnfNyD; rD;vif;rSm jzpfygw,f/ wu,fvkdY alarm sensor eJY alarm system ukd qufoG,f
xm;wJh 0g,m signal line jywfawmufoGm;cJh&if alarm jrnfrSm r[kwfygbl;/ Alarm system u
ON signal &rS alarm jrnfatmif wnfaqmufxm;wmaMumifh jzpfygw,f/
'Dvkd 0g,mjywfvkdY jywfrSef;rod&bJ &SdaewJhtcsdeftcgrSm alarm sensor u ON signal
(closed contact) eJY alarm jrnfzdkYtwGuf signal ykdYvTwfcJh&if 0g,mjywfaeNyD; jzpfwmaMumifh
alarm system qDukd tJ'D signal a&muf&SdvmrSm r[kwfygbl;/ oufqkdif&m alarm vnf;
jrnfrSm r[kwfygbl;/ Alarm jrnf&r,fh xl;jcm;wJhtajctaerSm alarm rjrnfwm[m
tE&m,f BuD;ygw,f/ oifhawmfwJhta&;,laqmif&GufrIukd tcsdefrD rjyKvkyfEdkifMuvkdY jzpfyg
w,f/
'gaMumifhrkdY industrial alarm system awGudk wnfaqmuf toHk;jyKMuwJhtcgrSm fail-safe
jzpfatmifvkdY open-to-alarm jzpfatmif design vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dvdk aqmif&Guf
wmukd open disturbance vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Alarm rjrnf&r,fh omreftajctae normal condition rSm sensor eJY alarm system ukd
qufoG,fwJh signal line tm;vHk;[m closed circuit jzpfae&ygr,f/ vQyfppfpD;ae&ygr,f/
'grSom signal line open jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; alarm jrnfr,f/ xl;jcm;wJhtajctaerSm alarm
signal &cJh&ifvnf; alarm jrnfrSm jzpfygw,f/
Control system okdYr[kwf alarm system wpfckudk fail-safe jzpfatmif pDrHaqmif&Gufr,f
qkd&if system engineer wkdY? process engineer wkdYeJY yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&ygw,f/ Fail jzpf&if
ab;uif;wJhtajctae fail-safe condition eJY control device awGukd ab;uif;atmif xm;&Sd
&r,fh taetxm; fail-safe position ukd olwkdYxHu twnfjyKcsuf &,l&ygw,f/
Fail-safe jzpf w J h condition eJ Y position uk d OD ; pG m twnf j yKNyD ; rS o m control system
okdYr[kwf alarm system ukd design vkyf wnfaqmuf&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

104

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PLC program a&;wJh tcgrSmvnf; PLC &JU input device awGjzpfwJh sensor awGrSm N.O
output xkwfay;wJh sensor &,f? N.C output xkwfay;wJh sensor &,f? qkdNyD; ESpfrsdK;ESpfpm;? &Sdyg
w,f/ tJ'D sensor &JU N.O/N.C udk fail-safe jzpfatmifpOf;pm;NyD;? a&G;cs,f toHk;jyK&ygw,f/
N.O ukdoHk;rvm;? N.C ukdoHk;rvm;qkdwmukd t&ifOD;qHk;? pOf;pm;a&G;cs,fNyD;rS PLC program
ukd a&;&ygw,f/ N.O udk Form A contact, N.C udk Form B contact vdkYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
OyrmtaeeJY ajym&&if? three phase motor control ukd PLC eJY aqmif&Gufapr,f qkd&if?
Start P.B ukd (N.O) oHk;NyD;? Stop P.B ukd (N.C) oHk;&ygw,f/ Motor ukd &yfcsifwJh tcgrSm
&yfvdkYr&wmu ab;tE&m,fykdBuD;w,fvkdY owfrSwfMuygw,f/ Motor ukd vnfcsifwJh tcg
rSm vnfvkdYr&wmeJY EIdif;pm&if motor ukd &yfcsifwJhtcgrSm &yfvdkYr&wmu ykdNyD;xdckduf epfem

qHk;IH;rIBuD;rm;w,fvkdY owfrSwfygw,f/
PLC &JU input point wpfck ukd Start P.B (N.O) eJY qufoG,fNyD;? Input point aemuf wck
rSm Stop P.B (N.C) ukd qufoG,f&ygw,f/ Motor vnfywfaewJh tcsdefrSm taMumif;
wpHkw&m aMumifh Stop P.B uvmwJh wire jywfawmufoGm;cJh&if Motor &yfoGm;ygvdrhfr,f/
tJ'Dvdk jzpfrS fail-safe jzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd fail-safe jzpfatmif Stop P.B ukd N.C tjzpf
a&G;cs,f toHk;jyKcJhwm jzpfygw,f/
Fail-safe start/stop PLC program ukd 'Dpmtkyf&JU pmrsufESm (175) rSm Munhfyg/
N.O eJY N.C ukd Normally Open eJY Normally Closed vkdY ac:Muygw,f/ Oyrm?
electromagnetic relay wpfvHk;rSm N.O contact eJY N.C contact awG yg&SdMuygw,f/
Relay &JU N.O contact u relay ukd power ray;xm;&if open jzpfaewJh contact jzpfyg
w,f/
Relay &JU N.C contact uvnf; Relay ukd power ay;rxm;&if closed jzpfaewJh contact
jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh t"dyg,fay:vGifatmif 'DvkdrSwfom;oifhygw,f/
N.O ukd No-energy Open, N.C ukd No-energy Closed vdkY rSwf&if ydkaumif;ygw,f/
N.O ukd Non-activate Open, N.C ukd Non-activate Closed vkdY rSwfxm;&ifvnf;
t"dyg,fay:vGifygw,f/
Normal qkdwJhpum;vHk;u t"dyg,f a&maxG;apEkdifygw,f/ ac:aeusjzpfvkdY N.O ukd
Normally Open, N.C udk Normally Closed vkdY ac:wmuawmh ac:&ajym&rSmjzpfayr,fh
b,fvkdtcgrSm Open jzpfwmvJ? b,fvkdtcgrSm Close jzpfwmvJ? qkdwmukd tvG,fwul
od&Sd rSwfrdzkdYtwGuf N.O ukd r&Sd&if Open, N.C ukd r&Sd&if Closed vkdY em;vnf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

105

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Oyrm? level alarm system wpfck rSm normal level qkdwmu yHkrSef&Sdae&r,fY level
jzpfygw,f/ High level qkdwmu tJ'D level ukd a&mufvm&if High Alarm jrnf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ Low level qkdwmu tJ'D level txd usqif;oGm;&if Low Alarm jrnf&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ 'D level alarm system ukd design vkyfwJhtcg fail-safe jzpfatmif yxrpOf;pm;NyD;
level sensor awGukd N.O oHk;&rSmvm;? N.C oHk;&rSmvm;? qkdwmukd OD;pGm qHk;jzwf&ygw,f/
Fail-safe jzpfatmif tck pOf;pm;Munhf&atmif/ Low level sensor udk N.O oHk;&rvm;?
N.C oHk;&rvm;? b,fvkdqHk;jzwfrvJ/
Fail-safe jzpfatmif wnfaqmufr,fqkd&if alarm system [m open-to-alarm type
jzpf&ygr,f/ 'Dawmh level low jzpfcJh&if level sensor u OFF signal (open contact)
xkwfay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ Level low qkdwmu avsmhenf;wm? &Sdoifhoavmufr&Sdwm ukd
ajymwm jzpfvkdYrkdY? r&Sd&if open jzpfwJh N.O ukd a&G;cs,f&rSmjzpfygw,f/
Normal level qkdwmu low level xufrsm;ygw,f? high level xufeJygw,f/
High level sensor ukd N.O oHk;&rvm;? N.C oHk;&rvm;qkdwm tck pOf;pm;Munhf&atmif/
Level high jzpf&if high alarm jrnfcsifwm jzpfygw,f/ Fail-safe jzpfatmifvdkY tckoHk;aewJh
alarm system u open-to-alarm jzpf&ygr,f/ 'gaMumifh level high jzpf&if high level sensor u
OFF signal (open contact) xkwfay;&rSmjzpfygw,f/
High level qkdwm normal level xuf rsm;wm jzpfNyD;? high level sensor txd level u
a&muf&Sdvmwm jzpfwJhtwGuf level &SdwmjzpfvkdY level high jzpf&if open jzpf&ygr,f/ Level
&Sd&if open qkdawmh? Level r&Sd&if close jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh high level sensor twGuf
N.C ukd a&G;cs,f&rSm jzpfygw,f/
Normal level condition rSm level [m low vnf;rjzpf? high vnf;rjzpfwJhtwGuf low
level sensor u ON signal (closed contact) xkwfay;aeygw,f/ High level sensor uvnf;
ON signal (closed contact) xkwfay;aeygw,f/ Alarm system uvnf; OFF signal &rS
jrnf&wJh trsdK;tpm;jzpfaevkdY normal level rSm bm alarm rS rjrnfygbl;/
PLC &J U input

rSm qufoG,f&wJh discrete sensor awGukd a&G;cs,fwyfqifwJhtcg


N.O/N.C ud k Fail-safe eJ Y pOf ; pm;&ygw,f /
PNP/NPN uk d a wmh PLC &J U input [m sink vm;? source vm;? qk d w meJ Y pOf ; pm; a&G ; cs,f
&ygw,f/
Sink/Source taMumif;ukd

pmrsufESm (94) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

106

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Sensing Distance of Inductive Proximity Sensor

awG&JU odEdkifpGrf; sensitivity [m target material udkvdkufNyD; tuGmta0; jcm;em;


ygw,f/ txufrSm erlemtjzpf Inductive Proximity Sensor &JU odEdkifpGrf;jcm;em;rIudk az:jy
xm;ygw,f/
Sensor

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

107

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (8) PLC rSm oHk;wJh Number System taMumif;/


Memory xJu a&;rSwfp&mae&m tao;qHk;ae&m 1ckukd cell vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Bit
(Binary digit) vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ tJ'D rSwfp&m ae&m 1ae&m rSm a&;rSwfxm;wm &Sd&if?
1 (one) vkdY ac:NyD;? tJ'Dae&mrSm bmrQa&;rSwfrxm;&if 0 (zero) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
1 [m a&;rSwfxm;wJh data &Sdw,f? vkdY qkdvkdwm jzpfygw,f/
0 [m a&;rSwfxm;wmr&SdvkdY Avmjzpfaew,f? vkdY qkdvkdwm jzpfygw,f/
Bit 4ck pkpnf;xm;wmudk Nibble vkdY ac:ygw,f/ a&;rSwfp&mae&m 4ae&mudk
pepfwus pkzGJUxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ 4 Bits = 1 nibble jzpfygw,f/
Bit 8ck ukd pepfwus pkzGJUxm;&if Byte vkdY ac:ygw,f/ 8 Bits = 1 byte jzpfygw,f/
aemufwpfenf; ajym&&if 2 Nibbles = 1 byte jzpfygw,f/
Bit 16ck udk pepfwus pkzGJUxm;&if Word vkdY ac:ygw,f/
16 bits = 1 word, 2 bytes = 1 word, 4 nibbles = 1 word jzpfygw,f/
Bit 32ck ukd wpfpkxJjzpfatmif pkzGJUxm;wmukd Double Word vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Word

2ck ygwJh tpktzGJUjzpfygw,f/


PLC xJrSm Counter udk 16-bit Counter eJY 32-bit Counter qkdNyD; owfrSwf ac:a0:Mu
ygw,f/
Memory xJu a&;rSwfp&mae&m jzpfwJh bit &JU ae&mudk &nfTef;ajymqkdwJhtcg?
ae&mukd Tef;wJh vdyfpm ukd Address vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Memory xJ a&;rSwfwJhtcg bit ae&m 1ck rSm a&;rS w f x m;wJ h t ajctae 1 (one) eJY
a&;rSwfrxm;wJhtajctae 0 (zero) qkdNyD;awmh tajctae 2rsdK;om&Sdygw,f/ 'D 2rsdK;
wnf;aom tajctaeukd binary vkdY ac:ygw,f/ *Pef; 2vHk; 0 eJY 1 om ygvkdY 2 digits vkdY
vnf; ac:ygw,f/ 2 digits eJY a&wGufwJh ocsFmpepfukd binary number system vkdY ac:yg
w,f/
Computer wkdif;[m binary eJYyJ tvkyfvkyfygw,f/ PLC uvnf; Industrial Computer
jzpfvkdY binary eJYyJ tvkyfvkyfygw,f/
vQyfppftcsufjy electric signal &Sd&if? 1 (one) vkdY ac:NyD; vQyfppftcsufjy r&Sd&if 0
(zero) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
ocsFm a&wGufenf;pepf numbering system ig;rsdK; &Sdygw,f/ PLC rSmtoHk;jyKwJh
number system jzpfygw,f/ PLC udk avhvmwJhtcg 'D number system awGudk odxm;zkdY
vkdtyfygw,f/ rodrjzpfodrSwfxm;zkdY vkdtyfoavmufudkom 'DpmtkyfrSm azmfjyay;xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

108

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

eJY ywfoufwJh number system 5 rsdK; uawmh atmufygtwkdif;jzpfygw,f/


1/ Decimal Number System (q,fvD pepf)
2/ Binary Number System (ESpfvD pepf)
3/ Octal Number System (&SpfvD pepf)
4/ Hexadecimal Number System (q,fhajcmufvD pepf)
5/ BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System (0 eJY 1 udkom toHk;jyKNyD;a&
wGufwJh q,fvD pepf) wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
vlawGoHk;aewJh a&wGufenf;pepfukd q,fvDpepf decimal number system vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ 0 uae 9 txd *Pef; 10 vHk; udkom toHk;jyKa&wGufygw,f/ *Pef; 10 vHk;udk
tajcjyKNyD; a&wGufvkdY base 10 vkdY ac:ygw,f/ q,fvDpepfrSm ta&twGuftm;jzifh bmrS
r&Sdwmudk 0 (zero) vkdY a&;rSwfNyD;? wpfck&Sd&if 1, ESpfck&Sd&if 2, ukd;ck&Sd&if 9, q,fck&Sd&if 10,
vkdY a&;rSwfavh&Sdygw,f/
Industrial Computer jzpfwJh PLC rSm oHk;wJh number uawmh 0 (zero) eJY? 1 (one) uko
d m
toHk;jyKNyD;? a&wGufygw,f/ 2 digits yJ&SdwJhtwGuf binary ESpfvDpepfvdkY ac:ygw,f/ Binary
pepfrSm ta&twGuf tm;jzifh bmrSr&Sdwmukd 0 (zero) eJY wpfck&Sdwmudk 1 (one) vkdY a&;rSwf
NyD;? wpfck&Sd&if 1, ESpfck&Sd&if 10, oHk;ck&Sd&if 11, av;ck&Sd&if 100, pojzifh a&;rSwf&wJh
ocsFmpepf? jzpfygw,f/
PLC

(1) Decimal Number System (q,f v D

pepf jzifha&wGufjcif;)

udk avhvmwJhtcg udef;*Pef;awGukd ae&mcsxm;yHkrwl&if *Pef;


csif;? wlayr,fh wefzdk;csif;? rwlwmudk *kjyKavhvm&ygr,f/
Oyrm decimal number system rSm 23 eJY 32 vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if 23 rSm ygwJh 2, eJY 32
rSmygwJh 2, wkdY[m 2 qkdwJh *Pef;csif; wlaomfvnf; ae&m,lwmrwlMuwJhtwGuf wefzkd;
csif; rwlnDwmudk *kjyK rSwfom; &ygr,f/
23 rSmygwJh 2 &JU wefzkd;u (10 x 2) jzpfygw,f/ 32 rSmygwJh 2 &JU wefzkd;u (1 x 2) jzpf
ygw,f/ i,fpOf ocsFmoif,lcJhwkef;u ck? q,f? &m qkdwmudk rSwfrdaeMur,f xifygw,f/
tJ'gukd ae&mtvkdufwefzkd; placement value vdkY ac:ygw,f/ Weighted value vkdYvnf;
ac:ygw,f/
ta&twGufudk udef;*Pef;eJY csa&;wJhtcg nmtpGef;qHk;? udef;*Pef;u wefzkd;
ti,fqHk;jzpfNyD; b,ftpGefqHk;? udef;*Pef;u wefzkd;tBuD;qHk; jzpfygw,f/ Decimal number
rSma&m? Binary number rSmyg? 'Dtwkdif; twlwlyJ jzpfygw,f/
Number System

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

109

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Decimal number rSm nmtpGefqHk;upNyD; b,fbufukd 10 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/


Binary number rSm nmtpGefqHk;upNyD; b,fbufukd 2 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/
Octal number rSm b,fbufukd 8 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/
Hexadecimal number rSm b,fbufukd 16 qpD wkd;oGm;ygw,f/
Oyrm/ Decimal number 4629 ukd yHkpHcsjy&if 'DvdkjrifawGU&ygw,f/
power
103

102

101

100

1000

100

10

base
weighted values of the position
9

(2) Binary Number System (ES pf v D


Binary numbering system eJY
&Sdwm rkdYvkdY base 2 vkdY ac:ygw,f/

(1000 4) + (100 6) + (10 2) + ( 1 9)

4000 + 600 + 20 + 9 = 4629 10

pepf jzifha&wGufjcif;)

a&;wJhtcgrSmawmh olUrSmu 0 eJY 1 qkdwJh *Pef; 2 rsdK;yJ


Oyrm? binary eJY a&;xm;wJh 1011 2 udk yHkpHcsMunfh&if 'Dvkd

jrifawGU&ygr,f/
23

22

21

20

power
base

8
1

4
0

2
1

1
1

weighted values of the position


= (8 1) + (4 0) + (2 1) + ( 1 1)
=

= 11 10

jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 1011 2 [m 11 10 eJY wefzkd;csif;wlnDygw,f/


1011 2 vkdY a&;xm;&if 1011 udk binary number eJY a&;xm;wmjzpfwJh taMumif;ukd
azmfjywJhtaeeJY nmtpGefrSm&SdwJh 1 &JU atmufrSm 2 ukd qGJxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 11 10 vkYd
a&;xm;wmu 11 ukd decimal number eJY a&;xm;wmjzpfw,fvkdY ajymcsifvkdY nmtpGef rSm
&SdwJh 1 &JU atmufrSm 10 ukd qGJxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ 'D OyrmrSm ygwJh 1011 2 ukd Munhfr,f
qkd&if *Pef;av;vHk; 4 digits ukd toHk;jyKNyD; a&;om;xm;wmukd awGU&ygw,f/
1011 2 udk memory rSm a&;rSwfxm;csif&if 4 bits ukd toHk;jyK&rSm jzpfygw,f/ Bit
ae&m 4 ck udk ,loHk;&rSmjzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

110

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

1011 2 &JU nmtpGefqHk;rSm &SdwJh 1 &JUae&mukd bit0 (b0), olU&JUb,fbufu 1 &JUae&mukd


bit1 (b1), oleJYuyfvsuf bufbufu 0 &JU ae&mukd bit2 (b2), vkdY ac:NyD; b,ftpGefqHk;u 1
&JU ae&mukd bit3 (b3) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
b0 &JU ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;u (20 = 1) jzpfygw,f/
b1 &JU ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;u (21 = 2) jzpfygw,f/
b2 &JU ae&mtvdkuf wefzkd;u (22 = 4) jzpfygw,f/
b3 &JU ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;u (23 = 8) jzpfygw,f/
b3, b2, b1, b0 vkdY tpOfvkdufa&;xm;wmjzpfvkdYrkdY ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;awGudk 8, 4, 2, 1

vkdY rSwfxm;Ekdifygw,f/
'gaMumifh 1011 2 &JU wefzkd;nD decimal number u 11 10 jzpfygw,f/ 4 bits ukd oHk;NyD;
trsm;qHk; a&;rSwfEkdifwmuawmh 1111 2 yJjzpfygw,f/ ae&mtvkdufwefzkd;u 8, 4, 2, 1 jzpfwJh
twGuf (8 1 ) 2 + (4 1) + (2 1) + (1 1) = 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 15 10 jzpfygw,f/
Memory rSm 4 bits ukdom toHk;jyKNyD;a&;rSwfr,fqkd&if 0 10 (decimal number zero)
uae 15 10 (decimal number fifteen) txdom a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ q,fhig;xufrsm;wJh ta&
twGufukd binary eJY a&;csif&ifawmh memory rSm 4 bits xufykdNyD;oHk;rS a&;rSwfvkdY &EkdifrSm
jzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU memory rSm 4 bits xufrsm;wJhtpku 8 bits &SdwJh byte jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
4 bits eJY a&;vkdYrqHh&if 8 bits oHk;NyD; a&;rSwf&ygw,f/ 8 bits eJY a&;vkdY rqHhwJh data ukd
a&;rSwfcsif&if 16 bits &SdwJh word ukd oHk;NyD;a&;rSwf&ygw,f/
8 bits oHk;NyD; trsm;qHk;a&;vkdY&wJh binary number u 1111 1111 2 jzpfygw,f/ olU&JU
ae&mtvkdufwefzkd;ukd atmufrSm yHkpHcsNyD;a&;jyxm;ygw,f/
27 26

25

24

23

22

21

20

128 64

32

16

1 = 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1 = 255 10

placement values

txufrSm az:jyxm;wJh binary number xJu nmtpGefqHk;u bit ae&m (b0) udk LSB
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ LSB qkdwm Least Significant Bit ti,fqHk;udef;vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
b,ftpGefqHk;u bit ae&m (b7) udk MSB tBuD;qHk;udef; Most Significant Bit vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ Memory &JU wnfae&mukd azmfjywm jzpfwJhtwGuf 0 (zero) ukdvnf; ae&mwpfck&JU
trSwftom; tjzpf (b0) vkdY oHk;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh word ukd oHk;NyD; a&;rSwf xm;&if LSB u b0 jzpfNyD; MSB u b15 jzpfyg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

111

OD;pdk;wifh

Double word

PLC

ukdoHk;NyD; a&;rSwfr,f qkd&if

LSB

u b0 jzpfNyD;

MSB

vrf; nTef

b31

jzpfyg

w,f/
Byte eJY a&;rSwf&if 8 bits ukd 4 bits pD tkyfpk 2 pk cGJNyD; nmbufu 4 bits tkyfpk ukd
Lower Nibble vkdY ac:ygw,f/ b,fbufu 4 bits &SdwJhtkyfpkukd Upper Nibble vkdY ac:yg
w,f/ Word eJY a&;rSwfcJh&if 16 bits ukd 8 bits pD tkyfpk 2 pk cGJNyD; nmbufu 8 bits
&SdwJhtkyfpkukd lower byte, b,fbufu 8 bits &SdwJhtkyfpkukd upper byte vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Double word ukd Dword vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Dword eJY a&;cJh&if b,fbufu 16 bits ukd
upper word, nmbufu 16 bits ukd lower word vkdY ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

112

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

(3) Octal Number System (&S p f v D

vrf; nTef

pepf jzifha&wGufjcif;)

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 *Pef; &SpfvHk;udkom toHk;jyKvkdY Octal vkdYac:wmjzpfygw,f/


8 digits om&SdwJhtwGuf base 8 jzpfygw,f/
Octal pepfrSm 8 *Pef; eJY 9 *Pef; ukd vHk;0 roHk;ygbl;/
Oyrm? octal number eJY a&;xm;wJh 137 8 udk decimal number eJY a&;xm;wJh 137 10 eJY
EdIif;,SOf jyygr,f/ a&wGufyHka&wGufenf; rwlwJhtwGuf 1378 ukd wefbkd;nD decimal number
ajymif;&ygw,f/ vlu decimal udk uRrf;usifNyD;om;jzpfvkdY decimal ukd ajymif;NyD; a&;Munfh

wm jzpfygw,f/
137 8 ukd yHkpHcsNyD;a&;Munhf&if atmufygtwkdif;awGU&ygr,f/
power
2

64

base
= (64 1) + (8 3) + (1 7) = 64 + 24 + 7 = 95 10

&JU wefbkd;nD decimal number [m 95 10 jzpfygw,f/ 137 10 eJY wefbkd;csif;


rwlnDwmukd awGU&ygw,f/
137 8 ukd wefbkd;wl binary number &csif&if atmufygtwkdif; a&;&ygw,f/
137 8

qkd&if

78

421

421 421

001

0 1 1 1 1 1 = Binary Number 1011111 2

Octal number system rSm tBuD;qHk;*Pef;u 7 jzpfygw,f/ 7 ukd binary eJY a&;r,f
3 digits &Sd&if a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh octal rSmyg&SdwJh *Pef;wpfvHk;pDukd 3 digits

binary eJY

ajymif;a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
tJ'D 1011111 2 udk decimal number ajymif;vkduf&if
26

25

24

23

22

21

20

64 32

16

placement values

= 64 + 0 + 16 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 95 10

&ygw,f/
137 8 &JU decimal number uvnf;
wkdY[m wefbkd;csif; wlnDMuygw,f/
95 10

95 10

yJjzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh

137 8

eJY

1011111 2

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

113

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vrf; nTef

Memory rSm 1011111 2 ukd a&;rSwfr,fqkd&if Byte Format eJYvnf; a&;vkdY&ygw,f/


Word Format eJYvnf; a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ Byte Format eJY a&;r,fqkd&if 0101 1111 2 jzpfyg
w,ff/ Word Format eJY a&;r,fqkd&if 0000 0000 0101 1111 2 jzpfygw,ff/
'gayr,fh? Octal number udk 3 digits eJY a&;r,fqdk&if? a&;vkdY&wJh tBuD;qHk;udef;u
777 8 jzpfygw,f/ 777 8 ukd binary ajymif;vkduf&if 111 111 111 2 &ygw,f/ tJ'gukdawmh
Byte Format eJY a&;vkdY rqHYawmhygbl;/ 9 digits jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/ Word Format eJY
a&;rSom a&;vkdY&yg w,f/ 777 8 (111111111 2 ) ukd Word Format eJY a&;&if 0000 0001 1111
1111 2 jzpfygw,f/ 777 8 ukd memory xJrSmodrf;csif&if word eJY odrf;&ygw,f/
tckqkd&if numbering system xJu oHk;rsdK;udk tquftpyfeJYwuG ykdif;jcm;NyD; &Sif;jy

vkdY NyD;ygNyD/

'Dtxdudk em;vnfoabmaygufrS a&SUqufzwfoifh ygw,f/ pdwfxJrSmr&Sif;wm &Sdaeao;


&if decimal number system u pNyD; jyefzwfzkdY wkdufwGef;ygw,f/ tckqufvuf &Sif;jyr,fh
yHkpHu 'DtxdzwfINyD;vkdY aumif;aumif;em;vnf oabmaygufxm;NyD; jzpfwJholawG twGuf
&nf&G,f ygw,f/
(4) Hexadecimal Number System (q,f h a jcmuf v D p epf

jzifha&wGufjcif;)

qkdwJh *Pef; 16 vHk;ukd toHk;jyKNyD;


a&wGufwJhocsFmpepf jzpfygw,f/ vlawGowfrSwfNyD; oHk;pGJaewJh*Pef;u 0 to 9 txd
q,fvHk;yJ &Sdygw,f/ usef*Pef; ajcmufvHk;twGuf A to F t*Fvdyftu&majcmufvHk;udk
*Pef;tjzpf owfrSwfoHk;pGJxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Hexadecimal system rSm A ukd awGU&if 10 wpfq,f vkdY odrSwf&rSm jzpfygw,f/ B
ukd awGU&if 11 wpfq,hfwpf? C ukd awGU&if 12 wpfq,fhESpf? D ukd jrif&if 13 wpfq,fhoHk;
pojzifh odae&rSmjzpfygw,f/ *Pef; q,hfajcmufvHk;ukd toHk;jyKNyD; a&wGufwmjzpfvkdY
hexadecimal vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Base 16 jzpfygw,f/ ae&mtvdkufwefbkd;u 16 q
pDuGmjcm;ygw,f/
Oyrm? 2AF 16 vkdY Hexadecimal eJY a&;xm;cJh&if olU&JUwefbkd;nD decimal number u
atmufrSm azmfjyxm;wJYtwkdif; 687 10 jzpfygw,f/
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F

power

16

161

160
base

256
2

16

1
A

placement values
F
= (256 2) + (16 A) + (1 F)
= (256 2) + (16 10) + (115)
= 512
+ 160 + 15 = 687 10

jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

114

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2AF 16
2

vrf; nTef

ukd binary number ajymif;csif&if atmufygtwkdif; a&;&ygw,f/


A

8421

8421 8421

0010

1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 = Binary Equivalent 1010101111 2

2AF 16 ukd binary eJY a&;vkdufawmh 1010101111 2 jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ 10 digits &Sdygw,f/


PLC &JU memory rSm a&;rSwfcsif&if word (16 bits) ukd oHk;NyD; a&;rSwf&ygw,f/
1010101111 2 ukd word yHkpHeJY a&;r,fqkd&if 0000 0010 1010 1111 2 vkdY a&;&ygw,f/
For Example, the 16-bit binary number 1001 0011 1101 1110 is equivalent to the
four-digit hexadecimal number 93DE:
Binary Number
Hex Number
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 2 = 9 3 D E 16

(5) BCD (Binary Coded Decimal) Number System

(q,fvDyHkpHeJY a&;om;xm;wJh ESpfvDpepfjzifh a&wGufjcif;)


qkdwmuawmh binary eJY code vkyfxm;wJh decimal system jzpfygw,f/ ae&m
tvkdufwefzkd;u decimal rSmvkdyJ 10 qpDuGmjcm;ygw,f/ Number ukd a&;wJhtcgrSmawmh
binary rSmvkdyJ 0 eJY 1 ukdom toHk;jyKNyD; a&;ygw,f/
Oyrm 326 10 qkdwJh decimal number udk BCD tjzpfajymif;a&;vdkuf&if atmufyg
twkdif; awGU&ygw,f/
BCD

8421

8421 8421

0011

0010 0110

Decimal Number

BCD Number

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

115

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

tJ'D decimal number 326 10 ukdyJ


twkdif; awGU&ygw,f/
29

tjzpfajymif;a&;vkduf&if atmufyg

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

512 256 128

64

32

16

28

binary number

vrf; nTef

Binary Number

= 0 + 256 + 0 + 64 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0 = 326 10
326 10 ukd BCD ajymif;a&;&if 1100100110 BCD &ygw,f/
326 10 udk Binary ajymif;a&;&if 101000110 2 &ygw,f/
BCD eJY Binary rwlwmukd odapcsifvkdY a&;jywm jzpfygw,f/ 0

eJY 1 (2 digits) ukdom


toHk;jyKNyD; a&;om;Muwm jzpfayr,hf ae&mtvkduf wefzkd;owfrSwfyHkcsif; rwlnDMuwmukd
*kjyKrdapcsifygw,f/
BCD eJY a&;rSwf xm;wJh 0011 0010 0110 [m decimal number 326 10 ukd ukd,fpm;jyK
ygw,f/
Binary eJY a&; xm;wJh 0011 0010 0110 [m decimal number 806 10 ukd ukd,fpm;jyK
wm jzpfygw,f/
BCD eJY

a&;wJh 0011

0010 0110 &JU ae&mtvdkufwefzkd;u


8421 8421 8421
0011 0010 0110 = 326 10 jzpfygw,f/

Binary eJY a&;xm;wJh 0011 0010 0110 &JU ae&mtvkdufwefzkd;u


2048 1024 512 256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
0

0 1

1 0 = 806 10

jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

116

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PLC
Number System

5 rsdK;ukd atmufrSm ,SOfwGJazmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Decimal Octal Hexadecimal


0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
100

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
-

vrf; nTef

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
-

BCD
Binary Coded Hexadecimal
0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1 0000
1 0001
1 0010
1 0011
1 0100
1 0101
1 0110
1 0111
1 1000
1 1001
10 0000
10 0001
10 0110

&m? q,f? ck?

