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Eastern Armenian
A Textbook
YZ

]^
Eastern Armenian
A Textbook

YZ
by

Kevork B. Bardakjian

Marie Manoogian Professor of Armenian Literature


The University of Michigan
and

Bert Vaux

University Lecturer in Phonology and Morphology


University of Cambridge

CARAVAN BOOKS
Ann Arbor

Published by Caravan Books


Delmar, New York 12054-0344, U.S.A.
First Edition 1999
Second Edition 2008
1999 Academic Resources Corporation
All rights reserved
Printed and made in the United States of America
The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements
O
of the American National Standard for Information Sciences
Permanence of Paper for Publications and Documents
in Libraries and Archives ANSI/NISO/Z39.481992
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Contents
The Armenian Alphabet..................................................................................... 11
Pronunciation Notes ................................................................................. 12
Lesson 1 ............................................................................................................. 13
1. Personal pronouns ..................................................................................... 13
2. Present Indicative of the auxiliary verb be ............................................. 13
2a. Declarative Sentences ......................................................................... 13
2b. Interrogative Sentences....................................................................... 14
3. The Negative ............................................................................................. 14
4. Articles ...................................................................................................... 15
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 16
Greetings ....................................................................................................... 17
Lesson 2 ............................................................................................................. 21
1. The indefinite article ................................................................................. 21
2. Adjectives.................................................................................................. 21
3. Copular sentences..................................................................................... 21
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 22
Lesson 3 ............................................................................................................. 26
1. The present indicative tense ...................................................................... 26
2. Word order ................................................................................................ 26
3. Demonstratives.......................................................................................... 26
A. Adjectives ............................................................................................ 26
B. Pronouns .............................................................................................. 27
4. Possessive suffixes .................................................................................... 27
5. Use of the definite article .......................................................................... 27
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 29
Lesson 4 ............................................................................................................. 32
1. Plurals of nouns......................................................................................... 32
A. Monosyllables...................................................................................... 32
B. Polysyllables ........................................................................................ 32
2. Numbers : 1-10.......................................................................................... 33
3. Uses of the singular and plural .................................................................. 33
4. Adjectives as substantives ......................................................................... 34
5. Existential expressions .............................................................................. 34
6. Expressions of measure and quantity ........................................................ 35
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 36
Lesson 5 ............................................................................................................. 40
1. Present Indicative of verbs (continued) ..................................................... 40
2. Negative of the Present Indicative............................................................. 40
3. The Imperfect Indicative ........................................................................... 41
4. Negative of the Imperfect Indicative......................................................... 41
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 43
Lesson 6 ............................................................................................................. 46

6
1. Declension of Nouns (part A) ................................................................... 46
2. Uses of declined forms .............................................................................. 47
3. The diminutive suffix -ik ......................................................................... 49
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 51
Lesson 7 ............................................................................................................. 55
1. Prepositions and postpositions .................................................................. 55
2. Expressions of motion ............................................................................... 56
3. The genitive of complement...................................................................... 57
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 58
Lesson 8 ............................................................................................................. 62
1. Declension of Personal Pronouns.............................................................. 62
2. Possessive adjectives and pronouns .......................................................... 63
3. The Present and Imperfect Indicative of some common verbs.................. 64
4. Verbs with more than one subject ............................................................. 66
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 67
Lesson 9 ............................................................................................................. 71
1. The Future Indicative ................................................................................ 71
2. The Future Indicative in the Past............................................................... 71
3. Declension of nouns (part B): the -ou declension..................................... 72
4. Expressions of time (part 1) ...................................................................... 73
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 76
Lesson 10 ........................................................................................................... 80
1. The Aorist Indicative (part 1).................................................................... 80
2. Abstract nouns in -ouj\oun........................................................................ 81
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 83
Lesson 11 ........................................................................................................... 87
1. The Relative/Interrogative Pronoun .......................................................... 87
2. The Imperative of regular verbs ................................................................ 88
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 89
Lesson 12 ........................................................................................................... 93
1. Cardinal Numbers ..................................................................................... 93
2. Reduplicated numerals .............................................................................. 94
3. Ordinal Numbers ....................................................................................... 94
4. Fractions.................................................................................................... 95
5. Prices ......................................................................................................... 95
6. Use of numbers in expressions of dates..................................................... 96
Vocabulary .................................................................................................... 98
Lesson 13 ......................................................................................................... 101
1. Interrogative/relative pronouns ............................................................... 101
2. Object clauses.......................................................................................... 103
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 105
Lesson 14 ......................................................................................................... 109
1. The Perfect and Pluperfect ...................................................................... 109

2. The Perfect and Pluperfect Negative....................................................... 109


3. Some kinship terms ................................................................................. 110
4. The declension of ser love................................................................... 112
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 113
Lesson 15 ......................................................................................................... 117
1. Comparison ............................................................................................. 117
2. Indefinite pronouns ................................................................................. 118
3. Negative pronouns................................................................................... 119
4. Indefinite adjectives ................................................................................ 119
5. Indefinite pronouns ................................................................................. 119
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 120
Lesson 16 ......................................................................................................... 124
1. The Aorist Indicative (part 2): Irregular verbs, A................................... 124
2. The Perfect and Pluperfect of irregular verbs, A..................................... 125
3. The -en plural ....................................................................................... 126
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 127
Lesson 17 ......................................................................................................... 131
1. Uses of the -a6 participle....................................................................... 131
2. The declension of spatial postpositions ................................................... 132
3. Postpositions with articles ....................................................................... 133
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 134
Lesson 18 ......................................................................................................... 137
1. Reciprocal pronouns................................................................................ 137
2. Reflexive pronouns ................................................................................. 137
3. Distributive pronouns.............................................................................. 137
4. Distributive numbers ............................................................................... 138
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 139
Lesson 19 ......................................................................................................... 143
1. The Aorist Indicative (part 3): Irregular verbs, B................................... 143
2. The Perfect and Pluperfect of irregular verbs, B ..................................... 145
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 147
Lesson 20 ......................................................................................................... 151
1. Formation of adverbs .............................................................................. 151
2. Imperatives of irregular verbs, A............................................................. 152
Category 1. Verbs with infixed -n- in the present stem.......................... 152
Category 7. Verbs with different roots for the present and aorist stems. 153
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 154
Lesson 21 ......................................................................................................... 158
1. Nouns with Genitive in -an.................................................................... 158
2. The inner -a- declension ....................................................................... 159
3. Some irregular declensions .................................................................... 159
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 161
Lesson 22 ......................................................................................................... 165

8
1. Imperatives of irregular verbs, B............................................................. 165
2. To wear................................................................................................. 166
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 168
Lesson 23 ......................................................................................................... 172
1. The Subjunctive Mood ........................................................................... 172
1.1. Some uses of the Subjunctive .......................................................... 172
2. The Obligatory Mood.............................................................................. 175
2.1. Some uses of the Obligatory............................................................ 176
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 177
Lesson 24 ......................................................................................................... 181
Uses of the Infinitive ................................................................................... 181
1. As a verbal participle the Infinitive is found in:...................................... 181
2. Substantivized infinitives ........................................................................ 181
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 184
Lesson 25 ......................................................................................................... 187
1. The Passive.............................................................................................. 187
2. Uses of the Passive.................................................................................. 188
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 192
Lesson 26 ......................................................................................................... 196
1. The Conditional Mood ............................................................................ 196
2. Some uses of the Conditional Mood ....................................................... 197
3. Conditional sentences.............................................................................. 199
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 201
Lesson 27 ......................................................................................................... 205
1. Declension............................................................................................... 205
2. Time of day ............................................................................................. 206
3. Derivatives in -akan .............................................................................. 207
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 209
Lesson 28 ......................................................................................................... 212
Participles (continued)................................................................................. 212
1. The present participle .............................................................................. 212
1.1. Examples of usage........................................................................... 212
2. The -is participle .................................................................................... 213
3. Verbal adjectives in -i ........................................................................... 213
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 215
Lesson 29 ......................................................................................................... 219
1. Result clauses .......................................................................................... 219
2. Concessive clauses .................................................................................. 220
3. Some simple expressions of politeness ................................................... 220
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 223
Lesson 30 ......................................................................................................... 227
Causative verbs ........................................................................................... 227
1. Causatives with -n-................................................................................ 227

