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1/6/2015

The carbonation of the concrete

Project of Durability

5 GCU – INSA Rennes

Professor: PRINCE AGBODJAN William

Students:

LHAMIDI Khaliid

PRADO RODRIGUES Ana Beatriz

VIEIRA BELAFONTE BARROS Victor

Introduction

Only after between twenty to thirty years ago that our preoccupation is oriented to the problems involving the durability.

The demolition and replacement of concrete structures have shown quite clearly that, because of corrosion, the life of a structure was significantly shorter than originally planned.

Cement Hydration

Silicates which chiefly provide the mechanical strength of hydrated cement, account for about 75% in the composition of CP.

Silicates hydration reactions:

2(3CaO . SiO 2 ) + 6H 2 O 3CaO . 2SiO 2 . 3H 2 O + 3Ca(OH) 2 2(2CaO . SiO 2 ) + 4H 2 O 3CaO . 2SiO 2 . 3H 2 O + Ca(OH) 2

To 1m 3 dosed concrete that has 300kg/m 3 cement, with a degree of hydration 60%, are released over 50kg of Ca(OH) 2 .

Introduction

 

It

was

a

long

thought

that

the

concrete

was

a

indestructible material.

 

In

fact,

concretes

and

cements

mortars

are

called

metastable compounds.

 

That means they are not chemical stables, but their speed of transformation is so slowly that it seems they have stability.

Cement Hydration

The Portland cement has 4 essential components (90% of CP):

Bi and Tricalcium silicates

2CaO . SiO 2 (C 2 S) 3CaO . SiO 2 (C 3 S)

Tricalcium aluminate 3CaO . Al 2 O 3 (C 3 A)

Tetracalcium aluminoferrite 4CaO . Al 2 O 3 . Fe 2 O 3 (C 4 A)

Carbonation Carbonation of concrete is traditionally defined as the chemical reaction between atmosphere carbon dioxide
Carbonation
Carbonation of concrete is traditionally defined as the
chemical reaction between atmosphere carbon dioxide
and the products of cement hydration (particularly
Ca(OH) 2
The carbonation is a major natural phenomenon, which
aims to return the calcium to its more stable form.

1/6/2015

The carbonation of the concrete

Concrete carbonation is

a phenomenon inseparable

from the construction material and will be present throughout his life.

This reaction is present in the epidermis of the concrete.

1. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3

1. H 2 CO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 CaCO 3 + 2H 2 O

2. H 2 CO 3 + 3CaO . 2SiO 2 . 3H 2 O CaCO 3 + H 2 O + amorphous silica

3. H 2 CO 3 + 2NaOH Na 2 CO 3 + 2H 2 O

4. H 2 CO 3 + 2KOH K 2 CO 3 + 2H 2 O

Speed of carbonation

The speed of carbonation will depend on many factors such as:

compactness, cement content, type of cement, water quantity on the concrete, degree of hydration of the cement, concentration of carbon dioxide in the air, relative humidity.

Speed of carbonation The speed of carbonation will depend on many factors such as: compactness,
Speed of carbonation
The speed of carbonation will depend on many factors
such as:
compactness,
cement content,
type of cement,
water quantity on the concrete,
degree of hydration of the cement,
concentration of carbon dioxide in the air,
relative humidity.
The carbonation of the concrete
The carbonation of the concrete
Speed of carbonation
Speed of carbonation
Speed of carbonation
Speed of carbonation

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Identification of carbonation Phenolphthalein (pH indicator): when the reactions of carbonation takes place, the pH
Identification of carbonation
Phenolphthalein (pH indicator): when the reactions of
carbonation takes place, the pH value starts falling. This
tests is practical, but doesn’t identifies the causes.
The normal pH-value of concrete is above 13 and the
pH-value of fully carbonated concrete is below 9.
Once the carbonation process reaches reinforcement
and the pH-value drops beneath 13 the passive « film »
on the re-boss will detonates and the corrosion will
begins.
the re-boss will detonates and the corrosion will begins. Identification of carbonation X-Ray Diffractometric

Identification of carbonation

X-Ray Diffractometric Analysis: when the reactions of carbonation takes place, the portlandite disappears and the CaCo 3 starts a crystallization process.

Thermal

dehydration

(decomposition) of the Ca(OH) 2 in an oven with an inert

reference element it’s possible to notice a lose weight caused by the carbonation process.

Analysis: due

to

the

Advantages: - check if there is the Portlandite - determine the amount of Portlandite

is the Portlandite - determine the amount of Portlandite Consequences of carbonation Identification of carbonation
Consequences of carbonation
Consequences of carbonation
Identification of carbonation Phenolphthalein indicator solution applied to a fresh fracture through a concrete slab
Identification of carbonation
Phenolphthalein indicator solution applied to a fresh fracture
through a concrete slab

Consequences of carbonation

The calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), formed during carbonation, is very slightly soluble in water and will decrease the pore water of pH to a value of about 8.

Concrete

carbonation

is

a

reaction

that

is

virtually

without consequences for the concrete itself

 

Otherwise against steel, which is protected in the non- carbonated concrete, it carries the corrosion when the concrete carbonates.

The benefits of carbonation for unreinforced concrete Carbonation of cementitious matrices based on CEM I
The benefits of carbonation for
unreinforced concrete
Carbonation of cementitious matrices based on CEM I
(cement type) is done with a weight gain corresponding
to CO 2 fixed in hydrates.
Clogging of the microstructure that makes the concrete
less permeable to aggressive agents.
Carbonation enhances the mechanical strength of the
concrete and make the material more stable chemically
due to the swelling reactions.

1/6/2015

Conclusion Carbonation is one of the main causes of concrete degradation. However, it also increases
Conclusion
Carbonation is one of the main causes of concrete
degradation. However, it also increases both the
compressive and tensile strength of concrete.
Therefore, not all the effects of carbonation are harmful
to the concrete. The biggest problem of carbonation is
the steal corrosion that follows.
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