Binary
0
1
10
11
100
101
110
111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111
1 0000
1 0001
1 0010
1 0011
1 0100
1 0101
1 0111
-

0001 0000 0000

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

117

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (9) Boolean logic taMumif;/


'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcgrSm?
1/ Logic AND, Logic OR, Logic NOT wkdY&JUt"dyg,f?
2/ Truth Table eJY Boolean Logic b,fvdk qufpyfw,fqdkwm? awGukd aumif;pGm
em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)

rSmoHk;xm;wJh

logic

qkdwmu

Boolean Logic

ukd

ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC eJYywfoufwJh Boolean logic function awGuawmh
(1) Logic AND,
(2) Logic OR, Logic XOR eJY
(3) Logic NOT wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
Boolean Logic rSm Logical AND, Logical OR eJU Logical NOT
oHk;rsdK;udk wGJzuf aygif;pyfNyD; NAND eJY NOR wdkY jzpfay:vmygw,f/

wdkU yg&Sdygw,f/ 'D

Logic AND
+24V

Sw 1

Sw 2

Lamp

'Doabm t"dyg,fudkyJ
azmfjyavh &Sdygw,f/
Sw 1
Sw 2

0V

Graphical

'D electrical circuit rSm Lamp = ON jzpfzdkY


twGuf Sw 1 a&m Sw 2 yg ON jzpf&ygr,f/
tJ'D oabmt"dyg,fudk Boolean equation eJU
a&;r,f qdk&if Lamp = (Sw 1) AND (Sw 2)
vdkY a&;&ygw,f/
symbol eJU azmfjyr,fqdk&if atmufygtwdkif;
Sw 1

Lamp

'DyHkudk

AND

Sw 2

2-input AND vdkU

ac:ygw,f/

qkdwmuawmh AND vkyfxm;wJh input tm;vHk;


jzpf&wJh oabmobm0 &Sdygw,f/
Logic AND qkdwmudk tm;vHk; ( All ) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/
Logic AND

Lamp

ON

jzpfrS

output

ON

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

118

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

'D oabm t"dyg,f udkyJ

Truth Table eJU

vrf; nTef

azmfjyr,f qdk&if

AND Truth Table

AND Truth Table

Inputs

Output

Inputs

Output

Sw 1 Sw 2
OFF OFF
OFF ON
ON
OFF
ON
ON

Lamp
OFF
OFF
OFF
ON

Sw 1 Sw 2
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
1

Lamp
0
0
0
1

'gudk ON/OFF tpm; 0/1 eJU azmfjyr,f qdk&if 0 [m OFF jzpfaew,fqdkwmudk azmfjyyg
w,f/ 1 [m ON jzpfaew,fqdkwmudk azmfTef; ygw,f/
Electric circuit diagram eJY Truth Table awGudk txuffrSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/ tJ'gu
awmh Logic AND &JU example jzpfygw,f/
txuffyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; input 2ck udk AND vkyfxm;&if tJ'D input 2ck pvHk; ON
jzpfrS output (logic AND &JU result) u ON jzpfygw,f/ 2-input AND udk Logic Gate Symbol,
Truth Table awGeJY AND function &JU vkyfaqmifcsuf obm0ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Logic OR
+24V

Sw 1

Lamp

0V

Sw 2

Graphical symbol eJU

'D electrical circuit rSm Sw 1 odkYr[kwf Sw 2


wpfck ON jzpfHk eJU Lamp = ON jzpfygw,f/
'D oabmt"dyg,f udk Boolean equation
eJU a&;r,fqdk&if Lamp = (Sw 1) OR (Sw 2)
vdkY a&;&ygw,f/

azmfjyr,f qdk&if atmufygyHktwdkif; jzpfygw,f/

Sw 1

Sw 1

Lamp

Sw 1

'DyHkudk

Sw 2

2-input OR

OR

Lamp

vkdU ac:ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

119

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC
Truth Table eJU

azmfjyr,f qdk&if atmufygyHktwdkif; jzpfygw,f/

OR Truth Table
Inputs
Output
Sw 1
OFF
OFF
ON
ON

vrf; nTef

OR Truth Table
Inputs

Sw 2 Lamp
OFF
OFF
ON
ON
OFF
ON
ON
ON

Output

Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp

0
0

1
1

1
1
1

txuffyHkrSm jyxm;wmuawmh Logic OR &JU Example jzpfygw,f/


yHkrSm Logic OR function ukd electric circuit diagram eJY a&m? 2-input OR &JU Logic Gate
Symbol, Truth Table awGeJYyg OR &JU obm0udk &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Logic OR qkdwmuawmh OR vkyfxm;wJh input awGtm;vHk;xJu 1ck ON jzpfvkdufwmeJY
OR &JU logic result (Output) u ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Logic OR &JU input awGtm;vHk; ON
jzpf&ifvnf; OR vkyfvkdY &vmwJh result (Output) u ON jzpfygw,f/
Logic OR qkdwmudk 1ck ( One ) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/
Logic XOR
XOR qdkwm Exclusive OR (oD;oefY OR ) jzpfygw,f/
Boolean equation: Lamp = (Sw 1) XOR (Sw 2)
XOR Truth Table

XOR Truth Table

Inputs

Output

Sw 1 Sw 2

Lamp

Sw 1 Sw 2 Lamp

OFF
ON
ON
OFF

1
1

OFF
OFF
ON
ON

OFF
ON
OFF
ON

Inputs

0
0
1
1

Output

0
1

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

120

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PLC

+24V

0V
Sw 1

yHkrSm XOR function &atmif qufoG,f


xm;wJh Relay Circuit &,f? 2-input XOR &JU
Logic Gate symbol eJY Truth table awGukd
MunhfI avhvmNyD;? XOR &JU function ukd
em;vnf Muygvdrfhr,f/

Relay R1
R

Sw 2

Relay R2
R

R1

R2

Graphical symbol u

Lamp

Sw 1
R1

vrf; nTef

Sw 2

R2

Lamp

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wmu Logic XOR


&JU oabmobm0 jzpfygw,f/ XOR qkd wm Exclusive OR &JU twkdaumufpmvHk; jzpfyg
w,f/ XOR &JU vkyfaqmifyHk function u XOR vkyfxm;wJh input awG tm;vHk;xJu 1ckwnf;
om ON jzpfrS XOR &JU logic result u ON jzpf&ygw,f/ XOR &JU input tm;vHk; ON jzpfwJh
tcg output u OFF yJ jzpfygw,f/
Logic XOR qkdwmudk 1ck wnf;om ( Only one ) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/
Logic NOT
+24V

0V
Sw 1

Relay
R

Lamp

'D electrical circuit rSm Sw1 OFF


jzpf&if Relay R u de-energize jzpfaeNyD;
relay &JU N.C contact u close jzpf aevdkU
Lamp = ON jzpfaeygw,f/ Sw 1 ON
jzpf&if Relay R u energize jzpfoGm;NyD;
relay &JU N.C contact u open jzpfoGm;vdkU
Lamp = OFF jzpfygw,f/

Logic NOT function &atmif Relay eJY zGJUpnf;wnfaqmufxm;wmukd electric circuit


diagram eJY azmfjyxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
'D oabm t"dyg,f udk Boolean equation eJU a&;r,f qdk&if Lamp = NOT (Sw 1) vdkY

a&;&ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

121

OD;pdk;wifh
Truth Table eJU

PLC

vrf; nTef

azmfjyr,f qdk&ifawmh atmufygtwdkif; jzpfygw,f/


NOT Truth Table

NOT Truth Table

Input

Input

Output

Sw 1

Lamp
1

Sw 1
OFF
ON

Output
Lamp
ON
OFF

Graphical symbol eJU


Sw 1

Lamp

qdk&if

Sw 1

NOT

Lamp

Bubble

Bubble u NOT qdkwJh

t"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/
ykHrSm azmfjyxm;wmu NOT &JU function jzpfygw,f/ Input u ON jzpf&if output u
OFF jzpfoGm;NyD;? input u OFF jzpfrS output u ON jzpfoGm;wJh oabmobm0ukd NOT vkdY
ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Logic NOT &JU gate symbol eJY truth table ukdyg azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Logic NOT ukd ajymif;jyef ( Invert ) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/

tckazmfjycJhwJh

Logic function av;rsd K ;uk d

twkdcsKyfrSwfom;csif&if

udk ALL (tm;vHk;) vkdY rSwfom; xm;yg/ Input tm;vHk; ON jzpfrS Output u
ON jzpf&vkdY jzpfygw,f/
OR ukd ONE (1ck) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ Input xJu 1ck ON jzpf&if Output u ON jzpf&vkdY
jzpfygw,f/
XOR ukd Only One (1ck wnf;om) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ Input awGxJu 1ck wnf; ON
jzpfrSom Output u ON jzpf&vkdY jzpfygw,f/
NOT ukdawmh Invert (ajymif;jyef) vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ Input &JU ajymif;jyef[m Output
jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/
AND

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

122

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

yHkrSm

Logic Gate awG&JU symbol awGukd

vrf; nTef

azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

123

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PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (10) PLC Program Overview


'Dtcef;rSm

Programming Language, Programming Software, Machine Control,


Process Control, PLC Program pwmawGeJU rdwfqufay;xm;ygw,f/
Program qkdwm instruction code awGukd pepfwuspkzGJUNyD; PLC em;vnfatmif
TefMum;ckdif;apwJh TefMum;csuftpkta0;yJjzpfygw,f/ PLC udk ckdif;csif&if PLC em;vnfwJh
pum; code eJY ajymNyD;ckdif;&ygw,f/ PLC [m computer jzpfwJhtwGuf binary code eJY ajymrS
em;vnfygw,f/ Binary code ukd machine code (machine language) vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Machine language eJY PLC program a&;zkdYqkdwmuawmh computer ynm&Sifrsm;om

wwfEkdifwJh udpjzpfygw,f/
omrefvQyfppftif*sifeD,mrsm;twGuf machine language eJY PLC program a&;wwf
zkdY oif,l&wm tifrwefcufcJygw,f/ 'gaMumihfrkdYvkdY PLC ukd xkwfvkyfolawGu vG,fulpGm
oif,l wwfajrmufEkdifwJh Ladder Diagram Programming Language (LD) ukd wDxGifay;xm;
ygw,f/ 'DaeYacwftxd LD ukd toHk;jyKNyD; PLC program a&;om;Muwm[m 92% &Sdw,fvkdY
2004 ckESpfu aumuf,lxm;wJh ppfwrf;wpfckrSmawGU&ygw,f/
'DpmtkyfrSm LD eJY PLC program a&;om;enf;ukd vG,f&mrSonf cuf&mqDokdY wqifh
NyD;wqifh &Sif;vif;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ PLC taMumif; vHk;0rodao;olawGudk OD;wnf &nf
&G,fNyD; a&;om;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
Program qkdwm TefMum;csufawGukd ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ TefMum;csufukd instruction
vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Command vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ ckdif;apcsufjzpfygw,f/ PLC ukd
ckdif;apr,fqkd&if PLC ukd xkwfvkyfwJh OEM u owfrSwfay;xm;wJh instruction code
awGukdom toHk;jyK&ygw,f/ PLC ukd xkwfvkyfol OEM u b,fvdkowfrSwf ay;xm;ovJ
qkdwmukd od&zkdY PLC programming manual ukd zwfIavhvm&ygw,f/
Ladder Diagram (LD) eJY PLC program (user program) a&;r,fqkd&if odxm;&r,fh
tajccHowfrSwfcsuf basic instruction code awGuawmh PLC wkdif;twGuf twlwlyJ
jzpfygw,f/ yg0ifwJh instruction code trsdK;tpm;? eJY ta&twGufteJtrsm; rSmom PLC
wpfrsdK;eJYwpfrsdK; uGmjcm;Muwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC trsdK;tpm;wpfckudk LD eJY program a&;wwf? zwfwwfoGm;NyDqkd&if wjcm; PLC
awGtwGuf LD eJY a&;xm;wJh program ukd zwfIem;vnfEkdifzkdY taxmuftul BuD;BuD;rm;rm;
jzpfapygw,f/ Oyrm? Mitsubishi PLC eJY LD program a&;enf;ukd oif,lwwf ajrmufxm;ol
wpfa,muftzkdY Omron PLC twGuf a&;xm;wJh LD program udk interpret vkyfEkdifzkdY
taxmuftul BuD;BuD;rm;rm; jzpfapygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

124

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC program a&;enf;ukd pmtkyfzwfHkeJY rwwfygbl;/ Programming Software eJY


program a&;MunfhzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ a&;NyD;wJh program ukd PLC xJ ajymif;a&;xnhfNyD; PLC
ukd RUN &ygw,f/ Program rSmygwJh oufqkdif&m input awGukd ON/OFF vkyfNyD; program
a&;pOfu rdrd&nf&G,fckdif;apxm;wJhtwkdif; PLC u vkdufemaqmif&Gufjcif; &Sd^r&Sd qkdwmukd

prf;oyfMunhfI&ygw,f/ vkdtyfaeao;wmukd jznhfpGuf? rSm;aewmukd jyifqifNyD; a&;&yg


w,f/ 'Dvkdvkyfwmukd debugging vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/ a&;vkduf? prf;vkduf? jyifvkdufeJY
toHk;uswJh? toHk;0ifwJh? program 1ck &&Sdvm&if save vkyf? odrf;qnf;xm;&ygw,f/
Program eJYtwl rSwfcsuf comment awGa&;NyD; save vkyfxm;&if aemif tcsdefMumrS jyefzGifh
MunhfwJh tcgrSm tvG,fwul rSwfrdapygw,f/
tJ'Dvkd vkyfwwfatmif 'DpmtkyfxJrSm wpfqihfcsif;pD? tao;pdyfa&;xm;ay;ygw,f/
Programming software ukd w&m;0if tcrJh &&SdEkdifwJh web address udkvnf; azmfjyay;xm;
ygw,f/ tJ'D software &JUtrnfu WPLSoft jzpfygw,f/ PLC rygbJeJY? PLC r&SdbJeJY? LD
program a&;NyD; PLC &SdbdouJhokdY RUN MunhfvkdY&ygw,f/
WPLSoft [m Delta Automation u xkwfvkyfwJh Delta PLC awGtwGuf program
a&;om;EkdifwJh programming software jzpfygw,f/
Mitsubishi u xkwfvkyfwJh PLC awGtwGuf program a&;r,fqkd&if GX Developer
qkdwJh programming software ukd oHk;NyD;a&;&ygw,f/
Omron u xkwfvkyfwJh PLC awGtwGuf program a&;r,fqkd&if CX Programmer
qdkwJh programming software ukd oHk;NyD;a&;vkdY&ygw,f/
Siemens u xkwfvkyfwJh S7-200 PLC twGuf program a&;r,fqkd&if STEP 7
MicroWIN qdkwJh programming software ukd oHk;NyD;a&;&ygw,f/
PLC twGuf program a&;awmhr,fqkd&if rdrd&JU computer xJrSm programming
software ukd t&ifOD;qHk; install vkyf&ygw,f/ Computer xJrSm a&;xm;wJh program udk PLC
xJ a&;oGif;wJhtvkyf download ukd vkyfzkdY programming cable vkdtyfygw,f/ PLC eJY
computer ukd tJ'D cable eJY qufoG,fNyD; computer xJu a&;NyD;om; program ukd PLC xJ
ajymif;xnhf ay;&ygw,f/ Debugging vkyfzkdYtwGufvnf; programming cable &SdrS vkyfvkdY
&ygw,f/
toHk;0ifwJh program wpfcka&;NyD;vkdY? jyifNyD;vkdY? prf;NyD;vkdY? a&;NyD;om; program ukd
PLC xJ ajymif;xnhf NyD;oGm;NyDqkd&ifawmh programming cable [m rvkdtyfawmhygbl;/ PLC
rSm Input Device awG? Output Device awG? qufoG,f wwfqifNyD; PLC ukd RUN vkdufHkom
jzpfygw,f/ PLC ukd RUN w,fqkdwm PLC xJrSm a&;xnhfxm;wJh TefMum;csuf User
Program xJutwkdif; PLC ukd vkyfaqmifawmhvkdY PLC ukd apckdif;vkdufwmyJjzpfygw,f/
vufawGUvkyfief;cGifrSm PLC xJu aqmif&GufcsufawGukd MunhfvkdY? jrifvkdY? r&ygbl;/
PLC xJrSm a&;xm;wJh program ukd print out xkwfxm;wm &SdrSom tJ'D program ukd zwfINyD;
em;vnf Ekdifygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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ukd od&Sdem;vnfatmifoif,lwJhtcgrSm wu,fh


wm[m taumif;qHk; jzpfygw,f/
PLC

PLC

vrf; nTef

eJY vufawGU oif,l

rsKd;uGJaygif; ajrmufjrm;pGm&Sdygw,f/ PLC wpfrsdK;ukd pepfwus oif,l


wwfajrmuf NyD;&if usef PLC awGukd wcPeJY oif,lwwfajrmuf em;vnfoGm;Ekdifygw,f/
OEM &JU Manual awGukdawmh b,fawmhrS vufvTwfvkdY r&ygbl;/ 'gaMumifh PLC
wpfrsdK;eJY oif,lavhusihfaewJhtcsdefrSm tJ'D PLC &JU Manual awGukd zwfwwfatmif wyg
wnf; oif,l&ygr,f/ PLC Manual awGudk t*FvdyfpmeJY a&;xm;ygw,f/ t*Fvdyfvkd oHk;EIef;
xm;wmawGukd 'DpmtkyfrSm wwfpGrf;orQ &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/ t*Fvdyfpm ukd
jrefrmbmom jyefqkda&;om;wm rsdK;r[kwfbJ oabmt"dyg,fukd &Sif;vif;azmfjyay;xm;wm
om jzpfygw,f/
PLC

(rdrda&;wwfovkd?rdrdoabmaygufodjrifovkd?a&;xm;wmjzpfvkdY ynm&Sifrsm;u
jyKjyifp&mawG awGU&SdcJh&if axmufjy? jyKjyifay;yg&ef yefMum;tyfygw,f/)
'Dpmtkyfukd a&;om;&mrSm &nf&G,fcsuf 2ck &Sdygw,f/
wpfckuawmh PLC udk oifwef; wufNyD; vufawGUoif,laeMuolawG rSefrSefuefuef
awG;q odjrifwwfapzkdY jzpfygw,f/
aemufwpfckuawmh PLC taMumif;udk odcsifNyD; oifwef;wufzdkY tqifrajyao;ol
awG? twGuf PLC rygbJeJY LD program ukd a&;wwfapzkdY? rdrda&;xm;wJh Program ukd
Simulator Software eJY prf;oyfppfaq; wwfapzkdY jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY PLC program a&;r,fqkd&if Logic taMumif; t&ifodxm;zkdY vkdtyfygw,f/
Control taMumif;ukdvnf; odxm;oifhygw,f/
tck Control taMumif;ukd tenf;i,f &Sif;vif;azmfjyygr,f/ Control qkdwm xdef;
ausmif;ay;wmukd ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
xdef;ausmif;yHk? xdef;ausmif;enf;pepfukd Control System vkdY ac:ygw,f/ pufukd
xdef;ausmif;armif;ESif&if Machine Control vkdY ac:ygw,f/ ukefxkwfvkyfrI vkyfief;pOfukd
xdef;ausmif;armif;ESif&if Process Control vkdY ac:ygw,f/
'Dae&mrSmoHk;pGJwJh process &JU t"dyg,fu t&m0wKypnf;wpfckukd oGifjyifyHkoPmef
tm;jzifh physically jzpfap? "mwkzGJUpnf;rItm;jzifh chemically jzpfap? ajymif;vJ oGm;atmif
vkyfaqmifwmukd process vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Oyrmjy&&if jrpfa&? acsmif;a&ukd aomufa&? oHk;a&jzpfatmif ajymif;vkdufwm
Water Treatment vkyfwm ukdvnf; process vkdY ac:ygw,f/
BuHukd oMum;jzpfatmif vkyfwm? *sHKukd aygifrkefYjzpfatmif vkyfwmawGudkvnf;
process vkdY ac:ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

126

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vrf; nTef

PLC ukd Machine Control rSma&m? Process Control rSmyg toHk;jyKMuygw,f/


Machine Control rSm oHk;wJh trsdK;tpm;u Compact PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/ Process
Control rSmoHk;wJh PLC trsdK;tpm;u Modular PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfygw,f/
Control system wpfckrSm Controller &JU t0if Input Device awGudk Sensor awGvkdY
ac:ygw,f/ Controller &JU txGuf Output Device awGukd Actuator awGvdkY ac:Muygw,f/
Field Input Device eJY Field Output Device vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/
PLC &JU Input Device awGrSm Analog Input Device eJY Discrete Input Device (Digital
Input Device) vkdY 2rsdK; &Sdygw,f/

'DpmtkyfrSm discrete
tao;pdyf &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/
PLC

&JU

Output

rSmvnf;

input

om vufcHaqmif&GufwJh

Analog Actuator

eJY

PLC

Discrete Actuator

qkdNyD;

taMumif;ukd
Device

2rsdK;

&Sdygw,f/
ON/OFF signal input ukd PLC u vufcHNyD; ON/OFF signal output ukdom PLC u
xkwfay;wJh Discrete I/O omyg&SdwJh PLC taMumif;udk tao;pdyf avhvmzkdYqkd&if logic
taMumif;ukd &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odxm;zkdYvkdtyfygw,f/ 'g[m PLC rSm tajccH tusqHk; jzpf

ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

127

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vrf; nTef

tcef; (11) PLC Basic Programming


IEC u owfrSwfxm;wJh PLC programming Language 5rsdK;xJu LD Language ukd
Graphical Language vkdY ac:ygw,f/ kyfyHkawGeJY code vkyfxm;vdkYjzpfygw,f/ LD eJY program
a&;wwfzkdY basic instruction code oHk;rsdK;ukd OD;pGmyxr &Sif;vif;azmfjyygr,f/
LD Language rSm TefMum;csuf instruction code awGukd relay coil &JU oauFw

jzpfwJh ( ) &,f? relay contact &JU symbol jzpfwJh | | eJY | / | &,f? wkdYukd
toHk;jyKNyD; program a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
Open contact &JU symbol jzpfwJh
'DvkdyHkukd ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;
Munhfyg vkdY ckdif;wJh (TefMum;wJh) instruction code tjzpf toHk;jyKygw,f/ Examine ON vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
Closed contact &JU symbol jzpfwJh
'DvkdyHkukd OFF jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;
Munhfyg vkdY ckdif;wJh instruction code tjzpf toHk;jyKygw,f/ Examine OFF vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Coil &JU symbol jzpfwJh
okdYr[kwf ( ) 'DvkdyHkudkawmh Output ukd ON vkd ufyg
vkdY ckdif;wJh instruction code tjzpftoHk;jyKygw,f/ Output ON vkdY ac:ygw,f/
'Dpmtkyfukd ,aeYacwfvli,fawGtwGuf &nf&G,fNyD; a&;om;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
acwfvli,fawG[m computer eJY &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifNyD;om; jzpfygw,f/ PLC [m industrial
computer wrsdK;jzpfwJhtwGuf PLC ukd computer vkdY jrifatmif? Munhfwwfatmif? avhvm
wwfatmif? BudK;pm;yHkazmfxm;ygw,f/
Software jzpfwJh PLC program (User Program) ukd a&;wJhtcg software udk software
tjzpfjrifatmif Munhfwwf&ygr,f/
Software qkdwmu rsufpdeJYvnf; rjrif&wJh? xdvkdY? ukdifvkdYvnf; r&wJh? OmPfeJYom
awG;MunhfNyD; odEkdifwJht&m jzpfygw,f/
Relay &JU coil qkdwmu rsufpdeJYvnf; jrifatmifMunhfvkdY &ygw,f/ vufeJYvnf; xd
MunhfvkdY &wJh hardware jzpfygw,f/ Open contact eJY closed contact awGuvnf; hardware
awGyJ jzpfMuygw,f/
symbol

Electrical circuit diagram awG r S m a&;om;azmf j ywJ h relay &J U contact symbol eJ Y
coil symbol awG u k d LD program rS m instruction code &J U symbol tjzpf e J Y toH k ; jyKxm;wm

jzpfygw,f/

'gaMumifh LD program rSmazmfjyxm;wJh contact eJY coil oauFwawG[m hardware ukd


ukd,fpm;rjyKygbl;/ Software jzpfwJh TefMum;csufawGukdom ukd,fpm;jyK azmfjyxm;wm jzpfyg
w,f/ Instruction code &JU oauFwawGom jzpfMuygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

128

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PLC

vrf; nTef

qkdwm t"dyg,fowfrSwfcsuf jzpfygw,f/ kyfyHkawG? tu&mpmvHk;awGeJY


t"dyg,f owfrSwfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Examine ON vkdY ajymcsif? a&;csif&if
'Dvdka&;&ygw,f/ Examine
OFF vkdY ckdif;csif&if
'Dvkda&;&ygw,f/ Output ukd ON apcsif&if ( ) 'Dvkda&;&ygw,f/
,
eJY ( ) awG[m instruction code awG jzpfMuygw,f/
PLC ukd pwiftoHk;jyKcJhwm 1968 November v? u jzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dacwfumv u
vQyfppftif*sifeD,mawG[m computer eJY xdawGUrI r&Sdoavmuf jzpfygw,f/ Relay control
circuit awGeJY uawmh &if;ESD;uRrf;0ifNyD;om; jzpfMuygw,f/ 'gaMumifh olwkdYeJY &if;ESD;NyD;om;
jzpfwJh relay symbol awGudk toHk;jyKNyD; PLC program ukd tvG,fwul a&;wwfatmifvkdY LD
Language ukd pwifwDxGifcJhwm jzpfygw,f/
ckacwfrSmawmh IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) u owfrSwf
jy|mef; xm;wJh PLC Programming Language 5rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
IEC 61131-3 Format Programming Software Languages awGuawmh?
Code

1
2
3
4
5

Ladder Diagram (LD)


Function Block Diagram (FBD)
Instruction List (IL)
Structured Text (ST)
Sequential Function Chart (SFC)

Graphical Language
Graphical Language
Text-based Language
Text-based Language
Object-oriented programming framework wkdY

jzpfMuygw,f/
Not all PLCs support all five Language types, but nearly all of them support Ladder
Diagram (LD), which will be the primary focus of this book.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

129

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LD eJY a&;&wJh instruction code


program awGeJY &Sif;vif;azmfjyygr,f/

vrf; nTef

awG&JU oabmt"dyg,feJY toHk;jyKyHkawGukd erlem

Example program: 1
X0

vkdY a&;xm;&if b,ftpGefrSm&SdwJh axmifvkdufrsOf; vertical line


u instruction pwifa&;&r,fh ae&mvkdY rSwfxm;yg/
X0
qkdwmuawmh Examine ON X0 vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ X0 [m ON
jzpfaeovm;vdkY ppfaq;MunfhygvkdY PLC ukd ckdif;wJh instruction &JU code jzpfygw,f/
( Y0 ) qkdwm uawmh output Y0 ukd ON vkdufygvkdY ckdif;wJh instruction &JU code
jzpfygw,f/
pm&Gufay:rSm tckjrifae? awGUae&wJhyHkpHrsdK;? a&;xm;wmukd computer ay:rSm LD
program tjzpf?
( Y0 )

tckvkd jrifcsif&if
t&ifvkyf&ygw,f/

programming software jzpfwJh WPLSoft ukd computer xJrSm install

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

130

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

131

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

WPLSoft_V2.20.07 Software Installation


WPLSoft ukd computer xJrSm install vkyfawmhr,fqkd&if?

1/

(www.delta.com.tw/product/em/download)
Zip file jzpfygw,f/

uae

WPLSoft ukd download &,lyg/

1.
Download the WPLSoft_V2.20.07.Zip from
http://www.delta.com.tw/product/em/download/download_main.asp?act=3&pid=3&cid=
1&tpid=3

2/
3/

2.

WPLSoft V2.20.07 Zip udk

rdrd&JU computer u drive C: xJ ul;a&;xm;yg/


WPLSoft V2.20.07 Zip udk double click vkyfyg/

Double click on icon [PLSoft_V20.20.07.Zip]

4/ Setup.exe udk double click vkyfyg/

(Fig. 2a)

Figure 2a
3.

Double click on setup.exe

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

132

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 3a

5/ ay:vmwJh WinZip Caution ay:u Yes ukd click vkyfyg/ (Fig. 4a)
4.

Click on [Yes]

Figure 4a

6/ ay:vmwJh Install ay:u OK ukd click vkyfyg/


5.

Click on [OK]

Figure 5a

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

133

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 6a

Figure 7a

7/ ay:vmwJh WPLSoft 2.20.07 Install Shield Wizard ay:u Next ukd click vkyfyg/

Figure 8a Click on [Next]

8/ ay:vmwJh

box awG
Finish (Fig. 12a)

udk Next (Fig. 9a) Next (Fig. 10a) Install (Fig. 11a)
awGukd click vkyfoGm;&if&ygNyD/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

134

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 9a Click on [Next]

Figure 10a Click on [Next]

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

135

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 11a Click on [Install]

Figure 12a

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

136

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 13a Click on [Finish]

'gqkd&if

Programming Software udk computer xJrSm install vkyfwm NyD;oGm;NyD jzpfyg


Desktop udk jyefoGm;Munhf&if Screen ay:rSm WPLSoft 2.20 qkdwJh shortcut icon

w,f/
ay:aewmukd awGU&ygvdrhfr,f/
txufrSm azmfjycJhwJh Example
qufvuf a&;om; azmfjyoGm;ygr,f/

program: 1

ukd

Computer

ay:rSma&;enf;ukd tck

On the Desktop

Figure 14a Double click on [WPLSoft 2. 20]


The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

137

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

oifwef;rSm vufawGU vkyfwJh PLC trsdK;tpm;u Delta Electronic Ltd. u xkwfwJh


DVP-14SS2 trsdK;tpm; PLC jzpfygw,f/
Programming Software u WPLSoft jzpfygw,f/
1. Desktop ay:u WPLSoft 2. 20 qkdwJh icon ukd double click vkyfyg/ See Fig. 14a

Figure 15a
2. Delta WPLSoft vkdY

a&;xm;wJh Software ay:vmwJhtcg File ukd click vkyfyg/

Figure 16a

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

138

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 17a Click on [File] [New] on Menu Bar


3. Menu Bar ay:u New

ukd

click

vkyfyg/

Figure 17a udkMunfhyg/

Figure 18a Click on down button

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

139

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 19a Click on [SS2]


4.

ay:vmwJh Pop-up Menu (Figure 19a) xJu


click vkyfyg/

PLC Model udk SS2 vkdY

Figure 20a Click on [OK]

a&G;NyD; OK udk

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

140

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

5. Ladder Diagram Mode Screen tao;ukd

vrf; nTef

tBuD;csJUzkdY Maximize udk click vkyfyg/

Figure 22a Click on [Maximize]

Figure 23a

rSm&SdwJh
ukd ESdyfyg/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm av;axmifhuGuf Cursor [m
b,fbufu axmifvkdufrsOf;eJY xduyfae&rSm jzpfygw,f/ Fig. 23a ukd Munhfyg/

6. Task bar

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

141

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 24a Click on

button on the Tool Bar

Figure 25a Click on [OK]

7. Input Device Instruction qkdwJh dialog box ay:vmwJhtcg X0 (Device Name rSm
X, Device Number rSm 0) vkdY a&G;cs,f select vkyfNyD; OK ukd ESdyfyg/ 'DtcgrSm yHk
Fig. 26a rSmjyxm;wJh twkdif;ay:aeygvdrhfr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

142

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 26a

8.

<F7>

ukdESdyfyg/

Figure 27a Click on

button on the Tool Bar

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

143

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

9. Output coil ukd Y0 (Device Name rSm Y, Device Number rSm 0) vkdY

vrf; nTef

a&G;cs,fNyD; OK

ukdESdyfyg/

Figure 28a Click on [OK]

'DtcgrSm Examine ON X0, Output ON Y0 qkdwJh instruction ygwJh program 1ck


ukd a&;NyD;oGm;NyDjzpfygw,f/ User ua&;wJh program jzpfwmrkdYvdkY User Program vkdY ac:yg
w,f/
Example program: 1

Figure 20a

tcka&;xm;wJh
azmfjyygr,f/

program

ukd

simulator

eJY

RUN

MunhfyHkMunhfenf;ukd qufvuf

WPLSoft software rS m built-in simulator yg&S d y gw,f /

wpfck a&;NyD;NyDqkd&if compile ukd t&ifvkyf&ygw,f/ vkyf&wJh taMumif;


&if;u rdrda&;xm;wJh LD program [m PLC u em;vnfvufcHEkdifwJh code awGeJY rSefrSef
uefuefa&;xm;wm [kwfyg&Jhvm;qkdwmukd programming software ukd ppfaq;ckdif;wm jzpfyg
w,f/
Program

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

144

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

LD eJ Y User Program a&;NyD ; wk d i f ;


1. Compiler ukd

Figure 30a
2.

ESdyfyg/

Click on [Compiler] [Ladder => Instruction] on the Menu Bar

ay:vmwJh Ladder => Instruction ukd ESdyfyg/

Figure 31a

Click on [OK]

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

145

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

3. Simulator ukd
(Allow) ukd ESdyfyg/

ESdyfyg/ 'DtcgrSm yHk

Figure 32a

Unblock

Click on [Unblock]

ukd ESdyfyg/

Figure 34a
5. Yes

ay:vm&if

Click on [Simulator] button on the Tool Bar

Figure 33a
4. Online Mode

Fig. 33a rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif;

vrf; nTef

Click on [Online Mode] button on the Tool Bar

ukd ESdyfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

146

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Figure 35a

Click on [Yes] button

Figure 36a
Virtual PLC udk RUN zkdYtwGuf Tool Bar ay:u Run ukdESdyfyg/

Figure 38a

Click on [Run] button

Figure 39a

Click on [Yes] button

tckvkyfcJhwJh tvkyfawGukd atmufrSm twkdcsKyf a&;jyxm;ygw,f/


User Program a&;NyD;&if Compiler Ladder => Instruction

Simulator

Unblock Online Mode Yes Run Yes

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

147

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

X0 ukd ON MunhfzdkYtwGuf X0 ay:rSm Cursor csyg/ Right click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/

Figure 41a

Click on [Set On ]

'DtcgrSm X0 a&m Y0 yg tpdrf;a&mif Highlighted jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

Figure 42a
X0 = ON, jzpfwmeJU Y0 = ON, jzpfwmukd tpdrf;a&mif Highlight eJY
tpdrf;a&mif Highlight &JU t"dyg,fu True vkdY jzpfygw,f/

NyD;&if X0 ay: Cursor csNyD; right click ESdyf?

Figure 43a

azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/

Set Off vkyfygr,f/

Click on [ Set Off ]

'DtcgrSm X0 a&m? Y0 ygtpdrf;a&mif Highlight aysmufuG,foGm;ygw,f/ t"dyg,fu X0


[m ON r[kwfbl; (False), Y0 uvnf; ON r[kwfbl; (False) vkdY azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/
Examine ON [m ON jzpf&if True jzpfygw,f/ (ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;wm ON
awGUvkdY rSefw,f qkdwJUt"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/)
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

148

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Examine OFF [m OFF jzpf&if True jzpfygw,f/ (OFF jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;wm


OFF awGUvkdY rSefw,f qkdwJUt"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/)
Logical True jzpfvkdY instruction code symbol ukd Highlight tpdrf;a&mifeJUazmfjywm jzpfyg

w,f/

Figure 44a
X0

Scan time shown on Status Bar

( Y0 )

vkdY a&;xm;wmukd MunhfNyD; t"dyg,fazmfMunhf&rSmu


{X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;Munhfyg/ [kwfrSefcJh&if Y0 ukd ON vkdufyg} vkdY
t"dyg,fukd odjrif&rSm jzpfygw,f/
'D instruction pmaMumif;&JU aemufuG,frSm&SdaewJh t"dyg,fwpfcku
{X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;Munhfyg/ r[kwfcJh?rrSefcJh&if Y0 ukd r ON ygeJY}
qkdwJh t"dyg,f jzpfygw,f/
[kwfw,f? rSefw,fqdkwmukd True vkdY ac:ygw,f/ r[kwfbl;? rrSefbl;qkdwmukd Flase
vkdY ac:ygw,f/
[kwfrS vkyf? r[kwf&if rvkyfeJY qkdwJh oabmt"dyg,fjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

149

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

aemufxyf Example program 1ck xyfa&;Munhf&atmif/


Example program: 2
File New SS2

X0

( Y10 )

vkdY a&;NyD;&if

Compiler Ladder => Instruction

Simulator Online Mode Yes vkyfyg/

(Simulator ukd ON xm;NyD;om;jzpfae&if Screen &JU atmufajcrSm&SdwJh Task Bar rSm


Simulator qkdwJh pm ay:aeygvdrhfr,f/)
'DtcgrSm jrifawGU&wmukd aoaocsmcsm Munhfyg/
X0
qkdwJh instruction code [m pdrf;aeygw,f/ True jzpfaMumif; azmfjywm
jzpfygw,f/

tcka&;xm;wJh program &JU t"dyg,fu X0 = OFF jzpf&if Y10 ukd ON vkdufygvkdY


ckdif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
X0 [m OFF jzpfaevkdY Highlight jzpfaeayr,fh Y10 uawmh Highlight jzpfraeygbl;/
Highlight rjzpfwm[m False jzpfaew,fvkdY azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/ Y10 = OFF jzpfaew,f
vkdY azmfjyaewm jzpfygw,f/
bmaMumifhvJqdkawmh PLC u Stop jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/ Status Bar rSm STOP qkdwJh
pmvHk;udk teDa&mifeJY ay:aewmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ WPLSoft udk Computer ay:rSm Run
xm;NyD;rS tcka&;jycJhwmawGudk zwfvdkuf? a&;vdkuf? Munfhvdkuf? vkyf&if ydkNyD;oabmayguf
ygvdrfhr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

150

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/

'DawmhrS X0 a&m Y10 yg pdrf;oGm;wmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/

tcka&;xm;wJh program &JU t"dyg,fu


a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/

X0 = OFF

jzpfcJh&if

Y10

ukd

ON

vkdufygvkdY

Time Chart

tckjyxm;wJh

Time Chart &JU

t"dyg,fu
X0 = OFF jzpfcJh&if Y10 [m ON jzpfaeNyD;?
X0 = ON jzpfcJh&if Y10 [m OFF jzpfaewmukd azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

151

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

aemufxyf program wpfckxyfa&;ygr,f/


Example program: 3
Program topfa&;zkdY File New vkyfr,f qkd&if Online Mode ukd t&ifjyefjzKwfNyD;rS
File New SS2 ukd a&G;vkdY&ygw,f/
tcka&;r,fh program u instruction pmaMumif; 2 aMumif;ygwJh program jzpfygw,f/
yxr instruction code pmaMumif;u X0 [m ON jzpf&if Y1 udk ON vkdufyg? vkdY jzpfNyD;
'kwd, instruction code pmaMumif;u X0 = OFF jzpf&if Y2 ukd ON vkdufyg? vkdY jzpfygw,f/

txufyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; a&;NyD; Compile vkyfvkduf&if atmufqHk;pmaMumif;rSm


END qkdwJh Instruction code ay:vmwmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ atmufyHkudk Munhfyg/

Online Mode icon ukd

ESdyfvkdufwJhtcg

Warning Box ay:vmygvdrfhr,f/

tck a&;xm;wJh program ukd PLC xJa&;xnfhwm download vkyfrvm;vkdY ar;wm jzpfyg
w,f/ Simulator ukd ON xm;NyD;rS Online Mode ukd ESdyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
'DtcsdefrSm computer eJY bm PLC eJYrS wu,fqufoG,frxm;ygbl;/ Simulator software
xJrSm&SdwJh PLC vkdvkyfaqmifwJh Virtual PLC xJukd download vkyfrvm;vkdY ar;wm jzpfyg
w,f/
PLC ukd t&if RUN xm;NyD;rS Online Mode udk ESdyfyg/ Download vkyfrSmvm;vkdY ar;wJh
tcg YES ukd ESdyfvkduf&if aemufxyf Warning box 1ck xyfay:vmygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

152

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC ukd RUN aewHk; download vkyfcGifhr&Sdbl;vkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ PLC xJukd program
a&;xnhfwJhtcg PLC xJrSm&SdNyD;om; program ukd tukefzsufNyD;rS program topfudk a&;wm

jzpfvkdY qufvkyfrSmvm;vkdY ar;wmjzpfygw,f/


qufvkyfr,fqkdNyD; Yes ukd ESdyfvkdufwJhtcg PLC udk t&if STOP vkyfygw,f/ NyD;rS
zsufwm delete udk vkyfygw,f/ NyD;rS program topfa&;ygw,f/
Yes ukd xyfESdyfvkduf&if atmufyHkrSm jyxm;wJh Write to PLC qkdwJh tjyma&mif wHk;
uav;awG zsyfceJay:vmNyD; virtual PLC xJrSma&;NyD;om; jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

Write to PLC

qdkwJh tjyma&mifwHk;av;awG zsyfceJay:vmNyD;&if

Confirm box

xyf

ay:vmygw,f/

PLC ukd
Monitor Screen

jyef RUN rSmvm;vkdY ar;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm Yes ukd ESdyfvkduf&if


&JU atmufajctv,favmufrSm RUN qkdwJhpmukd tpdrf;a&mifeJYawGU&rSm

jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

153

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; PLC ukd Stop vkyfvkduf&if tJ'Dae&mrSm STOP qkdwJhpmudk


teDa&mifeJY azmfjyaeygw,f/ oleJYuyfvsufnmzufrSm Simulator qkdwJh pmay:aeygvdrfhr,f/