2. Causatives with tal................................................................................ 228


2.1. Examples of usage........................................................................... 228
2.2. The passive of causatives ................................................................ 229
Vocabulary .................................................................................................. 230
Lesson 31 ......................................................................................................... 234
1. Days and months ..................................................................................... 234
2. Usage of case forms (-i declension) ....................................................... 234
3. Dates........................................................................................................ 235
4. Age .......................................................................................................... 235
Lesson 32 ......................................................................................................... 237
Lesson 33 ......................................................................................................... 240
Lesson 34 ......................................................................................................... 244
Lesson 35 ......................................................................................................... 250
Lesson 36 ......................................................................................................... 253
Appendix 1: Vowel Alternations ..................................................................... 256
1. Vowel Sequences .................................................................................... 257
Appendix 2: Consonant Clusters...................................................................... 258
1. Clusters of two consonants...................................................................... 258
A. Word-initial ...................................................................................... 258
B. Word-medial ..................................................................................... 259
C. Word-final......................................................................................... 259
2. Clusters of three consonants.................................................................... 260
A. Word-initial ...................................................................................... 260
B. Word-medial ..................................................................................... 260
C. Word-final.......................................................................................... 260
3. Clusters of four consonants .................................................................... 261
A. Word-initial ...................................................................................... 261
B. Word-medial ..................................................................................... 261
C. Word-final.......................................................................................... 262
4. Clusters of five consonants...................................................................... 262
A. Word-initial ...................................................................................... 262
B. Word-medial ..................................................................................... 263
C. Word-final.......................................................................................... 263
5. Clusters of six consonants ....................................................................... 263
A. Word-initial ...................................................................................... 263
B. Word-medial ..................................................................................... 263
C. Word-final.......................................................................................... 263
6. Suffixes ................................................................................................... 263
Appendix 3: Countries and People................................................................... 265
1. The five continents (ma\r zamaqn;re)............................................... 265
2. The country suffix -stan...................................................................... 265
3. The country suffix -ia ........................................................................... 265
4. Miscellaneous countries .......................................................................... 266

10
5. Miscellaneous regions ............................................................................. 266
6. Some Armenian communities in the Diaspora ........................................ 266
Appendix 4: The Conjugation of Regular Verbs.............................................. 267
Appendix 5: The Most Common Declensions ................................................. 268
1. Genitive in -i .......................................................................................... 268
2. Genitive in -ou ......................................................................................... 268
3. Genitive in -an ....................................................................................... 268
4. Genitive in -o= ........................................................................................ 269
5. Genitive in -wa....................................................................................... 269
6. Genitive in -z .......................................................................................... 270
7. The inner -a-declension ........................................................................ 270
8. The inner -o-declension.......................................................................... 271
9. Some irregularities .................................................................................. 271
Appendix 6: Glossaries .................................................................................... 272
English-Armenian ....................................................................................... 272
Armenian-English ....................................................................................... 308

The Armenian Alphabet

UPPER
CASE

lower
case

A
B
G
D
:

a
b
g
d
;

X
H
E
J
V
I
L
>
^
K
F
}

Y
M
{
N
<
O

x
h
e
j
v
i
l
.
6
k
f
]
[
y
m
\
n
,
o

C
P

S
W
T
R
Z

"
Q

c
p
=
5
s
w
t
r
z
u
'
q
7

Transcription
Symbol
a
b
g
d
e
(word-initial) ye
z
e
(schwa)
t
zh
i
l
kh
ts
k
h
dz
gh
ch
m
y
n
sh
o
(word-initial) vo
ch
p
j
r (trilled)
s
v
t
r
ts
v
p
k
o

Except when followed by w.

English
Example
far
Ben
give
dark
pen
yes
zoo
pen
about
top
leisure
magazine
low
German Bach
hats
skill
hat
adze
Frenchrue
mischief
mat
yes
no
ship
note
vote1
church
spot
judge
Spanish carro
seat
vote
steep
rest
hats
vote
pen
kid
note

Numerical
value
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
9000
10000

12

Ou

`
ou

f
u

fat
chute

Pronunciation Notes
Eastern Armenian {' j q z c} are heavily aspirated. In other words, a
large puff of air comes out of the mouth when these consonants are
pronounced. The same is true of their English equivalents {p t k ts ch}
when pronounced at the beginning of a word, as in par, tar, car, etc.
The consonants {p t k 6 y} are not aspirated; in other words, very little
air comes out of the mouth when they are pronounced. This unaspirated set
of consonants sounds very similar to English {p t k ts ch} when pronounced
after an s, as in spar, star, scar, etc.
The difference between r and 5 is very similar to the difference between
Spanish r and trilled rr, as in caro expensive vs. carro car.
The uvular sounds . and [ are produced by pulling the back of the tongue
very close to the uvula, which is the little flap of tissue hanging down from
the back of the mouth. The Armenian [ sounds very much like the French,
German, and Hebrew pronunciation of r.

Lesson 1
1. Personal pronouns
The Armenian personal pronouns are:
1st person
2nd person
3rd person

Singular
;s
dou
na, inqe2

Plural
m;nq
douq
nranq, ir;nq

There is no grammatical distinction of gender in Armenian; for example,


na can mean he, she, or it. The demonstrative pronouns sa this one and
da that one (plural sranq, dranq) can also be used in the 3rd person,
especially when referring to inanimate objects. (See Lessons 3.3, 8.2).
As in French and German, the 2nd person singular is used only to address
friends or relatives, the polite form of address being the plural, which is
capitalized when written: Douq. For detailed treatment of this point see Lesson
3.3b.
2. Present Indicative of the auxiliary verb be
2a. Declarative Sentences
1st person
2nd person
3rd person

Singular
;m
;s
h

Plural
;nq
;q
;n

The non-literary form a is often used instead of the literary 3rd person singular
form h (except in negative sentences):
e.g. Girqn o2ur a! Where is the book?
As with the forms of the verb be above, all other Armenian verbs are
specified for person and number in all tenses and moods. Consequently, the
subject of a sentence (particularly when it is a personal pronoun) need not
accompany the verb, except when one wishes to convey emphasis or clarity.
Note that the verbal forms ;m etc. are not stressed, and do not attach a glide
to the initial ;-, which in this case is pronounced like the e in English pen, e.g.:
2

In fact, the pronoun inqe (pl. ir;nq) is historically related to the semantic
component self, and is involved in the formation of reflexive pronouns; see
Lesson 18.2.

14
A\st;[ ;m ([aystgh em], not *[aystgh yem]) here I am
Generally in Armenian the word order of narrative sentences is much less
restricted than in English.
e.g.

Na a\st;[ h! He is here.
Na h a\st;[! He is here. (It is he who is here.)
A\st;[ h na! Here he is.

Note that as a general rule the auxiliary verb be immediately follows the
word that is the focus of the sentence.
2b. Interrogative Sentences
Questions are generally expressed by intonation rather than by changing word
order. As a general rule, the word that is the focus of the question is pronounced
with a high tone (noted by a question mark 2 after the stressed vowel). This
word is normally an interrogative expression (a), but may also be a regular word
(b)
a)

(Douq) incp;2s ;q!


Nranq o2ur ;n!

How are you?


Where are they?

b)

Nranq a\st;2[ ;n!


Nra2nq ;n a\st;[!
A\st;2[ ;n nranq!

Are they here? (neutral word order)


Are they here?
Are they here?

As in 2a, the auxiliary verb immediately follows the word that is the focus
of the sentence.
3. The Negative
The negative particle is oc no, not. With verbs this reduces to c-, prefixed to
the conjugated component of the verb.
e.g.

A\st;[ ch!
A\st;2[ ;n!
Oc, a\st;[ c;n!

(S)he/it is not here.


Are they here?
No, they are not here.

Note the use of ch as a general negative in colloquial speech; the parallel of


this usage in affirmative contexts is fa, roughly equivalent to English yeah.
e.g.

A\st;2[ ;n!

Are they here?

Ch, a\st;[ c;n!