Simulator udk ON xm;w,fvkdY azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/ tay:buf Tool Bar rSm&SdwJh


Simulator icon udk Munfhyg/ ESdyfxm;wJhyHkpHtjzpfeJY azmfjyaeygw,f/ Simulator icon ukd
xyfESdyfvkduf&if atmufajcrSm ay:aewJh Simulator qkdwJhpm aysmufoGm;ygw,f/
Simulator = OFF jzpfoGm;wJh oabm jzpfygw,f/
tcka&;cJhwJh Example program oHk;ckpvHk;rSm program a&;NyD;vkdY compile vkyfvkdufwJh
tcgwkdif; END qkdwJh instruction code 1ck xyfwkd;vmwmukd owdjyKrdMur,f xifygw,f/
WPLSoft u xyfjznfh ay;vkdufwJh instruction code jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY a&;wJh PLC program wkdif;ukd END qdkwJh instruction eJY tqHk;owf&ygw,f/
'grSom PLC u olUukdckdif;xm;wJh instruction NyD;qHk;aMumif;ukd odygw,f/ Version edrfhwJh
tcsdKU programming software awGrSm END qkdwmukd program a&;wJhvl programmer u
xnhfa&; ay;&ygw,f/ END ukd a&;rxm;bJ compile vkyfvkduf&if error jyygw,f/ Version
jrihfwJh software awGrSm END ukd xnhfa&;ay;p&mrvkdawmhygbl;/
Example program: 3 &JU b,fbufjcrf;rSm 0, 2, 4, 7919 vkdY txufatmuf ay:aewJh
*Pef;awGudk program step vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Memory Step jzpfygw,f/ One Step [m One
Word vkdY rSwf,lvkdY &ygw,f/ 7919 qkdwmuawmh total memory size jzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2 qkdwJh PLC [m program step aygif; 7919 steps txd vufcHaqmif&Guf

EkdifpGrf; &Sdw,fvkdY azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

154

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Example program: 2

ukd

Keyboard Shortcut

vrf; nTef

awGoHk;NyD; a&;wJhenf;udk atmufrSmazmfjy

xm;ygw,f/
X0
a&;&r,fh program u
( Y0 ) jzpfygw,f/
WPLSoft ukd zGifhyg/ Menu Bar ay:rSm&SdwJh File New SS2 OK ukd
ESdyfNyD;wJhtcg Maximize ESdyfNyD; Screen ukd csJUyg/ Cursor ukd tpjyK&r,fhae&m initial point
rSm ae&mcsyg/
NyD;&if keyboard ay:u Enter ukd ESdyfyg/ ay:vmwJh box xJrSm LD vkdY kdufNyD; Space
bar ukd 1csuf ESdyfyg? X0 vkdY qufdkufNyD; Enter ukd ESdyfyg/ (O tkd eJY 0 oHknukd rrSm;ygapeJY)
Enter ukd xyfESdyfyg/ ay:vmwJh box xJrSm out vkdY dkufxnfhNyD; <space> ESdyf? Y0 vkdY dkufNyD;?
<Enter> ESdyfvkduf&if atmufyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; ay:vmygw,f/

Compile vkyfzkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> eJU <F9> ukd wGJESdyfyg/


atmufyHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; END ay:vmygw,f/

NyD;&if <Enter> ukd 1csuf ESdyfyg/

NyD;&if Tool Bar ay:u Simulator icon udk ESdyfyg/ Task Bar rSm Simulator qkdwJh pm
ay:vmygvdrfhr,f/ NyD;&if virtual PLC xJ a&;xnfhzkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> eJY <T> ukd wGJESdyfyg/
<Enter> ukd 1csuf ESdyfyg/
Online Mode vkyfzkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> &,f? <Alt> &,f? <O> &,f? ukd wGJESdyfyg/ NyD;&if
virtual PLC ukd RUN zkdYtwGuf <Ctrl> eJY <F8> udk wGJESdyfyg/
Task Bar ay:rSm RUN qkdwJh tpdrf;a&mifpmwrf; ay:vmNyD; X0 [m Highlight jzpfaeyg
vdrhfr,f/ Y0 vnf; Highlight jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f/ t"dyg,fu X 0 [m X0 = OFF jzpfae
vkdY True jzpfwJhtwGuf Y0 [m ON jzpfaew,f vkdY azmfjywmjzpfygw,f/
X0 ay: Cursor csNyD;? right click ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ 'DtcgrSm X0 [m Highlight aysmuf
oGm;NyD;
vkdY

Y0 vnf; Highlight aysmufoGm;ygw,f/

False

t"dyg,fu

X0

[m

X0 = ON jzpfoGm;

jzpfwJhtwGuf Y0 [m OFF jzpfoGm;w,fvkdY azmfjywm jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

155

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'Dtxd zwfvkdY em;vnfrS? oabmaygufrS? a&SUqufzwfzkdY wkdufwGef;ygw,f/


em;rvnfao;&if Computer ay:rSm program a&;NyD; apmapmu ajymcJhwmawGukd
xyfcgxyfcg prf;vkyfMunhfyg/ NyD;&if pOf;pm;yg/ a&;om; azmfjyxm;wmawGukd [kwfw,f?
rSefw,f? vkdY em;vnfvufcHNyD;rS a&SUqufwufoifhygw,f/

tjcm;ol wpfa,mufukd &Sif;jyEkdifwJhtxd ykdifEkdifatmifavhusihfyg/


Examine ON X0 [m X0 = ON jzpf&if True jzpfw,f/
Examine OFF X0 [m X0 = OFF jzpf&if True jzpfw,f/
Highlight

True jzpfwmukd azmfjywmyJvkdY &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odem;vnfxm;rSom


Program awGudk rSefrSefuefuef t"dyg,fazmfwwf? interpret vkyfwwf? rSm

olrsm; a&;xm;wJh
jzpfygw,f/
aemufwqifhu Logic AND eJY Logic OR taMumif; qufNyD;avhvm&rSm jzpfyg
w,f/ AND eJY OR ukd rajymcif bmaMumifh X0 eJY Y0 vkdY a&;&wmvJqkdwmukd
t&if&Sif;jyygr,f/
tcka&;cJhwJh Example Program 3ck pvHk;udk Delta Electronics u xkwfvkyfwJh wu,fY
PLC jzpfwJh DVP-14SS2 xJukd a&;xnfhNyD; PLC ukd RUN vkdY &wJh WPLSoft vkdY ac:wJh
programming software eJY a&;NyD; WPLSoft xJrSm tqifoifhyg0ifNyD;om; Simulator software
eJY prf;oyfMunhfcJhwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC program 1ckukd a&;awmhr,fqkd&if toHk;jyKr,fY PLC &JU type udk t&ifa&G;cs,f
owfrSwf&ygw,f/ tcka&G;cs,fowfrSwfxm;wJh PLC u DVP-14SS2 jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D SS2
&JU Memory rSm ae&mawG cGJa0owfrSwfxm;yHkukd Memory Map of SS2 rSm azmfjyxm;yg
w,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

156

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

157

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tJ'D Memory Map of SS2 udk Munhfvkduf&if Input terminal twGuf Input Image
Memory ukd X0 to X377 vkdY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ Output terminal twGuf Output Image
Memory ukd Y0 to Y377 vkdY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ DVP-14SS2 rSm Input terminal 8ck eJY
Output terminal 6ckyJ yg&Sdygw,f/ I/O eJY oufqkdifwJh memory rSmawmh X0 uae X377 txd
eJY Y0 uae Y377 txdvkdY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ X eJY Y &JU memory ae&m ta&twGufukd
Octal Number System eJY a&wGufygw,f/ 'gaMumifh SS2 &JU memory xJrSm X twGufu 256
ae&m (256 bits) Y twGufu 256 ae&m (256 bits) &Sdygw,f/
X0
vkdY a&; xm;wJhtcg
ukd Opcode (Operator) vkdY ac:ygw,f/ X0 udk
Operand (Address) vkdY ac:ygw,f/ X0 vkdY a&;xm;wJhtxJu X ukd Device name, 0 ukd
Device address vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Input ukd X vkdY owfrSwfNyD; Output ukd Y vkdY owfrSwfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Opcode qkdwm vkyf&r,fYtvkyfjzpfNyD;? Operand qkdwmvkyf&r,fYae&mudk qkdvkdyg
w,f/ X 0
&JU t"dyg,fu Input Image Memory xJu X0 qkdwJh bit [m ON jzpfae
ovm;vkdY ppfaq;ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaewmawGU&if True jzpfygw,f/
( Y0 ) vkdY a&;wJhtcgrSm ( ) u Opcode jzpfNyD; Y0 u Operand jzpfygw,f/
( Y0 ) [m olU&JUb,fbufrSm&SdwJh condition eJY jynhfpHk&if Y0 ukd ON vkdufyg vkdY
ckdif;apwm jzpfygw,f/ Output image memory xJu Y0 qkdwJh bit ae&mrSm 1 (ON) vkdY
a&;rSwfvkdufygvkdY ckdif;apwm jzpfygw,f/
X0
'gaMumifh
udk read instruction vkdY ac:NyD; ( Y0 ) udk write instruction vkdY
ac:ygw,f/
uvnf; read instruction trsdK;tpm;yJ jzpfygw,f/ Memory rSm a&;rSwf xm;
wmukd zwfMunhfckdif;wm read vkyfckdif;wmjzpfvkdY read instruction vkdY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
PLC oHk;rsdK;rSm Basic Instruction Code &JU Operand owfrSwfxm;yHkcsif; rwlwmukd
atmufrSm EdkSif;,SOfazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
Model :
Input :
Output :
LD :
Software:

1. Delta PLC

2. Omron PLC

3. Siemens PLC

DVP-14SS2
X0 to X377
Y0 to Y 377

CPM1A-20CDR
0.00 to 9.15
10.00 to 19.15

S7-200CPU224
I0.0 to I15.7
Q 0.0 to Q 15.7

X0

WPLSoft

0.00

10.00

( Y0 )
CX Programmer

I 0.0

Q 0.0

STEP 7-Micro/WIN

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

158

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

1. Delta PLC
X0 to X377 txd input memory bit aygif; 256 ck&Sdygw,f/ Y0 to
Y377 txd uvnf; output memory bit aygif; 256bits &Sdygw,f/ Octal number eJY azmfjywm
jzpfygw,f/ X u Input ukd &nfTef;NyD; Y u output ukd &nfTef;wm jzpfygw,f/ Program
a&;r,fqkd&if WPLSoft eJY a&;&ygw,f/
DVP-14SS2

rSm

2. Omron PLC

rSm 0.00 to 9.15 txd input memory bit aygif; 160 bits &Sdygw,f/
0.00 rSmyg&SdwJh b,ftpGefu 0 [m word &JUeHygwf jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D 0 aemufu dot u word
eJY bit udk separate vkyf ykdif;jcm;xm;wJhoauFw jzpfygw,f/ Separator vkdY ac:ygw,f/ tJ'D
dot aemufu 00 [m bit &JU eHygwf jzpfygw,f/ 0.00 to 9.15 txd qdkawmh word 0 &JU bit 0
uae word 9 &JU bit 15 txd bit aygif; 160 &Sdygw,f/ Output tjzpf word 10 uae word
19 txd owfrSwfxm;wJhtwGuf output memory bit aygif; 160 &Sdygw,f/ Program a&;r,f
qkd&if CX-Programmer eJY a&;&ygw,f/
CPM1A-20CDR

3. Siemens PLC
S7-200 CPU224 rSm I0.0 to I15.7 txd input memory bit aygif; 128 bits &Sdygw,f/
Q0.0 to Q15.7 txdvnf; output memory bit aygif; 128 bits &Sdygw,f/ I ukd input vkdY
owfrSwfNyD; Q ukd output vkdY owfrSwf xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ I0.0 qdkwmuawmh Input Byte 0
&JU bit 0 vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/ I15.7 qkdwmu Input Byte 15 &JU bit 7 vkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
'gaMumihf memory xJrSm Input twGuf Byte 16 bytes pm ae&m&Sdygw,f/ One byte rSm 8
bits &SdvkdY pkpkaygif; 128 bits jzpfygw,f/ Program a&;r,fqkd&if STEP 7-Micro/WIN eJY

a&;&ygw,f/
Output ukd ON ckdif;wJh instruction code &JUoauFw symbol ukdvnf; Delta eJY Semens
u ( ) 'DykHeJY azmfjyayrJh Omron uawmh
'DyHkeJY azmfjyygw,f/

xkwfvkyfol awmfawmfrsm;rsm;u input ukd X, output ukd Y vkdY owfrSwfMu


ygw,f/ toHk;jyKol User awGtwGuf LD eJY program a&;zkdY oif,l&mrSm vG,fulapygw,f/
PLC

'DpmtkyfrSm Program taMumif;&Sif;jywJhtcg DVP-14SS2 ukdoHk;NyD; &Sif;jy&wJh


taMumif;&if;u program a&;wJh software (WPLSoft) ukd Delta Automation &JU webiste
rSm w&m;0iftcrJh ay;xm;wmjzpfNyD;? Simulator ukdyg tJ'D WPLSoft xJrSm built-in
xnfhay; xm;vkdY jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

159

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'Dawmh

PLC r&SdbJeJY program a&;NyD; virtual PLC eJY RUN MunhfvkdY &wJhtwGuf
instruction code awG&JU vkyfaqmifcsufukd ppfaq;MunhfvkdY &ygw,f/ OEM &JU Manual
awGrSmvnf; yHkESdyftrSm; printing error awG &Sdwwfygw,f/ Instruction code topf 1ck ukd
awGUwJhtcg OEM &JU Manual rSm olU&JU t"dyg,fowfrSwfcsufukd t&if&Smzwf&ygr,f/ NyD;&if
erlem program a&;prf; Munhf&ygr,f/ tJ'D code &JU function ukd taotcsmodNyDqkdrS
wu,fY Project awGrSm a&;NyD; oHk;oihfygw,f/ vufawGUvkyfief; aqmif&GufwJh ae&mrSm

jrefzkdYxuf? rSefzkdYu ykdta&;BuD; ygw,f/


Logical AND Function Program

tck Logical AND Function ukd LD eJY program b,fvkda&;&w,f qkdwmukd


qufvufazmfjyygr,f/ (vufawGUprf;oyfzdkY PLC r&SdwJholawGu tcka&;om;azmfjy xm;wm
awGukd pdwful;eJY yHkazmfMunhfNyD; Simulator eJY RUN MunfhvkdY &ygw,f)/
Logic AND &JU t"dyg,fu AND vkyfxm; wmawG tm;vHk; ON jzpfrS AND &JU Logic
Result u ON jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY program a&; NyD;vufawGUprf;MunhfzkdYtwGuf vkdtyfwJh ypnf;awGuawmh PLC
1vHk; = DVP-14SS2-11R, Pushbutton (N.O) 2ck? 24V, 3W Lamp 1vHk;? 24VDC power
supply 1ck wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
P.B 1

Lamp 1
Y0

X0
P.B 2
X1

Delta PLC = DVP14SS2-11R

COM 0

+
24V

24V
+ S/S

Input Terminal

Output Terminal

yHk(u) Wiring
yHk(u)rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; wiring jyKvkyf&ygr,f/ Output terminal Y0 rSm 24V, 3W
lamp udk qufoG,fxm;&ygr,f/ P.B1 ukd Input terminal X0 rSmqufoG,fNyD; P.B2 ukd
Input terminal X1 rSm qufoG,fxm;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 wkdY 2ck pvHk;[m
ESdyfvkdufrS close jzpfwJh N.O contact trsdK;tpm; pushbutton awG jzpfMuygw,f/ P.B1 ukd
ESdyf&if X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? ESdyfxm;wmukd jyefvTwfvkduf&if X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

160

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'DvkdrsdK;

pushbutton ukd momentary contact ygwJh pushbutton vkdY ac:ygw,f/ (Simulator


eJY prf;r,fh olawGu P.B1 ukd ESdyfwJh condition tjzpf X0 ukd Set On vkyfay;&ygr,f/
jyefvTwfwJh condition jzpfatmif X0 ukd Set Off jyefvkyfay;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ 'DvkdvkyfrS P.B1
ukd ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJh function jzpfygw,f/)

yHk(A) Program

Y0

Time Chart

yHk(A)rSm azmfjyxm;wJhtwkdif; LD program ukda&;yg/ Program a&;NyD;&if compile vkyfyg/


DVP-14SS2-11R ukd 24VDC power supply eJY qufoG,fyg/ PLC ay:u PWR rD;
vif;vm&if programming cable ukd (PC PLC) qufoG,fyg/ 'Dae&mrSm tck program
a&;xm;wJh Computer u COM port (RS-232 port) rygwJh Computer rsdK;? Oyrm? (Laptop)
jzpfcJh&if RS-232 to USB Converter &SdrSom programming cable ukd qufvkYd&ygr,f/
USB Converter cable rsm;pGm&SdwJhtxJu oHk;&wmtqifajywJh cable uawmh ATEN
International Co. Ltd. u xkwfvkyfwJh UC-232A USB-to-Serial Converter jzpfygw,f/ olUukd
oHk;r,fqkd&if UC-232A cable ukd 0,f,lpOfu ygvmwJh driver CD ukd Computer xJxnhfNyD;
driver software ukd t&if install vkyf&ygw,f/ 'gu Computer eJY UC-232A cable ukd
rdwfqufay;wm jzpfygw,f/
Computer eJY PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) ukd programming cable eJY qufoG,fNyD;&if
WPLSoft xJrSm a&;xm;wJh program ukd PLC xJ a&;xnhfzkdY Tool Bar ay:u Write to PLC
qkdwJh icon ukd ESdyfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

161

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

PLC xJukd

a&;xm;wJh program a&mufoGm;NyDqkd&if


(1) PLC ay:u RUN rD;vHk; vif;ovm;? rvif;bl;vm;? qkdwmukd t&ifMunhfyg/
RUN LED rD; rvif;&if PLC ay:rSm yg&SdwJh RUN/STOP switch ukd Stop
ae&mrSm t&ifxm;vdkufNyD; RUN ae&mukd a&TUvkdufyg/ RUN LED rD; vif;
vmygvdrfhr,f/
(2) P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;yg/ PLC ay:u X0 vkdY a&;xm;wJh LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD;
vif;wmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ Y0 LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD; rvif;yg/ P.B1 ukd
jyefvTwfvkdufyg/
(3) P.B2 ukd ESdyfxm;yg/ PLC ay:u X1 LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD; vif;wmudk
awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ Y0 LED udk Munfhyg/ LED rD; rvif;yg/ P.B2 ukd jyefvTwf
vkdufyg/
(4) P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;yg/ P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;pOf P.B2 ukd xyfESdyfyg/ PLC ay:u X0
LED, X1 LED eJY Y0 LED oHk;vHk;pvHk; rD;vif;wmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ Output
terminal Y0 rSm Lamp1 ukd qufoG,fxm;wJhtwGuf Lamp1 yg rD;vif;wmukd
awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/
(5) WPLSoft &JU Tool Bar ay:u Online Mode ukd ESdyfyg/

'DtcgrSm PLC xJu vkyfaqmifcsufawGukd Computer Screen ay:rSm MunhfvkdY&ygNyD/


P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd apmapmuprf;ovkd xyfESdyfMunhfyg/ Time chart rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif;
X0 a&m? X1 yg ON jzpfrS Y0 = ON jzpfwmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ PLC ukd STOP vkyf
NyD;awmhvnf; P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd ESdyfMunhfyg/ PLC ukd RUN vkyf NyD;awmhvnf; P.B1 eJY P.B2
ukd ESdyfMunhfyg/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

162

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Logical OR Function Program


Logic OR function qkw
d mu OR vkyfxm;wmawGxJu 1ck ON &if OR &JU logic result
u ON jzpfygw,f/ OR vkyfxm;wmtm;vHk; ON jzpf&ifvnf; result u ON jzpfygw,f/
vufawGUprf;zdkYtwGuf AND function rSmwHk;u vdkyJ P.B1 ukd X0 eJY qufyg? PB2 ukd X1 eJY
qufyg? Lamp1 ukd Y0 eJY qufoG,fxm;yg/ OR function ukd LD eJY program a&;wJhtcgrSm
yHk(B) rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; a&;&ygw,f/ Vertical line ukd a&;csif&if X0 &JU nmbufrSm
Cursor csNyD; <F9> udk ESdyfyg/

yHk(B) Program

Y0

Time chart

yHk(B) utwkdif; WPLSoft rSm a&;NyD;&if Compile vkyfyg/ PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) ukd
24VDC Supply ay;yg/ PLC eJY Computer ukd programming cable eJY qufoG,fyg/ PLC
ay:u PWR LED rD;? vif;aeNyDqkd&if <Ctrl> eJY <T> ukd wGJESdyfyg/ 'gu Write to PLC
vkyfckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/ PLC ay:u RUN LED rD;? rvif;&if <Ctrl> eJY <F8> ukd wGJESdyfyg/
PLC udk RUN ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/ RUN LED rD;? vif;vmygvdrhfr,f/
OR function ukd prf;zkdYtwGuf P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;yg/ X0 = ON, eJY Y0 = ON jzpfNyD; terminal
Y0 rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh Lamp1 rD;vif;vmygvdrfhr,f/ P.B1 ukd jyefvTwfvkduf&if Y0 LED =
OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygvdrhfr,f/ P.B2 ukd ESdyfMunhfyg/ Lamp1 rD;vif;wmukd awGU&ygvdrhfr,f/
jyefvTwfvkduf&if? Lamp1 rD; Nidrf;oGm;ygvdrhfr,f/
'Dwcg P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd wGJESdyfyg/ Y0 = ON eJY Lamp1 = ON jzpfwmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/
Time chart rSm azmfjyxm;wmeJY EdIif;,SOfMunhfyg/ pOf;pm;yg/ 'gqkd&if OR &JU vkyfaqmifcsuf
ukd em;vnfoabmaygufygvdrfhr,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

163

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

eJY vufawGUprf;oyfcGifh r&ao;olawGtwGuf


azmfjyygr,f/
PLC

Simulator

vrf; nTef

eJY prf;oyfyHkukd

LD eJY program a&;NyD;&if

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)

Compile vkyfyg/
Simulator udk

ESdyfyg/ Task Bar rSm Simulator qkdwJh pmwrf;ay:vmygvdrfhr,f/


Wirte to PLC vkyfyg/
Online Mode ukd ESdyfyg/ Task Bar ukd Munhfyg/
STOP qkdwJh teDa&mifpm ay:ae&if <Ctrl> eJY <F8> ukd wGJESdyfNyD; virtual PLC ukd
RUN vkdufyg/
(6) OR function ukd prf;MunhfzkdY X0 ay: Cursor csNyD;? Right Click ESdyfyg/
(7) NyD;&if Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfoGm;wmukd tpdrf;a&mif Highlight eJY
awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ X0 ay: Cursor csNyD;? R.C ESdyf? Set Off vkyfyg/
(8) X1 ay: Cursor cs? R.C ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfwmukd Highlight eJY
jyaeygvdrhfr,f/ NyD;&if Set Off jyefvkyfyg/
(9) X0 ay: Cursor csNyD; R.C ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ NyD;&if X1 ay: Cursor cs? R.C ESdyf?
Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfaeygw,f/
(10) X0 ay: Cursor cs? Set Off vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfaeqJygyJ/ X1 ay: Cursor cs?
Set Off vkyfvkdufawmhrS Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
tckqkd&if PLC &SdwJholawGu Programming cable qufNyD; PLC xJu vkyfaqmifcsuf
function awGukd Online Mode eJY MunhfwwfNyD jzpfygw,f/ PLC r&SdwJholawGuvnf;
Simulator ukd ON NyD; Online Mode eJY prf;MunhfwwfNyD jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

164

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'gaMumifh a&hSqufa&;r,fh Logic Function awGtaMumif;ukd prf;oyfenf;awG csefvSyfNyD;


&Sif;jyoGm;ygr,f/ tck Logic AND eJY Logic OR ukd aygif;pyfNyD; program a&;NyD; ckdif;wJhtcg
PLC u aqmif&GufyHkukd qufvufazmfjyrSm jzpfygw,f/ AND eJY OR udk ykHpHtrsdK;rsdK;eJY
aygif;a&;vkdY&ygw,f/ tJ'Dvkdaygif;pyfxm;wJh Logic ukd Logic Block vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Logic
tpktzGJU jzpfygw,f/ tck AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wJh program taMumif; &Sif;jy
ygr,f/

yHk#1

Y0
Y0

Y0

yHk#1 rSm jrif&wJh AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wJh LD program udk WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD;
Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&if X0 eJY X1 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&ifvnf; Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X2 eJY
X3 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&ifvnf; Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0, X1, X2 eJY X3 4ckpvHk; ON
jzpf&ifvnf; Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ 'Dtajctae oHk;rsdK;rSmom Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

165

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yHk#2

Y0
Y0

Y0

yHk#2 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh program u OR Block 2ck ukd AND vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
tJ'gudk WPLSoft rSma&;NyD; Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&if?
(1) X0 eJY X2 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(2) X1 eJY X3 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(3) X0 eJY X3 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(4) X1 eJY X2 2ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(5) X0, X1 eJY X2 3ck pvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(6) X0, X1 eJY X3 3ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(7) X0, X2 eJY X3 3ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(8) X1, X2 eJU X3 3ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if?
(9) X0, X1, X2 eJY X4 4ckpvHk; ON jzpf&if? qkdwJh tajctae condition ukd;rsdK;rSm
Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

166

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yHk#3
yHk#3 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh program u AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wmyJ jzpfygw,f/
'gayr,fh? PLC &JU input terminal X0 eJY X1 udkomoHk;xm;wJh 2-input XOR &JUvkyfaqmifcsuf
function twdkif;aqmif&GufwJh program jzpfygw,f/ 'D program udk WPLSoft rSma&;NyD;
Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&if?
(1) X0 = ON, jzpfNyD;? X1 = OFF jzpfcJh&if?
(2) X0 = OFF, jzpfNyD;? X1 = ON jzpfcJh&if? qkdwJh condition 2rsdK;rSmom Y2 = ON
jzpfygw,f/
'gudk Exclusive OR (XOR) vkdY ac:ygw,f/ XOR &JU Truth Table eJY wGJMunhf&if em;vnf
ygvdrfhr,f/ XOR function qkdwmu XOR vkyfxm;wmawGxJu 1ckxJ ON rS logic result u
ON jzpfygw,f/
tck&Sif;jycJhwJh program 3ck #1, #2 eJY #3 ukd 'DvkdyHkpHeJY ajymif;a&;NyD; Munhf&atmif/

ukd
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = ON)] OR [(X2 = ON) AND (X3 = ON)] THEN [(Y1 to be ON]

tu,f [X0 a&m X1 yg ON jzpf&if] okdYr[kwf [X2 a&m X3 yg ON jzpf&if]


'gukdvkyfyg [Y2 ukd ON vkdufyg ]
'DvkdyHkpHcsNyD; a&;Munfhvkduf&if AND 2ckukd OR vkyfxm;wJht"dyg,f ay:vGifvmyg
w,f/

ukd
IF [(X0 = ON) OR (X1 = ON)] AND [(X2 = ON) OR (X3 = ON)] THEN [Y2 => ON]

tu,f [X0eJYX12ckrSm1ckON] jzpfNyD; [X2eJYX32ckrSm1ckON] jzpfcJh&if [Y2ukdON] vkdufyg/


'DvkdyHkpHajymif;a&;MunhfwJhtcg OR Block 2ckukd AND vkyfxm;wJhyHkpHudk jrifawGU&rSm
jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

167

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

ukd
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = OFF)] OR [(X0 = OFF) AND (X1 = ON)] THEN [(Y2 => ON]

tu,f X0 = ON jzpfaewJhtcgrSm X1 = OFF jzpfaeNyD; 'grSr[kwf X0 = OFF


jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm X1 = ON jzpfaecJhr,fqkd&if Y2 ukd ON vkdufyg/
'DvkdyHkpHcs Munfhvkduf awmh AND Block 2ckukd OR vkyfxm;wm awGU&ygw,f/
'DtxdzwfMunfhvdkYvnf;NyD;NyD? a&;xm;wJhtwkdif;vnf; vkdufvkyfMunhfNyD;NyD? 'gayr,fh
em;rvnfEdkifao;bl;qdk&if Logic taMumif;ukd jyefzwfMunhfyg/ tckqufvufa&;om;
azmfjyrSm awGuawmh LD program ukd a&;wwf? prf;wwfNyD; jzpfwJh olawGtwGuf &nf&G,fyg
w,f/
WPLSoft eJY LD program a&;enf;? PLC eJY prf;enf;? PLC rygbJ Simulator eJY prf;enf;
awGukd em;vnfatmif zwfMunhf? a&;prf;Munhf? NyD;rS a&SUqufzufzkdY wkdufwGef;ygw,f/
zwfMunhf? a&;prf;MunhfNyD;vkdYrS em;rvnfao;&if? ajz;ajz;jyefzwfNyD; pOf;pm;yg/ vufawGU
vkyfMunhfyg/ taMumif;eJYtusdK;qufpyfNyD;em;vnfrS oabmaygufwJhtqifhukd a&mufvmrSm
jzpfygw,f/
LD Program rSm a&;xm;wJh yHkpH Format u atmufyg twkdif; jzpfygw,f/
IF (Condition is True) THEN (Execute the Instruction)

tu,f (azmfjyxm;wJhtajctaetwkdif;&SdcJh?jzpfcJh&if) xkdYaemuf (TefMum;xm;wJhtwkdi f; aqmif&Gufyg )


Program xJrSmygwJh open contact eJY closed contact yHkawGukd jrifawGU&wJhtcg ON ovm;
vkdY ppfaq;ckdif;wm? eJY OFF ovm;vkdY ppfaq;ckdif;wJh instruction code awGvkdY od&rSm?
em;vnf&rSm? jzpfygw,f/ 'DvkdrSr[kwfbJ contact awGtjzpfeJYom jrifodaeao;&ifawmh
program ukd zwfNyD; em;vnfzkdY tvSrf;a0;aeygao;w,f/
Program qkdwm Software jzpfygw,f/ LD program xJrSm hardware jzpfwJh contact awG
r&Sdygbl;/ Software jzpfwJh Instruction Code awGyJ&Sdygw,f/ tJ'D code awGukd kyfyHkeJY
ukd,fpm;jyKNyD; azmfjyxm;wJh Open contact, Closed contact eJY Coil wk&Yd JU oauFw kyfyHk

awGudk xGif;azmufNyD; t"dyg,fudk oabmaygufatmif OmPfeJY Munhfjrif&rSm jzpfygw,f/


em;vnfw,f? oabmaygufw,f? qkdwm OmPf&JU tvkyfjzpfygw,f/ OmPfeJY Munhf rSom
trSefukdodygw,f/ trSefukd odrS ynm jzpfygw,f/ Examine ON qdkwJh instruction ukd LD
(Ladder Diagram) rSm kyfyHkeJY code vkyfygw,f/ IL (Instruction List) rSm pmeJY code vkyfyg
w,f/ Examine ON ukd LD rSm open contact kyfyHkeJY code vkyfNyD;? IL rSm LD qkdwJh pmvHk;eJY
code vkyfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

168

OD;pdk;wifh
'gukdvufawGUod&atmifvdkY LD eJY Program a&; Munhfygr,f/
topfa&;zkdY File New vkyfyg/
(1) b,ftpGefrSm Cursor csNyD;? Enter acguf?
(2) LD qkdwJh pmvHk; kdfufxnhf?
(3) Space Bar 1csuf acguf?
(4) X0 qkdwJh pmvHk;ukd kdufxnhfNyD;?
(5) Enter acgufvkduf&if?

PLC

vrf; nTef

rSm

Program

WPLSoft

yHk(A) txufrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; open contact X0 qkdNyD; ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/


yHk(A)rSm azmfjyxm;wJh open contact eJY X0 &JU t"dyg,fu Examine ON X0 jzpfyg
w,f/ X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;vkdY ppfaq;MunhfIckdif;wJh TefMum;csuf&JU oauFw kyfyHk
jzpfygw,f/ Open contact, Closed contact eJY Coil wkYd[m graphical symbolic code for
instructions awGom jzpfMuygw,f/ Physical contact eJY physical coil awGukd ukd,fpm;jyKwJh
kyfyHkawG r[kwfMuygbl;/ NyD;&if? Enter acguf? out qkdwJh pmvHk; kdfufxnhf? Space Bar 1csuf
acguf? Y0 qkdwJh pmvHk;ukd kdufxnhfNyD;? Enter acgufvkduf&if?
yHk(B) txufygtwkdif;ay:vmygw,f/
WPLSoft rSm yHk(B) u twkdif; program ukd a&;NyD;&if compile vkyfyg/

yHk(C) txufygtwkdif;ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/
Tool Bar ay:u Instruction List qkdwJh icon ukd ESdyfyg/ 'grSr[kwf
Instruction List ukd ESdyfyg/

View

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

169

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yHk(D) txufygtwkdif; ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/


LD, OUT, END eJY NOP wkdY[m Opcode awG jzpfMuygw,f/
X0 eJY Y0 u Operand awG jzpfMuygw,f/
LD qkdwmu LoaD &JU mnemonic jzpfygw,f/
OUT qdkwJh mnemonic u output ukd ON ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/
END qkdwmu a&;xm;wJh program NyD;qHk;aMumif;udk azmfjywJh instructions code jzpfyg
w,f/
NOP qkdwmu vkyfp&m r&Sdawmhbl; No Operation vkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
Program xJrSm ygwJh kyfyHkawG? pmvHk;awG[m? TefMum;csufoauFw instructions code
awGom jzpfMuygw,f/
b,fbufjcrf;rSm 0, 1, 2, 3 vkdY axmifvkduf ay:aewmawGu program step awG jzpfMuyg
w,f/
Ladder Diagram Mode rSmvnf; b,fbufjcrf;rSm axmifvkduf 0, 2, 7919 vkdY ay:aewm
[m pkpkaygif;a&;zkdYusefwJh program step u 7919 jzpfNyD; tcka&;vkdufwJh program u step 2ck
oHk;NyD;oGm;NyDvkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
Ladder Diagram Mode (LD) eJY Instruction List Mode (IL) wkdYukd tjyeftvSef toggle
vkyf ajymif;Munhfcsif&if Menu Bar ay:u View ukd ESdyfNyD; ajymif;MunhfvkdY &ygw,f/
Shortcut eJY ajymif;Munhfcsif&if <Alt> eJY <V> ukd wGJESdyfyg/ NyD;&if <I> ukd ESdyfyg/ 'gqkd&if
IL eJY azmfjyygvdrhfr,f/
<Alt> + <V> <L> qkd&if LD eJY azmfjyygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

170

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Dominant-ON, Dominant-OFF
Relay control system eJY wnfaqmufxm;wJh ON/OFF circuit wpfckudk Fig. 1 rSm
azmfjy xm;ygw,f/ Stop-dominant &JU Status-Time Diagram udk Fig. 2 rSm azmfjy xm;yg
w,f/
+24V

P.B 1

P.B 2

Relay K1

0V

K1

Fig. 1 Electrical Circuit Diagram

K1
K1

Lamp L1

1
0

ON
OFF

P.B.2

1
0

ON
OFF

K1

1
0

ON
OFF

L1

1
0

ON

Status

P.B1

OFF
t0 t1t2

Time

Fig. 2 Status-Time Diagram


P.B1 eJY P.B2 wdkY[m momentary contact omyg&SdwJh ESdyfcvkwf pushbutton awGjzpfMu yg
w,f/ P.B1 [m Normally Open (N.O) contact omyg&SdwJh pushbutton jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 udk
rESdyf&if contact [m open tajctaerSm &Sdaeygw,f/ P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;wJhtckduftwefYrSm
contact close jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvdkuf&if contact [m open jyefjzpf

oGm;ygw,f/
ESdyfvdkufwmudk Activate vkyfw,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ rESdyfwmudk Non-activate vdkY ac:yg
w,f/
N.O udk Non-activate Open vdkY rSwfxm;oifhygw,f/ Activate rvkyf&if Open jzpfae wJh
contact qdkwJh t"dyg,feJY rSwfom;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ N.O udk No energy Open vdkY rSwf
xm;&ifvnf; t"dyg,fay: vGifxif&Sm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

171

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

[m N.C pushbutton jzpfygw,f/ P.B2 udk rESdyfxm;&if closed contact


tajctae jzpfaeygw,f/ P.B2 udk ESdyfxm;wJhtckduftwefYrSmom contact open jzpfygw,f/
ESdyfxm;wJh P.B2 ukd jyefvTwfvkduf&if contact [m close jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Pushbutton udk ESdyfwm[m pushbutton udk activate vkyfwm jzpfygw,f/ rESdyfwmudk
Non-activate vdkY rSwfxm;oifhygw,f/ 'gaMumifh N.C udk Non-activate Closed vdkY rSwfxm;
oifhygw,f/ N.C udk No energy Closed vdkY rSwfxm;&ifvnf; t"dyg,fay:vGifygw,f/
Fig. 2 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh Status-Time Diagram udk Time Chart vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
tajctae status udk tcsdefeJY twl,SOfwGJ azmfjyxm;wJh yHkjzpfygw,f/ b,ftcsdefrSm b,fvdk
tajctae &Sdw,fqdkwJh status udk azmfjywJh yHkjzpfvdkY Status-Time Diagram vdkY ajymvdkuf&if
oabmt"dyg,fudk rSwfrd? od&dS? em;vnfapygw,f/
Fig. 2 Status-Time Diagram rSm 0 (zero) udk current rpD;wJhtajctae OFF state
tjzpf owfrSwfxm;ygw,f/ 1 (one) udk current pD;wJhtajctae ON state tjzpf owfrSwf
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
t 0 qdkwJh tcsdefumvrSm P.B1 udkvnf; rESdyfbl;? P.B2 udkvnf; rESdyfbl;/ 'gaMumifh
Relay K1 [mvnf; de-energize jzpfygaew,f/ L1 rD;vHk;vnf; rD;rvif;ygbl;/
t 1 qdkwJhtcsdefrSm P.B1 1ck wnf;udkom ESdyfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh K1 = ON jzpfoGm;yg
w,f/
t 2 tcsdefrSm P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;&mu jyefvTwfvdkufygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm Relay K1 &JJU
N.O contact K1 [m closed jzpfaeESifhNyD; jzpfvdkY Relay K1 [m (K1 = ON) energize
qufjzpf ygw,f/ Relay K1 &JU 'kwd, N.O contact K1 eJY qufoG,fxm;wJh Lamp L1
vnf; ON jzpfNyD; rD;vif;ygw,f/ P.B2 udk rESdyfrcsif; Relay K1 [m ON jzpfaeygw,f/
K1 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU Lamp L1 vnf; rD;vif;aeygw,f/
Fig. 1 circuit diagram rSm jyxm;ovdk qufoG,fwmudk self-holding circuit vdYk ac:
ygw,f/ Self-latching circuit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Sealing-in circuit vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
P.B2 udk ESdyfvdkufawmhrS Relay K1 de-energize (K1 = OFF) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ K1 &JU
contact awGvnf; open jzpfoGm;vkdY Lamp L1 rD;Nidrf;oGm;ygw,f/ Fig. 1 rSm P.B1 eJY P.B2
2ck &SdwJh txJu P.B2 [m tc&m dominant jzpfaeygw,f/ P.B2 udk ESdyfxm;wHk;rSm P.B1
udk ESdyfayrJh Relay K1 [m energize rjzpfEdkifygbl;/ 'grsdK;udk OFF-dominant vdkYac:ygw,f/
P.B1 udk Start P.B tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;NyD; P.B2 udk Stop P.B tjzpf toHk;jyKxm;vdkY stopdominant vdkY vnf; ac:ygw,f/
P.B2

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

172

OD;pdk;wifh
qdk&if

PLC

Fig. 1 rSm Relay


P.B1, P.B2 eJY L1

eJY vkyfaqmifcJhwJhtvkyf function udkyJ PLC eJY vkyfaqmif apr,f


wdkYudk atmufrSmazmfjyxm;wJh Fig. 3 twdkif; qufoG,f&ygw,f/

P.B 1

Lamp L1
X0

Y0

P.B 2

24V

Delta PLC:
X1

24V
+

vrf; nTef

COM 0

S/S

DVP14SS2-11R

Input Terminal

Output Terminal

Fig. 3 PLC I/O devices connection diagram

rSmyg&SdwJh X0, X1, S/S qdkwmawGu PLC &JU Input terminal awG jzpfMuygw,f/
X0 rSm P.B1 N.O Pushbutton udk qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/
X1 rSm P.B2 N.C Pushbutton ukd qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/
S/S [m input twGuf common terminal jzpfNyD; sink or source tjzpf qufoG,f
Edkifygw,f/
Fig. 3 rSm S/S udk -24V eJY qufoG,fxm;wJhtwGuf sink input tjzpf qufoG,f
xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Y0 eJY COM 0 uawmh PLC &JU output terminal awG jzpfMuygw,f/
Y0 rSm Lamp L1 ukd qufoG,fxm;NyD; COM 0 rSm -24V eJY qufoG,f xm;wJhtwGuf
sink output qufoG,fenf;eJY qufoG,fxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
PLC &JU type u DVP-14SS2-11R jzpfvdkY PLC twGuf power supply udk 24Vdc
ay;&NyD; output u relay output trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/
Fig. 3

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

173

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

OFF-dominant Program
Start/Stop program ukd Stop dominant jzpfatmif LD eJY

a&;jyygr,f/
Fig. 2 Status-Time Diagram rSm azmfjyxm;wJh function udk MunfhNyD; LD eJY program
pa&;wJhenf; tqifhqifhudk awG;enf;a&m a&;enf;udkyg atmufrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
P.B1 udk ESdyfvdkuf&if L1 = ON jzpfatmifvdkY atmufygtwdkif; p a&;ygw,f/
X0

(Y0)

t"dyg,fu X0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 udk ON vkdufyg vdkY nTefMum;csuf instruction ay;wm


jzpfygw,f/ 'Dtwdkif;yJa&;xm;cJh&if P.B1 udk ESdyfwJhtcsdefrSmom X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? ESdyfxm;wJh
P.B1 udk jyefvTwfvdkufwJhtcg? X0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;wJhtwGuf Y0 vnf; OFF jzpf oGm;yg
w,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaewJh tcsdefrSmom Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if Y0
vnf; OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
wu,fjzpfcsifwmu P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD;jyefvTwfvdkuf&if Y0 = ON jzpfusefcJh apcsifwm
jzpfygw,f/ 'Dawmh self-hold jzpfatmif (latched jzpfatmif) program udk atmufyg
yHktwdkif; jyifa&;vdkufygw,f/
X0

()
Y0

Y0

t"dyg,fu X0 eJY Y0 2ck xJu 1ck ON jzpf&if Y0 udk ON vdkufyg vdkY nTefMum;csuf
instruction ay;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ Boolean equation eJY a&;r,fqdk&if Y0 = (X0) OR (Y0)
jzpfygw,f/
IF.... THEN yHkpHeJY azmfjy&&if
IF [(X0 = ON)] OR [(Y0 = ON)] THEN [(Y0 ON)]

jzpfygw,f/

P.B1 udk ESdyfMunfhyg/ X0 = ON jzpfvdkY Y0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/


P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvdkufwJhtcgrSm X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ayrJh tJ'DtcsdefrSm Y0
[m ON jzpfNyD;om;rdkYvdkY Y0 [m qufNyD; ON jzpfaeygw,f/ Program udk 'Dtwdkif;om
a&;xm;cJhr,fqdk&if Y0 [m ON jzpfNyD;&if PLC udk RUN xm;oa&GU ON qufjzpfaeygvdrfh

r,f/
b,fawmhrS OFF jyefrjzpfawmhygbl;/
om Y0 [m OFF jzpfoGm;ygvdrfhr,f/

PLC

udk

RUN

uae

STOP

udk ajymif;vdkufrS

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

174

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Start/Stop circuit t& trSefwu,f jzpfcsifwmu P.B1 udk ESdyf&if Y0 [m ON


jzpfoGm;NyD; P.B2 udk EdSyfawmhrS Y0 [m OFF jyefjzpf&rSm jzpfygw,f/ tJ'DvdkjzpfatmifvdkY
program udk atmufygtwdkif; jyifa&;vdkufygw,f/
X0

X1

(Y)
0

Y0

t"dyg,fu X 0 eJY Y 0 udk OR vkyfvdkY&wJh logic result eJY X 1 udk


AND vkyfvdkufyg/ &&SdvmwJh logic result u True jzpf&if Y0 udk ON vdkufygvdkY cdkif;xm;
X0
qdkwmu X0 [m ON jzpfaeovm;
wm (instruction ay;xm;wm) jzpfygw,f/
vdkY ppfaq;ckdif;wmjzpfvdkYrdkY X0 = ON jzpf&if True ([kwfw,f)? X0 = OFF jzpf&if False
(r[kwfbl;) vdkY owfrSwfygw,f/ X1 rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh P.B2 [m N.C type jzpfvdkY P.B2
udk rESdyfoa&GU X1 [m ON jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh X 1 vdkY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
P.B2 udk ESdyfvdkufawmhrS X1 [m OFF jzpfoGm;NyD;? logic result uvnf; False jzpfoGm;
(Y
)
ygw,f/ Output ON Y0 vdkY t"dyg,f&wJh
0 oauFweJY instruction code [m
olUa&SUrSm &SdwJh conditional instruction awG tm;vHk;&JU logic result u True jzpfrS output udk
ON vkyfay;ygw,f/
'gjzpfrS 'gudk vkyfvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfw,fvdkY em;vnf&ygr,f/
'D program &JU vkyfaqmifyHkudk tao;pdyfazmfjy&r,fqdk&if P.B1 udk ESdyfvdkufwJhtcg
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? Y0 = OFF jzpfaewJhtwGuf
X0

result

u True,
u True jzpfygw,f/

Y0

False,

jzpfvdkY

True

eYJ

False

udk

OR

vkyf&if &wJh

X1

ukdrESdyfao;oa&GU X1 = ON jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh


[m True
jzpfygw,f/ X 0 eJY Y 0 udk OR vkyfvdkY&wJh True eJY X 1 u &wJh True udk
AND vkyfvdkufawmh result u True jzpfygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm
(Y
)
0 &JU a&SUrSm&SdwJh input
condition awG&JU result u True jzpfwJhtwGuf Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
P.B2

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

175

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

xl;jcm;wmu P.B2 udk ESdyfxm;vdkY Y0 u OFF jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm P.B1 udk ESdyfayrJY


vnf; Y0 u ON rjzpfwmudk awGU&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 'D program udk OFF-dominant vdkY
ac:yg w,f/ Fail-safe start/stop PLC program jzpfygw,f/
ON/OFF &,f? True/False &,f? Examine ON ^ Examine OFF &,f? wdkYudk
olUt"dyg,feJYol cGJjcm;NyD;odxm;&ygr,f/ b,fvkdqufpyfrI&Sdw,f qkdwmukdvnf; aumif;
aumif;em;vnf xm;&ygr,f/
Signal &Sdwm^r&Sdwmukd ON/OFF vdkY oHk;ygw,f/
nTefMum;cdkif;apxm;wJhtwdkif; jzpfwm^rjzpfwmudk True/False vdkY oHk;ygw,f/
ON/OFF udk hardware ydkif;&JU tajctaeudk azmfjywJhtcgrSm oHk;NyD;? True/False udk
Software ydkif;&JU tajctae logical condition udk azmfjywJhtcgrSmoHk;ygw,f/
2xyf&SdrS rSwfrdwwfwJh olawGtwGuf xyfajym&&if Examine ON qdkwJh
'DoauFw [m ON jzpfaeovm;vdkY ppfaq;cdkif;wmjzpfygw,f/
ON jzpfaewmudkawGU&if True (rSefw,f) [kwfw,fvdkY qHk;jzwfygw,f/ True vdkY
logic result xkwfygw,f/ r ON bJ OFF jzpfaewmudkawGU&if False (rSm;w,f) r[kwfbl;
vdkY qHk;jzwfygw,f/
tJ'DqHk;jzwfcsufudk logic result vdkY ac:ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh X 1 [m X1 = ON
jzpf&if logic result u True jzpfw,fvdkY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
PLC program [m software jzpfygw,f/ Pushbutton awGu hardware jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 [m N.O (Non-activate Open) jzpfNyD; X0 rSmqufoG,f xm;vdkY P.B1 udk ESdyfrS
X0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
P.B2 [m N.C (Non-activate Closed) jzpfNyD; X1 rSm qufoG,fxm;vdkY P.B2 udk ESdyfrS
X1 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
X0
P.B1 udk ESdyfrS Y0 udk ON jzpfapcsifwmrdkYvdkY
vdkY a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
Terminal Y0 rSm Lamp L1 udkqufoG,fxm;vdkY
(Y
)
0 udk oHk;NyD; Y0 udk ON vdkufygvdkY
a&;&wmjzpfygw,f/
P.B2 udk ESdyfrS Y0 udk OFF jzpfapcsifwmrdkYvdkY (P.B2 udk rESdyf&if X1 [m ON jzpfae
wJhtwGuf) P.B2 udk rESdyfoa&GU Y0 ukd ON jzpfaeatmifvdkY X 1 vdkY a&;&wm jzpfyg
w,f/
txl;owdjyK&rSmu hardware jzpfwJh pushbutton &JUobm0 N.O eJY N.C udk electric
circuit diagram rSm
eJY
tjzpf oauFwjyK a&;om;azmfjyMuygw,f/
Software jzpfwJh LD eJY a&;wJh PLC program rSm contact &JUoauFw
eJY
udk ON jzpfaeovm;^OFF jzpfaeovm;vdkY ppfaq;Munfhcdkif;wJh instruction code tjzpf
toHk;jyKxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
Software xJrSm contact awGr&Sdbl;? r&SdEdkifbl;qdkwmudk owd&yg/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

176

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Software jzpfwJh LD eJY a&;wJh program xJrSm oufqdkif&m symbolic instruction code
eJY
awG[m program
awGudkudk,fpm;jyKwJh machine code awGyJ&Sdygw,f/
a&;wJhvl programmer twGuf rSwfom;&vG,fatmif oauFwjyKxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
PLC u 'DoauFwawGudk em;rvnfygbl;/
'gaMumifh LD eJY program a&;NyD;wJhtcgwdkif; PLC em;vnfwJh machine code udk
ajymif;ay;&ygw,f/ tJ'Dvdkajymif;ay;wmudk compile vkyfw,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ Convert
vkyfw,fvdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Programming software u ajymif;ay;wm jzpfygw,f/
LD eJY program a&;NyD;wJhtcgwdkif; PLC u em;vnfvufcHEdkifwJh machine code tjzpf
ajymif;NyD;awmhrS PLC xJudk download (write to PLC) vkyf&ygw,f/
Version jrifhwJh programming software awGu LD program udk compile rvkyfbJ PLC
xJ download vkyfwmudk vufcHaqmif&Gufay;ygw,f/ tJ'D software u machine code udk
t&if ajymif;NyD;rS write to PLC vkyfay;oGm;wm jzpfygw,f/
tck a&;om;azmfjycJhwJh &Sif;vif;csufawGudk zwfMunfhNyD;? pOf;pm;MunfhNyD;? hardware
eJY software b,fvdkqufpyfNyD;? tvkyfvkyfovJqdkwmudk taMumif; eJY tusdK;? qifjcif odjrif

EdkifMur,fvdkY xifygw,f/
Fig. 1 rSm azmfjyxm;wJh electric circuit diagram u Stop dominant circuit jzpfyg
w,f/ Start dominant tjzpfqufoG,fxm;wJh electric circuit diagram udk atmufrSm Fig. 4
rSmazmfjyxm;ygw,f/
+24V

0V
P.B 1

Relay K1
P.B 2

K1
K1

K1

Lamp L1

Fig. 4 ON-dominant Circuit Diagram


Status-Time Diagram

udk

Fig. 5

rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

177

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC
1
0

ON
OFF

P.B.2

1
0

ON
OFF

K1

1
0

ON
OFF

L1

1
0

ON

Status

P.B1

vrf; nTef

OFF
t0 t1t2Time
t3t4

Fig. 5 Status-Time Diagram


Fig. 2 eJY Fig. 5 Status-Time Diagram 2ck udk EdIif;,SOfMunfh&if vkyfaqmifcsuf
function u twlwlyJ jzpfwmudk awGU&ygw,f/ Fig. 1 eJY Fig. 4 electric circuit diagram 2ck
udk EdIif;,SOfMunfh&if Fig. 4 &JU xl;jcm;csuf (uGmjcm;csuf) u P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;wJh tcsdefrSm
P.B2 udk ESdyfayrJhvnf; Relay K1 [m OFF rjzpfygbl;/
Fig. 4 rSm P.B1 eJY P.B2 2ck &SdwJhtxJu ON button P.B1 u tc&mjzpfaeygw,f/
'gaMumifh ON-dominant jzpfygw,f/ Start/Stop circuit jzpfvdkY start-dominant vdkYvnf;

ac:ygw,f/
ON-dominant Program

tJ'D

ON-dominant function &&Sdatmif program a&;NyD; PLC udk cdkif;apr,fqdk&if


P.B1, P.B2 eJY Lamp L1 wdkUudk atmufrSm jyxm;wJh twdkif; PLC eYJ qufoG,f &ygw,f/
P.B 1

Lamp L1
Y0

X0
P.B 2

Delta PLC:
COM 0

X1
24V
+

24V

S/S

DVP14SS2-11R

Input Terminal

Output Terminal

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

178

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

ON-dominant

jzpfapwJh

start/stop program

vrf; nTef

udkawmh atmufrSm azmfjyxm;wJhtwdkif;

a&;&ygw,f/
X0
Y0

Y0

()
Y0
X1

X1

X0

eYJ
udk AND vkyfNyD;&wJh result udk
eJY xyfNyD; OR
vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfwJhtcg X 0 [m True jzpfNyD; OR &JU
oabmobm0t& Y0 eJY X1 wdkY&JU tajctae[m b,fvdkyJjzpfaeygap? xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;
p&mrvdkawmhwJh dont care jzpfwJh twGuf Y0 [m ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 = OFF

jzpfoGm;wJhtcgrSmawmh

Y0

a&m

X1

yg? 2ckpvHk;

ON

jzpfaerS

Y0 = ON

jzpfygw,f/
w,f/

P.B1 a&m P.B2 udkyg rESdyfbJxm;&if? X0 u OFF


P.B1 u N.O jzpfNyD;? P.B2 u N.C jzpfygw,f/

jzpfNyD;?

X1

ON

jzpfaeyg

P.B1 udk ESdyf&if X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? jyefvTwfvdkuf&if? X0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/


'DtcgrSm Y0 = ON jzpfusefcJhygw,f/ P.B2 udk ESdyf&if X1 = OFF jzpfNyD;? jyefvTwfvdkuf&if
X1 = ON jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ 'DtcgrSm Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/

'gu Start/Stop function udk yHkrSeftwdkif; vkyfaqmifaMumif;udk azmfjyygw,f/


xl;jcm;wmu P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;vdkU Y0 uvnf; ON jzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm P.B2 udk
ESdyfayrJYvnf; Y0 u OFF rjzpfwmudk awGU&ygw,f/
'gaMumifh 'D program udk ON-dominant vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Program &JU oabmobm0? Instruction code awG&JU oabmobm0? Boolean Logic
awGjzpfMuwJh AND eJY OR &JU oabmobm0? awGudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;odapzdkY &nf&G,fNyD;
ON-dominant udk LD eJY program a&;jywmjzpfygw,f/
vufawGUtm;jzifh industrial control system awG[m fail-safe jzpfatmif wnfaqmuf
Mu&wmjzpfvdkY Start/Stop program udk OFF-dominant tjzpfom toHk;jyKMuygw,f/
&yfcsifwJhtcsdef? &yfvdkY&rSom ab;uif;w,f? safe jzpfw,fvdkY owfrSwfxm;Muygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

179

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (12) Scan Cycle taMumif;/


'Dtcef;ukd zwf&IavhvmNyD;oGm;wJhtcg? atmufygtaMumif;t&mawGukd aumif;pGm
em;vnf oabmayguf oGm;ygvdrfhr,f/
1/ PLC ukd RUN vkdufawmhrS Input Scan, Program Scan, Output Scan tvkyfawGukd
tpOftwkdif;? xyfcg? xyfcg? r&yfrem;? qufwkdufvkyfaqmifygw,f/
2/ Input Scan tvkyfukd vkyfaqmifaewJhtcsdefrSm PLC &JU Input terminal awGrSm
signal &Sd? r&Sd? ukd zwf&INyD; Input Memory rSm rSwfom;xm;ygw,f/
3/ Program Scan tvkyfukd vkyfaecsdefrSm User Program xJu TefMum;csuftwkdif;
aqmif&GufNyD; &&SdvmwJh Result awGukd oufqkdif&m Memory awGrSm rSwfom;xm;ygw,f/
4/ Output Scan tcsdefa&mufawmhrS Output Memory rSm rSwfom;xm; wJhtwkdif;
PLC &JU output terminal awGukd signal xkwfay;ygw,f/
5/ PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;&if User Program ukd execute rvkyfygbl;/ Input Scan
vnf; rvkyfygbl;/ Output Scan vnf; rvkyfygbl;/
6/ PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;wJhtcsdefrSm PLC &JU Output terminal awG tm;vHk; OFF
jzpfaeygw,f/
7/ PLC [m t&ifckdif;wmukd? t&ifvkyfygw,f/ aemufrS ckdif;wmukd? aemufrS vkyfyg
w,f/

Input
Scan

(Y)
0

Y0
[ END ]

Program

Program Scan

Output Terminals

X1

OUTPUT INTERFACE

X0

OUTPUT IMAGE MEMORY

INPUT IMAGE MEMORY

INPUT INTERFACE

Input Terminals

PLC Scan Process

Output
Scan

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

180

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yHkrSm azmfjyxm;wmu PLC ukd RUN vkdufwJhtcg pwiftvkyfvkyfyHk jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

181

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

[m pufrIvkyfief;oHk; Computer wpfrsdK;jzpfygw,f/ PLC ukd Power Supply


ay;xm;HkeJY tvkyf rvkyfygbl;/ PLC ukd RUN xm;&ygw,f/ PLC udk STOP vkyfxm;&if
'grSr[kwf Program mode rSmxm;&if PLC [m bmrSrvkyfygbl;/
RUN rD;vHk;Nidrf;aewJhtajctae? STOP mode rSm PLC &JU output tm;vHk;[m OFF
jzpfaeygw,f/
RUN rD;vHk;vif;wJhtajctae? RUN mode ukd ajymif;vkdufawmhrS tvkyf 3 rsdK;ukd
wpfrsdK;NyD;wpfrsdK; tpOftwkdif; vkyfygw,f/ PLC ukd RUN xm;oa&GU tJ'Dtvkyf 3 ckukd
xyfjyefwvJvJ? wpfausmhNyD;wpfausmh qufwkdufvkyfaeygw,f/
PLC

PLC ukd RUN vkduf&if

vkyfwJh tvkyf 3 rsdK;uawmh


(1) Input Scan tvkyf
(2) Program Scan tvkyfeJY
(3) Output Scan tvkyfwkdY jzpfygw,f/
wpfckNyD;rS aemufwpfckukd ajymif;Ny;D tvSnhfus? vkyfaqmifMuwm jzpfygw,f/ tvSnhf
ausmfNyD; rvkyfygbl;/
(1) Input Scan tvkyfukd vkyfNyD;rS (2) Program Scan tvkyfukd vkyfygw,f/
(2) Program Scan tvkyfukd vkyfNyD;awmhrS (3) Output Scan tvkyfukd vkyfygw,f/
(3) Output Scan tvkyfukd vkyfNyD;oGm;&if aemufwausmh (1) Input Scan tvkyfu
jyefp vkyfygw,f/ tJ'Dvkd ywfcsmvnfvkyfwmukd Scan Cycle vkdY ac:ygw,f/
1-scan cycle wpfausmh MumwJh tcsdefukd Scan time vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Input Scan vkyfaewJh tcsdef&,f? Program Scan vkyfaewJh tcsdef&,f? Output Scan
vkyfaewJh tcsdef&,f? pkpkaygif; MumwJhtcsdef? udk 1-scan time vkdY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
User Program xJrSm toHk;jyKxm;wJh Instruction awG&JUtrsdK;tpm; type eJY ta&twGuf
ay: rlwnfNyD; 1-scan time &JU MumjrifhwJh tcsdefumv[mvnf; tajymif;tvJ&Sdygw,f/
yHkrSeftm;jzifh 1ms uae 100ms avmuf txdMumwwfygw,f/
Input Scan

&JUtvkyfuawmh PLC &JU Input Terminal awGrSm signal &Sd? r&Sd? ukd ppfaq;
ygw,f/ ppfaq;vkdY awGU&SdwJhtwkdif; Input Image Memory rSm a&;rSwfygw,f/ tJ'gukd Input
Memory udk update vkyfw,fvkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ PLC &JU Input terminal tm;vHk;ukd ppfaq;
a&;rSwfvkdY NyD;oGm;&if Input Scan &JUtvkyf NyD;qHk;ygw,f/
Input Scan

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

182

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Program Scan
Input Scan &JUtvkyfNyD;&if Program Scan &JUtvkyfukd pwifvkyfygw,f/ Program Scan
&JUtvkyfu User Program vkdY ac:wJh LD program xJrSmygwJh TefMum;csufawGeJY ukdufnDrI
&Sd? r&Sd? wkdufqkdifppfaq;rIvkyfNyD; Logic Result tajzxkwfygw,f/ Program Execute vkyf
w,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/ &&SdvmwJh logic result awGukd oufqkdif&m Memory rSm a&;rSwf yg

w,f/
ukd execute vkyfwmu jrefrmpm? t*Fvdyfpm? awGudk zwfovkdrsdK; Scan
vkyfoGm;wm jzpfygw,f/ tay:qHk; b,ftpGefu instruction code ukd pNyD; execute vkyf
ygw,f/ NyD;&if nmbufukdwkd;NyD; execute qufvkyfoGm;ygw,f/ tay:pmaMumif; NyD;qHk;&if
atmufpmaMumif;rSm&SdwJh b,ftpGefu instruction code ukd pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ NyD;&if
nmbufu instruction code ukd execute qufvkyfygw,f/ nmtpGefu instruction code udk
execute vkyfNyD;wkdif;? oufqkdif&m memory rSm a&;rSwfNyD;awmhrS atmufpmaMumif; ukd
qif;NyD; execute qufvkyfoGm;wmjzpfygw,f/ LD eJY a&;wJh program wkdif;&JU atmufqHk;
pmaMumif;rSm END qkdwJh instruction code yg&Sd&ygw,f/ tJ'D END qkdwJh instruction code
udk a&mufwJhtcgrSm Program Scan &JU tvkyfNyD;qHk; oGm;ygw,f/
Program

Output Scan
Program Scan NyD;&if (3) jzpfwJh Output Scan &JU tvkyfukd vkyfygw,f/ Output Scan &JU
tvkyfu Output Image Memory (Output Image Table) rSma&;rSwfxm;wJhtwkdif; PLC &JU
output terminal awGukd ON oifhwmukd ON vkyfay;NyD;? OFF oifhwmukd OFF vkyfay;
ygw,f/ 'Dvkdvkyfwmudk Output Update vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHk Scan cycle ukd twdkcsKyfNyD; azmfjy&&if
(1) Input Scan [m input memory ukd update vkyfygw,f/
(2) Program Scan [m program ukd execute vkyfNyD; output memory udk update

vkyfygw,f/
(3) Output Scan [m output terminal udk update vkyfygw,f/
'Dae&mrSm oHk;xm;wJh execute vkyfw,fqkdwmu program xJrSm TefMum;xm;wJh control
logic awGtwkdif; aqmif&Gufwmjzpfygw,f/
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHk Scan cycle ukd aemufwpfrsdK; ajym&&if
(1) Input Scan qkdwm Reading the physical inputs jzpfygw,f/
(2) Program Scan qkdwm Executing the control logic in the program jzpfygw,f/
(3) Output Scan qkdwm Writing to the physical outputs jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

183

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Scan Cycle udk

vrf; nTef

aoaocsmcsmem;vnfzkdY atmufyg LD program ukd a&;NyD; wqifhcsif;

&Sif;jyygr,f/
#1

X0
X0

#2

Y1

)
(Y
0
(Y
)
1

yHk (u)
yHk(u) rSmazmfjyxm;whJtwkdif;
Munfhyg/

Simulator eJY

prf;MunhfzkdYtwGuf

LD program

ukda&;yg/ atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJ yHkukd

Simulator udk ON yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

184

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJ yHkukd Munfhyg/

NyD;&if Write to PLC vkyfyg/


atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJyHkukd Munfhyg/

NyD;&if Online Mode vkyfyg?

atmufrSm azmfjyxm;whJyHkukd Munfhyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

185

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

NyD;&if PLC ukd

vrf; nTef

RUN yg/

yHkawGukd Munhfyg/
ay: Cursor wif? Right Click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/ rsufjrifrSmawmh computer
screen ay:rSm Y1 wckxJ ON jzpfaewmukd awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'Dawmh Y0 u vHk;0 r ON cJh
bl;vm;/ trSefu Y0 = ON jzpfcJhygw,f/ Y0 [m 1-scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfcJhygw,f/
'gukd rsufped JYrjrif vkduf&ygbl;/
X0

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

186

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Y0 = ON

trSefwu,f jzpfcJhw,fqkdwmukd oufaojyEkdifwJh

program

vrf; nTef

ukd yHk(c) rSm

azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
#1
#2

Y1

X0
X0

(Y
)
0
(Y
)
1

X1

Y0
#3

(Y)
2

Y2

yHk(c) twkdif; LD program ukda&;NyD;


Simulator udk ON yg/ Write to PLC vkyfyg/
WPLSoft &JU Tool Bar ay:u Online Mode ukd
ESdyfyg/ Computer Screen &JUatmufajc rSm&SdwJh
Task Bar ukd Munhfyg/ STOP qkdwJh teDa&mif
pm ay:ae&if <Ctrl> eJY <F8> ukd waygif;
wnf; ESdyfNyD; Virtual PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/

yHk (c)
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right Click ESy
d fNyD;? Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = ON jzpfwmudk rjrif
vkduf&yJ Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY ON jzpfoGm;Muwmukd awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
Y1 = ON jzpfwmuawmh X0 = ON jzpfaevkdY jzpfygw,f/
Y2 = ON jzpfwmuawmh X1 u wcsdefvHk; OFF jzpfaeNyD;? Y0 u ON 1cg jzpfcJhvkdY
jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vQifNyD;csif;? yxrqHk; 1st Scan rSm
#1

X0

Y1

(Y
)
0 ukd

Munhf&if X0 [m

ON

jzpfNyD;

Y1

[m

OFF

jzpfae wHk;

rkdYvkdY Y0 [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0
1st Scan rSmyJ #2
(Y
)
1 udk Munhf&if X0 [m ON jzpfvkdY
Y1 vnf; ON jzpfoGm; ygw,f/
#1 ukd execute vkyfaewHk;u (#1 ukd execute vkyfaewJhtcsdefrSm) #2 ukd execute
rvkyf& ao;ygbl;/
#1 ukd t&ifvkyfNyD;awmhrS #2 ukd p vkyfrSm jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh #1 ukd execute
Y1
Y1
vkyfwJhtcg
ukd ppfMunhfawmh Y1 u OFF jzpf aewmukd awGUvkdY
uTrue
X0
jzpfygw,f/ X0 uvnf; ON jzpfaevkdY
[mvnf; True jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh #1 rSm True eJY True udk AND vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u True jzpfvkdY
Y0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif? NyD;csif; 1st Scan rSmyJ Y0 [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

187

OD;pdk;wifh
Y0
#3
Y2

PLC
X1

()
Y2

vrf; nTef

ukd Munhf&if #1 eJY #2 wkdYukd tpOftwkdif; execute


vkyfNyD;rS #3 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcsdefrSm Y0 [m ON
jzpfaeNyD;om;? jzpfvkdYrkdY Y 0 [m True jzpfyg
w,f/
Y2

[m OFF jzpfaeqJrkdY
[m False jzpfygw,f/
Y2
tJ'D Y 0 True eJY
False udk OR vkyfvkdufwJhtcg logic result u
True jzpfygw,f/ &vmwJh logic result ukd temporary memory rSm cPrSwfxm;ygw,f/
NyD;awmhrS X 1 ukd execute vkyfygw,f/
X1
[m True jzpfygw,f/
X1 [m tNrJwrf; OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh
'D True eJY apmapmu temporary memory rSmrSwfxm;wJh OR Block &JU logic result u
True wkdYukd AND xyfvkyfvkdufawmh logic result u True &ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Y2 ukd ON
vkdufygw,f/
Y2
Y0
# 3 udk execute vkyfwJhtcgrSm
eJY
ukdt&ifqHk; OR vkyfygw,f/ 'D
X1
OR Block &JU logic result eJY
udk xyfNyD; AND vkyfygw,f/ Final logic result u
True jzpfrS Y2 ukd ON vkyfay;wmjzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif? NyD;csif; 1st Scan
rwkdifcifu? X0 [m OFF jzpfaevkdYrkdY Y0, Y1 eJY Y2 wkdYyg OFF jzpfaecJhMuygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif? NyD;csif; 1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfoGm;
Muygw,f/
Y1
X0
()
1st Scan NyD;vdkY 2nd Scan a&mufawmh #1
Y 0 udk Munhf&if
X0
u True jzpfNyD; 1st Scan rSmwHk;u Y1 = ON jzpfcJhwm rkdYvkdY Y 1 u False
jzpfygw,f/ 'D X 0 True eJY Y 1 False udk AND vkyfvkdufwJhtcg logic result u
False jzpfNyD; Y0 [m OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Y0 [m 1st Scan rSm ON jzpfNyD;? tck 2nd Scan rSm OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0
2nd Scan rSm #2
(Y
)
1 ukd Munhf&if X0 = ON jzpfaevkdY
X0
[m True jzpfNyD; Y1 vnf; ON qufjzpf aeygw,f/
Y2

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

188

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Y0

vrf; nTef

X1
(Y
2 )

#3

Y0

ukd Munhf&if
u ( Y0 = OFF ) jzpfae
Y2
vkdY False jzpfNyD; Y 2 u ( Y0 = ON ) jzpfae
vkdY True jzpfygw,f/ 'D False eJY True ukd OR vkyfvkdY &wJh logic result u True jzpfygw,f/
#3

X1

u (X1= OFF) jzpfaevkdY True eJY apmapmu OR Block &JU logic result True
wkdYukd AND xyfvkyfwJhtcg logic result u True &NyD; Y2 qufNyD; ON jzpfygw,f/
twkdcsKyfNyD; ajym&&if 1st Scan rSm Y2 = ON jzpf&wmu Y0 = ON jzpfaevkdY
jzpfygw,f/
2nd Scan rSm Y2 = ON qufjzpf&wmu Y2 [m 1st Scan rSm ON jzpfcJhvkdY jzpfygw,f/
tJ'gukd self hold, self-latched, sealed-in vkyfw,fvkdY ajymMuygw,f/
3rd Scan

#1

X0

Y1

udkMunhf&if X0 = ON eJY Y1 = ON
Y1
jzpfaevkdY X 0 u True jzpfNyD;
u False wdkYjzpfMuygw,f/
'DESpfckudk AND vkyfvkdY&wJh logic result u False jzpfvkdY Y0 [m 3rd Scan rSm OFF
qufjzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dawmh Y0 = ON jzpfwJhtcsdefumv[m X0 = ON p jzpfcgp 1st Scan
tcsdefwdk uav;om Mumjrifhygw,f/ 1-scan time yJ oufwrf;&SnfwJh ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gudk
1-scan pulse output vkdY ac:ygw,f/
#1

rSm

()
Y0

a&;NyD;rS #2 udk tpOftwkdif;


#1
#2

X0

Y1

X0
Y0

()
Y0
()
Y1

X1

#3

()
Y2

Y2

tckvkd a&;rS

Y0

[m

1-scan time

Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

189

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

ukd t&ifa&;NyD;? #1 ukd olYatmufrSm

#2

X0

()
Y1

#2
X0

Y1
()
Y0

#1
Y0

yHk (*)

vrf; nTef

X1
()
Y2

#3
Y2

tckvkd a&;cJh&if?
#1 rSm Y0 [mb,fawmhrS ON rjzpfawmh ygbl;/ Y0 is never ON jzpfygw,f/
#3 rSm Y0 is never ON jzpfvkdU Y2 [mvnf; b,fawmhrS ON rjzpfawmhygbl;/
'gukdvufawGUprf;MunfhzkdY yHk(*) rSm jyxm;ovkd LD program ukd a&;yg/ Simulator ukd
ON NyD; Write to PLC vkyfyg/ NyD;&if? txufrSm azmfjycJhwJhtwkdif;? wpfausmhjyefNyD; prf;Munhf
yg/ X0 udk ON &ifyJjzpfjzpf? OFF &ifyJjzpfjzpf? Y0 [m b,fawmhrS ON rjzpfEkdifawmhygbl;/
taMumif;uawmh X0 ukd ON vkyfNyD;p 1st Scan rSm #2 ukd pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ NyD;rS #1
udk execute vkyfygw,f/ #1 udk execute vkyfwJh tcsdefrSm Y1 u ON jzpfNyD;om; &Sdaeygw,f/
#2 ukd t&if execute vkyfwmrkdYvkdY Y1 u ON NyD;om; jzpfaewm jzpfygw,f/ Y1 = ON jzpfae
wm awGUvkdY Y 1 u False jzpfygw,f/ Y0 vnf; OFF jzpfygw,f/
LD program 1ckukd t"dyg,fazmfwm rSefuefzkdYtwGuf PLC &JU tvkyfvkyfyHkudk Scan
by Scan yHkazmf awG;Munhfwwf &ygr,f/ PLC &JU vkyfyHkukdifyHk trltusihf behaviour udk em;
vnfrSom qkdvkd&if;trSefukd bmomjyefwwfrSm jzpfygw,f/
atmufrSm 1-scan pulse output udk toHk;jyKNyD; toggle output (flip-flop) &atmif
a&;xm;wJh LD program ukd wqifhcsif; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/ yHk(C) rSm jyxm;wJh LD program
ukd WPLSoft rSm File New SS2 ukda&G;NyD; vufawGUa&;prf;Munhfyg/
X0