No, they are not here.
Yi,t h, ch2!
Thats right, isnt it?
(In this phrase ch cannot be replaced by oc).
Cf. also Lesson 2.4.
4. Articles
a) The definite article in Armenian is the suffix -e (-n after a vowel or when the
following word begins with a vowel).
e.g.

fa\re
girqe
katoun
jiwe

the father
the book
the cat
the number

16
Vocabulary
ampot
a\nt;[
a\o
a\st;[
an]r8ot
ar8ot
bar8
bari
gi,;r
girq
gor6
dou
douq
;[anak
;s
;w (8)
;r;ko
hl
jiw
incp;2s
inqe
ir;nq
law
lou\s
katou
fa
famar (n.)
fa\
fa\;r;n
fa\r
yi,t
ma\r
mard
m;nq
na (inqe)
nranq (ir;nq)
,at
,norfakalouj\oun
,og

cloudy
there
yes
here
rainy
sunny
hello!
kind; well (response)
night
book
work, job; task, business
you (sing.)
you (pl.); polite form
weather; season
I
and
evening
also, too
number, figure; year (colloquial)
how?
he/she/it
they
good; well
light
cat
yes, yeah (colloq.)
number; telephone number
Armenian (n. and adj.)
in the Armenian language (adverbial); the
Armenian language (n.)
father
right, correct; exact, precise (adj. and adv.)
mother
man
we
he, she, it
they
very; (too) much, many
thank you
hot (adj. and noun.)

o2nz
oc
ort;2[
ch
sa5e (sa5n before a vowel)
wat
taq
t[a
zt;souj\oun
ou
o2ur
7d

how (colloq.)
no
where?
no
cold
bad(ly) (adj. and adv.)
warm; hot
boy; son (colloq.)
good-bye; au revoir
and
where to? where?(colloq.)
air

Greetings
Bar8 jez!
Bar8!
Bari lou\s!
Bari lou\s!
Bari ;r;ko!
Bari ;r;ko!
Bari gi,;r!
Bari gi,;r! (or Lou\s bari!)
<norfakalouj\oun!
<at ,norfakalouj\oun!
Mnas barow!
Gnas barow!
<norfawor (lini)!
Zt;souj\oun!
Zt;souj\oun!
Incp;2s ;s! (colloq. O2nz ;s!)
Law c;m!
<at law c;m!
Law ;m, ,norfakalouj\oun!
<at law ;m, ,norfakalouj\oun!
Do2uq incp;s ;q!
Gor6;re incp;2s ;n!
(More colloquial: Gor6;rd o2nz ;n!
<at law c;n!
Wat c;n, ,norfakalouj\oun!
Law ;n, ,norfakalouj\oun!
<at law ;n, ,norfakalouj\oun!

Hello.
(Response.)
Good morning.
(Response.)
Good evening.
(Response.)
Good night.
(Response.)
Thanks.
Thanks a lot.
Good-bye. (said by person leaving)
(Response.)
(Blessing for different occasions.)
Good-bye. (au revoir)
(Response.)
How are you?
I am not well.
I am not very well.
I am well, thank you.
Im very well, thank you;
how are you?
How are things?
literally How is your business?)
Not very well.
Not bad, thanks.
Good, thank you.
Very good, thank you.

18
Weather
A\st;[ (;[anake) ,og/taq h!
A\nt;[ ,og/taq ch!
A\st;[ zourt h/ch!
A\nt;[ 7de sa5n h!
:[anakn ampot h!
:[anakn ar8ot h!
:[anakn an]r8ot h!

It (the weather) is hot here.


It is not hot there.
It is/isnt cold here.
The air is cold there.
It (the weather) is cloudy.
It (the weather) is sunny.
It (the weather) is rainy.

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Katoun ort;2[ (o2ur) h!


Na a\st;[ ch!
<at ,og h!
Douq o2ur ;q!
Fa\re 8 ma\re a\nt;[ ;n!
T[an ,at bari h!
:s ,at law c;m!
:[anakn incp;2s h!
Nranq wat c;n!
:[anake an]r8ot ch!
Bar8! Incp;2s ;q!
<norfakalouj\oun!
Famare yi,t h!
Mardn ou t[an a\nt;[ ;n!
M;nq law ;nq!
A\nt;[ ,a2t zourt h!
Girqe lawe3 ch!
:[anake ar8ot h!
Na law ch!
Dou ,at yi,t ;s!
T[an 8 katoun a\nt;[ ;n!
Na fa\ ch2!
Oc, na fa\ ch!
Bari lou\s! <at law ;[anak h!
Oc, ,at ampot h!

When substantivized, adjectives may take the definite article -e (see Lesson
4.4).

20
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

It is very rainy.
The book is good.
The night is cold.
He is correct.
The mother and father are not here.
How is the weather?
It is not very hot.
Thank you.
Hello! How are you?
We are well.
The number is not correct.
Where is the Armenian book?
Where are you (sg.)?
I am here.
Is the book here?
He is well.
They are not well.
Is the man Armenian?
Where is he?
Good morning!
The weather is sunny.
It is cold.
Where are you (pl.)?
We are here.
They are not here.

Lesson 2
1. The indefinite article
The indefinite article is mi, which occurs before the noun it modifies. Nouns
denoting a group or class usually do not take the indefinite article.
e.g.

mi girq
mi t[a
mi katou

a book
a boy
a cat

but:

Na katou h!

That is a cat.

2. Adjectives
a) Qualifying adjectives precede the noun (except for poetic emphasis).
Na mi faroust fa\ h! He is a rich Armenian.
Na g;[;zik a[=ik h! She is a pretty girl.
b) As in English, predicative and attributive adjectives always occur in the
singular, even if the noun to which they refer is plural. The usual word order is
Subject + Predicate + Verb.
Katoun g;[;zik h!
Nranq faroust c;n!
Fa\re a[qat h!
Nranq a5o[= ;n!

The cat is beautiful.


They are not rich.
The father is poor.
They are well (healthy).

3. Copular sentences
Sentences with predicative nouns follow a similar pattern:
Nranq fa2\ ;n!
Na a,ak;rt h!

Are they Armenian? (N.B. singular predicate).


He/she is a pupil.

4. Negative (continued from Lesson 1.3.).


The auxiliary verb plus negative cannot stand alone. For example, Are you an
Armenian? No, I am not. must be rendered:
Fa2\ ;q!
Oc, fa\ c;m! (not * Oc, c;m!)
It is also permissible to use oc or ch alone.

22
Vocabulary
axg
a[=ik
a[qat
ambo[=
am;n (mi)
a\laxgi
a,ak;rt
a,.arf
a5o[=
ba\z
ban
ba5
bar;kam
g;[;zik
;k;[;zi
;[ba\r
;r;.a
;ritasard
;rkinq
xawak
enk;r
entaniq
.;lazi
6a[ik
kam, kam . . . kam
kapou\t
faroust
fin
fiwand
m;6
nor
,;nq
ordi
s8
toun
ousano[
ousouzic
ousouzcoufi

nation; folk
girl; daughter (colloq.)
poor (adj.; and noun)
complete, entire, whole
each, every, all
foreign; foreigner
pupil
world
healthy; sound
but; yet
thing
word
relative (colloq.); friend
beautiful, pretty
church
brother
child
young; young person
sky, heaven
son, daughter
friend, comrade
family
intelligent, clever
flower
or; either ... or
blue
rich, wealthy; rich man
old, ancient
ill; patient
great, big, large
new; recently
building
son
black
house; home
student
teacher (m.)
teacher (f.)

'oqr(ik)4
'oqrik
qou\r
7tar

little, small;
little child, baby
sister
foreign

For the diminutive suffix -ik see Lesson 6.

24
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

A[=ike fiwand h!
:k;[;zin ort;2[ h!
T[an .;lazi a,ak;rt h!
Sa nor ,;nq h!
O2ur h 'oqrike!
Ousouzice ;ritasard h!
:ritasarde ousouzic h!
An]r8ot ;[anake law ban ch!
Nranq ,at a[qat ;n!
Ambo[= axge faroust h!
:rkinqe kapou\t h!
M;nq a5o[= c;nq!
Nranq fa2\ ;n!
Oc, a\laxgi ;n!
A\st;[ am;n (mi) toun fin h!
Qou\rn ou ;[ba\re ousano[5 ;n!
<;nqe fin h ou s8!
S8 katoun a\st;[ h!
Na hl ousano[ h!
Kam fa\ h, kam a\laxgi (or 7tar)!
A,.arfe m;6 h! :rkinqe ,at m;6 h!
Ambo[= entaniqe fiwand h!
^a[ike kapou\t h!
Fa\re yi,t h ba\z ordin yi,t ch!
Na faroust h, ba\z bar;kame a[qat h!

Note the singular form of the predicative noun.

Translate into Armenian:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

The big building is the church.


The church is in the big building.
The whole family is here.
She is an intelligent girl.
The house is very small.
The old building is large.
The brother and sister are ill.
The friend is young.
The beautiful girl is the teacher.
The flower is blue.
They are well, but we (are) ill.
Are you ill? No, I am not.
They, too, are foreigners.
The father and the son are intelligent.
Are you (pl.) students?
That is a great task.
He is a good man.
The Armenian nation is very old.
Where is the church?
Are you the teacher?
The sky is blue.
Every word is correct.
The child is a good pupil.
The family is rich.

Lesson 3
1. The present indicative tense
In Modern Eastern Armenian verbs fall into two categories: those whose
infinitive ending is -;l, and those whose infinitive ending is-al.
The present indicative is formed by adding the appropriate present tense
form of the auxiliary verb be to the imperfect participle in -oum. The imperfect
participle is formed by replacing the infinitive suffixes -;l and-al with the
ending -oum. Thus for the verb sir;l love the paradigm is as follows:
Singular
siroum ;m
siroum ;s
siroum h

1st person
2nd person
3rd person

Plural
siroum ;nq
siroum ;q
siroum ;n

2. Word order
The usual word order in declarative sentences is Subject - Verb - Object (a) or
Subject - Object - Verb (b).
(a) SVO
(b) SOV

T[an groum h namak! The boy is writing a letter.


T[an namak h groum!

It is also common to alter the word order when one wants to emphasize a
particular word or phrase. In this case, the emphasized element is typically
placed immediately before the conjugated verb.
T[an h groum namak! The boy is writing a letter.
3. Demonstratives
A. Adjectives
Armenian distinguishes three degrees of demonstrative adjectives, according to
the degree of proximity to the speaker and listener.
a\s
a\d
a\n

this
that (near the listener)
that (not near the speaker and listener)

The forms a\d and a\n are equally common.


Note that the demonstrative adjectives require that the definite article appear
on the noun they modify.
a\s girqe

this book

a\d katoun
A\s a5awote ampot h!

that cat
Its cloudy this morning.

However, the definite article is not used in time expressions.


A\s a5awot ;[anake law h! The weathers good this morning.
(not *A\s a5awote ;[anake law h!)
B. Pronouns
The forms sa, da, na are widely used in conversation as demonstrative
pronouns, though they may be omitted.
e.g.

(Sa) law mard h!


(Da) g;[;zik h!
(Na) ousano[ h!

He is a good man.
That is beautiful.
He/she is a student.

Their respective plural forms are sranq, dranq, nranq.


Note also the colloquial singular forms hs, hd, hn.

1
2
3

singular
formal colloq.
sa
s
da
d
na
n

plural
sran
dran
nran

4. Possessive suffixes
The singular possessive suffixes are -s my, -d your, and -n/- his/her/its
respectively. Note that in Armenian the use of possessive suffixes (as well as
possessive pronouns) entails that the modified noun is definite.
girqs
girqd
(nra/ir) gir

my book
your (sg.) book
his/her/its book

5. Use of the definite article


Unlike in English, proper nouns in Armenian can take the definite article in
certain situations.
e.g.

but:

Anouns Tigran h!
N\ou{orq Ja\mxe
a\s7r groum h . . .
Tigrane outoum h .n]or!

My name is Tigran.
The New York Times
writes today...
Tigran is eating an apple.

28
Am;n a5awot na gnoum h
N\ou{orq Ja\mx!
also:
but:

Every morning he buys


The New York Times.

M;nq gini ;nq .moum!


We drink wine.
The wine is tasty.
Ginin fam;[ h!
Ginin fam;[ ban h!
Wine is a tasty thing.
(where Ginin denotes the class of wines in general)

Vocabulary
a\d (da)
a\n
a\s (sa)
Anafit
Ani
anoun
a5awot
Bari a5awot!
Arm;n
gar;=our
gini
gn;l
gr;l
gou\n
gounawor
dasaran
dproz
dram (colloq. 'o[)
entr;l
i2nc
.m;l
.ndr;l
.n]or
kaj
fam
fam;[ (colloq. famow)
Fa\k
faz
na.entr;l
namak
=our
spitak
t;sn;l
Tigran
oux;l
out;l
oura.
7r
a\s7r

that
that (over there)
this
Anahit (fem. name)
Ani (fem. name)
name
morning
Good morning! (formal)
Armen (male name)
beer
wine
to buy
to write
color
colored, having color
class (form; group; -room)
school
1. money; 2. dram (the Armenian national currency)
to choose, elect
what?
to drink
to ask, request
apple
milk
taste, flavor
tasty, delicious
Hayk (male name)
bread, food
to prefer
letter (postal)
water
white
to see
Tigran (male name)
to want (colloq.)
to eat
glad, happy
day
today

30
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

"oqrike kaj h siroum!


Sa5e =our ;m ouxoum!
Am;n a5awot kaj ;m .moum!
Tigrane na.entroum h gar;=our .m;l!
Anafite namak h groum!
:s t;snoum ;m dproze!
Anound i2nc h! Anouns Ani h!
Ma\rn hl h g;[;zik, a[=ikn hl!
A\s faze fam;[ ch!
A,ak;rte ,at h siroum dproze!
Dasarand ort;2[ h!
Nranq i2nc ;n gnoum!
Kaj ou faz ;n gnoum!
Dproze mi m;6 ,;nq h!
A\s gi,;r ,at law ;[anak h!
A\s7r6 Fa\ke gini h .moum!
A\s gou\ne siro2um ;s!
Ousano[e dram h .ndroum!
A\o, douq ,at yi,t ;q!
Nranq nor toun ;n gnoum!
Oura2. ;q! A\o, ,at oura. ;nq!
A\s7r Arm;ne a\st;[ ch!
Famn incp;2s h!
>n]or siro2um ;q!
Fa\ke t;snoum h toune!

These are in fact time expressions. For details see Lesson 27.

Translate into Armenian:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

What are they eating? They are eating white bread.


I see a big building.
Where is your (sg.) house? My house is there.
Would you like an apple?
The classroom is very small.
I drink milk every morning.
We are writing a letter.
The father and son are drinking beer.
They are very happy.
Armen is an intelligent student.
What are you (pl.) eating?
Do you (pl.) want water?
My name is not Ani, its Anahit.
This apple is very tasty.
He is buying a book.
Does Tigran like wine?
Your (sg.) teacher is very young .
Do you (sg.) like your job?
They want hot water.
I am selecting a book.
Do you see a church there?
The cat prefers milk.
Hayk is ill today.
My school is that white building.

Lesson 4
1. Plurals of nouns
A. Monosyllables
Monosyllabic nouns add -;r to the singular form.
e.g.

grq;r7
fa\r;re
]i;r

girq a book
fa\re the father
]i
a horse

books
the fathers
horses

Note that the definite article follows the plural suffix in definite plurals (e.g.
hayr-er-, not *hayr-n-er).
B. Polysyllables
Polysyllabic nouns add -n;r to the singular form.
e.g.

bar;kam a friend

bar;kamn;r friends

But note:
a) Several nouns that were originally monosyllabic and ended in -n have lost the
-n in the singular but sometimes retain it in the plural.
e.g.

l;5
dou5
]ouk

mountain (< l;5n)


door (< dou5n)
fish (< ]oukn)

but
but
but

l;5n;r
d5n;r*
]kn;r*

mountains
doors
fishes

b) Compound words generally select the plural ending -er when the last
member of the compound is monosyllabic, and determines the meaning of the
entire compound:
Arewelahay Eastern Armenian Arewelahayer
(an Eastern Armenian is a type of Armenian)
anjrewa ur rainwater anjrewa urer
(rainwater is a type of water)
When the last member does not determine the meaning of the entire compound,
the -ner plural is used, even if the last member is monosyllabic:
anmah immortal (person) (an- without, mah death) anmahner
(an immortal person is not a type of death)
7

For the vowel reduction see Appendix 1.

2. Numbers : 1-10
The cardinal numbers from one to ten are:
m;k8
;rkou
;r;q
cors
fing

one
two
three
four
five

w;z
\oj
ouj
inn, ine
tas
(colloq. tase)

six
seven
eight
nine
ten

3. Uses of the singular and plural


As in English, adjectives in Armenian (including the demonstrative adjectives
a\s, a\d, a\n)do not agree in number or case with the nouns that they modify.
Thus, adjectives are always singular in form, even if the nouns they modify are
plural:
e.g.

(mi) fin girq


an old book
these old books
a\s fin grq;re9
(not *ayser hiner gr er)

In many situations Armenian uses the singular form of a noun where English
uses the plural.
a) Indefinite nouns modified by numbers are singular:
e.g. :rkou t[a gar;=our ;n .moum!
Two boys are drinking beer.
Definite nouns in the same situation take the plural, however.
e.g. :rkou t[an;re namak ;n groum!
The (those) two boys are writing letters/a letter.
b) The same rule applies with the interrogative adjective qani210 how many
and sometimes with ,at many, much:

8 As in English this number can replace the indefinite article mi (See Lesson
15.2).
9 The i of girq reduces to schwa (e) in the plural.
10 Note that since ani is an adjective, it must be accompanied by a noun.

34
e.g. qani2 mard
how many people?
,at mard many people
c) The noun fogi person, soul, which is used when referring to numbers of
people, also remains in the singular when used with cardinal numbers. The same
is true for fat,which is used to express numbers of inanimate objects.
e.g.

w;z fogi
\oj fat faz

six people
seven pieces of bread

d) The singular is also used for general statements referring to a class of objects
rather than to specific items.
e.g.

:s siroum ;m .n]or!
>n]ore11 fam;[ ban h!
Fa\rs namak h groum!

I like apples.
Apples are (a) tasty (thing).
Father is writing letters.