Y1

#1
X0

()
Y1

#2

#3

()
Y0

Y0

Y2

Y0

Y2

yHk (C)
()
Y2

pmcsnf;oufoufzwfvkdY uawmh bmudkqkdvdw


k ,fqkdwm em;vnfrSm r[kwfygbl;/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

190

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yHk(C) rSm azmfjyxm;wJh program ukda&;NyD;wJhtcg Simulator ukd ON NyD; Write to PLC
vkyfyg/ Online Mode vkyfyg/ PLC u STOP jzpfae&if PLC ukd RUN yg/
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/ Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY ON jzpfoGm;wm
udk awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right click ESdyfNyD; Set Off vkyfyg/ Y0 eJY Y1 u OFF jzpfNyD; Y2
uquf ON jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f/
aemufwBudrf X0 ukd Set On vkyfyg/ Y0 = OFF, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;
wmudk awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/ X0 ukd Set Off vkyfyg/ Y0 = OFF, Y1 = OFF eJY Y2 = OFF
jzpfaeygvdrfhr,f/
X0 ukd Set On, Set Off 5Budrf avmufvkyfMunhfyg/
X0 = OFF to ON jzpfwkdif; Y2 &JUtajctae ajymif;oGm;wmukd owdjyKMunhfIyg/
tcka&;NyD;prf;MunhfaewJh program udk Toggle Output vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Push-ON/PushOFF vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
#1 eJY #2 ukd waygif;wnf; tpOftwkdif; a&;rS Y0 u one scan pulse output
xGufygw,f/ #1, #2 eJY #3 ukd aygif;a&;rS Y2 u toggle output jzpfygw,f/
P.B 1
X0

Y1

X0
X0

P.B 2

24V
+ S/S

()
Y1

#2

#3

Input Terminal

Y0

Y2

Y0

Y2

LD Program

&JU input terminal X0 rSm


(AA) ukd Munhfyg/

COM 0

+
24V

()
Y2

yHk
PLC

Y0

()
Y0

#1
X1

Lamp 1

Delta PLC = DVP14SS2-11R

Output Terminal

(AA)

pushbutton P.B1 (N.O)

Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram

ukd qufoG,fxm;ygw,f/ yHk

udk yHk (C)(1) rSm az:jyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

191

OD;pdk;wifh

X0

Y0

Y1

Y2

1
0

vrf; nTef

1stScan
Scan
2nd
3rdScan

1stScan
2nd
Scan
3rdScan

1stndScan
2rd Scan
3 Scan

1stScan
2nd
Scan
3rdScan

PLC

ON
OFF

1ScanTime

ON

OFF

ON

OFF

ON

OFF
t0t1t2t3t4t5t6t7t8

yHk (C)(1) Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram


yHk(C)(1) rSm azmfjyxm;wJh graph yHkukd Status-Time Diagram vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Time
chart vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Timing diagram vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Operation diagram
vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ vkyfaqmifyHktqifhqifh Operation Sequence ukd tcsdef Time eJY
EIdif;,SOf azmfjyxm;wJh yHkjzpfygw,f/
X0, Y0, Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY&JU tajctae Status ukd axmifvkdufrsOf;eJY azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
0 (zero) u OFF State jzpfNyD; 1 (one) u ON State jzpfygw,f/
tvsm;vkdufrsOf;u tcsdefuGmjcm;rIukd azmfjyygw,f/
axmifvkduf a&;qGJxm;wJh rsOf;jywf (tpufcsrsOf;) awG[m wcsdefwnf;rSm &SdaeMuwJh
(wcsdefwnf;rSm jzpfay:aeMuwJh) X0, Y0, Y1 eJY Y2 wkdY&JUtajctae status awGukd EdIif;,SOf
MunhfzkdY tcsdefwlrsOf; jzpfygw,f/
yHkrSm t 0 uae t 1 tcsdeftxd X0 [m OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ t 1 uae t 2 tcsdeftxd X0
[m ON jzpfaeygw,f/
yHkrSm t 0 uae t 1 tcsdeftxd X0 [m OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gaMumifh t 0 uae t 1
ra&mufcif tcsdefxd P.B1 ukd rESdyfbl;vkdY t"dyg,f&ygw,f/
t 1 eJY t 2 Mum;rSm X0 = ON jzpfaeygw,f/ 'gu P.B1 udk ESdyfxm;wJh t"dyg,f
jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 [m (N.O) pushbutton trsdK;tpm;jzpfwmaMumifh ESdyf&if X0 = ON jzpfNyD;?
rESdyfawmh&if (ESdyfNyD;jyefvTwfvkduf&if) X0 = OFF jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

192

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'Dvkd P.B1 udk ESdyfvkduf^vTwfvkduf vkyfNyD;prf;zkdYtwGuf yH(k AA)rSm jyxm;ovkd


wu,fh PLC rSm wu,fh pushbutton ukd qufoG,fwyfqif&rSm jzpfygw,f/
tckuawmh Simulator eJY prf;oyfrSm jzpfwJhtwGuf rdrd&JUpdwful;xJrSm P.B1 udk PLC
&JU X0 eJY qufxm;NyD; P.B1 ukd ESdyfw,fqkd&if X0 ukd Set On vkyfay;yg/ jyefvTwfvkdufw,f
qkd&if (rESdyfawmhbl; qkd&if) X0 ukd Set Off vkyfay;yg/
tck Toggle Output Program ukd zwfenf;tqifhqifh Scan by Scan ukd a&;om;
azmfjyygr,f/ PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;&if output tm;vHk; OFF jzpfaeMuygw,f/
PLC ukd RUN vkdufwmeJY Input Scan Program Scan Output Scan Input Scan
Program Scan Output Scan Input Scan 'Dtwkdif; pOfqufrjywf ywfcsm vSnhfNyD;
PLC u r&yfrem; vkyfaeygw,f/
Scan oHk;rsdK; (wpfBudrfNyD;atmif MumwJhtcsdef) wpfausmhNyD;atmif MumwJhtcsdefukd one
scan time vkdY ac:ygw,f/
X0 udk ON vkdufNyD; yxrqHk;vkyfwJh Scan (1st Scan) upNyD; Program Scan rSm PLC
u b,fvkd execute vkyfw,fqkdwmukd pOf;pm;Munhfygr,f/
X0
X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsifNyD;csif; 1st Scan rSm X0 [m ON jzpfaewJhtwGuf
[m
True jzpfygw,f/ Y 1
udk MunhfwJhtcg Y1 udk OFF tjzpfeJYawGUvkdY True jzpfygw,f/
tck execute vkyfaewmu instruction code awGeJYa&;xm;wJh tay:qHk; pmaMumif;
Y1
X0
ukd pNyD;vkyfwmjzpfygw,f/ #1
()
Y 0 vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf #1
X0
ukd pwif execute vkyfaewm jzpfygw,f/ #2
()
Y 1 vkdY a&;xm;wJh
TefMum;csuf #2 udk vHk;0rvkyf&ao;ygbl;/
X0 = ON rjzpfcif? X0 = OFF jzpfaepOfu execute vkyfxm;vkdY Y1 [m OFF state
rSmyJ &Sdaeygao;w,f/
t0 uae t1 rwkdifciftxd X0 u OFF jzpfaewJh twGuf Y0, Y1, Y2 wkdYtm;vHk; OFF
jzpfaeMuygw,f/ 'gaMumifh X 0 u True eJY Y 1 uvnf; True wkdYukd AND vkyfvkdY
&vmwJh logic result uvnf; True jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh X0 = ON jzpfNyD;vsif NyD;csif; 1st Scan rSm Y0 [m ON jzpfygw,f/ Output
Memory rSm Y0 = ON vkdY rSwfxm;vdkufygw,f/
#1

X0

Y1
()
Y0

ukd execute vkyfNyD;rS ol&JUatmufrSm a&;xm;wJh

()
Y1

ukd

X0
#2

execute

qufvkyfygw,f/ tck

1st Scan

rSm

Y1

vnf; ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

193

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

*kjyKrSwfom;&rSmu program execute vkyfwJhtcg instruction code awGeJY a&;xm;wJh


tay:qHk; pmaMumif;u pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ tJ'gukd Network 0 upNyD; execute
vkyfw,fvkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ Circuit 0 (zero) upNyD; solve vkyfw,fvkdYvnf; ajymqkdMu
ygw,f/
tay:qHk; instruction pmaMumif;ukd execute vkyfNyD;rS olUatmuf uyfvsufrSm&SdwJh
instruction pmaMumif;ukd qif;NyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ pmaMumif;vkdY oHk;EIef;&wmu
graphical symbolic code awGudk tokH;jyKNyD;? TefMum;csufawGukd a&;om;xm;wmrkdY jzpfyg
w,f/
Y1
X0
1st Scan rSm #1
()
Y 0 vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf#1 eJY
X0

()
Y1

#2
Y0

Y2

vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf#2 ukd execute vkyfNyD;wJhtcg

vkdY a&;xm;wJhTefMum;csuf#3 udkpwif execute vkyfyg


#3
w,f/ Y0 [m ON jzpfNyD; Y2 [m OFF jzpfcJh&if
Y0
Y2
('grSr[kwf) Y0 [m OFF jzpfNyD; Y2 [m ON jzpfcJh&if
Y2 ukd ON jzpfatmifvkyfvkdufygvkdY PLC ukd ckdif;xm;
wJh TefMum;csufjzpfygw,f/
AND Block 2ckudk OR vkyfxm;wJh logic instruction jzpfygw,f/
Logic instruction &JU qdkvkdwJhoabmu ('D t ajctaeawG e J Y uk d u f n D & if ? 'D t vk y f
ukd vkyfyg) vkdY TefMum;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ ('DtajctaeawGeJYrudkufnD&if? 'Dtvkyf
ukd rvkyfygeJY) qdkwJh oabmt"dyg,fyg? yg0ifNyD; jzpfygw,f/ ('gjzpfrS 'gvkyf? 'grjzpf&if
tJ'gudk rvkyfeJY) vkdY t"dyg,f 2ck yg0ifygw,f/
tck 1st Scan rSm TefMum;csuf#1 eJY TefMum;csuf#2 ukd execute vkyfNyD;oGm; wJhtcg
Y0 = ON eJY Y1 = ON jzpfw,fqdkwmukd oufqkdif&m memory ae&mawGrSm a&;rSwfxm;
NyD;awmhrS TefMum;csuf#3 ukd execute pvkyfygw,f/
Y2
Y0
ukd pwif
'Dtcg TefMum;csuf #3 &JU b,fbufjcrf;u tay:ykdif;
Y0
execute vkyfygw,f/ Y0 = ON jzpfcJhvkdY
[m True jzpfygw,f/ Y2 = OFF
Y2
jzpfaeao;vkdY
[mvnf; True jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D True 2ckukd AND vkyfvkdufawmh
logic result u True jzpfygw,f/ &vmwJh logic result jzpfwJh True ukd temporary memory rSm
cP a&;rSwfxm;ygw,f/
()
Y2

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

194

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Y0
Y2
NyD;rS TefMum;csuf #3 &JU b,fbufjcrf;u atmufykdif;jzpfwJh
udk
Y0
Y2
u False jzpfNyD;?
uvnf; False jzpfygw,f/
qufNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/
tJ'D False 2ck ukd AND vkyfvkdY&wJh Logic result uvnf; False yJjzpfygw,f/ tck&wJh False
eJY apmapmurSwfxm;wJh True ukd OR vkyfvkdufwJhtcg logic result u True jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Y2 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
yHk(C)(1) Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram ukd Munhfyg/
TefMum;csuf#3 ukd execute vkyfNyD;wJhtcg atmufupmaMumif;udk qif;NyD; execute
vkyfygw,f/ TefMum;csuf#3 ukd execute vkyfNyD; atmufrSm&SdwJh END qkdwJh instruction code
ukd awGUawmhrS Program Scan &JU 1st Scan tvkyf[m NyD;qHk;oGm;ygw,f/ Program Scan &JU 1st
Scan tvkyfNyD;wJh tcg Output Scan ukd ajymif;vkyfygw,f/ Output Scan rSm output terminal
awGjzpfwJh Y0, Y1, Y2 wkdYudk ON ckdif;vkdufygw,f/ 1-scan time [m 1ms rjynhfygbl;/ 0.3ms
avmufyJ Mumygw,f/ Computer Screen &JU atmufajcrSm&SdwJh Task Bar ay:rSm Scan Time
0.3 ms qkdwmukd awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
1st Scan &JU Output Scan NyD;oGm;&if 2nd Scan ukd Input Scan tvkyfu? pNyD;
vkyfygw,f/ X0 [m ON jzpfaeqJrkdY ON vkdYawGUNyD; input memory rSm rSwfxm;ygw,f/
NyD;&if 2nd Scan &JU Program Scan tvkyfudkpvkyfygw,f/ tay:qHk; instruction pmaMumif;
Y1
X0
X0
[m
#1
()
Y 0 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg X0 = ON jzpfaevkdY
st
True jzpfygw,f/ 1 Scan program execute vkyfwHk;u Y1 = ON jzpfoGm;vkdY Y 1 uawmh
False jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D True eJY False ukd AND vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u False jzpfNyD;
Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0

vuf&Sd tcsdef 2nd Scan rSm #2


X0 = ON jzpfaewmrkdYvkdY Y1 = ON qufjzpfygw,f/
Y0
#3

Y2

()
Y2

ukd

ukd execute vkyfawmh


vuf&Sdtcsdef 2nd Scan rSm
()
Y1

execute vkyfwJhtcg
Y2

Y0

eJY Y1 = ON jzpf
aewJh twGuf False AND False jzpfNyD; result uvnf;
False yJjzpfygw,f/ 'D logic result jzpfwJh False ukd temporary memory rSm acw rSwfxm;yg
Y0
Y2
w,f/ NyD;&if #3 &JUb,ftpGefatmufykdif;jzpfwJh
ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg
Y0 = OFF eJY Y2 = ON jzpfaewJhtwGuf True AND True jzpfygw,f/ Logic result uvnf;
True jzpfygw,f/
Y0

Y2

rSm

b,ftpGef tay:ykdif;jzpfwJh
Y0 = OFF

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

195

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tck&wJh True eJY apmapmu temporary memory rSmrSwfxm;wJh False udk OR


vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u True jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Y2 [mqufNyD; ON jzpfaeygw,f/
#3 ukd execute vkyfNyD; END ukd execute vkyfygw,f/ 'Dtcsdefa&mufrS Output Scan &JU
tvkyfjzpfwJh output terminal Y0 udk OFF vkyfygw,f/ Y1 udk ON qufvkyfygw,f/ Y2
ukdvnf; ON qufvkyfygw,f/
'Dae&mrSm (tcktcsdefrSm) aoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;yg/
Y0 = ON jzpfwJh tcsdefu 1-scan time yJ Mumygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD; 1st Scan rSm
Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ NyD;awmh 2nd Scan rSm Y0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/
'D program ukd WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; Simulator eJY virtual PLC udk RUN MunhfwJh tcg
1-scan time [m 0.3ms yJMumw,fvkdY WPLSoft u azmfjyygw,f/
'kwd, ausmh 2nd Scan &JU Output Scan tvkyfNyD;awmh wwd, ausmh 3rd Scan &JU
Input Scan tvkyfukd qufvkyfygw,f/ X0 udk ON tjzpf? awGUvkdY awGUwJh twkdif; Input
memory rSm rSwfxm;vkdufygw,f/ Input Scan NyD;wJhtcg wwd,ausmh&JU Program Scan ukd
qufvkyfygw,f/
X0

Y1

ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg X0 [m ON jzpfaeNyD; Y1


uvnf; 'kwd,ausmhrSmwHk;u ON jzpfaecJhvkdY X 0 u True jzpfNyD; Y 1 u False
jzpfMuygw,f/ True eJY False ukd AND vkyfvkdY&wJh logic result uvnf; False yJjzpfwJh
twGufaMumifh Y0 [m OFF yJqufjzpfaeygw,f/
#1

X0
#2

()
Y0

()
Y1

udk execute vkyfwJh tcg

X0

[m True jzpf vkdY

Y1 = ON qufjzpfygw,f/

vkyfwJhtcg tay:ykdif; AND


Y2
Y0
Block rSm (Y0 = OFF) jzpfNyD; (Y2 = ON)
()
Y2
jzpfaewm aMumifh Y 0
u False
#3
Y0
Y2
eJY Y 2 u False ukd AND vkyfvkdufwJhtcg
logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
'D result jzpfwJh False ukd temporary memory rSmcPrSwfxm;ygw,f/ atmufykdif;
Y0
AND Block rSm (
u True) eJY ( Y 2 u True) wkdYukd AND vkyfvkdufawmh logic
result u True jzpfygw,f/
tck&wJh True eJY apmapmu temporary memory rSmrSwfxm;wJh False udk OR vkyf
vkdufawmh logic result u True jzpfygw,f/ 'Dawmh Y2 [m ON qufjzpfygw,f/
#3

udk

execute

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

196

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

yxrtBudrf X0 = ON jzpfwJhtcg
1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON,
Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfMuygw,f/
nd
2 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF,
Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfMuygw,f/
rd
3 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF,
Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = ON jzpfMuygw,f/
yHk(C)(1) Toggle Output Status-Time Diagram ukd Munfhyg/
X0 = OFF jzpf o G m ;wJ h t cg Y0 = OFF, Y1 = OFF eJ Y Y2 = ON jzpf N yD ; usef c J h y gw,f /
aemufwBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg 1st Scan rSm (#1) Y0 = ON, eJY (#2) Y1 = ON
jzpfMuygw,f/ (#1) eJY (#2) ukd execute vkyf NyD;rS?
#3 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg tay:ykdif; AND Block rSm
Y2
Y0
Y0
()
Y2
u True jzpfNyD; Y 2 u False jzpfyg
#3
w,f/ 'gaMumifh logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
Y0
Y2
'D AND Block &JU logic result jzpfwJh False ukd
temporary memory rSm cPrSwfxm; ygw,f/
atmufykdif; AND Block ukd execute vkyfawmh Y 0 u False jzpfNyD; Y 2 u True
jzpfvkdY AND Block &JU logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
tck &wJh False eJY apmapmurSwfxm;wJh False ukd OR vkyfvkdufawmh logic result u
False yJjzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ tck 'kwd,tBudrf X0 = ON
jzpfwJhtcgrSm 1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON, Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF jzpfMuygw,f/
Y1
X0
X0
2nd Scan rSm #1
#1 udk execute vkyfwJhtcg
()
Y0
'gaMumifh logic result u False jzpfNyD;
u True jzpfNyD; Y 1 u False jzpfygw,f/
X0
#2 ukd execute vkyfwJh
Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm; ygw,f/
()
Y1
#2
X0
tcg
u True jzpfvkdY Y1 = ON quf jzpfygw,f/
Y0
#3 ukd execute vkyfwJhtcg tay: AND Block rSm Y0 = OFF jzpfoGm;vkdY
u
Y2
False eJY
u (1st Scan rSm Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;cJhvkdY) True ukd AND vkyfvkdY &vmwJh
logic result jzpfwJh False ukd temporary memory rSm cP rSwfxm;ygw,f/
atmufykdif; AND Block ukd execute vkyfwhJtcg Y 0 u True eJY Y 2
u
False ukd AND vkyfvkdY&wJh logic result u False jzpfygw,f/
tJ'D AND Block 2ck &JU result awGjzpfMuwJh False 2ck udk OR vkyfvkdufawmh result
u False yJ&ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 2nd Scan rSmvnf; Y2 [m OFF yJqufjzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

197

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

'kwd,tBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg
1st Scan rSm Y0 = ON,
Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
nd
2 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF,
Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
rd
3 Scan rSm Y0 = OFF,
Y1 = ON eJY Y2 = OFF wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
'D Toggle Output Program udk a&;NyD; prf;MunhfwJhtcgrSm?
yxrtBudrf X0 = ON jzpf&if Y2 = ON jzpfNyD;?
'kwd,tBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfrS Y2 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
wwd,tBudrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg Y2 u jyefNyD; ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
'D program ukd PLC u b,fvkd Scan by Scan execute vkyfw,f qkdwmukd em;vnf
oabmayguf oGm;&if LD eJY a&;xm;wJh b,fvkd program rsdK;ukdyJjzpfjzpf t"dyg,f rSefatmif
bmomjyefwwfoGm;NyD jzpfygw,f/
tenf;qHk; 1st Scan, 2nd Scan, eJY 3rd Scan txd analyze vkyfwwfzkdY vkdygw,f/
odNyD? wwfNyD? em;vnfNyD? vkdY rdrdukd,frdrd,HkMunf&if atmufrSmazmfjyxm;wJh program ukd
a&;prf;MunfhNyD; Status-Time Diagram ukd a&;qGJMunhfyg/
P.B 1
X0

Delta PLC = DVP14SS2-11R


X0

Y2

X0

Y2

Lamp 1
Y2

()
Y2
COM 0

+
24V

24V
+ S/S

Input Terminal

LD Program

Output Terminal

yHk (C)(2)
yHk(C)(2) rSm azmfjyxm;wJhtwkdif; pushbutton eJY Lamp1 ukd PLC eJY qufoG,fNyD;
txufrSmaz:jyxm;wJhtwkdif; WPLSoft eJY LD program ukd a&;yg/ yxrOD;pGm Simulator udk
ON NyD; prf;Munhfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

198

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

yg/ Write to PLC


vkyfyg/ Online Mode ukdESdyfyg/ Task Bar ay:rSm Simulator qkdwJhpm eJY RUN qkdwJh
tpdrf;a&mifpm ay:ae&ygr,f/ wu,fvkdY STOP qkdwJh teDa&mifpm ay:ae&if PLC ukd
RUN vkdufyg/
Program

a&;NyD;&if

Compile

vkyfyg/

Simulator

ukd

vrf; nTef

ON

Click on Simulator icon

Write to PLC

PLC to RUN

Online Mode

tckcsdefxd wu,fh PLC eJY qufoG,frxm;&ao;ygbl;/ Virtual


MunfhrSm jzpfygw,f/
X0 ay: Cursor wif? Right Click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/

PLC

eJY prf;oyf

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

199

OD;pdk;wifh
Y2

PLC

[m

ON

vkduf?

OFF

vkduf? jzpfaewmukd

Computer Screen

vrf; nTef

ay:rSm awGU&yg

vdrfhr,f/
trSefwu,fu Y2 [m 1-scan time ON, 1-scan time OFF jzpfNyD;? oscillate jzpfaeyg
w,f/
1st Scan ON, 2nd Scan OFF, Next Scan ON, Next Scan OFF jzpfaeygw,f/
Y2 = ON jzpfNyD;wnf&dSaewJh tcsdef[m 1-scan time yJMumjrifhygw,f/
Task Bar rSm Munhf&if Scan Time : 0.6ms vkdY awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'D program udk RUN
wJhtcg 1 scan cycle &JU MumjrifhwJh tcsdefudk0.6ms vkdY az:jywm jzpfygw,f/
Computer Screen ay:rSm Y2 ukd ON aeaMumif; Highlight vkyfjywJh tpdrf;a&mif
ay:aewJh tcsdefumv u 1s avmufMumygw,f/
0.6ms yJ Highlight vkyfjy? pdrf;jy? w,fqkd&ifvnf; 0.6ms Mumatmifay:NyD;? 0.6ms
MumatmifaysmufuG,foGm;wJh tpdrf;a&mif ON/OFF jzpfaewmukd vlU&JU rsufpdu cGJjcm;NyD;
odEkdifpGrf; r&Sdygbl;/

'gukd rSefuefaMumif; twnfjyKEkdifzkdYtwGuf wu,fh PLC eJY vufawGU prf;oyf


MunhfzdkY vkdtyfygw,f/

X0

X0

Y2

Y2

()
Y2

Status

yHk(C)(2) rSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; pushbutton (N.O) 1ck jzpfwJh P.B1 &,f? rD;vHk; (24V,
1W) Lamp1 &,fukd wu,fh PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) rSm qufoG,fwyfqifyg/
yHk(C)(2) rSmazmfjyxm;wJh LD program ukd WPLSoft eJYa&;NyD; PLC xJukd download
vkyfyg/ PLC ukd RUN yg/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;NyD; PLC ay:u Y2 qkdwJh Output LED ukd
Munhfyg/ LED (Y2) vif;aewmukd jrifawGU&ygvdrfhr,f/
Online Mode ukd ESdyfNyD; Computer Screen ay:u Y2 ukdMunhfyg/ Y2 ae&mrSm tpdrf;
a&mif Highlight ay:vkduf^aysmufvkduf jzpfaewmukd awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;
oa&GU tpdrf;a&mif Highlight u ay:vmvkduf^aysmufoGm;vkduf jzpfaeNyD; PLC ay:rSm &SdwJh
Output LED (Y2) uawmh tNrJvif;aewmudk awGUjrif&ygvdrfhr,f/
trSefwu,fjzpfaewmu Y2 [m 0.6ms ON jzpfNyD;? 0.6ms OFF jzpfaewmom jzpfyg
1
w,f/
ON
X0
P.B1
1
0
1
P.B1
0
1
0

ykHukdMunhfyg/

OFF

ON
OFF
ON
OFF

Y2
X0
1ScanTime

ON
OFF

Y2
t0 t1t2t3t4

Time

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

200

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P.B1 udk jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcgrSm jrifawGU&wmu ykdNyD;awmhpdwf0ifpm;p&maumif;yg


w,f/ P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcgrSm Y2 [m ON jzpfusefcJhwJhtcg &Sdovkd OFF jzpf
usefcJhwJh tcgvnf; &Sdygw,f/ tBudrfBudrfESdyfMunhfyg/ Y2 ukd ON jzpfusefatmif? OFF jzpf

usefatmif? wrifvkyf,lvkdY r&Ekdifwmukd ukd,fawGUBuHKMu&ygvdrfhr,f/


q,fcg? q,fhig;cg? avmuf P.B1 ukd ESdyfvkduf? vTwfvkduf? vkyfMunhfyg/ Random
jzpfaewmudk awGU&ygvdrhfr,f/ Random qkdwm BuHK&muszrf; jzpfaewmukd qkdvkdygw,f/
P.B1 udk ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcsdefrSm Y2 [m ON jzpfaewmeJY BuHKBudKuf wkdufqkdif
aecJh&if? Status-Time Diagram &Jh atmufykdif;rSm jyxm;wJYtwkdif; Y2 u qufNyD; ON jzpfNyD;
usefcJhygw,f/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfNyD; jyefvTwfvkdufwJhtcsdefrSm Y2 [m OFF jzpfaeckdufeJY BuHKBudKuf
wkdufqkdifcJh&if? Status-Time Diagram &Jh tay:ykdif;rSm jyxm;wJYtwkdif; Y2 u OFF jzpfNyD;
usefcJhygw,f/
Simulator eJY prf;Munhf&ifvnf;? 'Dvkdjzpfwmukd awGUjrifEdkifygw,f/

ukd ESdyfxm;ckdufrSm output status indicator LED Y2 tNrJvif;aewmukdawmh


PLC eJ Y prf ; Munh f r S jrif a wG U &rS m jzpf y gw,f /
P.B1

Terminal Y2 rSm Lamp1 wyfqifxm;wmjzpfvkdY trSefwu,f Y2 om tNrJ ON jzpf


aew,fqkd&if Y2 LED a&m? Lamp1 yg NydKifwl vif;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ tckawmh Lamp1 u
rD;rvif;yJ? Y2 LED om rD;vif;aew,fvkdY awGUjrifae&ygw,f/
P.B1 ukd ESdyfNyD;jyefvTwfvkdufvkdY Y2 u ON jzpfNyD; usefwJhtcgrSmawmh Y2 LED a&m?
Lamp1 yg NydKifwl vif;aewmukd awGU&ygw,f/
trSefwu,fu output indicator LED Y2 [m 0.6ms ON/0.6ms OFF eJY vif;vdkuf?

rSdwfvkduf? jzpfaeygw,f/
tNrJvif;aew,fvkdY awGUjrif&wmuawmh vlUrsufpd&JU tjrifpGJNrJrIobm0aMumifh jzpf
ygw,f/ vlU&JUrsufpd[m 1/24 second MumwJhtxd tjrifpGJNrJrI &Sdygw,f/
t&ifjrifNyD;om; jrifuGif;yHk&dyfukd tJ'DyHk&dyfaysmufuG,foGm;NyD; 1/24 sec (41.6ms) Mum
onf txd vlUrsufpdu qufNyD; jrifaewwfygw,f/
'gaMumifh ,aeYacwf rD;ajy;pmvHk; LED signboard udk pmvHk;awG a&GUaew,fvkdYyJ
awGYjrif ygw,f/ ay:vkdufaysmufvkduf jzpfaew,fvkdY rjrif? rawGUMuygbl;/
LED signboard awGrSm LED awGudk ae&mtaowyfqifxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ LED
awG[mae&m ra&GUMuygbl;/ LED signboard udk pmvHk;awG a&GUaew,fvkdYyJ awGYjrif&wm[m
rsufpd&JU tjrifpGJNrJrI obm0aMumifh jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 ukd ESdyfxm;oa&GU tcsdefumvrSm PLC &JU Output LED Y2 tNrJvif; aew,fvkdY
awGUjrif&wm[m rsufpd&JUtjrifpGJNrJrI obm0aMumifh jzpfNyD; Lamp 1 rD;rvif;&wmuawmh
Relay &JU contact traveling time aMumifhjzpfygw,f/
You can try this program functionality using any PLC brand with relay output.
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

201

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DVP-14SS2-11R [m Relay output ygwJh PLC jzpfygw,f/ Output relay energize


jzpfvkdY contact open uae contact close jzpfzdkY travel vkyfwm 10ms Mumw,fvkdY OEM &JU
specification rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ Output relay contact &JU transition time jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Terminal Y2 [m OFF uae ON jzpfzkdY 10ms Mumygw,f/ ON uae OFF
jzpfzkdYvnf; 10ms Mumygw,f/
trSefwu,f Y2 = ON jzpfwJYtcsdefu 0.6ms omMumygw,f/ Y2 = OFF jzpfwJYtcsdef
uvnf; 0.6ms yJMumygw,f/
'Dawmh Y2 qkdwJh output relay &JU physical contact u Y2 = ON jzpfvkdY close jzpfr,f
BuHvkduf? 0.6ms Mumawmh Y2 = OFF jzpfoGm;vkdY jyefcGmckdif;vkdY uGmvkduf&? jzpfaevkdY
b,fawmhrS closed rjzpfawmhygbl;/
'gawGukd tao;pdyf a&;jy&wmuawmh Control System awGudk Troubleshoot vkyfwJh
tcg? tJ'D system awGrSm oHk;xm;wJh Device awG&JU physical nature a&m? program nature yg?
logical nature awGukdyg? odxm;rSom trSefudk OmPfeJYqifjcifodjrif EkdifaMumif; message

ay;csifvkdY jzpfygw,f/
Scan Cycle taMumif;ukd pmrsufESm (180) rSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

202

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vrf; nTef

PLC tvkyfvkyfyHkudk vG,fvG,frSwfxm;csif&if I, P, O vkdY rSwfxm;yg/ 'gu 1-scan (one


scan) rSmygwJh tvkyfoHk;rsdK; jzpfygw,f/ I u Input Scan jzpfygw,f/ P u Program Scan
jzpfygw,f/ O u Output Scan jzpfygw,f/
PLC ukd power ay;NyD;? RUN xm;vkduf&if? I (tkdif)? P (yD)? O (tdk) oHk;rsdK;[m
wpfckNyD;wpfck qufwkdufvkyfaeygw,f/ I NyD;awmh P, P NyD;awmh? O, O NyD;awmh? I u jyefp?

vkyfygw,f/
I, P, O wpfausmhNyD;atmifvkyfwmukd one scan vkdU ac:ygw,f/
I P O wpfausmhNyD;atmifMumwJhtcsdefukd 1-scan time vkdY ac:ygw,f/
PLC ukd STOP vkyfxm;vkduf&if output tm;vHk; OFF jzpfaeygw,f/ Output terminal
wkdif;rSm signal r&Sdwmukd OFF vdkY ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
PLC ukd RUN vkdufawmhrS I u p?vkyfygw,f/
I (Input Scan) vkyfaecsdefrSm PLC &JU input terminal tm;vHk;&JU tajctaeawGukd
zwfNyD; signal &dS^r&Sdukd input image memory rSm rSwfxm;ygw,f/ I NyD;rS P vkyfygw,f/
P (Program Scan) vkyfwJhtcg tay:qHk; yxr instruction pmaMumif;&JU
b,ftpGefu instruction code upNyD; pmzwfovkdrsdK; wpfckNyD;wpfck execute vkyfygw,f/
&vmwJh logic result awGukd oufqkdif&m memory rSm a&;rSwfxm;ygw,f/ tay:qHk;

TefMum;csufpmaMumif; NyD;qHk;oGm;&if olUatmuf uyfvsufu TefMum;csufpmaMumif;ukd


b,ftpGefu pNyD; execute vkyfygw,f/ P &JU tvkyfu program udk execute vkyfwm
jzpfygw,f/ TefMum;csuf pmaMumif;rSm tykdif;2ykdif; ygygw,f/ Examining ykdif;eJY Executing
ykdif;jzpfygw,f/ Open contact, Closed contact awGu Examining instruction awGjzpfNyD; Coil
u Executing instruction jzpfygw,f/
PLC rSm LD eJY a&;xm;wJh Program [m ('gjzpf r S ? 'guk d v k y f y g) vkdY cdkif;xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ ('gjzpfrS) qkdwJh Examining ykdif;ukd logic result &atmif aqmif&Gufygw,f/ tJ'D
logic result u True jzpfrS ('guk d v k y f y g) qkdwJh Executing ykdif;ukd aqmif&Gufygw,f/
aqmif&GufNyD; &&SdvmwJh solved result ukd oufqkdif&m Memory rSm a&;rSwf Wirte ygw,f/
NyD;&if atmufukdqufqif;NyD; Program Execute vkyfwm END qkdwJh Instruction Code udk
a&mufawmhrS P &JU tvkyf NyD;qHk;ygw,f/ P NyD;rS O (tkd) ukdk vkyfygw,f/
O (Output Scan) vkyfwJhtcg apmapmu (P vkyfaewHk;u) memory awGrSm a&;rSwf
xm;wmawGukd output terminal awGqD data vTJajymif;wm data transfer vkyfay; vkdufygw,f/
'Dtcsdef a&mufawmhrS PLC &JU output terminal awGu signal ukd &&Sdwm jzpfygw,f/ 'gudk
Output update vkyfw,fvkdY ac:ygw,f/
I (Input Scan) u input memory ukd update vkyfygw,f/ P (Program Scan) u
program ukd solve vkyfNyD; output memory ukd update vkyfygw,f/ O (Output Scan) u output
terminal ukd update vkyfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

203

OD;pdk;wifh
tvkyfvkyfyHk scanning process ukd
atmufrSm EdIif;,SOf azmfjyay;xm;ygw,f/
PLC

PLC
English

vrf; nTef

vkdzwfcsifolawGtwGuf &SmazG&orQukd

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

204

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

205

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

206

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

207

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

208

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

209

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tcef; (13) Programming Exercises


vufawGUprf;oyfa&;MunhfzkdY erlem program awGudk azmfjyvkdufygw,f/ vufawGU
prf;oyfp&m PLC, Pushbuttons, Lamp, Buzzer wkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ tJ'gawG&SdNyD;om;vkdY
oabmxm;NyD; a&;om;azmfjyoGm;rSm jzpfygw,f/
Exercise Program 1
Exercise Program 1 twGuf N.O contact ygwJh pushbutton 1ck? 24V, 3W Lamp 1ck?
24VDC, 1A power supply unit 1ck eJY PLC uawmh DVP-14SS2-11R 1vHk;? wkdYukd toHk;jyK