4. Adjectives as substantives
Adjectives with the definite article or indefinite article can be used as
substantives:
faroustn;re
;r;q faroust
farouste

the rich (i.e. rich people in general)


the three rich people
the rich person

5. Existential expressions
In modern Armenian the third person forms of the verb kam I exist are used to
express the English existential there is, there are: singular ka there is, plural
kan there are (See Lesson 8.3c). The negatives are cka and ckan,
respectively (cf. Lesson 1.4: c;m etc.).
e.g.

11
12

:k;[;zin ort;2[ h!
Where is the church?
A\st;[ ;k;[;zi cka!
There is no church here.
A\nt;[ ,at fa\ ka!
There are many Armenians there.
(Note singular verb with singular subject.)
Qani2 fogi ka a\st;[! How many (people) are there here?
W;z fogi!
Six.
Qani2 fogi ;q!
How many are you?
How many apples do you have?
Qani2 .n]or oun;q!12

For use of the article see Lesson 3.5.


For the verb oun;nal to have see Lesson 8.3.

W;z! or W;z fat!


Six.
or W;z .n]or!
But: I have six. is rendered as v;z fat oun;m!
N.B. In responses both fogi and fat may replace the noun in question, for
example w;z fat or w;z .n]or six (apples).
6. Expressions of measure and quantity
In Armenian the complement to an expression of measure or quantity remains in
the nominative case.
e.g.

a cup of tea
a glass of water
three liter of milk
two boxes of cigarettes

mi gawaj j;\
mi bavak =our
;r;q litr kaj
;rkou tou' 6.a.ot

Note that when such expressions are the subject of a verb the definite article
is used.
e.g.
but:

A glass of milk is good (for you).


I am buying two glasses of beer.

Mi gawaj kaje law h!


:rkou bavak gar;=our ;m
gnoum!

36
Vocabulary
am;rikazi
angam
mi angam
miangamiz
an;l
as;l
arv;nal
i2nc arv;(n)13
bavak
banwor
bar]r
gawaj
dou5 (pl. d5n;r)
;r;q
;rkar
;rkou
;rkousn hl
h=
j;\
vam
inn, ine
l;5 (pl. l;5n;r)
litr
6a5
6.a.ot
6no[
ka, kan
ka5ouz;l (colloq. ,in;l)
fat
fing
fogi
]ouk (pl. ]kn;r)
mat (pl. matn;r)
m;k (colloq. mi)
13

American (person)
time(s); occasion; even (adv.)
once
at once; right away
to do
to say; tell
to be worth, cost
how much is (are)?
drinking glass
worker, workman
high; loud (adj. and adv.)
cup
door
three
long (adj. and adv.)
two
both
page
tea
hour
nine
mountain; hill
liter
tree
tobacco; cigarette
parent
there is, there are
to build
see Lesson 4.3,5
five
see Lesson 4.3,5
fish
finger
one

Conjugated forms of the Classical Armenian verb arv;nal, used in both


questions and responses (see further Lesson 8.3):
Ginin arv; . . .
The wine costs
Gawajn;re arv;n . . .
The cups cost...

m;tr
\oj
,abaj
orqa2n14
cors
pap(ik)15
sarq;l
soury
w;z
tas
tat(ik)
tarb;r
tou'
ouj
ouri,
m;k ouri,(e)
'ak
'ak;l
qafana
qani2
mi qani
mi qanise

14

meter
seven
week; Saturday (preferably ,abaj 7r)
how much?
four
grandfather
to make
coffee
six
ten
grandmother
different
box; can (of food); pack (of cigarettes)
eight
other
another (one)
closed, shut
to close, shut
priest (married)
how many?
some, a few
some (out) of

As in English, orqa2n is used with the singular of mass (uncountable)


nouns, e.g. orqa2n soury how much coffee?.
15 On diminutives see Lesson 6.3.

38
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

16

A[=ikn;re mi litr kaj ;n gnoum!


Am;n ,abaj mi girq ;m gnoum!
Am;rikazin;re gar;=our ,at ;n .moum!
A\st;[ bar]r ,;nq;r ckan!
:r;q tou' 6.a.otn in2c arv;!
In2c ;q ouxoum as;l!
A\s7r a,ak;rtn;rd in2c ;n anoum!
{oj banwor nor ,;nq ;n ka5ouzoum!
A\d ;rkou l;5n;re ,at bar]r ;n!
Douq qani2 fogi ;q!
Tigrane tarb;r grq;r h entroum!
Ambo[= entaniqe qani2 fogi h!
Matn;rd ;rkar 8 g;[;zik ;n!
Mi bavak gini ouxo2um ;s!
^no[n;rd i2nc gor6 ;n anoum!
Qani2 .n]or ;q ouxoum! W;z fat!
:[ba\rn;rd a5o2[= ;n!
Mi gawaj j;\ ouxo2um ;q!
A\s fin tn;re16 i2nc arv;n!
A\s girqe ouxo2um ;q!
Qani2 katou ;s t;snoum!
Anin 'akoum h dou5e!
Fa\ke mi m;6 tou' h sarqoum!
A\d ouj bar]r 6a5;re t;sno2um ;s!
Orqa2n gar;=our ;q ouxoum! :rkou litr!

Vowel reduced.

Translate into Armenian:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Are these young men Armenian?


How are your (sg.) children?
Armen is buying four packs of cigarettes.
I dont do that job very well.
What do you see (over) there? I see beautiful high hills.
There are three Armenian priests here.
Are the boys drinking coffee?
They are saying bad things.
The nights are very cold here.
Your friends are very good.
Where is the school? There is no school here.
How much do these glasses cost?
What do your parents mean (want to say)?
There are ten people there.
How much milk is there here? Three liters.
The day is very long.
How many pages (long) is the letter? Nine.
Does your (sg.) grandfather eat very much?
Both of them are healthy.
Would you like (Do you want) a cup of tea?
No, I prefer a glass of beer or wine.
Tigran drinks five glasses of milk every day.
My sister buys flowers every day.
How many workmen are there here? Seven.

Lesson 5
1. Present Indicative of verbs (continued)
The paradigms for the verb fasn;l to arrive and gnal to go are as follows:
Singular
fasnoum ;m
gnoum ;m

Plural
fasnoum ;nq
gnoum ;nq

2nd person

fasnoum ;s
gnoum ;s

fasnoum ;q
gnoum ;q

3rd person

fasnoum h
gnoum h

fasnoum ;n
gnoum ;n

1st person

Note that the three monosyllabic verbs gal come, lal cry, and tal give
form their imperfect participle (and hence their indicative tense forms) with the
suffix -is rather than -oum.
Singular
galis ;m
lalis ;m
talis ;m

Plural
galis ;nq
lalis ;nq
talis ;nq

2nd person

galis ;s
lalis ;s
talis ;s

galis ;q
lalis ;q
talis ;q

3rd person

galis h
lalis h
talis h

galis ;n
lalis ;n
talis ;n

1st person

2. Negative of the Present Indicative


The negative of the present indicative is formed by adding the particle c-to the
present forms of the verb to be, followed by the imperfect participle (-oum, is). Note that the 3rd person singular negative form uses ci, not ch.
1st person

Singular
c;m fasnoum
c;m gnoum

Plural
c;nq fasnoum
c;nq gnoum

2nd person

c;s fasnoum
c;s gnoum

c;q fasnoum
c;q gnoum

3rd person

ci fasnoum
ci gnoum

c;n fasnoum
c;n gnoum

For the three irregular verbs gal, lal, tal (see point 1 above) the negative
forms employ the -is participle: em galis,en talis, ci lalis,etc.
3. The Imperfect Indicative
The imperfect indicative of the verb to be is formed as follows:
1st person
2nd person
3rd person

Singular
hi
hir
hr

Plural
hinq
hiq
hin

The imperfect indicative of -;l verbs is formed by adding the imperfect


indicative forms of the verb to be to the imperfect participle:
Singular
siroum hi
.osoum hi
kardoum hi

Plural
siroum hinq
.osoum hinq
kardoum hinq

2nd person

siroum hir
.osoum hir
kardoum hir

siroum hiq
.osoum hiq
kardoum hiq

3rd person

siroum hr
.osoum hr
kardoum hr

siroum hin
.osoum hin
kardoum hin

1st person

4. Negative of the Imperfect Indicative


The formation of the negative of the imperfect indicative is parallel to the
negative of the present indicative: the particle c- is added to the imperfect forms
of the verb to be, followed by the imperfect (-oum) participle.

1st person

Singular
chi siroum

Plural
chinq siroum

42
chi .osoum
chi kardoum

chinq .osoum
chinq kardoum

2nd person

chir siroum
chiq siroum
chir .osoum
chiq .osoum
chir kardoum chiq kardoum

3rd person

chr siroum
chr .osoum
chr kardoum

chin siroum
chin .osoum
chin kardoum

For the three irregular verbs gal, lal, tal (see point 1 above) the indicative
tense forms, both affirmative and negative, are formed with the -is participle.
Thus: galis hi, talis hinq, chr lalis, c;m galis, etc.
Note also that the negative imperfect of ka there is is ckar there
wasnt, cka\in there werent, the affirmatives being, correspondingly, kar
there was, ka\in there were.

Vocabulary
amis
anzn;l
a,.at;l
baz;l
gal
galiq
gnal
das
xba[wa6
inco2u
lal (also laz;l, laz lin;l)
.os;l
ka\aran
kardal
famalsaran
fa\kakan
fangstanal17
fasn;l
fima
fi,;l
yanac;l
maqr;l
mi,t
mirg
,out
sowor;l
wstaf
tal
tari
'o[oz
'or];l
qa[aq
7raj;rj (colloq. j;rj)

17

For details see Lesson 19.

month
to pass; cross
to work; try
to open
to come
next, coming
to go
lesson, class
busy; occupied
why?
to cry, weep
to talk; speak to
station
to read
university
Armenian (adj.)
to rest
to arrive; get, reach
now ( colloq.); just (of time)
to remember; recall
to know (a person); recognize
to clean
always; ever
fruit
quickly (colloq.)
to learn
sure; certain
to give
year
street
to try, attempt
city, town
(daily) newspaper

44
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Ousano[n;re am;n 7r das ;n anoum!


Anouns c;2s fi,oum!
A\s 6a5;re am;n tari mirg ;n talis!
Dprozs ,at ;m siroum!
Am;n ,abaj maqroum ;n a\s 'o[ozn;re!
Inco2u girq c;s kardoum!
A,ak;rtn;re soworoum ;n fa,w;l!
Fa\kakan dproze ort;2[ h!
Mard inco2u h lalis!
Nranq ,at ;n .osoum!
A\s7r banworn;re c;n a,.atoum!
Am;n a5awot kardoum ;nq a\d 7raj;rje!
Fa\rd ort;2[ h a,.atoum!
:[ba\rn;rs ,at fiwand hin, ba\z fima a5o[= ;n!
Ousouzice bazoum h girqe!
Yanaco2um ;q a\d entaniqe!
Am;n ;r;ko Arm;ne j;\ hr .moum!
Am;n mard a\nt;[ hr gnoum!
A,.at;l ouxoum hin, ba\z gor6 ckar!
Fa\kn a\d 7re ,at hr xba[wa6!
Ma\rs ouxoum hr mirg gn;l!
Fima banworn;re fangstanoum ;n!
Wsta2f ;q! A\o, wstaf ;nq!
T[an dram hr .ndroum, ba\z nranq chin talis!

Translate into Armenian:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

The children are learning to read.


The fruit was very tasty.
I used to buy a newspaper every day.
Anahit was reading an Armenian book.
They are counting the books.
What was he saying?
They talk too much.
We didnt want to go.
I used to clean the house every month.
The teacher does not remember your name.
I am certain now.
Ani was resting this morning.
Intelligent students always try to do the lessons.
You are ill, why dont you rest?
Are you (pl.) busy this week?
The sick child was crying all night.
What were they doing? They were buying books.
I used to see my parents every week.
The rich used to give much money.
Why dont you learn to read Armenian?
What was Tigran drinking? He was drinking wine.
Were they very happy?
What did Ani want?
The air was very cold.
The young man was opening the door.

Lesson 6
1. Declension of Nouns (part A)
In modern Eastern Armenian there are seven cases for substantives (nouns,
pronouns, adjectives, infinitives, some participles): Nominative, Accusative,
Genitive, Dative, Ablative, Instrumental, and Locative.
One of the major difficulties involved in learning Armenian is that there are
many different patterns of declension. However, with most substantives, if the
Nominative and Genitive singular are known, the other cases can be deduced.
Except for some fossilized classical endings, all plurals have the same
endings. Problems arise only with the singular.
The great majority of substantives in modern Eastern Armenian belong to
the -i declension, which takes its name from the genitive singular suffix -i. The
suffixes of the -i declension are as follows (IND = indefinite, DEF = definite):
Singular and Plural
Nom./Acc.
Gen./Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

-[] (zero)
-i
-iz
-ow
-oum or -i + m;= in

The genitive, ablative, instrumental, and locative cases are not allowed to take
the definite article -n/-.
Note that in this and the other declensions, the locative case is often
expressed by the genitive case of the substantive + the postposition m;= in,
especially when the substantive denotes an abstract concept or a person.
The declension patterns for the nouns part;x garden and a,ak;rt
pupil are as follows:
Nom./Acc.
Gen./Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Nom./Acc.
Gen./Dat.

Singular
part;x
a,ak;rt
part;xi
a,ak;rti
part;xiz
a,ak;rtiz
part;xow
a,ak;rtow
part;xoum
a,ak;rti m;=
(not a,ak;rtoum; as explained above)
Plural
part;xn;r
a,ak;rtn;re
part;xn;ri
a,ak;rtn;ri

Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

part;xn;riz
part;xn;row
part;xn;roum

a,ak;rtn;riz
a,ak;rtn;row
a,ak;rtn;ri m;=

2. Uses of declined forms


a) The various cases are used to express different meanings or roles within a
sentence (the cases selected by the objects of individual verbs are indicated in
the Vocabulary section, under the entry for the verb in question). Many of the
nuances will be introduced later; the basic distinctions are the following:
Nominative

used for the subject of a sentence:


e.g.

Mi a,ak;rt namak h groum!


A pupil is writing a letter.
A\s part;xe m;6 h!
This garden is large.

Genitive

used to indicate source, origin, possession:


e.g.

:r8ani 'o[ozn;re la\n ;n!


The streets of Yerevan are wide.
A\d ousano[i fa\re ousouzic h!
That students father is a teacher.
Faroustn;ri tn;re18 g;[;zik ;n!
(The) rich peoples houses are nice.

Dative

used for the indirect object of transitive verbs, the direct object
of a few verbs, and human direct objects of all verbs:
e.g.

^no[n;rin namak ci ou[arkoum!


He doesnt send letters to the/his parents.
Fa\ke spasoum h enk;rn;rin!
Hayk is waiting for (the/his) friends.
Tigrane siroum h Aniin!
Tigran loves Ani.

18

The -ou- of the root toun has been reduced to schwa (e).

48
Note that Armenian distinguishes not only between definite and indefinite
substantives, but also between human and non-human direct objects of verbs.
For example, the direct object Ani in Tigran loves Ani selects the definite
dative suffix -in because Ani is human; if the direct object were non-human,
the definite accusative -n would be used.
Accusative

used for the (non-human) direct object of a verb:


e.g.

Faroustn;re dram ;nsiroum!


Rich people love money.
Ousouzice farznoum h a,ak;rti anoune!
The teacher asks the pupils name.

Ablative

used to indicate the place from which movement begins or


something is taken; also the material of which something is
made.
e.g.

Instrumental

used to indicate the means by which an action is


accomplished:
e.g.

Locative

A\d .anoujiz 6a[ikn;r ;m gnoum!


I buy flowers from that shop.

Na mi,t m;q;na\ow h yam'ordoum!


She always travels by car.

used to denote physical location. But, as already mentioned,


the notion of temporary existence in a location is often
expressed by the Genitive plus the postposition m;=.
e.g.

Part;xoum ,at 6a[ikn;r kan!


There are many flowers in the garden.
Bavaki m;= =our cka!
There is no water in the glass.

b) Note the use of the Genitive and the Ablative when describing part of a
whole.
i. The Genitive is usually used if the part is a noun.

e.g.

fa\;ri m;6 mase


the majority of Armenians
a\d a[=ikn;ri m;6 mase most of those girls

ii. The Ablative is used if the part is described numerically.


e.g.

a\s a[=ikn;riz finge

five of these girls

(Note the definite article with numerals if there is no qualified noun: cf. m;ke,
;rkouse, ;r;qe,etc.)
Mi qanise a few (derived from qani) also falls into this category:
e.g.

a\s ousano[n;riz mi qanise a few of these students

Note that the possessive suffixes -s my, -d your, -n/- his/her/its can
replace the definite article -e/-n) in declension (see also Lesson 3.4).
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Ins.
Loc.

my
namaks
namakis
namakis
namaks
namakizs
namakows
namakoums

your (sg.)
namakd
namakid
namakid
namakd
namakizd
namakowd
namakoumd

his/hers/its
namake
namaki
namakin
namake
namakiz
namakow
namakoum

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Ins.
Loc.

namakn;rs
namakn;rd
namakn;re
namakn;ris namakn;rid namakn;ri
namakn;ris namakn;rid namakn;rin
namakn;rs
namakn;rd
namakn;re
namakn;rizs namakn;rizd namakn;riz
namakn;rows namakn;rowd namakn;row
namakn;roums namakn;roumd namakn;roum

3. The diminutive suffix -ik


The suffix -ik is usually used in Armenian to form diminutives.
fa\r

fa\rik
father
ma\r

ma\rik
mother
qou\r

qou\rik
sister
(Recall also 'oqr 'oqrik from the Lesson 2 Vocabulary).
e.g.