&rSm jzpfygw,f/
+24V P.B 1

Lamp

0V

yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; pushbutton eJY lamp udk series


qufNyD; 24VDC supply ay;xm;&ygr,f/ Pushbutton
P.B1 ukd ESdyfvdkuf&if Lamp = ON jzpfygw,f/ Pushbutton ukd ESdyfvkdufvkdY contact close
jzpfwmeJY rD;vHk;vif;zdkY signal &wmeJY Mum;rSm tcsdefaESmifhaES;MuefYMumrI r&Sdygbl;/ PLC eJY
'DtvkyfrsdK;ukdyJ program a&;NyD; ckdif;r,fqkd&if contact close jzpfwJhtcsdefeJY rD;vif;zkdY signal
&wJh tcsdefMum;rSm 20ms (milliseconds) avmuf time delay &Sdygw,f/
P.B 1

Lamp

X0

Y0

PLC

COM 0

+
24V

24V
+ S/S
Input Terminal

Output Terminal

yHk

(Ex. 1)
tJ'gukd od&Sdem;vnfzkdYtwGuf yHk(Ex. 1) rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; P.B1
terminal X0 rSm qufoG,fxm;yg/ Lamp ukd output terminal Y0 rSm
program udk yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; WPLSoft eJY a&;yg/

ukd PLC &JU input


qufoG,fNyD; LD

NyD;&if PLC xJukd download vkyfyg/ PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/ Pushbutton ukd ESdyfMunhf
yg/ jyefvTwfMunhfyg/ rsufjrifrSmawmh aESmif;aES;MuefYMumw,fvkdY od&SdcHpm;&rSmr[kwfygbl;/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

210

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wu,fwrf; PLC u vkyfaqmif&mrSmawmh pushbutton ukd ESdyfvkdufvkdY contact close


jzpfoGm;wJhtcsdefeJY Input Image Memory rSm X0 = ON vkdY a&;rSwfvkdufwJh tcsdefMum;rSm
10ms Mumjrihfygw,f/ Input delay jzpfygw,f/ Contact bounce aMumifhjzpfwJh noise eJY
electromagnetic interference aMumifhjzpfwJh noise awGudk ppfxkwfNyD; csefxm;cJhcsifvkdY wrif
delay jzpfatmif vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'gukd Input response time vkdYvnf; ac:ygw,f/ 'D
delay time ukd jyifcsif&if D1020 rSm oGm;jyifvkdY&ygw,f/ omreftoHk;jyKoltaeeJY rjyifoifh
ygbl;/ aemufxyf 1scan time delay jzpfygao;w,f/
LD program ukd tckvkdcyfwkdwkda&;xm;&ifawmh 1scan time [m 0.3ms Mumygw,f/
tckoHk;wJh PLC (DVP-14SS2-11R) u relay output jzpfwJhtwGuf relay contact &JU traveling
time 10ms xyfMumygw,f/ pkpkaygif; 20.3ms delay jzpfygw,f/ Pushbutton uk d ES d y f v k d u f v k d Y
terminal X0 rS m signal a&muf N yD ; 20.3ms MumrS terminal Y0 u signal xk w f a y;ygw,f /
PLC wk d i f ; rS m

'Dvkd

I/O responding time tNrJ & S d y gw,f /

yHk(Ex. 1) rSm jyxm;ovkd Pushbutton eJY Lamp ukd PLC rSmqufoG,fNyD; LD program
ukd Examine OFF X0 eJY a&;cJh&if P.B1 ukd rESdyfbJxm;wJhtcgrSm Y0 = ON (Lamp = ON)
jzpfNyD; P.B1 ukd ESdyfvkdufawmhrS Y0 = OFF (Lamp = OFF) jzpfygw,f/ I/O responding time
uawmh 20.3ms yJjzpfygw,f/
PLC tvkyfvkyfyHktqihfqihfukd Scan Cycle taMumif; pmrsufESm (180) rSm
azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

211

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vrf; nTef

Exercise Program 2
Exercise Program 2 ukd vufawGUprf;zkdY yg0ifwJh ypnf;awGuawmh
(1) P.B1 (N.O contact) 1ck?
(2) P.B2 (N.C contact) 1ck?
(3) Lamp 24VDC, 3W 1ck?
(4) DVP-14SS2-11R PLC 1ck? eJY
(5) 24VDC, 1A power supply unit 1ck? wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
Pushbutton 2ck

eJY

Lamp 1ck

ukd yHkrSm jyxm;wJhtwkdif; qufoG,fyg/

P.B 1

Lamp
Y0

X0
P.B 2
X1

PLC

COM 0

+
24V

X0

X1

Y0
()

24V
+ S/S
Input Terminal

[END]
Output Terminal

LD Program

LD program udk yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; PLC xJ download vkyf


xm;yg/ PLC ukd RUN vkdufyg/ Pushbutton awGudk EdSyfprf;Munhfyg/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd 1ck
csif;pD ESdyf&if Y0 u r ON ao;bJeJY 2ck wGJESdyfrS Y0 u ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gukd Logic AND
vkdY ac:ygw,f/ IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = OFF) THEN [(Y0 ON] vkdY ckdif;xm;wm
jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 ukd ESdyfrS X0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ P.B2 ukd ESdyfrS X1 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
Y0
wu,fvkdY program udk yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd a&;cJhr,f
X1
X0
()
qkd&ifawmh? P.B1 1ck xJESdyfrSom Y0 = ON jzpfyg
w,f/ P.B2 1ck xJESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 [m r ON yg
[END]
bl;/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd wGJESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 [m r ON
ygbl;/ PLC ukd ckdif;apwJh program a&;wJhtcgrSm Field Input Device awG&JU N.O, N.C ukd

xnhfoGif;pOf;pm;&ygw,f/
tJ'DtaMumif; tao;pdyfukd pmrsufESm 103
a&;om;&mrSm azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

Industrial Alarm System

taMumif;

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

212

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Exercise Program 3
Logic OR ukd vufawGUprf;MunhfzkdY twGuf yg0ifwJhypnf;awG
(1) N.O pushbutton 2ck
(2) Lamp 24V, 3W 1ck?
(3) 24VDC, 2A power supply 1ck? eJY
(4) DVP-14SS2-11R PLC 1vHk;? wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/

yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; Pushbutton eJY Lamp awGukd


P.B 1

PLC rSm

qufoG,fvdkufyg/

Lamp 1

X0

Y0

P.B 2
X1

uawmh

PLC

COM 0

+
24V

24V
+ S/S
Input Terminal

Output Terminal

LD program udk WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; PLC xJ download vkyfxm;yg/ PLC ukd RUN
vdkufyg/ Pushbutton awGukd ESdyfNyD;prf;Munhfyg/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 b,f[mudk ESdyfESdyf Lamp
rD;vif;NyD;? 2ck wGJESdyf&ifvnf; rD;vif;ygw,f/ 'gukd Logic OR vkdY ac:ygw,f/
IF (X0 = ON) OR (X1 = ON) THEN (Y0 => ON) vkdY

ckdif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
'D program udk a&;csif&if? b,ftpGef Initial point rSm Cursor csNyD;? <Enter> <L> <D>
<Space> <X> <0> <Enter> <O> <U> <T> <Space> <Y> <0> <Enter> <L> <D>
<Space> <X> <1> <Enter> Vertical line udk a&;csif&if? X0 ab;uyfvsufnmbufrSm
Cursor csNyD; <F9> udkEdSyfyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

213

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Exercise Program 4
Logic XOR ukd vufawGUprf;MunhfzkdYtwGuf yg0ifwJh ypnf;awGuawmh
(1) N.O pushbutton 2ck?
(2) N.C pushbutton 2ck?
(3) Lamp 24V, 3W 1ck?
(4) 24V, 2A DC power supply 1ck? eJY
(5) DVP-14SS2-11R PLC 1vHk;? wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
P.B 1
Y0

X0

Lamp

P.B 2
X1
P.B 3
X2

PLC

COM 0

P.B 4

+
24V

X3

X0

X1

24V
+ S/S

X0

X1

()
Y0

yHk(B)
yHk(A)
yHk(A) rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; qufoG,fNyD; program ukd yHk(B) rSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; a&;yg/
'D program uawmh Logic XOR jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 1ckxJ ESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
P.B2 1ckxJ ESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ P.B1 a&m P.B2 yg aygif;ESdyf&ifawmh Y0 =
OFF jzpfygw,f/
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = OFF)] OR [(X0 = OFF) AND (X1 = ON)] THEN [(Y0 => ON)]

vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/


AND Block 2ck udk OR vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/

Program udk 'Dvdka&;xm;&ifvnf; Logic XOR yJ jzpfygw,f/


OR Block 2ckukd AND vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
P.B1 a&m P.B2 yg N.O pushbutton awGjzpfwmudk owdjyKyg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

214

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Exercise Program 5
Pushbutton 4ck?

eJY Lamp udk yHk(A) twdkif; qufoG,fyg/

yHk(C)
yHk(C) twkdif; program ukd a&;yg/ 'gvnf; XOR yJjzpfygw,f/ P.B2 eJY
1ckcsif; pD ESdyfrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ 2ck wGJESdyf&ifawmh Y0 = OFF jzpfygw,f/

P.B3

ukd

IF [(X1 = ON) AND (X2 = ON)] OR [(X1 = OFF) AND (X2 = OFF)] THEN (Y0 => ON)

vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ AND Block 2ck ukd OR vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/


P.B2 u N.O pushbutton jzpfNyD; P.B3 u N.C pushbutton jzpfw,fqdkwmudk owdjyKyg/
Exercise Program 6
Pushbutton 4ck?

eJY Lamp udk yHk(A) twdkif;qufoG,fyg/

yHk(D)
yHk(D) twkdif; program ukd a&;yg/ P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukd wGJESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON
jzpfygw,f/ P.B3 eJY P.B4 udk wJGESdyf&ifvnf; Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ P.B 1ckcsif;pD ESdyf&ifawmh
Y0 = OFF jzpfaeygvdrhfr,f/
IF [(X0 = ON) AND (X1 = ON)] OR [(X2 = OFF) AND (X3 = OFF)] THEN [(Y0 => ON)]

vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/


AND Block 2ckukd OR vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
P.B1 eJY P.B2 u N.O pushbutton jzpfNyD; P.B3 eJY
qdkwmudk owdjyKyg/

P.B4

N.C pushbutton

jzpfw,f

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

215

OD;pdk;wifh
Exercise Program 7
Pushbutton 4ck?

PLC

vrf; nTef

eJY Lamp udk yHk(A) twkdif; qufoG,fyg/

yHk(E)
yHk(E) twkdif; LD program udka&;yg/ Y0 udk ON jzpfapr,fh condition awGuawmh
(1) P.B1 eJY P.B2 ukdwGJESdyf&if?
(2) P.B1 eJY P.B4 ukd wGJESdyf&if?
(3) P.B3 eJY P.B2 ukdwGJESdyf&if?
(4) P.B3 eJY P.B4 ukdwGJESdyf&if?
(5) P.B 4ckpvHk;udk wGJESdyf&if? wkdYjzpfMuygw,f/
IF [(X0 = ON) OR (X2 = OFF)] AND [(X1 = ON) OR (X3 = OFF)] THEN [(Y0 => ON)]

vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/


OR Block 2ckukd AND vkyfxm;wmjzpfygw,f/
Exercise Program 1 to 7 udk wu,fh PLC, rSm wu,fh Pushbutton awGeJY qufoG,fNyD;
vufawGU prf;Munhf NyD;&if?
(1) PLC &JU Input Device (sensor) awGrSm N.O/N.C qkdwJh obm0ukd xnhfoGif;
pOf;pm; &r,fqkdwm&,f?
(2) tJ'D N.O/N.C awGeJY qDavsmfatmif LD program xJrSm open contact, closed
contact awGudk a&G;cs,ftoHk;NyD; instruction code tjzpfa&;&w,f? qkdwmukd
em;vnf oabmayguf avmufNyDvkdY xifygw,f/
PLC xJrSm &SdwJh CPU u PLC &JU input terminal rSm wwfqifxm;wJh sensor awG[m N.O
vm;? N.C vm; qkdwmukd odEkdifpGrf;r&Sdygbl;/ Input terminal rSm signal &Sdw,f? r&Sdbl;?
qkdwmukdom odEkdifygw,f/
Signal &SdrS output ukd ON jzpfapcsif&if open contact
ukd oHk;&ygw,f/
Signal r&SdrS output ukd ON jzpfapcsif&if closed contact
ukd oHk;&ygw,f/
Open contact
[m ON jzpfae&if True jzpfNyD; Open contact
[m OFF
jzpfae&if False jzpfygw,f/ Closed contact
[m OFF jzpfae&if True jzpfNyD; Closed
contact
[m ON jzpfae&if False jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

216

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Coil ( ) &JU a&SUrSm (b,fbufrSm) &SdaewJh instruction code awG tm;vHk;ukd


Examining instruction vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Examine the condition tajctaeukd ppfaq;&vkdY
jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D condition awGukd examine vkyfvkdY&vmwJh logic result u True jzpfrSom
Coil ( ) [m ON jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D logic result u Flase jzpf&if Coil [m OFF jzpfygw,f/
PLC ukdckdif;wJh
X0

yHkpHu ('gjzpfrS ) ('gukdvkyfyg ) qkdwJh yHkpHjzpfygw,f/

( Y0 )

a&SUu Examine ON X0 eJY a&;xm;NyD;aemufu Output ON Y0 vkdY a&;xm;&if


examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u ON jzpfaerS output Y0 udk ON vkyfay;ygvkdY PLC
ukd ckdif;wmjzpfygw,f/
'Dawmh examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u ON rjzpf&if output Y0 ukd r ON
ygeJYvkdY qkdvkdwJh t"dyg,fygNyD;om; jzpfygw,f/
X0

( Y0 )

a&SUu Examine OFF X0 eJY a&;xm;NyD; aemufu Output ON Y0 vkdY a&;xm;&if


examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u OFF jzpfaerS output Y0 udk ON vkyfay;ygvkdY PLC
ukd ckdif;wmjzpfygw,f/
'Dawmh examine vkyf&r,fh condition X0 u OFF rjzpf&if output Y0 ukd r ON
ygeJY qkdwJht"dyg,f ygNyD;jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

217

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

tcef; (14) PLC xJu


eJU

vrf; nTef

Counter taMumif ; /

PLC wkdif;rSm Internal Counter awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ tJ'D Counter awG[m Output terminal
qufoG,frIvHk;0 r&SdvdkU internal counter vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

trsdK;tpm; type rwl&if yg0if wJh Counter ta&twGuf rwlMuygbl;/ Counter


trsdK;tpm; type vnf; uGmjcm;Muygw,f/ 'gaMumihf rdrdvufxJrSm&SdwJh PLC rSm b,fvkd
Counter trsdK;tpm; awGygovJqkdwm odxm;zkdU vkdtyfygw,f/ odcsif&if OEM &JU
Programming Manual xJu Memory Map ukd &SmMunhf&rSm jzpfygw,f/ PLC rSmygavh&SdwJh
Counter awGuawmh
(1) Up Counter (Incrementing Counter)
(2) Down Counter (Decrementing Counter)
(3) Up-Down Counter (Reversible Counter) eJY
(4) High Speed Counter wkdY jzpfMuygw,f/
PLC

b,fvkd

Counter rsd K ;uk d y J j zpf j zpf

toHk;jyKawmhr,fqkd&if odxm;&r,fYtcsufawGu

(1)

Counter function twGuf instruction code


type eJY wGJNyD; odxm;&ygr,f/

(2)
(3)

Counter eHygwfeJY Counter type ukd

ukd b,fvkda&;&r,f qkdwmukd

PLC

wGJNyD;odxm; &ygr,f/
Set value (Preset value) ukd b,f PLC rSm b,fvkda&;&w,fqkdwm PLC type eJY
wGJNyD; odxm;&ygr,f/
(4) Set value &JU twdkif;twm range ukd Counter trsdK;tpm;eJYwGJNyD; odxm;& yg
r,f/ NyD;awmh ta&;tBuD;qHk;tcsufu rdrdoHk;r,fh Counter &JU tusihfpkduf
character ukd vufawGUa&;prf;Munhfxm;&rSm jzpfygw,f/ 'grSom ukd,fa&;wJh
program [m ukd,farQmfrSef;xm;wJhtwkdif; rwdrf;rapmif;bJ vkyfaqmif ay;wm
ukd awGU&rSmjzpfygw,f/ pmzwfNyD; odxm;wJhtodeJY rvkHavmufygbl;/ Counter
taMumif; odatmif? em;vnfatmif? vufawGUa&;prf;MunhfzkYd vkdtyfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

218

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Up Counter

atmufrSm erlem

awGa&;NyD; &Sif;jyxm; ygw,f/ vufawGUtoHk;jyKwJh


Delta Electronics Ltd. u xkwfvkyfwJh DVP-14SS2-11R2 jzpfygw,f/
program

PLC

yHkrSm jyxm;wJh program ukd WPLSoft eJY a&;NyD; Simulator ukd ON vkdufyg/
Task Bar rSm Simulator qkdwJh pm ay:vmwJhtcg Wirte to PLC vkyfyg/ PLC ukd RUN yg/
Online Mode ukd ON NyD; X0 ay: Cursor cs? Right Click ESdyf? Set On vkyfyg/ NyD;&if X0 ukd Set
Off vkyfxm;cJhyg/ tckvkyfcJhwmu C0 ukd reset vkyfwmjzpfygw,f/
X1 ay: Cursor cs? Right Click ESdyfNyD; Set On vkyfyg/ teDa&mifeJY ay:aewJh K0 uae
K1 ukd ajymif;oGm;ygvdrhfr,f/ 1 digit count vkyfvkdufwm jzpfygw,f/ X1 u counting input
jzpfygw,f/ tJ'D counting input &JU Logic condition u False-to-True jzpfrS Counter 1csuf
wuf oGm;wm jzpfygw,f/

'D

Program rSm Examine ON X1 eJY a&;xm;wmjzpfvkdY X1 = OFF-to-ON jzpfrS Falseto-True jzpfNyD; 1 digit count up jzpfygw,f/
wu,fvkdY Examine OFF X1 vkdY a&;cJhr,fqkd&if X1 = ON-to-OFF jzpfrS False-to-True
jzpfNyD; 1 digit count up jzpfygvdrhfr,f/

txufygtwkdif; a&;NyD;prf;Munhfyg/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

219

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

tck program rSm tay:qHk;pmaMumif;&JU t"dyg,fu X0 = ON jzpfrS C0 ukd reset vkyfyg


vkdY a&;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU Scan wkdif; C0 udk reset vkyfaeygw,f/
'gaMumifh X0 ukd ON xm;wJhtcsdefrSm X1 ukd OFF-to-ON vkyf&if C0 [m count up
rvkyfygbl;/
teDa&mifpmvHk;eJY azmfjyaewJh K0 ukd accumulated value vkdY ac:ygw,f/ Present value
vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Current value vkdYvnf; ac:Muygw,f/ Counter u a&wGufNyD;om;
ta&twGuf? vuf&Sdwefzkd;jzpfygw,f/
'D program &JU 'kwd,pmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wmu X1 = OFF-to-ON jzpfwkdif; C0 ukd 1
digit wkd;NyD; 5 digits jynhf&if C0 ukd ON vkdufygvkdY ckdif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
tJ'D instruction pmaMumif;rSm ygwJh CNT qkdwmu Counter tvkyfukd vkyfygvkdY ckdif;wJh
instruction &JU code letter jzpfygw,f/ C0 qkdwmu Counter eHygwfjzpfygw,f/ K5 u count
vkyf&r,fh ta&twGuf? a&wGuf&r,fh digit jzpfygw,f/
wwd, instruction pmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wmuawmh C0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 ukd ON vkdufyg
vkdY ckdif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
atmufqHk;pmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wJh END qkdwJh instruction code u ckdif;xm;wm NyD;NyDvkdY
ajymwmjzpfygw,f/ TefMum;p&m 'gtukefyJvkdY ajymwmjzpfygw,f/
Scan wdkif;? Scan wkdif;rSm END qkdwmukd a&mufawmhrS aemufwqifhukd ajymif;NyD; PLC
u aqmif&Gufwmjzpfygw,f/
Reset function udk a&;csif&if a&;r,fhae&mrSm Cursor cs? Enter ukd 1csuf acgufyg
RST vkdY kdufyg? Space jcm;NyD; C0 vkdY kdufyg? [RST C0] vkdY ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/
Counter function udk a&;csif&if a&;r,fhae&mrSm Cursor cs? Enter ukd 1csuf acgufyg
CNT vkdY kdufyg Space jcm;NyD; C0 vkdY kdufyg Space jcm;NyD; K5 vkdY kdufyg/ Enter
1csuf acgufvkduf&if atmufyHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif; ay: vmygvdrhfr,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

220

OD;pdk;wifh

yHkrSm yg&dSwJh

PLC

SV qkdwmu Set Value jzpfNyD; PV u Present Value jzpfygw,f/

vrf; nTef

'D

Counter

ukd Up Counter vkdY ac:ygw,f/


Counter eJY ywfoufNyD; aemufxyfodxm;&rSmu General Counter eJY Latched Counter
qkdwmjzpfygw,f/
General Counter u PLC ukd RUN-to-STOP vkyfvkduf&if pkrdNyD;om; wefzkd; accumulated
value tm;vHk; reset (clear) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ PLC ukday;xm;wJh power jywfoGm;&ifvnf;
accumulated value tm;vHk; reset jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Count vkyfxm;orQ tm;vHk; oHknjzpfoGm;
ygw,f/
Latched Counter
Latched Counter trsdK;tpm;uawmh RUN-to-STOP yJ vkyfvkyf? Power yJ jywfjywf?
accumulated value awGukd rSwfxm;NyD;om;twkdif; raysmufrysufatmif odrf;xm;ygw,f/
Power jyef&NyD; PLC udk RUN vkduf&if count vkyfNyD;om;wefzkd;uae a&SUqufwkd;NyD; count
vkyfoGm;ygw,f/ Resume vkyfoGm;ygw,f/
Counter [m ON NyD;om;?jzpfae&ifvnf; PLC ukd STOP vkyfvkdufwJhtcg PLC &JU output
tm;vHk;u OFF jzpfoGm;ayrJh ON jzpfNyD;om;? Latched Counter uawmh ON qufjzpfaeyg
w,f/ PLC udk jyef RUN vkdufwJhtcg ON NyD;om;? Latched Counter eJY qufpyfywfoufwJh
output awGvnf; ON jyefjzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R2

xJrSm

C0

General Counter

jzpfNyD;?

C112

Latched Counter

jzpf

ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

221

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

atmufrSmjyxm;ovdk program udka&;NyD; prf;Munfhyg/

DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm

yg&SdwJh

Counter trsdK;tpm;awGudk

atmufrSmaz:jyxm;ygw,f/

C0 to C111 eJY C128 to C199 wkdY[m 16-bit General Up Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
C112 to C127 txdu 16-bit Latched Up Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
C233 to C242 txd[m 32-bit Latched Up/Down Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/ if;wkdY[m
32-bit Software High-Speed Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
C243 to C254 txd[m 32-bit Latched Up/Down Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/ if;wkdY[m
32-bit Hardware High-Speed Counter awG jzpfMuygw,f/
16-bit Counter awG&JU Set value ukd trsm;qHk;a&;EkdifwJh wefzkd;u 1 to 32767 jzpfygw,f/
32-bit Up/Down Counter awG&JU Set value ukd -2,147,483,648 to +2,147,483,647 txd

a&;Ekdifygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

222

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Counter ukd count vkyfckdif;csifwJh wefzkd;u a&;vkdY&wJh SV wefzkd;xuf


Counter 2ckukd yHkrSm jyxm;ovkd cascade vkyfNyD; a&;vkdY&ygw,f/

vrf; nTef

rsm;aer,f qkd&if

yHkrSm jyxm;wJh program twkdif;a&;xm;NyD;? Kn1 ukd K30000 vkdY a&;r,f? Kn2 ukd
K20000 vkdY a&;cJhr,f qdk&if? pkpkaygif; Set value (SV) [m n1 x n2 = (30000 x 20000 =
600000000) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ C5 [m n1 (i.e 30000) wefbkd;jynhfrS 1cg ON jzpfygw,f/ C5 =
ON jzpfoGm;&if C6 ukd 1 digit count-up vkyfckdif;NyD;aemuf C5 ukd reset vkyfypfygw,f/ C6 u
awmh X14 = ON jzpfrS reset jzpfygw,f/
Up/Down Counter
DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm Up/Dn Counter (C200 to C232) pkpkaygif;

33ck yg&Sdygw,f/

Up/Down Counter ukd toHk;jyKxm;wJh program ukd azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ C200 ukd


Down Counter jzpfapcsif&if M1200 ukd ON xm;ay;&ygw,f/ M1200 = OFF jzpfae&if
C200 [m Up Counter vkd count vkyfygw,f/ M1200 = ON jzpfaerS C200 [m Down
Counter vkd count vkyfygw,f/ C200 to C232 txd counting direction (Up or Down) udk
ajymif; csif&if M1200 to M1232 ukd oHk;&ygw,f/ C200 to C232 wkdY[m 32-bit Up-Down
Counter awG jzpfwJhtwGuf DCNT qkdwJh instruction code ukd oHk;NyD; program ukd a&;&
ygw,f/ DCNT qkdwm Double Word Counter vkdYt"dyg,f&SdwJh instruction code jzpfygw,f/

yHkrSm

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

223

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Status-Time Diagram rSm azmfjyxm;wmu tu,f C200 [m ON NyD;om;? jzpfae


cJh&if PV = (-5) to (-6) ukd ajymif;rS C200 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Set Value (SV) ukd (-5) vkdY
program rSm a&;xm;wmukd owdjyKyg/ yHkrSmygwJh PV u Present Value (Current Value)

jzpfygw,f/
PV = (-6) to (-5) increase

jzpfoGm;&if

C200 = ON

jzpfygw,f/

(-5)

(-6)

xufBuD; yg

w,f/
PV = (-5) to (-6) decrease jzpfoGm;rS C200 = OFF jzpfygw,f/

xJrSmygwJh Counter awGu 0 (zero) u pNyD; SV (Set Value) a&mufwJhtxd


wkd;wufoGm;wmjzpfvkdY Incrementing Counter vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Omron PLC jzpfwJh CPM1A-20CDR xJrSm yg&SdwJh Counter awGu SV u pNyD; 0 (zero)
a&mufwJhtxd usqif;oGm;wmjzpfvkdY Decrementing Counter vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Counter function udk a&;csif&if a&;r,fhae&mrSm Cursor cs? Enter ukd 1csuf acgufyg
CNT vkdY kdufyg? Space bar ukd 1csuf acgufyg C0 vkdY kdufyg? Space bar ukd
1csuf acgufyg? K5 vkdY kdufyg/ Enter 1csuf acgufvkduf&if atmufyHkrSmjyxm;
wJhtwkdif; ay:vmygvdrhfr,f/
DVP-14SS2

K5 qkdwmu

udef;aowefzkd;

constant value ukd decimal number eJY

a&;wm jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

224

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

Counter C0 ukd 10 cg count vkyfckdif; csif&if 10


K ukd toHk;jyKNyD; [CNT C0 K10] vkdY a&;&ygw,f/

cg ukd

decimal number eJY

vrf; nTef

a&;r,fqkd&if

wu,fvkdY [CNT C0 D2] vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh t"dyg,fu Counter C0 ukd count


vkyfckdif;wJh ta&twGuf Set value (SV) uddk D2 xJrSm&SdwJh wefbkd;twkdif; a&wGufygvkdY
ckdif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ D2 u udef;&Sifwefzkd; variable jzpfygw,f/ Data register ukd D eJY
owfrSwfazmfjyygw,f/

DVP-14SS2-11R qkdwJh PLC xJrSm D0 to D999


bits &SdwJh Word Device jzpfygw,f/

txd yg&Sdygw,f/

Data register

[m

16

X10 = ON jzpfwJhtcg D2 xJudk 20 a&;xnfh

vdkufvdkY C0 &JU Set value [m 20 jzpfygw,f/


X20 = ON jzpfwJhtcg D2 xJudk 15 a&;xnfh vdkufvdkY C0 &JU Set value [m 15 jzpfygw,f/
D2 xJudk decimal value 15 a&;xnfhcdkif;wJh [MOV K15 D2] vdkY a&;csif&if? <Enter>
<M> <O> <V> <Space> <K> <1> <5> <Space> <D> <2> <Enter> vdkY kdufyg/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

225

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

tcef; (15) PLC xJu

vrf; nTef

Timer taMumif ;

PLC wkdif;rSm Internal Timer awG yg&SdMuygw,f/ Output terminal eJU qufoG,frIvHk;0
r&SdvdkU internal timer vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ Timer 2rsdK; 2pm;&Sdygw,f/ Non-retentive timer
eJY Retentive timer wdkY jzpfMuygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R qkdwJh PLC xJrSm 2rsdK;pvHk;ygygw,f/
DVP-14SS-11R qkdwJh PLC xJrSmawmh non-retentive timer trsdK;tpm; 1 rsdK;om yg&Sd

ygw,f/
CPM1A-20CDR

qkdwJh Omron

PLC

xJrSmvnf;

non-retentive

trsdK;tpm; 1 rsdK;om

yg&Sd ygw,f/
Timer rSm tcsuftvuf parameter oHk;rsdK; &Sdygw,f/
1/ Time base jzpfygw,f/ 1 digit ajymif;zdkY MumwJhtcsdefudk Time Base vdkY ac:yg
w,f/
2/ a&wGuf&r,fh tcsdefyrmPudk azmfjywJh Preset Value jzpfygw,f/ Set Value
(SV) vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
3/ a&wGufNyD;om;wefzdk; accumulated value jzpfygw,f/ Current value vdkYvnf;
ac:yg w,f/ vuf&Sdwefzdk; present value (PV) vdYkvnf; ac:ygw,f/
Timer &JU vkyfudkifaqmif&GufyHkudk erlem program awGa&;NyD; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/
program udk a&;xm;cJh&if TMR qdkwmu timer tvkyfudk vkyz
f dkY cdkif;wJh timer
function instruction code jzpfygw,f/ T0 qdkwmu timer &JU eHygwfjzpfygw,f/ K100 qdkwm
u Set value (SV) jzpfygw,f/
PLC xJu timer udk tcsdefudka&wGufcdkif;wJhae&mrSm oHk;&ygw,f/ Time counting
vkyfw,fvdkY ac:ygw,f/ K100 vdkY a&;xm;wmu tBudrf 100 txd a&wGufygvdkY 100
digits txd time counting vkyfcdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
tck program rSm X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk time counting vkyfyg? 100 digits txd
counting vkyfyg? vdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/ 1 digit ajymif;zdkYMumwJhtcsdefudk Time Base vdYk
ac:ygw,f/ T0 &JU Time Base u 100ms jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfwmeJY T0 [m K0 upNyD; K1, K2, K3, --- pojzifh wdk;wdk;NyD; count
vkyfoGm;ygw,f/ Set value jzpfwJY K100 a&mufawmhrS T0 [m ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ K1 to
K2, K2 to K3, - - - , K99 to K100 tJ'Dvdkajymif;zdkY digit 1ckcsif;pDtwGuf MumwJhtcsdefudk
Time Base vdkY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/ T0 &JU Time Base [m 100ms (100 rDvDpuefY) jzpfyg
w,f/ 'gaMumifh [TMR T0 K100] vdkY a&;xm;wm[m T0 udk 100ms aygif; 100 txd

yHkrSmvdk

a&wGufygvdkY cdkif;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

226

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vdkY a&;xm;wJhtwGuf T0 a&wGuf&rJh ta&twGufu 100 jzpfygw,f/ 1ck


a&wGufwdkif; MumwJhtcsdef Time Base u 100ms jzpfvdkY K100 qdkawmh pkpkaygif;a&wGufNyD;zdkY
Mumr,fhtcsdefu (Set Value x Time Base) = (K100 x 100ms) = 10000ms jzpfygw,f/
1000ms = 1s jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh 10000ms = 10s = 10 puefY jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh X0 = ON jzpfaewm 10s Mum&if T0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfaewJhtcsdef[m 10s xd rMumbJ? 5s MumwJYtcg X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if
T0 [m ON rjzpf&ao;cif &yfwhHoGm;ygw,f/ Count vkyfNyD;om; 5s (K50) udkvnf; cancel
vkyf y,fzsufvdkufygw,f/ tJ'Dvdk cancel vkyfwmudk time accumulated value udk reset to
zero vkyfw,fvdkY ajymqdkMuygw,f/ aemuf 1Budrf X0 = ON jyefjzpfwJhtcg T0 [m zero
(K0) u jyefp NyD; time counting vkyfygw,f/
'D program rSm X0 = OFF jzpfwdkif; T0 [m reset jzpfygw,f/
'Dvdk timer rsdK;udk Non-retentive timer vdkY ac:ygw,f/
'D program udk IF [(X0 = ON)] THEN [(TMR T0 K100)] 'Dvdk jrifMunfhr,fqdk&if
t"dyg,fu [tu,f X0 [m ON jzpfcJh&if Timer number 0 udk 100 txd count vkyfyg] vdkY
ckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/
ydk&Sif;atmif ajym&&if X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk time counting vkyfyg vdkY cdkif;wmjzpfvdkY
X0 = OFF jzpf&if T0 udk time counting rvkyfygeJY vdkY cdkif;ap&mvnf; a&mufygw,f/
'D program rSm X0 udk T0 time counting vkyfzdkY owfrSwfay;xm;wJh tajctae
executing condition vdkY ac:ygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk tvkyfvkyfckdif;xm;wm jzpfyg
w,f/
X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if T0 [m olvkyfaewJhtvkyfudk &yfqdkif;vdkufygw,f/ &yfqdkif;Hk
wifrubJ vkyfNyD;om; tvkyfawGudkyg cancel vkyf y,fzsufvkdufygw,f/ vkyfNyD;om; tvkyf
awGudk xdef;odrf;rxm;wJh twGuf Non-retentive vdkY ac:wmjzpfygw,f/
K100

#1
#2

&r,fY

Timer Program
Status-Time Diagram
yHkrSm Status-Time Diagram eJY 'Doabmudk ay:vGifatmif azmfjyxm;ygw,f/
yHkrSm PV qdkwm vuf&Sdwefbdk; Present Value jzpfygw,f/ yHkrSm SV qdkwm
wefbdk; Set Value jzpfygw,f/

a&wGuf

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

227

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'D

program udk a&;csif&if?