50
These diminutives are declined regularly (-i,-iz,-ow . . .) as opposed to
fa\r,etc.; see Lesson 14.

Vocabulary
axniw
a\dpisi
a\vm
a\npisi
a\spisi
a\z;l;l
(awto)m;q;na, -i19
arag
bvi,k, -i20
gin, -i
gnazq, -i
gric, -i
dvwar
;rb;mn
:r8an
;rkar
;r=anik
inqnaji5, -i
(also rarely 7danaw)
la\n
l;xou, -i21
ls;l
.a[al
.anouj
farz, -i
farz(;r) tal
farzn;l

19

fair, honest
such (like that)
now
such(like that)
such (like this)
to visit; somewhere (+ acc.); somebody (+ dat.)
automobile
fast
doctor, physician
price
train
pen
hard, difficult (adj. and adv.)
sometimes; occasionally
Yerevan (the capital of the Republic of
Armenia)
long (adj. and adv.)
happy (adj. and adv.)
(air)plane
broad, wide
tongue; language
to hear; listen to (+ acc.)
to play
shop
question; matter
to ask (a) question(s); to put (a) question(s) to
(+ dat.)
to ask, inquire; something (+ acc.); somebody
(+ dat.)

For words ending in -a and -o, the glide -\- is inserted before vowel-initial
endings both in speech and in writing, e.g. ,ouka market Ablative
,ouka\iz, Locative ,ouka\oum; n;rka the present n;rka\oum, etc. For
details see Appendix 1.
20 In declension, as well as derivation, the root final vowel is reduced into
unwritten e, e.g. bv,ki, gni, grci, etc., the genitives of bvi,k, gin, gric.
21 Note that u is generally pronounced (and hence written) as v before vowels;
thus lezu gen. l;xwi, abl. l;xwiz, instr. l;xwow, etc.

52
f;,t
f;5a.os
yam'ord;l
mas, -i
matit, -i
m;=
n;rka, -i
,ouka, -i
patas.an;l
part;x, -i
spas;l
ou[ark;l
7gtagor6;l

easy (adj. and adv.)


(tele)phone
to travel; by (+ instr.)
part
pencil
in(side) (postpos. + gen.; see Lesson VII Voc.)
present (adj. and noun)
market
to answer, reply (+ dat.)
garden
to wait; for (+ dat.); expect; something (+ acc.);
of/from somebody (+ abl.)
to send; something (+ acc.); to somebody
(+ dat.)
to use (+ acc.)

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

22

Bar;kamid ma\re ,at axniw h!


Am;n ,abaj a\z;loum ;m Aniin!
C;m ouxoum a\dpisi dvwar gor6 an;l!
Inco2u ousouzcin22 c;q lsoum!
Nranq mi,t m;q;na\ow ;n yam'ordoum!
Tigrani .anoujiz ;nq galis!
A,ak;rtn;re ambo[= dase matitow hin groum!
:[ba\rn;rizs a\d bane chi spasoum!
^no[n;ris m;q;nan ;m 7gtagor6oum!
"oqrikn;re ;r=anik .a[oum hin drsoum!
Arm;ne Anafitin am;n 7r 6a[ik h ou[arkoum!
Na.entroum ;nq gnazqow yam'ord;l!
A[=ikn;re ,ouka\iz hin galis!
Bvi,ke am;n ,abaj a\z;loum hr fiwandn;rin!
Anii bar;kamn;riz m;kin ;m t;snoum!
>;lazi a,ak;rtn;re farz;r hin talis ousouzcin!
Gnazqe ,a2t arag h gnoum!
A\d dprozi dasarann;re m;6 ;n!
A\s f;,t l;xoun inco2u c;q soworoum!
Anafite namakis ci patas.anoum!
F;5a.osow ;rkar c;m ouxoum .os;l!
Qou\rikis ;rb;mn dram ;m ou[arkoum!
Bar;kamn;rin h spasoum!
A\s m;q;na\i gou\ne siro2um ;s!

Note that a vowel has been deleted in declension.

54
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

23
24

She is sending a letter to her family.


My parents are coming from Yerevan today by plane.
The majority of Yerevans streets are very long.
Those happy children are playing now.
One of my friends is a physician.
Armen is talking to my friend.
They come home from the university every Saturday.
That wealthy man always gives money to the poor.
I visit my friends every evening.
Do you buy your books from that shop?
The students are cleaning the classroom.
The mother is giving23 an apple to the child.
They are going to town by train.
Hayk is sending flowers to Ani.
Are you going to market today?
I was speaking24 to my family on the telephone.
Are those flowers from Anahits garden?
(For) how many hours were you waiting for the doctor?
Are those beautiful girls your sisters?
They do not speak ( osel) that difficult language (instrumental).
He is sending a pen and two pencils to Tigran.
She is always saying (asel) such things.
Where is your new car?
This station is very large.
What is the price of bread now?

tal to give something (+ acc.) to someone (+dat.).


.os;l to speak to (+ gen. + f;t).

Lesson 7
1. Prepositions and postpositions
Most of the words called prepositions in English follow the substantive in
Armenian, so they are usually called postpositions. Prepositions and
postpositions can govern a variety of different cases in Armenian.
Two of the most common prepositions are:
d;pi to(wards)(+ acc.)
a5anz without (+ gen.)

d;pi qa[aq
to(wards) the city
J;\e a5anz ,aqari ;m .moum!
I drink tea without sugar.

Some of the most common postpositions that require the substantive they
modify to be in the genitive case are the following:
masin

about, concerning

ousouzci masin
about the teacher

m;=

in(side)

anui me
in the store

mot

near

ya,arani mot
near the dining hall

wra

on; over

s;[ani wra
on the table

tak

under

ajo5i tak
under the chair

famar

for

6no[n;ris famar
for my parents

f;t

with

Tigrani f;t
with Tigran

Some of the most common postpositions that select the ablative case are:
n;rs

into; within

s;n\akiz n;rs
into/within the room

56
dours

f\ouranoziz dours
outside/out of the hotel

out of; outside

In colloquial speech, the forms n;rse indoors, dourse outdoors are


also heard.
Note that n;rs and dours may be translated as in and out respectively
when used with verbs.
e.g.

gal/gnal n;rs
gal/gnal dours

to come/go in
to come/go out

The Locative case forms for n;rs and dours are used in the sense of
inside/indoors and outside/outdoors respectively:25
:r;.an;re .a[oum ;n n;rsoum!
Nranq spasoum ;n drsoum!

The children are playing indoors


They are waiting outside.

Note that the Locative postposition n;rsoum inside usually governs the
genitive case (unlike n;rs, which governs the ablative):
e.g. s;n\aki n;rsoum

inside the room

Note that compound prepositions are rendered by declined forms of the


postpositions, e.g. takiz from under (literally the Ablative case of tak
under); cf. Lesson 17.
2. Expressions of motion
The use of the various cases for motion to or from a place, or for rest in a place,
is complicated.
a) Motion to a place requires the Accusative case.
(M;nq) :r8an ;nq gnoum!
Nranq m;knoum ;n :r8an!
To2un ;s gnoum!
(Nranq) ;2rb ;n fasnoum Bosjon!

We are going to Yerevan.


They are leaving for Yerevan.
Are you (sg.) going home?
When do they arrive in Boston?

Note that no article is used when the place is unspecified:


<ouka2 ;q gnoum!
25

Are you (pl.) going to the market?

For the declension of postpositions see further Lesson 17.2.

Note also that when aim rather than physical destination is intended the
genitive is used:
Dasi ;m gnoum!
Vo[owi ;m gnoum!
Bv,ki;m gnoum!

I am going to class.
I am going to a meeting.
I am going to the doctor.

b) Motion from a place requires the Ablative case:


Bosjoniz :r8an ;nq m;knoum!
We are leaving Boston for Yerevan.
F\ouranoziz ya,aran ;n gnoum!
They are going from the hotel to the dining hall.
Am;n 7r :r8aniz fing inqnaji5 hr m;knoum Moskwa!
Every day five planes left (used to leave) Yerevan for Moscow.
c) Rest in a place requires the Locative or the Genitive + m;=:
M;nq aproum ;nq Bosjonoum! We live in Boston.
but:
e.g.

at home
tane26
Fa\rd ta2nn27 h!
Is your father at home?
A\o, na fangstanoum h tane!
Yes, he is resting at home.