<Enter> acgufNyD; LD vdkY dkuf? <Space> 1csuf acguf? X0 vdkY dkufyg/ <Enter>
acgufyg/ NyD;&if TMR vdkY dkuf? <Space> 1csuf acguf? T0 vdkY dkuf? <Space>
1csuf acguf? K100 vdkY dkufxnfhNyD; <Enter> acgufyg/
#1

a&;xm;wJh program #1 &JU t"dyg,fu X0 = ON jzpfrS T0 udk time counting vkyfygvdkY


cdkif;xm;ygw,f/ tcsdefa&wGufNyD;om;*Pef; time counted value 100 jynfhrS T0 udk ON
vdkufygvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
#2
Program

&JU 'kwd,pmaMumif; #2 udk a&;csif&if? <Enter> acgufNyD; LD vdkY dkuf? <Space>


1csuf acguf? T0 vdkY dkufyg/ <Enter> acgufyg/ NyD;&if OUT vdkY dkuf? <Space>
1csuf acguf? Y0 vdkY dkufNyD; <Enter> acgufyg/
WPLSoft rSm PLC type udk SS2 vdkY a&G;NyD; 'D program udk a&;yg/ Simulator udk ON
NyD; Write to PLC vkyfyg/ Online mode udk ON yg/ X0 ay: Cursor csNyD; right
click ESdyf Set On vkyfyg/
'DtcgrSm [TMR T0 K100] &JU tay:rSm K0 uae K100 txd *Pef;awG ajymif;ae
wmudk awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ K0 rSmyJ &yfae&if Task Bar rSm RUN qdkwJh tpdrf;a&mifpmvHk;&Sd?
r&Sd? udk Munfhyg/ STOP qdkwJh teDa&mifpmvHk;? ay:ae&if PLC udk RUN vkdufyg/ RUN qdkwJh
tpdrf;a&mifpmvHk;? ay:aeygvsufeJY K0 rSmyJ &yfwHhae&if Write to PLC xyfvkyfyg/
tcka&;jywJh tqifhawGudk rvkyfwwf&if pmrsufESm (137) uae (148) txd jyefzwf
Munfhyg/ yHkawGeJY &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/
teDa&mif K0 uae K100 jzpfoGm;wJhtcg T0 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Time counting
vkyfcdkif;wJh ta&twGuf (K100) jynfhoGm;vdkY Timer ON oGm;wmjzpfygw,f/ 'DtcsdefrSm X0
[m ON yJ qufjzpfaeayrJh time counting vkyfwmuawmh K100 rSmyJ &yfaeygw,f/
teDa&mif K100 qdkwmu accumulated value a&wGufNyD;om;wefbdk; time counted value
jzpfygw,f/
X0 udk Set Off vkyfNyD;? aemufwpfcg Set On vkyfMunfhyg/ 'Dwpfcgawmh 100 rjynfhcif
5s avmuftMumrSm X0 udk Set Off jyefvkyfvdkufyg/ Accumulated value awG 0 (zero)
jzpfoGm;wmudk awGU&ygvdrfhr,f/ 'g[m Non-Retentive Timer &JU obm0 trltusifh
jzpfygw,f/ T0 [m Non-retentive timer trsdK;tpm; jzpfyg w,f/
T0 tpm; T250 udk ajymif;a&;NyD; prf;Munfhyg/ pmrsufESm 230 rSm yHkawGeJY &Sif;jyxm;yg
w,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

228

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'D program &JU 'kwd,pmaMumif;udk IF [(T0 = ON)] THEN [(Y0 to be ON)] vdkY a&;xm;
wm jzpfygw,f/
t"dyg,fu T0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 = ON jzpfatmifvkyfygvdkY cdkif;wmjzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R rSm WPLSoft eJY [TMR T0 K100] vdkY a&;wmudk CPM1A-20CDR rSm
CX-Programmer eJY a&;r,f qdk&if [TIM 000 #100] vdkY a&;&ygw,f/
CPM1A rSm time counting vkyfwmu #100 vdkY a&;xm;&if 100, 99, 98, - - -, 1, 0.
'Dvdk avsmhusoGm;NyD; 0 a&mufrS Timer TIM 000 [m ON jzpfygw,f/ Decrementing Timer
vdkY ac:ygw,f/ DVP-14SS2 xJrSm yg&SdwJh Timer awGu Incrementing Timer awG jzpfMuyg
w,f/
PLC xJ u Timer awG e J Y ywf o uf N yD ; od x m;&rJ h tcsuf a wG u awmh
(1) Retentive Timer eJY Non-retentive Timer udk cGJjcm;NyD; odxm;&ygr,f/
(2) Timer Number eJY Time Base udk wGJNyD; odxm;&ygr,f/
(3) Timer Function Code udk odxm;&ygr,f/
(4) Set Value eJY Accumulated Value udk tquftpyfeJYwuG odxm;&ygr,f/

'Dvdk em;vnfzdkY Delta Elecronics, Ltd. u xkwfwJh DVP-14SS2-11R qdkwJh PLC udk
tajcjyKNyD; a&;om;azmfjyxm;ygw,f/ SS2 xJrSm Timer b,fESpfrsdK; ygovJqdkwm od&
atmif OEM &JU Programming Manual xJu Memory Map udk atmufrSm azmfjyxm; yg
w,f/

tJ'DrSm awGU&wmu T0 to T126 txdeJY? T128 to T183 txdu


awG jzpfMuNyD; olwdkY&JU Time Base u 100ms jzpfygw,f/

Non-retentive Timer

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

229

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SS2 rSm xl;jcm;wmu T64 to T126 udk 'Dtwdkif;oHk;&if olY&JU time base u 100ms jzpfNyD;?
M1028 udk ON xm;NyD;rS oHk;&if olU&JU time base u 10ms jzpfygw,f/ M1028 [m special
bit jzpfygw,f/ T200 to T245 udk 'Dtwdkif;oHk;&if olY&JU time base u 10ms jzpfNyD;? M1038 udk
ON xm;NyD;rS oHk;&if olU&JU time base u 1ms jzpfygw,f/ M1038 vnf; special bit
yJjzpfygw,f/ Special bit qdkwm special code vkyfxm;wJh bit jzpfygw,f/
Retentive Timer awGxJrSm T240 to T245 txdu time base = 10ms jzpfNyD;? T246 to
T249 txdu time base = 1ms trsdK;tpm;jzpfygw,f/ T250 to T255 txdu time base =
100ms jzpfygw,f/
DVP-14SS2-11R2
Time Base Non-Retentive Timer
Retentive Timer
T0 to T126,
100ms
T250 to T255
T128 to T183
T200 to T239
10ms
T240 to T245
T64 to T126
When M1028 = ON
T127
T246 to T249
1ms
T200 to T239
T240 to T245
When M1038 = ON When M1038 = ON

Oyrm Delta
tpm; jzpfygw,f/

yHkrSm &Sif;atmif trsdK;tpm;cGJjyxm;ygw,f/


PLC DVP-14SS2-11R2 rSm yg&SdwJh T250 [m

Retentive Timer

trsdK;

#1
#2

yHkrSm

Retentive Timer tvkyfvkyfyHkudk

azmfjyxm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

230

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vrf; nTef

yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwdkif; program udk a&;xm;&if X0 = ON jzpfwmeJU T250 [m time


counting pwifvkyfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if T250 [m time counting vkyfwm &yfqdkif;
vdkufayrJU Timer reset rjzpfygbl;/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;wJhtcsdefrSm &SdaewJh current value
(accumulated value) udk Latch vkyfxm;ygw,f/ xdef;xm;ygw,f/ aemufwpfBudrf X0 = ON
jyefjzpfwJhtcg tJ'D time counting vkyfNyD;om;ae&muae a&SUudk time counting qufNyD;
vkyfoGm; ygw,f/ Resume vkyfwJhoabm jzpfygw,f/ qdkvdkwmu X0 [m ON jzpfNyD; 5s
tMumrSm OFF jzpfoGm;cJh&if accumulated value [m 50 jzpfaeNyD; tJ'gudk xdef;xm; ygw,f/
aemufwpfBudrf X0 jyefNyD; ON jzpfwJhtcg tJ'D 50 u pNyD;? a&SUquf time counting vkyfoGm;
ygw,f/ X0 2cg ON wJh pkpkaygif;tcsdef 10s jynfh oGm;&if? accumulated value vnf; 100
jynfh? T250 vnf; ON wpfNydKifwnf; jzpfygw,f/
T250 = ON jzpfNyD;rS X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; T250 [m ON qufjzpfaeygw,f/
PLC &JU supply power jywfawmufoGm;&ifvnf; Timer reset rjzpfygbl;/ PLC udk RUN
xm;&m uae STOP vkyfvkduf&ifvnf; Timer reset rjzpfygbl;/ Y0 om OFF jzpfygw,f/
'gaMumifh Retentive Timer udk toHk;jyKcJh&if RST qdkwJh reset vkyfcdkif;wJh instruction
code udk xnfhoHk;NyD; program udk a&;&ygw,f/

program rSm a&;xm;wmu IF [(X0 is ON)] THEN [TMR T250 K100] vdkY jzpfyg
X0 = ON jzpfrS T250 udk 100 txd time count vkyfygvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/

'D
w,f/

X0 = ON jzpfawmhrS T250 [m time counting p vkyNf yD; 10s Mum&if T250 = ON jzpf
oGm;ygw,f/ T250 = ON jzpfzdkYtwGuf 10s ausmfMumatmif X0 = ON jzpfaezdkYawmh vdkyg

w,f/
atmufpmaMumif;rSm a&;xm;wmu IF [(T250 is ON)] THEN [(Y0 to be ON)] vdkY
jzpfygw,f/ T250 = ON jzpfrS Y0 udk ON vkdufygvdkY cdkif;xm;wm jzpfygw,f/
T250 = ON jzpfNyD;wJhtcsdefrSm X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; T250 uawmh qufNyD; ON
jzpfaeygw,f/ T250 udk OFF jzpfzdkYtwGuf RST qdkwJh instruction code udk oHk;NyD; reset vkyf
ay;&ygw,f/ yHkrSm X1 = ON jzpfrSom T250 reset jzpfNyD; T250 = OFF jzpfygw,f/ T250 reset
jzpfoGm;rS accumulated value vnf; 0 (zero) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

231

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atmufrSm toHk;0ifwJh erlem Timer program awGa&;NyD; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/


tJ'gawGuawmh
(1) ON-delay Timer Function
qdkwmu
Input = ON jzpfwJh
tcg Output u
csufcsif; ON rjzpf
ao;bJeJY owfrSwf
On-delay

OUT

xm;wJh tcsdefjynfhrS ON jzpfwmudk ac:ygw,f/


ON-delay Timer Program
X0 = ON jzpfNyD; 10s aESmifYaES; MuefYMumrI
delay jzpfNyD;rS Y0 = ON jzpf vdkY ON-delay
Timer vdkY ac:wm jzpfygw,f/

ON-delay Non-retentive Timer


Time Chart

(2) OFF-delay Timer Function


OFF-delay qdkwmu
Input = ON jzpfwJh
tcg Output u csuf
csif; ON jzpfygw,f/
Input = OFF jzpfoGm;

OUT

wJh tcg
Output u ON jzpfNyD;usefcJhygw,f/ owfrSwfxm;wJhtcsdef set value jynfhawmhrS
OFF jzpfoGm;wmudk OFF-delay vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

rSmawmh
Output u

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

232

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OFF-delay Timer Program

jzpf&if Y0 u csufcsif;
aESmifhaES; MuefYMumrI delay jzpfNyD;rS Y0 =
jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON

ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpf&ifawmh 5s


OFF jzpfvdkY OFF-delay Timer vdkY ac:wm

(3) ON/OFF-delay Timer Function


ON

qdkwmu
Input = ON jzpfwJhtcgrSm Output
ON
OUT
u aESmifhaES; MuefYMumrI delay
OFF
jzpfNyD;rS ON jzpfygw,f/
Input = OFF jzpfoGm;&ifvnf; Output u csufcsif; OFF rjzpfbJ delay jzpfNyD;rS OFF
jzpfygw,f/
IN

ON/OFF-delay

OFF

ON/OFF-delay Timer Program

ON/OFF-delay Status-Time Diagram

yHkrSmtJ'Dvdkjzpfatmif T5 eJY T6 udk oHk;NyD; program a&;jyxm;ygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD;


5s aESmifhaES; MuefYMumrI delay jzpfNyD;rS Y4 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfNyD; aESmifhaES;
MuefYMumrI delay 3s jzpfNyD;rS Y4 = OFF jzpfygw,f/ tJ'gudk ON/OFF-delay Timer vdkU
ac:wm jzpfygw,f/ ON-delay/OFF-delay Timer vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
T6 = ON jzpfaewJh umv[m tvGefwdkygw,f/ T6 [m 1 scan time yJ Mumjrifhatmif
ON jzpfaeNyD; Reset jyefjzpf oGm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh T6 = ON jzpfwJh taxmuftxm;udk
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

233

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omrefrsufpdeJY rjrif? rawGUEdkifygbl;/ Y4 = OFF jzpfoGm;wmudk taMumif;jyKNyD;awmhom T6


[m ON jzpfcJhw,fqdkwmudk odEdkifygw,f/
'D program rSm Y4 udk ON cdkif;wmu T5 eJY jzpfygw,f/ Y4 udk OFF cdkif;wmu T6 eJY
jzpfygw,f/ Start/Stop program yHkpHyJ jzpfygw,f/ Y4 = ON jzpfaewHk; X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;rS
T6 [m time counting p vkyfygw,f/ Set value K30 (3s) jynfhoGm;rS T6 = ON jzpfoGm;yg
w,f/ Next Scan a&mufrS Y4 = OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Y4 = OFF jzpfwmeJY wNydKifeuf T6
vnf; OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ 'gaMumifh Status-Time Diagram rSm T6 = ON jzpfwJhumvudk
T eJY azmfjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/ T u 1 scan time udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ 'D program udk
a&;NyD; prf;Munfh&if 1 scan time [m 0.3ms yJ Mumygw,f/
(4) Single Pulse Output (Single Shot Timer) Function
[m ON jzpfNyD;quf ON
jzpf ae&ifvnf; Output u 1
csufyJ ON jzpfwmrsdK;udk Single
pulse output vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Input

ON

IN

OFF
ON

OUT

OFF

Single Pulse Output Time Chart

Single Pulse Output Program


X0 = ON jzpf&if Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ Y0 = ON jzpfNyD; 5s MumwhJtcg X0 u
qufNyD; ON jzpfaeayrhJ Y0 u OFF jzpf oGm;vdkU Single Pulse Output vdkU ac:wm jzpfyg
w,f/ Single Shot Timer vdkUvnf; ac:ygw,f/

(5) Delayed Single Pulse Output Function


[m ON jzpfNyD;? quf ON jzpf
ae&ifvnf; Output u Delayed jzpfNyD;rS
1csufyJ ON jzpfwmrsdK;udk Delayed Single
pulse output vdkY ac:ygw,f/
Input

ON

IN

OFF

OUT

ON
OFF

Delayed Single Pulse Output


Time Chart
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

234

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

Delayed Single Pulse Output Program


X0 = ON jzpfNyD; 3s aESmifhaES;MuefUMumrI delay jzpfNyD;rS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ Y0 = ON
jzpfNyD; 2s MumwhJtcgrSm X0 u quf NyD; ON jzpfaeayrhJ Y0 u OFF jzpf oGm;vdkU Delayed
Single Pulse Output vdkU ac:wm jzpfygw,f/ Delayed Single Shot Timer vdkUvnf; ac:yg

w,f/
(6)

Pulse Train Output Function (Flashing Output)

Pulse Train Output Program

Pulse Train Output Status-Time Diagram

Pulse Train Output qdkwmu Input = ON jzpfwmeJY Output u ON vdkuf? OFF vdkuf?
jzpfaeygw,f/ ON-time eJY OFF-time udk rdrd&JU vdktyfcsuftwdkif; owfrSwfay;xm;vdkY
&ygw,f/ yHkrSm Kn1 eJY Kn2 qdkwm ON-time eJY OFF-time udk owfrSwfwJh wefzdk;t&Sif
variable awG jzpfMuygw,f/ n1 udk 20 xm;NyD; n2 udk 30 vdkY owfrSwfNyD;a&;cJh&if Kn1=K20
jzpfNyD;? ON time = 2s, Kn2=K30 jzpfNyD;? OFF time = 3s jzpfygw,f/
X0 u ON jzpfNyD;? T2 u OFF jzpfcJh&if T1 [m time counting pwif vkyfygw,f/ Set
value Kn1 jynfhoGm;rS T1 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T1 = ON jzpf&if T2 [m time counting
pwif vkyfNyD; Set value Kn2 jynfhoGm;rS T2 = ON jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T2 = ON jzpf&if T1 [m
reset (T1 = OFF) jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T1 = OFF jzpf&if? T2 vnf; reset (T2 = OFF) jzpfoGm;yg
w,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD;? T1 = OFF jzpf&if Y1 [m ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfNyD; T1 =
ON jzpf&if Y1 [m OFF jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
X0 u qufNyD; ON jzpfae&if (Kn1 x 100ms) Mumatmif Y0 = ON jzpfvdkuf (Kn2 x
100ms) Mumatmif Y0 = OFF jzpfvdkuf qufcg? qufcg? jzpfaeygw,f/ wu,fvdkU Kn1 u
K20 jzpfNyD;? Kn2 u K30 jzpfchJ&if? (K20 x 100ms = 2000ms) 2s Mumatmif Y0 = ON
jzpfvdkuf? (K30 x 100ms = 3000ms) 3s Mumatmif? Y0 = OFF jzpfvdkuf xyfcg? xyfcg?
qufwdkuf? jzpfaeygw,f/ 'Dvdkqufwdkuf? ON/OFF jzpfaevdkU Pulse Train Output vdkU

ac:wm jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

235

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PLC

vrf; nTef

(7) Timing Extension


Timing Extension qdkwmu Set value &JU tuefYtowf limit xuf ydkMumwJh tcsdefudk
time counting vkyfckdif;csif&if Timer awGudk cascade csdwfqufNyD; time counting vkyfckdif;
wmudk timing extension vdkU ac:wmjzpfygw,f/

Timer &JU Set value [m tuefYtowf&Sd ygw,f/ DVP-14SS2-11R2 qdkwJh PLC rSm Set
Value udk K1 to K32767 txdyJ a&;vdkY &ygw,f/ 100ms time base &SdwJh T0 udk oHk;r,fqdk&if
3276.7s (54minutes and 36.7seconds) txdom time counting vkyfckdif;vdkY &ygw,f/
tJ'Dxuf ydkMumwJh tcsdefudk time counting vkyfckdif;csif&if Timer awGudk cascade csdwfquf

NyD; oHk;&ygw,f/
Oyrm X0

= ON jzpfNyD; 1
Kn1 = 30000, Kn2 = 12000, xm;NyD;

em&D 10 rdepfMumrS

IF [(X0 = ON)] THEN [TMR T11 K30000]

eJY

Output Y1

udk

ON

jzpfapcsif&if

IF [(T11 = ON)] THEN [TMR T12 K12000]

vdkY

a&;&ygw,f/
u 3000s = 50 minutes jzpfygw,f/ K12000 u 1200s = 20 minutes jzpfyg
w,f/ pkpkaygif; MumjrifhwJh tcsdefumv [m (n1 = 50 minutes) + (n2 = 20 minutes) jzpfwJh
twGuf 1Hr 10Min jzpfoGm;ygw,f/
Programa&;enf;? prf;Munfhenf;udk pmrsufESm (137) rSm tao;pdyf azmfjyxm;yg
w,f/
Timer awG[m 16 bits &SdwJh Word Device awGjzpfMuygw,f/ Timer &JU Set Value udk
K100 vdkY a&;xm;&if 100 vdkY decimal value eJU a&;xm;wmjzpfNyD; 100 txd time counting
vkyfckdif;wm jzpfygw,f/
K30000

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236

OD;pdk;wifh

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vrf; nTef

tcef; (16) Program Summary


#1

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON jzpfrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpf&if Y0 = OFF


jzpfygw,f/ tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/
#2

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = OFF jzpfrS Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpf&if Y1 = OFF


jzpfygw,f/ tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI X1 Enter OUT Y1 Enter ESdyf yg/

eJY

wkdY[m Input Instruction awG jzpfMuygw,f/


eJY

wkdY[m Output Instruction awG jzpfMuygw,f/


Input Instruction awGukd Examining Instruction vkdY ac:ygw,f/
Output Instruction awGukd Executing Instruction vkdY ac:ygw,f/
[m X0 = ON jzpf&if

True jzpfNyD; X0 = OFF jzpf&if False jzpfygw,f/

[m X1 = OFF jzpf&if True jzpfNyD; X1 = ON jzpf&if False jzpfygw,f/


Input Instruction u True jzpfrS Output Instruction ukd Execute vkyfygw,f/

Oyrm?
#3

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON jzpfrS Timer T0 ukd execute vkyNf yD; time counted value =
50 jzpfoGm;rS T0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter TMR T0 K50 Enter ESdyf yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

237

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#4

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = OFF jzpfrS Timer T0 ukd execute vkyfNyD; time counted value =
50 jzpfoGm;rS T0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI X1 Enter TMR T0 K50 Enter ESdyf yg/
#5
X1 = ON to OFF 1cg jzpfwkdif; counter C0 u 1 digit count up
vkyfNyD; counted value = 10 jzpfoGm;rS C0 = ON jzpfygw,f/ tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI
X1 Enter CNT C0 K10 Enter ESdyf yg/

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if

#6

vkdY a&;xm;&if X2 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU? scan wkdif;? scan wkdif;? C1 &JU set value (SV)
xJukd K20 a&;xnfhay;aeygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X2 Enter MOV K20 C1 Enter ESdyf yg/

#7

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh X2 = OFF to ON jzpfwdkif; C1 &JU set value (SV) xJukd K20
a&;xnfhay;ygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X2 Enter MOV K20 C1 Enter ESdyf yg/
#8

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh X2 = ON to OFF jzpfrS C1 &JU set value (SV) xJukd K20 a&;
xnfhay;ygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDF X2 Enter MOV K20 C1 Enter ESdyf yg/
#9

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238

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PLC

vrf; nTef

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON 1cg jzpfwdkif; D0 xJudk 1 wdk;rSwfNyD;? X1 = OFF to


ON 1cg jzpfwdkif;? D0 xJu 1 avsmhrSwfygw,f/
D0 xJu wefzdk; eJU 12 eJU nDrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
D0 xJu wefzdk; eJU 15 eJU nDrS Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X0 Enter INC D0 Enter LDP X1 Enter
DEC D0 Enter LD= D0 K12 Enter OUT Y0 Enter LD= D0 K15
Enter OUT Y1 Enter ESdyf yg/

#10

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if D0 xJu wefzdk; value [m 5 eJU nDrS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD= D0 K5 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/
#11

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh D0 xJu wefzdk;u 5 xufBuD;rS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD> D0 K5 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/
#12

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&ifawmh D0 xJu wefzdk;u 5 xufi,frS Y0 = ON jzpfygw,f/


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD< D0 K5 Enter OUT Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

239

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PLC

vrf; nTef

#13

tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter CMP K7 C0 Y0 Enter ESdyf yg/


X0 = ON jzpfae&if 7 eJY? counter C0 xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk; counted value eJY? ukd
scan wkdif;? EdIif;,SOfrI compare vkyfNyD;? C0 xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk;xuf 7 u BuD;&if Y0
= ON jzpfygw,f/ C0 xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk;eJY? 7 eJY? nD&if Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/ C0
xJu count vkyfNyD;om;wefzdk;xuf 7 u i,f&if Y2 = ON jzpfygw,f/

'Dvkd a&;xm;&if?
S 1 (Source 1) xJuwefzdk; eJY? S 2 (Source 2) xJuwefzdk; wkdYukd EdIif;,SOfvkdY&wJh Result
uawmY? yHkrSmjyxm;wJhtwkdif;? S 1 u BuD;&if D (Destination) u ON jzpfNyD;? S 1 eJY S 2 nD&if
D+1 u ON jzpfygw,f/ S 1 u i,f&if D+2 u ON jzpfygw,f/
#14

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS first scan om M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/


aemufwenf;ajym&&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter PLS M0 Enter ESdyf yg/
#15

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON
jzpfygw,f/ aemufwenf;ajym&&if
jzpfygw,f/

to OFF jzpfrS M0 u one scan time Mumatmif ON


X0 = ON to OFF jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

240

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#16

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = ON to OFF jzpfrS one scan time Mumatmif M0 = ON jzpfyg


w,f/ aemufwenf;ajym&&if X0 = ON to OFF jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter PLF M0 Enter ESdyf yg/
#17

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS one scan rQom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/


aemufwenf;ajym&&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf rSmom M0 = ON jzpfygw,f/
tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDI X0 Enter PLF M0 Enter ESdyf yg/
#18

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf one scan rQom Y10 = ON jzpfygw,f/


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X0 Enter OUT Y10 Enter ESdyf yg/
#19

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS one scan rQom Y10 =


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter PLS Y10 Enter ESdyf yg/

Program #17, #18 eJY #19 wdkY&JU result u

ON

jzpfygw,f/

twlwlyJjzpfygw,f/

#20

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = ON to OFF jzpfrS one scan rQom M1 = ON jzpfygw,f/


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDF X1 Enter OUT M1 Enter ESdyf yg/
#21

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if X1 = ON to OFF jzpfrS one scan rQom M1


tJY'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X1 Enter PLF M1 Enter ESdyf yg/

= ON

jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

241

OD;pdk;wifh

Program #20 eJY #21 &JU result u

PLC

vrf; nTef

twlwlyJjzpfygw,f/

#22
#23
#24

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242

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PLC

vrf; nTef

yHkrSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if


#22 X0 = OFF to ON jzpfNyD; first scan rSmom Y10 = ON jzpfygw,f/
#23 X1 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f/ X2 vnf; OFF to ON jzpf&r,f/ tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwl
jzpfaeckduf rSmom Y11 = ON jzpfygw,f/
#24 (X3 or X4) = OFF to ON jzpfaeckduf rSmom Y12 = ON jzpfygw,f/
#25

tJ'Dvkd a&;csif&if? Enter LDP X0 Enter ALT Y10 Enter ESdyf yg/

ALT qdkwm &SdNyD;om; tajctaeudkajymif;jyef vkyfwm alternate state


Examining condition = True jzpfwdkif; ALT udk execute vkyfygw,f/

jzpfygw,f/

#26
#27

vkdY a&;xm;cJh&if
#26 X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS Y10 = ON jzpfwm one scan rQom Mumygw,f/
#27 X1 = ON to OFF jzpfrS Y11 = ON jzpfwm one scan rQom Mumygw,f/

Input Instruction = False to True jzpf a eck d u f

rSmom PLS ukd execute vkyfygw,f/


Input Instruction = True to False jzpf a eck d u f rS m om PLF uk d execute vk y f y gw,f /
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

243

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PLC

vrf; nTef

#28
Operation is as follows with a program like the one shown above.

Program ukd #28 rSm jyxm;ovdk a&;cJh&if? X0 wpfckwnf; OFF to ON jzpfrSom Y0 u


1scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/ X1 wpfckwnf; OFF to ON jzpf&ifvnf; Y0 u 1scan
time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gayrJh X0 = ON jzpfaecsdefrSm X1 = OFF to ON jzpf&if? Y0
u 1scan time Mumatmif ON rjzpfawmhygbl;/ X1 = ON jzpfaecsdefrSm X0 = OFF to ON
jzpf&ifvnf;? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON rjzpfawmhygbl;/
Please use a program as follows when Y0 is turned on at the rise of either X0 or X1.
#29
Using a differential instruction makes it easier to adjust a program.

Program ukd #29 rSm jyxm;ovdk a&;xm;&ifawmh X0 = OFF to ON jzpf&if? 'grSr[kwf


X1 = OFF to ON jzpf&if? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/ X1 = ON
jzpfaecsdefrSm X0 = OFF to ON jzpf&ifvnf;? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 = ON jzpfaecsdefrSm X1 = OFF to ON jzpf&ifvnf;? Y0 u 1scan time Mumatmif ON

jzpfygw,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

244

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PLC

vrf; nTef

#30

Explanation of example

yHk #30 rSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if


X0 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f? X1 u vnf; ON jzpf&r,f? tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwljzpfaerSom
Y10 = ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f? X2 u vnf; ON jzpf&r,f? tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwljzpfaerSom
Y11 = ON jzpfygw,f/
X0 vnf; ON jzpfae&r,f? X3 u vnf; OFF jzpf&r,f? tJ'DESpfrsdK; NydKifwljzpfaerSom
Y12 = ON jzpfygw,f/
#31

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245

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PLC

vrf; nTef

Description
The SET instruction executes when the trigger is turned on. Output turns on and holds on
even if the triggers state changes.
The RST instruction executes when the trigger is turned on. Output coil turns off and stays
off even if the triggers state changes.

yHk

#31 rSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;csif&if? Enter LD X0 Enter SET Y30


Enter LD X1 Enter RST Y30 Enter ESdyf yg/
X0 = ON jzpf&if Y30 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD; X0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;&ifvnf; Y30 u ON jzpf
usefcJhygw,f/ X1 = ON jzpfrS Y30 u OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ X1 = ON qufjzpfaecdkufrSm
X0 = ON jzpfayrJhvnf; Y30 u ON r jzpfygbl;/ yHk #31 rSmvdk program udk a&;xm;&if
Reset-dominant jzpfygw,f/ Set-dominant jzpfcsif&if RST Y30 udk tay:rSma&;NyD;rS SET
Y30 udk atmufrSm a&;&ygw,f/ pmrsufESm 249 rSmvnf; &Sif;jyxm;ygw,f/

#32

yHk #32 rSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if? X1 = ON jzpfrS C100 udk reset vkyfyg/
X0 wpfBudrf ON jzpfwdkif; count up wpfcg vkyfyg? 10Budrf txd vkyfygvdkY C100 udk cdkif;xm;
wm jzpfygw,f/
X0 = OFF to ON wpfBudrfjzpfwkdif; Counter C100 u count-up wpfcg vkyfygw,f/
Count vkyfwm 10Budrf jynhfwJhtcg C100 = ON jzpfygw,f/ C100 = ON jzpfrS Y31 [m ON
jzpfygw,f/ X1 udk ON vdkufvdkY Counter reset jzpfawmhrS C100 a&m Y31 yg OFF jzpf oGm;yg
w,f/
The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

246

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PLC

vrf; nTef

#33 An oscillating circuit with cycle nT+T

X0 = ON jzpfwm (n * 0.1) sec MumwJhtcg? T0 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD;? Y1 vnf; ON


jzpfygw,f/ Y1 = ON jzpfvkdY T0 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ T0 = ON jzpfaewm 1-scan time
T yJ Mumygw,f/ Y1 = ON jzpfwm (n * 0.1) sec Mumygw,f/ Y1 = OFF jzpfwm 1-scan
time Mumygw,f/ X0 = ON jzpfaeoa&GU Y1 u ON vdkuf? OFF vdkufeJY oscillate jzpfaeyg

w,f/
#34 Flashing Circuit

(n1 * 0.1) sec Mumatmif Y1 = ON jzpfvkduf? (n2 * 0.1) sec


vkduf? eJU X0 = ON jzpfaeoa&G hoscillate jzpfaeygw,f/

Mumatmif Y1 = OFF jzpf

#35 Flip-Flop Circuit

X0 = OFF to ON jzpfrS Y1 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD;? X0 = OFF to ON aemuf 1cg? xyfjzpfrS


Y1 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;ygw,f/ X0 aemuf 1cg OFF to ON xyfjzpfrS Y1 jyef ON ygw,f/
Toggle output vdkYvnf; ac:ygw,f/
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247

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

#36 ON/OFF delay circuit

X0 = ON jzpfaewm 5 sec MumawmhrS Y4 = ON jzpfygw,f/ X0 = OFF jzpfoGm;NyD; 3 sec


MumawmhrS Y4 = OFF jyefjzpfygw,f/ T6 = ON jzpfaewJh tcsdef[m 1-scan time yJ? Mumyg

w,f/

#37 Timing extension circuit


X0 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD; (n1 x T) sec MumrS
T11 = ON jzpfygw,f/
T11 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD; (n2 x T) sec MumrS
T12 = ON jzpfygw,f/

'gaMumifh X0 = ON jzpfoGm;NyD;
(n1 x T) sec + (n2 x T) sec MumrS
Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/
Timer resolution: T qdkwmu
Time Base udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/
'DtaMumif;udk pmrsufESm 235 rSm
&Sif;jy xm;ygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

248

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

#38 Counting Range Extension Circuit

The counting range of a 16-bit counter is 0 ~ 32,767. The above circuit uses two
counters to increase the counting range as n1*n2. When value in counter C6 reaches n2, the
pulses counted from X13 will be n1 * n2.
X13 = OFF to ON jzpfwm? tBudrf n1 jynhfrS C5 = ON jzpfNyD; C6 udk 1Budrf count up
vkyfygw,f/ C6 udk 1Budrf count up vkyfNyD;rS C5 udk reset vkyfvkdufvkdY C5 = OFF jyefjzpfoGm;
ygw,f/ C5 = OFF to ON jzpfwJhtBudrf n2 jynhfrS C6 = ON jzpfygw,f/ 'gaMumifh C6 = ON
jzpfzdkY X13 = OFF to ON tBudrfaygif; (n1 * n2) jzpf&ygw,f/

#39 Set-dominant and Reset-dominant program

#39

Reset dominant program

Set dominant program

Stop first qdkwmu Reset-dominant


jzpfcJh&if Y1 = OFF jzpfygw,f/
Start first qdkwmu Set-dominant
jzpfcJh&if Y1 = ON jzpfygw,f/

udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/

udk ajymwm jzpfygw,f/

X1
X1

eYJ
eYJ

X2

wkdY NydKifwl ON

X2

wkdY NydKifwl

ON

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

249

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

#40 Retentive program

[m retentive memory bit jzpfygw,f/ M512 udk latched memory bit vdkYvnf;
ac:ygw,f/ PLC udk RUN to STOP yJ vkyf? vkyf? Power udkyJ jzwf? jzwf? M512 [m &dS&if;pGJ
tajctaetwdkif; quf&dSaeygw,f/ qdkvdkwmu M512 [m ON NyD;om;? jzpfae&if quf
ON aeNyD;? OFF NyD;om;? jzpfae&ifvnf;? qufNyD; OFF jzpfaeygw,f/
M512

#41 Sequence control Circuit

Y1 u t&if ON jzpfaerSom? Y2 udk ON vkdY&ygw,f/ Y1 = OFF jzpfoGm;&if Y2 yg OFF


jzpfoGm;ygw,f/ Output ESpfckudk tpOftwdkif;? wpfck ON NyD;rS aemufwpfckudk ON csifwJh

tcgrSm oHk;avY&Sdygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

250

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

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#42Interlocking Circuit

t&ifjzpfae&if? X2 = ON jzpfayrJh? Y2 u ON rjzpfygbl;/ Y2 u t&if ON


jzpf ae&ifvnf;? X1 = ON jzpfayrJh? Y1 u ON rjzpfygbl;/ Y1 eYJ Y2 Output 2ck OD;pm;ay;
r&dSyJ? NydKifwl ON rjzpfapcsif&if program udk txufrSmvdk a&;&ygw,f/
Y1 = ON

X0

Y1

#1
X0

()
Y1

#2

#3

()
Y0

Y0

Y2

Y0

Y2

()
Y2

yHkrSmjyxm;ovdk program ukd a&;xm;cJh&if


X0 = OFF

Y0
OFF

Y1
OFF

Y2
OFF

X0 = ON
1st scan
2nd scan
3rd scan

ON
OFF
OFF

ON
ON
ON

ON
ON
ON

X0 = OFF
1st scan
2nd scan
3rd scan

OFF
OFF
OFF

OFF
OFF
OFF

ON
ON
ON

X0 = ON
1st scan
2nd scan
3rd scan

ON
OFF
OFF

ON
ON
ON

OFF
OFF
OFF

jzpfygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

251

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

vrf; nTef

WPLSoft Version 2.20.07 keyboard shortcuts


< Ctrl > + < F9 >

Compile (Convert)

< Ctrl > + < D >

Delete Vertical Line

< Ctrl > + < U >

Read from PLC

< Ctrl > + < T >

Write to PLC

< Ctrl > + < F7 >

PLC to STOP

< Ctrl > + < F8 >

PLC to RUN

< Ctrl > + < Alt > + < O > =

Online Mode (Toggle)

< Ctrl > + < F >

Find/Replace

< F1 >

Examine ON instruction

< F2 >

Examine OFF instruction

< F7 >

-----(

Output Coil instruction

< F6 >

-----[

Application instruction

< F3 >

Examine Rising Edge instruction

< F4 >

Examine Falling Edge instruction

< F8 >

Horizontal line

< F9 >

Vertical line

< F11 >

Invert Operation Result instruction

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

252

OD;pdk;wifh

PLC

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tcef; (17) Periodic Inspection and Preventive Maintenance

The PLC requires regular inspection and maintenance for proper operation. The following
items should be checked every six months.
Item
Supplied
Power

Environment

What to Check
Does the voltage
measured within the
power terminal fall
within the specified
range?
Does the temperature fall
within the specified
range?
Does the humidity fall
within the specified
range?

Criteria

Test
Equipment

Voltage must fall within


the power module input
voltage specifications.

Voltmeter

0 to 55C (32 to 131F)

Thermometer

Humidity levels below


20% RH.

Hygrometer

Is there any dust Present? No dust.


I/O Power

Module
Mounting
and
Wiring

Does the control voltage


supplied to the I/O
modules fall within the
specified limit?
Are all of the modules
secure?
Is the connection cable
secure?
Is the external wiring
screw loose?

Visual

Control voltage must fall


within the input and
output modules
specifications.

Voltmeter

All should be firmly


secured.

Screwdriver

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

253

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PLC System Maintenance

pufvnfywfrI tjrJwrf; aumif;rGefaeap&eftwGuf jyKjyifxdef;odrf;wJh tvkyfawGukd


tcsdefrSef aqmif&GufzkdY vkdtyfygw,f/ PLC ukd wyfqif toHk;jyKxm;wJh ywf0ef;usif&JU
tajctaeay:rlwnfNyD;? 1v 1Budrf? 6v 1Budrf? 1ESpf 1Budrf? pojzifh maintenance
vkyf&r,fhumvukd tawGUtBuHKay:rlwnfNyD;? tusdK;aus;Zl; jzpfxGef;atmif owfrSwfMu&yg
w,f/
PLC ukd pufHk? tvkyfHkawGrSm wyfqiftoHk;jyKzkdY &nf&G,f wnfaqmufxm;wmjzpfayrJh?
maintenance ukd tywfpOf? vpOf? ykHrSefaqmif&GufoGm;r,fqkd&if? pufysufvdkY&yf&wmrsdK;
down time ukd ododomom avsmhenf;apygw,f/
1/ PLC ukd trIHawG r0ifEdkifatmif dust proof tjzpf wnfaqmufxm;wm r[kwfvkdY
control panel, control desk, control cabinet, p wm awGxJrSm wyfqifwJhtcg? av0if
avxGuf vrf;aMumif;rSm filter wyfqifxm;cJh&if? tJ'D filter ukd tcsdefrSefrSef
aq;aMum oefUpifay;yg/
2/ PLC xJukd trIHawG 0ifpkaecJh&if? a&aiGUpdkxkdif;rIaMumifh vQyfppfpD;aMumif; jzpfay:
apNyD; csdKU,Gif;rI jzpfapwwfvkdY PLC ay:rSm zkHawG? trIHawG? r&Sdatmif zkHpkyfpuf
vacuum cleaner ukd tokH;jyKNyD;? oefU&Sif;a&; jyKvkyfay;yg/
3/ wkefcgrI vibration &SdwJh ae&mrSm PLC ukd wyfqifxm;cJh&if? PLC txkdif ckdif? rckdif? eJY
wire terminal awG acsmif? racsmifukd vpOf? ykHrSefppfaq;yg/
tJ'Dvkd ykHrSefppfaq;rI tenf;i,fukd *kwpkduftcsdefrSef aqmif&Gufay;wJhtwGuf
tusdK;aus;Zl; trsm;BuD;ukd jzpfxGef;apygw,f/

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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Troubleshooting the PLC Input Interface


PLC rSm input LED awGyg&SdwJhtwGuf input sensor awG aumif;? raumif;? eJY PLC xJu
input interface aumif;? raumif;? udk tvG,fwul ppfaq; Munhf&I Edkifygw,f/

owdjyK&rSmu PLC wdkif;rSm RUN/STOP switch ygwmr[kwfvdkY? RUN/STOP switch


rygwJh PLC trsdK;tpm; jzpfaecJh&if? RUN condition uae STOP condition udk ajymif;zdkY
tcufBuKH&wwfygw,f/ PLC udk power ydwf vkduf&if tckaz:jyr,fY prf;oyfenf;udk vkyfvkdY
r&awmYygbl;/ 'gaMumifY PLC udk power ay; xm;&ygr,f/ 'DtcgrSm PLC [m RUN ae&if?
input awGudk ON vkduf? OFF vkduf? vkyfwJhtcg oufqdkif&m output awGuyg ON vkduf? OFF
vkduf? jzpfNyD; pufvnfrSmjzpfwJhtwGuf vl eJY puftE&m,f rjzpfatmif txl;owdjyK&rSm
jzpfygw,f/
omreftajctaerSm PLC ay:u RUN LED rD;vif;ae&if? input awGudk ON/OFF vkH;0
rvkyf&ygbl;/ tckaz:jyr,fY prf;oyfenf;udk PLC vkH;0tvkyf rvkyfawmYwJh tcgrSom
prf;oyf vkyfudkif&rSm jzpfygw,f/

vla&mpufyg ab;uif;apzdkY
jzKwfxm;&ygr,f/

output terminal

rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh

wire

tm;vkH;udk

'DvkdjzKwfwJhtcg PLC udk power t&if ydwf&ygr,f/ NyD;&if output terminal awGrSm
voltage &Sd? r&Sd? udk voltmeter eJY wdkif;Munhfyg/ Voltage r&SdrS? wire awGudk rSwfom;NyD;
aqmif&GufwJhol ab;uif;atmif jzKwfxm;&ygr,f/ Terminal block type jzpfaecJh&if? tJ'D
terminal block udk jzKwfvkduf&if? tcsdefukefoufomygw,f/
qdkvkdwmu PLC udk power ay;vkduf&if? RUN rD; tNrJvif;aewwfwJh PLC twGuf
output terminal rSm bm wire rQ r&SdwJhtcgrSom tckaz:jywJhPLC &JU input interface
aumif;? raumif;? prf;oyfenf; udk vkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/
PLC udk power ay;xm;ayrJhvnf; RUN rD; rvif;atmif vkyfvkdY&wJh PLC rSm
RUN/STOP switch udk awGUatmif&Smyg/ NyD;&if? STOP position rSmxm;NyD; RUN rD;? Nidrf;?
rNidrf;? aocsmatmifMunhfyg/ RUN/STOP switch udk STOP rSm xm;NyD; RUN rD; rvif;
wJhtcgrSom tckaz:jywJhPLC &JU input interface aumif;? raumif;? prf;oyfenf; udk
vkyf&rSm jzpfygw,f/

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PLC &J U input interface aumif ; ?

1/

PLC

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raumif;? prf;oyfenf;/

wpfckcsif;pD udk activate/de-activate vkyfyg/ 'Dvkd vkyfvkdufwJhtcg PLC rSm


&SdwJh oufqdkif&m input status LED awG vif;vkduf? rSdwfvkduf? jzpf&ygr,f/ (Oyrm? Input
terminal X0 rSmqufoG,fwyfqifxm;wJh sensor udk activate/de-activate vkyfvkduf&if
PLC ay:u LED X0 [m vif;vkduf? rSdwfvkduf? jzpf&ygr,f/)
2/ tJ'Dvkd input LED [m vif;vkduf? rSdwfvkduf? jzpfaecJh&if? input sensor a&m? PLC xJrSm
&dSwJh input ykdif;yg? ESpfckpvkH; aumif;aevkdYjzpfygw,f/
3/ wu,fvkdY X5 rSmqufoG,fwyfqifxm;wJh sensor udk activate/de-activate vkyfayrJh LED
X5 uajymif;vJrIr&SdcJh&if? sensor aomfif;? PLC &J h input ykdif; aomfif;? csdKU,Gif;aewm
jzpfEdkifygw,f/
4/ 'gaMumifh uJGuJGjym;jym; cJGjcm;od&zdkYtwGuf X5 rSmqufxm;wJh wire udk jzKwfvkdufyg/ tJ'D
X5 rSm wire topf? twdk wpfacsmif; cequfxm;yg/ NyD;&if X6 LED rD; vif;atmif X6
&JU terminal rSm qufxm;wJh sensor udk activate vkyfyg/
5/ X6 LED rD; vif;vmwJhtcgapmapmu X5 rSm qufxm;wJh wire twdkpeJY X6 &JU terminal
udk xday;vkdufyg/ 'DtcgrSm X6 LED a&m? X5 LED yg? rD;vif;vmcJh&if? PLC &JU input
interface aumif;vkdY jzpfygw,f/
6/ txufygtwdkif; prf;oyfMunhfvkdY X5 LED rD;vif;vmwmudk jrif&&if? X5 &JU terminal rSm
qufxm; wJh sensor eJY wiring ykdif;udk ppfaq;yg/
7/ txufygtwdkif; prf;oyfMunhfvkdY X5 LED rD; rvif;cJh&if? PLC xJucsdKU,Gif;aewm
jzpfygw,f/
rSwfcsuf/ / X5 wkdY? X6 wkdY? qdkwmu PLC &JU input terminal ukd OyrmtaeeJY trnfwwf
ajymwm jzpfygw,f/ X5 [m jypfcsuf&SdwJh input terminal jzpfchJNyD;? X6 [m
jypfcsufuif;wJh input terminal jzpfcJh&ifvdkY t"dyg,f aumuf,lyg/
Input sensor

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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Troubleshooting the PLC Output Interface


PLC &JU output ykdif; output interface aumif;? raumif;? udk prf;oyfr,fqdk&if? PLC xJrSm
a&;xnhfxm;wJh program udk aumif;pGmt"dyg,f az:wwfrSom prf;oyfvkdY&ygw,f/ 'Dvkd
r[kwfcJh&if? output udk ON atmif b,fvdk vkyf&r,fqdkwmudk odrSmr[kwfygbl;/

tckaz:jyrSmuawmh PLC &JU output LED rD;vif; aeNyD; tJ'D output terminal eJY
qufoG,fxm;wJh device awG tvkyfrvkyf wJhtcg tjypf&SmazGwJhenf; jzpfygw,f/
PLC &J U output interface aumif ; ?

raumif;? prf;oyfenf;/

Output terminal rSm

qufoG,fxm;wJh wire tm;vkH;udk jzKwf xm;&ygr,f/


1/ yxrOD;pGm odxm;&rSmu PLC &JU output type jzpfygw,f/ Contact output vm;?
Transitor output vm;? qdkwmudk OD;pGmcJGjcm;NyD; odatmifvkyfxm;&ygr,f/
2/ Contact output jzpfcJh&if? output LED rD;vif; aewJhtcsdef output ikwf eJY common
ikwfMum;rSm Ohmmeter eJY wdkif;Munfhyg/ 10 ohm xufykdrsm;ae&if? output interface
ysufwm jzpfygw,f/
3/ Transistor output jzpfcJh&if? diode wkdif;wJhenf;udk toHk;jyK&rSm jzpfygw,f/
4/ Output LED rD;vif; aewJhtcsdefrSm output ikwf eJY common ikwfMum;udk diode
function test vkyfMunhfwJhtcg? Forward voltage drop [m 0.6V xuf rykd&if? tJ'D
output transistor aumif;ygw,f/
rsm;aomtm;jzifh output interface ysufwmu enf;yg;NyD;? output device ysufwmu
tjzpfrsm; ygw,f/ txufygtwdkif; prf;oyfMunfhvdkY output interface aumif;aeNyD; Output
LED rD;vif; aevsufom;eJY PLC eJY qufoG,fxm;wJh output device awG tvkyfrvkyfwm
qdk&if? tJ'D output terminal rSm qufoG,fxm;wJh actuator eJY wiring ykdif;udk ppfaq;yg/
PLC eJY control vkyfwJh system awGrSm csdKU,Gif;rI jzpfcJh&if? PLC xJu ysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;
wmu 5% yJ jzpfwwfNyD;? PLC &JU jyify u field devices awGysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;wmu 95%
jzpfwwfygw,f/
PLC xJuysufpD;rI 5% xJrSm PLC &JU I/O ykdif;ysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;wmu 90% jzpfwwfNyD;?
CPU ysufpD;vkdY csdKU,Gif;wmu 10% yJjzpfwwfygw,f/

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Preventing PLC System Malfunctions


1. Use an isolation transformer and line filter on the incoming power to the PLC when
in the vicinity of equipment using or producing high current, high voltage, or large
magnetic fields.
2. Separate the main PLC power line ground from all other power grounds. Always use
triple grounding.
3. Do not exceed the current and power rating of the external 24 VDC provided by the
clean power supply.
4. Avoid system faults due to programming errors by reading and fully understanding
PLC system manual and the PLC instruction set.
5. Perform regular preventive maintenance on installed systems, checking devices and
wiring for potential breakdowns and failures.

The more you learn about PLCs, the more you will be able to solve other control problems.

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Terminology
This section introduces some terminology you should know.
address. (1) The location in a computers memory where particular information is stored.
(2) The alphanumeric value used to identify a specific I/O rack, module group, and
terminal location.
analog signal. A continuous signal that changes smoothly over a given range, rather than
switching suddenly between certain levels as discrete signals do.
AND. A logical operator that requires all input conditions to be logic 1 for the output to be
logic 1. If any input is logic 0, then the output will be logic 0.
arithmetic instructions. Computer programming codes that give a PLC the ability to
perform mathematical functions, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division,
and square root, on data.
ASCII code. (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) A standard computer
code used to facilitate the interchange of information among various types of dataprocessing equipment.
backplane. A base to which Units are mounted to form a Rack. Backplanes provide a series
of connectors for these Units along with wiring to connect them to the CPU and Power
Supply. Backplanes also provide connectors used to connect them to other Backplanes.
In some Systems, different Backplanes are used for different Racks; in other Systems,
Racks differ only by the Units mounted to them.
backup. A device or system that is kept on hand to replace a device or system that fails.
battery backup. A battery or set of batteries that will provide power to the processors
memory in the event of a power outage.
baud rate. Transfer speed between two devices in a system measured in bits per second.
binary coded decimal (BCD). A binary number system in which each decimal digit from 0
to 9 is represented by four binary digits (bits). The four positions have a weighted value
of 1, 2, 4, and 8, respectively, starting from the least significant (right-most) bit.
Conversion of BCD values can be done in hexadecimal calculations. For example, the
BCD representation of decimal 27 would be two sets of 4 bits: 0010 0111.
binary number system. A base 2 number system that uses only the numbers 0 and 1 to
express all values. Each digit position of a binary number has a weighted value of 1, 2,
4, 8, 16, 32, 64, and so on, starting with the least significant (right-most) digit.
bit. For binary digit. The smallest piece of information that can be represented on a
computer. A bit has the value of either zero or one, corresponding to the electrical
signals ON and OFF. A bit is one binary digit.

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Boolean operators. Logical operators, such as AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NOT, and
exclusive-OR, that can be used singly or in combination to form logical statements that
have output responses of TRUE or FALSE.
byte . A byte is made up of 8 bits. It can hold data values from 0 to 255. In base 16, or
hexadecimal, a byte can be expressed as 0 to FF. You cannot have a value greater than
255 when using one byte.
central processing unit (CPU). The part of a programmable controller responsible for
reading inputs, executing the control program, and updating outputs. Sometimes
referred to as the processor, the CPU consists of the arithmetic logic unit,
timing/control circuitry, accumulator, scratch pad memory, program counter, address
stack, and instruction register.
code. (1) A binary representation of numbers, letters, or symbols that have some meaning.
(2) A set of programmed instructions.
coil. A ladder diagram symbol that represents an output instruction.
communication cable. Cable used to transfer data between components of a control system
and conforming to the RS-232C or RS-422 standards.
contact. A ladder diagram symbol that represents an input condition.
control panel. A panel that contains instruments used to control devices.
Control System. All of the hardware and software components used to control other
devices. A Control System includes the PLC System, the PLC programs, and all I/O
devices that are used to control or obtain feedback from the controlled system.
counter instructions. Computer programming codes that allow a PLC to perform the
counting functions (count up, count down, counter reset) of a hardware counter.
data. A general term for any type of information.
debugging. The process of checking for errors in a program.
digital device. A device that processes and sends discrete (two-state) electrical signals.
digital signal. A noncontinuous signal that has a finite number of values.
discrete input interface. An input circuit that allows a PLC to receive data from digital
field devices.
discrete output interface. An output circuit that allows a PLC to send data to digital field
equipment.
documentation. An orderly collection of recorded hardware and software information about
a control system. These records provide valuable reference data for installing,
debugging, and maintaining the PLC.
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Double Word. A double word is made of 32 bits. It can hold data values from 0 to
4,294,976,295. In base 16 a double word can be expressed as 0 to FFFFFFFF. In the
PLC, a double word is made up of two consecutive word addresses.
download. To transfer data to a device.
downtime. The time when a system is not available for use.
edge . An edge is defined as the point when an input changes state. For example, a rising
edge occurs during the very first scan after the input has changed from OFF to ON. A
falling edge occurs after the input has changed from ON to OFF.
EEPROM . EEPROM is electronically erasable and programmable memory that retains its
data even through loss of power. The PLC program is stored in EEPROM and will be
retained when power is off.
ethernet. A specification for local communication networks that employs coaxial cable as a
passive communications medium to interconnect different kinds of computers,
information processing products, and office equipment at a local site.
exclusive-OR (XOR). A logical operation, which has only two inputs, that yields a logic 1
output if only one of the two inputs is logic 1 and a logic 0 output if both inputs are the
same, either logic 1 or logic 0.
execute. To perform a specific operation by processing either one instruction, a series of
instructions, or a complete program.
firmware. A series of instructions for internal use by the processor only.
flag. A signal device in a microprocessor system that alerts the operator, or the system itself,
to the occurrence of some desired or undesired event.
function block diagram (FBD). A graphical PLC programming language in which
instructions are programmed as blocks that are then used as needed to control process
elements.
gate. A circuit having two or more input terminals and one output terminal, where an output
is present only when the prescribed inputs are present.
ground loop. A condition in which two or more electrical paths exist within a ground line.
hard copy. A printed document.
hardware. All the physical components of a programmable controller, including
peripherals, as opposed to the software components that control its operation.
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Hex (Hexadecimal) . A hexadecimal number is a value expressed in Base 16. A base 16


number system that uses the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and the letters A, B,
C, D, E, and F to represent numbers and codes. In a byte, word, or double word, each
set of 4 bits corresponds to a single hex digit. For example, the binary value 0100 1111
would correspond to the hex value 4F, and a decimal value of 79.
host. A central computer in a network system.
host computer. A computer attached to a network that provides such services as
computation, database access, or special processes or programming languages.
IEC 61131 programming standard. A standardized set of PLC programming guidelines,
set forth by the International Electrotechnical Commission, that includes general PLC
information, equipment and test requirements, programming languages, user
guidelines, and communication standards.
image table. An area in a PLCs memory dedicated to I/O data where 1s and 0s represent
ON and OFF conditions, respectively.
input. Information sent to the processor from connected devices.
input device. Any connected equipment, such as control devices (e.g., switches, buttons,
and sensors) or peripheral devices that supply information to the central processing
unit. Each type of input device has a unique interface to the processor.
input table. The area of a PLCs memory where information about the status of input
devices is stored.
Instruction Program. An alternative method to a ladder diagram, for producing a PLC
program. It is similar to a low-level assembly type microprocessor program. It was, at
one time, the only method available for producing PLC programs before the
availability of ladder diagram software. All ladder diagram programs though have to be
converted to Instruction Programs for downloading to the PLC. It is not possible for
ladder diagram programs to be directly downloaded or uploaded to/from a PLC.
instruction list (IL). A low-level, text-based PLC programming language that uses
assembly languagelike mnemonics to represent the control program.
interface. A circuit that permits communication between a central processing unit and a
field input or output device. Different devices require different interfaces. An interface
is the conceptual boundary between systems or devices and usually involves changes in
the way the communicated data is represented.
internal output. A program output that does not drive a field device and is used for internal
purposes only. It provides interlocking functions like a hardwired control relay. An
internal output may also be referred to as an internal storage bit or an internal coil.
interrupt. The act of redirecting a programs execution to perform a more urgent task.
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I/O. This term is used to describe the total number of inputs and outputs allocated to a
particular PLC.
isolation transformer. A transformer that protects its connected devices from surrounding
electromagnetic interference.
ladder diagram language (LD). A graphical set of instructions that implements basic relay
ladder functions in a PLC.
ladder relay instructions. Computer codes that implement relay coils and contacts and
their corresponding functions in a PLC.
language. A set of symbols and rules for representing and communicating information
between people and machines.
latch. To retain a state even when the input conditions change.
least significant bit (LSB). The bit representing the smallest value in a nibble, byte, or
word.
light-emitting diode (LED). A semiconductor diode whose junction emits light when
current passes through it in a forward direction.
Limit Switch. A switch that detects when an object has reached the limit of its movement
by actually making contact with the object. Limit Switches are fitted to electric
elevators, traveling cranes, etc. to indicate when a certain part of the equipment has
traveled to the specified limit.
load. The power used by a machine or apparatus.
location. A storage position or register in memory identified by a unique address.
logic. The process of solving complex problems through the use of simple functions that can
be either true or false.
logic diagram. A drawing that uses interconnected AND, OR, and NOT logic symbols to
graphically describe a systems operation or control.
machine language. Processor instructions written in binary code.
master. A device used to control other devices.
master-slave. A mode of operation where one data station (the master) controls the network
access of one or more data stations (the slaves).
memory. The part of a programmable controller that stores data, instructions, and the
control program either temporarily or semipermanently.
memory map. Shows how a systems memory is allocated.
message. A group of data and control bits transferred as an entity from a data source.
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microprocessor. A digital, electronic logic package (usually on a single chip) capable of


performing the program execution, control, and data-processing functions of a central
processing unit. A microprocessor usually contains an arithmetic logic unit, temporary
storage registers, instruction decoder circuitry, a program counter, and bus interface
circuitry.
most significant bit (MSB). The bit representing the greatest value of a nibble, byte, or
word.
NEMA Standards. Property characteristics adopted as standard by the National Electrical
Manufacturers Association.
network. A group of computing devices (computers, programmable controllers, etc.) that
are connected to each other by communication lines to share information and
resources.
network communications instructions. Computer codes that allow a PLC to share data
with other PLCs connected to a local area network.
network interface module. A special function interface that allows PLCs and other
intelligent devices to communicate and transfer data over a high-speed local area
communication network.
nibble. A group of four bits.
nonvolatile memory. A type of memory whose contents are not lost or disturbed if
operating power is lost.
normally closed contact. (1) A relay contact pair that is closed when the coil of the relay is
not activated and open when the coil is activated. (2) A ladder program symbol that
allows logic continuity (flow) if the referenced input is logic 0 when evaluated.
normally open contact. (1) A relay contact pair that is open when the coil of the relay is
not activated and closed when the coil is activated. (2) A ladder program symbol that
allows logic continuity (flow) if the referenced input is logic 1 when evaluated.
NOT. A logical operator that yields a logic 1 output if a logic 0 is entered at the input and a
logic 0 output if a logic 1 is entered at the input. The NOT function, also called an
inverter, is normally used in conjunction with AND and OR functions.
octal number system. A base 8 number system that uses eight numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
and 7 to represent all values.
off-line. The state of not being in continuous direct communication with the processor.
one shot. A programming technique that sets a storage bit or output to a certain state for
only one scan.
on-line. The state of being in continuous communication with the processor.
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operand. The register address numbers that identify the elements in a program.
optical coupler. A device that couples signals from one circuit to another by means of light
radiation.
OR. A logical operator that yields a logic 1 output if any input is logic 1 and a logic 0
output if all inputs are logic 0.
output. Information sent from the processor to connected field devices.
output device. Any connected equipment, such as control devices (e.g., motors, solenoids,
and alarms) or peripheral devices (e.g., line printers, disk drives, and color displays),
that receives information or instructions from the central processing unit. Each type of
output device has a unique interface to the processor.
output table. The area of a PLCs memory where information about the status of output
devices is stored.
panel enclosure. The physical enclosure that houses a PLCs hardware and components.
peripheral. Those devices which support but are not directly involved in the control
operation.
Photoelectric Switch. A switch that uses light to detect the presence of an object.
PLC. An abbreviation for Programmable Logic Controller. It is used in the automatic
control of machinery and plant equipment. The great advantage of a PLC is that it can
be programmed using software, such as Gx-Developer, Cx-Programmer, to carry out a
wide variety of tasks.
Port. A communication channel between two devices.
power supply. The unit that supplies the necessary voltage and current to a systems
circuitry.
Program. A sequence of instructions to be executed by the programmable controller
processor to control a machine or process.
program. A planned set of instructions stored in memory and executed in an orderly
fashion by the central processing unit.
programming device. A peripheral device used to write programs and to input a program to
a PLC or to alter or monitor a program already stored in the PLC. There are dedicated
programming devices, such as Programming Consoles, and there are nondedicated
programming devices, such as a host computer.
program scan. The time required by the processor to evaluate and execute the control logic.
This time does not include the I/O update time. The program scan repeats continuously
while the processor is in the run mode.

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random-access memory (RAM). A volatile, alterable memory that provides storage for the
application program and data.
read. (1) To acquire data from a storage device. (2) The transfer of data between devices,
such as a peripheral device and a computer.
read-only memory (ROM). A type of memory that permanently stores an unalterable
program or set of instructions.
redundancy. Duplication of either hardware or software for reliability assurance.
reset. 1) To turn off and back on. 2) To clear. 3) To restore the default parameters.
resolution. The smallest detectable increment of measurement.
RS232. A serial communications system used for transferring information. Used in a PLC
system for downloading and uploading instruction programs.
SCADA. Abbreviation for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition.
scan. The process of reading all inputs, executing the control program, and updating all
outputs.
scan time. The time necessary to completely execute the entire PLC program one time,
including update of I/O, communications, and other housekeeping tasks.
Scan Time . The CPU follows a procedure in which it 1) reads the inputs, 2) processes the
ladder program, and 3) updates the outputs. It continually repeats this process. This 3step process is called a scan, and the time it takes to complete this process is the
scan time. In a typical PLC application, most of the scan time is used to process the
program. When programming, keep in mind that the scan time will increase as you
increase the number of inputs and outputs and/or the size of the program.
sensor. A device that produces a voltage or current output representative of some physical
property being measured (speed, temperature, flow, etc.). Generally, the output of a
sensor requires further processing before it can be used elsewhere.
sequential function charts (SFC). An object-oriented programming framework that
organizes actions written in IEC 61131-3 programming languages (ladder diagram,
instruction list, function block diagram, and structured text) into a unified sequential
control program.
sink. A term, which describes the direction of current flow into or out of either an input or
an output terminal of a PLC. To operate a PLC sink input, the direction of current flow
will be from a positive voltage supply through a closed input switch/ proximity
detector and then into the PLC input terminal.
software. The programs that control the processing of data in a system.
source. A term, which describes the direction of current flow into or out of either an input
or an output terminal of a PLC. To operate a PLC source input, the direction of current

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flow will be out of the PLC input terminal through a closed input switch/ proximity
detector and then into a COM (common) terminal.
structured text (ST). A high-level, text-based PLC programming language, resembling the
BASIC and PASCAL computer languages, that allows a control program or any other
complex task to be broken down into smaller tasks.
switch. An input device that sends either an ON or OFF signal to the Control System. A
switch can be operated either by a person or by the movement of a piece of equipment
or material.
switching capacity. The voltage/current that relay can switch ON and OFF.
system. A set of one or more PLCs, I/O devices and modules, computers, associated
software, peripherals, terminals, and communication networks that together provide a
means of performing information processing to control a machine or process.
thumbwheel switch. A rotating switch used to input numeric information into a controller.
time base. A unit of time generated by the system clock and used by software timer
instructions. Typical time bases are 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 seconds.
timer instructions. Computer codes that allow a PLC to perform the timing functions (ONdelay, OFF-delay, reset) of a hardware timer.
triac. A semiconductor device that functions as an electrically controlled switch for AC
loads.
TRUE. As related to PLC instructions, a set logic state associated with a binary 1.
truth table. A table that shows the state of a given output as a function of all possible input
combinations.
twisted pair. A communications medium consisting of two insulated wires loosely twisted
together.
upload. To transfer data from a device.
USB. An abbreviation for Universal Serial Bus. A modern type of communications system
for connecting peripherals, i.e. mouse, printer, scanner, internet modem, to a computer.
There are adapters available, which enable a Mitsubishi Electric SC09 communication
cable to be connected to the USB port of a computer.
volatile memory. A memory that loses its information if the power is removed from it.
weighted value. The numerical value assigned to any single bit as a function of its position
in a word.
word . A word is made of 16 bits. It can hold data values from 0 to 65,535. In base 16 a
word can be expressed as 0 to FFFF.
write. To enter data into a storage device.

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Reference
1. PLCs Theory and Implementation 2nd Ed (L. A. Bryan) 1997
2. Lessons In Industrial Instrumentation (Tony R. Kuphaldt) 13 June 2012
http://openbookproject.net/books/socratic/sinst/book/
3. Beginners Guide to PLC Programming (Neal Babcock) 2008
4. A PLC Primer www.industrialtext.com
5. Basics of PLC Programming - Industrial Control Systems, Fall 2006
6. DVP-PLC Application Examples of Programming, April 2012
7. FX-Series PLC Training Manual using GX-Developer, 2006
8. Micro PLC Self Teach Manual GFK-0811, June 1993
9. NAIS FP series PLC Programming Manual, 2000
10. GE Fanuc Micro PLC Programmers Guide, April 1994
11. FX PLC Applications and Programming (John Ridley) 2004
12. EC Series Micro-PLC Programming Manual (Emerson) 2007
13. Programmable Controllers - An engineers guide 3rd Edition (E.A. Parr) 2003
14. IEC 61131-3 Programming - Industrial Automation Systems (Karl-Heinz John)
2010
15. PLC Programming Methods and Applications (John R. Hackworth)
16. Industrial Electronics (Frank D. Petruzella) International Editions 1996

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Omron PLC Example Programs


1. Packaging Line Control

yHk (1)

Operation
When PB1 (START Push Button) is pressed, the box conveyor moves. Upon
detection of box present, the box conveyor stops and the Apple conveyor starts. Part sensor
will count for 10 apples. Apple conveyor stops and box conveyor starts again. Counter will
be reset and operation repeats until PB2 (STOP Push Button) is pressed.

yHk (2)

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CNT003

yHk (3) Time Chart


yHk (1) uae yHk (10) txdrSm az:jyxm;wmudk Munfhr,fqdk&if?
yHk(4) u LD program udk print screen vkyfxm;wJhyHk jzpfNyD;? yHk(5) u LD program udk
print out xkwfxm;wJhyHk jzpfygw,f/
tJ'DyHk(5)&JU b,ftpGefrSmygwJh 000000 u rung number jzpfNyD;? (000000) u step
number jzpfygw,f/ Rung No. 00000 &JUnmtpGefrSm az:jyxm;wJh a01 a04 a09 qdw
k mawGu
internal bit 200.00 udk read vkyfcdkif;wJh a contact symbol eJU az:jyxm;wJh instruction code
awG[m step number 01 ae&m? 04 ae&m? 09 ae&m?awG rSm&dSw,fvkdY nTefjyxm;wm jzpfyg
w,f/
Rung No. 00001 &JUnmtpGefrSm az:jyxm;wJh b10 qdkwmu output bit 10.01 udk read
vkyfcdkif;wJh b contact symbol eJU az:jyxm;wJh instruction code [m step number 10 ae&m rSm
&dSw,fvkdY nTefjyxm;wm jzpfygw,f/
a contact qdkwm N.O jzpfNyD;? b contact qdkwm N.C jzpfygw,f/
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yHk (4)

yHk (5)

LD Ladder Diagram Program [CPM1A-CPU20]

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yHk (6)
Rung
0

2
3

Step
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Instruction
LD
OR
ANDNOT
OUT
LD
LDNOT
OR
ANDLD
OUT
LD
ANDNOT
OUT
LD
AND
LDNOT
CNT

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IL Instruction List Program


Operand
0.00
200.00
0.01
200.00
200.00
0.03
CNT003

Comment
Start (N.O)
Run
Stop (N.O)
Run
Run
Box Sensor
Apple counter

10.01
200.00
10.01
10.00
10.00
0.02
0.03
003
#10

Box-conveyor
Run
Box-conveyor
Apple-conveyor
Apple-conveyor
Apple Sensor
Box Sensor
Apple counter

yHk (7)

Program Mnemonics

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2. Filling/Draining Control Operation

yHk (8)
Operation procedure
1. As the PB1 is pressed, MV1 opens and the water begins to fill the tank. At the same
time, the stirring motor M starts operations.
2. When the water level passes TLB2 and reaches TLB1, the MV1 closes and the stirring
motor stops.
3. Next, MV2 opens and starts draining the water. When the water levels drops below
TLB2, MV2 closes.
4. When the cycle of operation has repeated four times, the operation END indicator
illuminates, and the filling and draining operation will not restart even if PB1 is pressed.

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yHk (9)

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LD Ladder Diagram Program [CPM1A-CPU20]

u Falling Edge Detection vdkY t"dyg,f&dSNyD;?


u Rising Edge Detection vdkY
t"dyg,f&wJY instruction code symbol awG jzpfMuygw,f/ DIFD, DIFU oHk;rSay:vmwJh
symbol awGjzpfMuygw,f/
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yHk (10) IL - Instruction List Program

Instruction awGudk

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Program Mnemonics

t*FvdyfpmvHk;eJU code vkyfxm;wm jzpfygw,f/

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Siemens PLC Example Programs


1. Packaging Line Control
Operation
When PB1 (START Push Button) is pressed, the box conveyor moves. Upon
detection of box present, the box conveyor stops and the apple conveyor starts. Part sensor
will count for 10 apples. Apple conveyor stops and box conveyor starts again. Counter will
be reset and operation repeats until PB2 (STOP Push Button) is pressed.
Input
I0.0
I0.1
I0.2
I0.3

Devices
START Push Button (PB1)
STOP Push Button (PB2)
Apple Sensor
Box Sensor

Output
Q0.0
Q0.1

Devices
Apple Conveyor
Box Conveyor

I0.0
I0.1
I0.2
I0.3

M0.0
C3

Q0.0
Q0.1
Status-Time Diagram
Siemens PLC S7-200 twGuf program udk LD eJY a&;NyD;? FBD, STL wkYdeJY ajymif;Munfh
k mu memory location awGudk Label uyfNyD;? emrnfay;
vdkY &ygw,f/ Symbolic address qdw
address a&;xm;wmjzpfygw,f/
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yHk (11) Symbolic Addressing LD Program

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yHk (12) LD Ladder Diagram Program

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yHk (13) FBD - Function Block Diagram Program


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yHk (14) STL Statement List Program

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2. Filling/Draining Control Operation


Operation procedure
1. As the PB1 is pressed, MV1 opens and the water begins to fill the tank. At the same
time, the stirring motor M starts operations.
2. When the water level passes TLB2 and reaches TLB1, the MV1 closes and the stirring
motor stops.
3. Next, MV2 opens and starts draining the water. When the water level drops below
TLB2, MV2 closes.
4. When the cycle of operation has repeated four times, the operation END indicator
illuminates, and the filling and draining operation will not restart even if PB1 is pressed.
Input
I0.0
I0.1
I0.2
I0.5
I0.6

Devices
Start Button (PB1)
Stop Button (PB2)
Reset Button (PB3)
Upper Level Switch (TLB1)
Lower Level Switch (TLB2)

Output
Q0.0
Q0.1
Q0.2
Q0.4
Q0.5

Devices
Water Supply Valve (MV1)
Drain Valve (MV2)
Stirring Motor (M)
End Indicator
Buzzer

Siemens PLC S7-200 udk program a&;r,fqdk&if STEP 7-Micro/WIN eJY

a&;&ygw,f/
Omron PLC CPM1A udk program a&;r,fqdk&if CX-Programmer eJY a&;&ygw,f/
CX-Programmer xJrSmygwJY DIFU, DIFD qdkwJY instruction code awGeJYwlnDwJY instruction
code awG STEP 7-Micro/WIN xJrSm ryg&dSvdkY function wlatmif yHk(15) rSmvdkyJ a&;vdkY &yg
w,f/
STEP 7-Micro/WIN xJrSm yg&dSwJY
awGvnf; CX-Programmer xJrSm ryg&Sdygbl;/

eJY

wdkY eJY wlnDwJY

instruction code

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yHk (15) LD Ladder Diagram Program


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yHk (16) FBD Function Block Diagram Program


tckqdk&if

LD program xJrSmygwJh open contact, closed contact, eJY coil awG[m


instruction code awGrQom jzpfw,fqdkwmudk oabmaygufvufcHEdkifMuNyDxifygw,f/

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yHk (17) STL Statement List Program


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pmtkyfa&;om;jyKpkol OD;pdk;wifhudk rEav;wdkif;? rw&mNrdKU? [vif;BuD;GmwGif


trd a':BudKif? tb OD;bpdef wdkYrS 1948 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif arG;zGm;cJhonf/
wuodkvf0ifwef;udk rEav;NrdKU? txu (2) rS 1966 ckESpfwGifatmifjrifcJhNyD;?
AGTI (EC)'Dyvdkrmudk rEav;NrdKU? Government Technical InstituterS 1969 ckESpfwGif
&&SdcJhonf/
1970 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif rauG;wdkif;? acsmufNrdKUe,f? pavNrdKU&Sd
"gwfajrMoZmpufkH Instrumentation XmewGif Sub Assistance Engineer
tjzpfpwifwm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf/
1984 ckESpf pufwifbmvwGif *syefEdkifiH? wdkusdKNrdKU Japan Cooperation Centre
Petroleum (J.C.C.P) Modernization of Instrumentation Course (1)v oifwef;udk
wufa&mufcJhonf/
1996 ckESpfrS 1997 ckESpftxd puFmylEkdifiH Westinghouse Industry
Asia Pte. Ltd. wGif Field Service Engineertjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf/

Services

1998 ckESpfrS 2007 ckESpftxd &efukefNrdKU General Service Engineering Group


(GSE)wGif Instrumentation Engineertjzpf wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf/
2000 ckESpfwGif GSE Instrumentationoifwef;udk pwifoifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/
2008 ckESpfrS 2010 ckESpftxd
oifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/

HyperTech

2011 ckESpfrS 2013 ckESpftxd Multi


oifwef;udk tcsdefydkif; oifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/
2012 ckESpfrS 2014 ckESpftxd
tcsdefydkif; oifMum;ydkYcscJhonf/

PLC

Engineering

oifwef;udk tcsdefydkif;
PLC

Glory Carrier Training Centre

oifwef;ESifh

HMI

PLCoifwef;udk

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