3. The genitive of complement


In English two nouns may be set in apposition to each other, the first modifying
the second: e.g. cigarette box , teacup, watch factory. In such cases the first
noun is generally put into the genitive case in Armenian:
6.a.oti tou'
j;\i gawaj
vamazou\zi gor6aran

cigarette box
teacup
watch factory

Recall also the discussion in Lesson 6.2.

26

This is the Accusative of toun house, home, which belongs to the inner a- declension. See further Lesson 20.i.
27 Note that the definite article is -n (not -e) before a vowel.

58
Vocabulary
ajo5, -i
anz\al
anz\al 7re
apr;l
a5anz
bnakw;l
Bosjon, -i
gor6aran, -i
gor6iq, -i
d;pi
dours
;r;k
;r;k gi,;r
;rkaj, -i
;rkaj;
;rkir, erkri
jou[j, j[ji
vamazou\z, -i
vo[ow, -i
fagn;l
fagoust, -i
famar
Farward
f;t
f\ouranoz, -i
ya,aran, -i
masin
m;kn;l
miasin
mis, msi
Moskwa, -i
mtn;l
mot(ik)
n;rs
N\ou {orq, -i
,aqar, -i
ort;[iz
5;storan, -i
s;[an, -i

chair
last; past (adj. and noun)
the other day
to live
without (preposition + gen.)
to live, reside, dwell (+ Loc.)
Boston
factory
tool
to(wards) (preposition + acc.)
out of; outside, outdoors (see point 1 above)
yesterday (noun and adj.)
last night
iron (noun; the metal, not the household tool)
iron (adj.), (see point 2 above)
country
paper
clock, watch
meeting
to wear; put on (+ acc.)
clothing, dress, suit
for (postposition + gen.)
Harvard
with (postposition + gen.)
hotel
dining hall, cafeteria
about, concerning (postposition + gen.)
to leave (from) (+ abl.); to depart for (+ acc.)
together
meat
Moscow (the capital of the Russian Federation)
to enter (+ acc.); enter into (+ gen. + m;=)
near, close to (adj. and postposition + gen.)
into; inside, indoors (see point 1 above)
New York
sugar
from where, whence (interrogative and relative)
restaurant
table

s;n\ak, -i
wa[e
wra
tak
tan;l
'a\t, -i
'a\t;
'ost, -i
'ostatoun, -i
'ostow

room (chamber)
tomorrow (adv.)
on, above (postposition +gen.)
under, beneath (postposition + gen.)
to take, carry, bear (+ acc.)
wood
wooden
post, mail, post office
post office
by mail

60
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
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26.

28

^no[n;ris toune dprozi mot h!


Farwardi famalsarani mot 5;storan ka2!
J;\e a5anz ,aqari ;m .moum!
A\s vamazou\ze bar;kamis famar ;m gnoum!
A\d a,ak;rtn;re a5anz grqi ;n dproz gnoum!
Marde a5anz =ri ci aproum!
Ort;2[ ;q bnakwoum! Vamazou\zi gor6arani mot!
J[j;rnou matitn;re s;[ani wra ;n!
A\n m;6 f\ouranoziz ;nq galis!
Bosjonoum qani2 dproz ka!
(D;pi) o2ur ;q gnoum!
A\s dasaranoum tas 'a\t; ajo5 ka!
S;[ani wra ,aqar cka!
:r;k gi,;r o2ur hiq! Tigrani tann hinq!
A\d t[an;re am;n ;r;ko dours ;n gnoum!
Katoun ajo5i takn h!28
Wa[e fa\rs Moskwa\iz Bosjon h m;knoum!
A\s ;rkroum mard29 incp;2s h aproum!
"oqrik ;r;.an ma\rikiz mi bavak =our h .ndroum!
A\s gor6e bar;kamis famar ;m anoum!
A[=ikn;re o2ur ;n tanoum a\d fin fagoustn;re!
>anouji mot 'ostatoun ka!
Mise Tigrani .anoujiz ;m gnoum!
J;\i gawajn;re 'oqr s;[ani wra ;n!
<at zourt h! Inco2u ;r;.an;re n;rs c;n galis!
:r;.a\i fagoustn;re ajo5i wra c;n!

Before forms of the verb em to be many postpositions take -n; see further
Lesson 17.
29 Here used in the generic meaning one.

Translate into Armenian:


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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
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21.
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25.
26.

Yesterday they were talking about the meeting.


Tomorrow I am going to Boston with my friends.
My parents house is near the university.
The pupil is giving the newspaper to the teacher.
We do not eat at the restaurant, we eat at the factorys cafeteria.
My brothers are not going to Yerevan together.
It is very hot inside the factory.
The workmen are making small chairs for the children.
The train arrives at the station tonight.
How many people live in this house?
The students are entering the classroom.
The girls were wearing long dresses.
Every day I go to the city by train.
Do you drink tea without milk?
The cat is in my room, under the chair.
The plane leaves for Boston tomorrow.
Are you going to market today?
The books are on the table.
Armen is making an iron box with my tools.
They were talking about my friend the other day.
Where do your children live? They live in Boston.
Where is the plane from? (Its) from New York.
In that country the poor do not live long.
Where are the boys going (leaving for) today?
The children were playing outdoors, but now they are coming inside.
How many nations are there in the world?

Lesson 8
1. Declension of Personal Pronouns
a) The declension patterns of the personal pronouns are as follows:
Singular

Nom.
Gen.
Dat./Acc.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

1st

2nd

3rd(a)

3rd(b)

;s
im
in]
in](a)niz
in](a)now
in](a)noum
(im m;=)

dou
qo
q;x
q;x(a)niz
q;x(a)now
q;x(a)noum
(qo m;=)

na
nra
nran
nraniz
nranow
nranoum
(nra m;=

inqe
ir
ir;n
ir;niz
ir;now
ir;noum
ir m;=)

1st

2nd

3rd(a)

3rd(b)

m;nq
m;r
m;x
m;x(a)niz
m;x(a)now
m;x(a)noum30
(m;r m;=)

douq
];r
];x
];x(a)niz
];x(a)now
];x(a)noum
(];r m;=)

nranq
nranz
nranz
nranziz
nranzow
nranzoum
(nranz m;=

ir;nq
ir;nz
ir;nz
ir;nziz
ir;nzow
ir;nzoum
ir;nz m;=)

Plural

Nom.
Gen.
Dat./Acc.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

The declension of the demonstratives sa this one, da that one (pl.


sranq these ones, dranq those ones) follows the pattern of na (pl.
nranq) given above.
b) With some prepositions and postpositions, the dative case forms of the 1st
and 2nd person pronouns (both singular and plural) are used instead of the
regular genitive or accusative.
e.g.

30

d;pi in]/q;x
a5anz ];x/m;x

but:

d;pi qa[aq, etc. (acc.)


a5anz ,aqari, etc. (gen.)

These are mainly used in the meaning of in our/your circle, country, etc.

The same is with the postpositions wra, mot, nman, famar, f;t,
which normally require the genitive.
2. Possessive adjectives and pronouns
a) For the possessive adjectives my, your, etc., the genitive case form of the
corresponding personal pronouns I, you, etc., are used in Armenian. Note
that the substantive preceded by these genitives takes the definite article -e/-n,
unlike its English equivalent:
e.g.

nranz katoun
m;r nor toune

their cat
our new house

b) When modifying a singular substantive, the possessive pronouns mine,


ours, yours, etc., are expressed by the genitive case of the personal pronouns,
to which the definite article is added:
1.
2.
3.

Singular
ime, ims
qone, qond
nrane, ir;ne
(also srane, drane)

Plural
m;re
];re
nranze, ir;nze
sranze, dranze)

Note the intrusion of -n- or -;n-between the genitive and the definite article
-e in the 2nd and 3rd singular forms.
The possessive pronouns that refer to plural objects, e.g. imonq those of
mine, qononq those of yours, etc., are formed by removing the definite
article from the forms above and adding the suffix -onq (-nonq after a vowel) in
the 1st and 2nd persons, -n;r in the 3rd person.
1.
2.
3.

Singular
imonq (those of mine)
qononq
ir;nn;re

Plural
m;ronq31(those of ours)
];ronq
ir;nzn;re

Note that srane/drane (pl. sranze/dranze)do not have distinct forms


that refer to plural objects.
c) The possessive pronouns that refer to a singular object (ime, qone,
m;re,etc.)are declined accordingly to the -i declension.
31

The pronouns m;ronq, ];ronq imply a personal meaning of kinship,


membership in a tight-knit group, etc.

64
e.g.

Qo m;q;nan imiz lawn h! Your car is better than mine.


Nranzi gou\ne s8 h!
The color of theirs is black.

The 1st and 2nd person possessive pronouns that refer to plural objects
(imonq, qononq, m;ronq, etc.) are declined just like the personal pronouns
nranq, ir;nq (see point 1a above).
e.g.

imonz, m;ronzow, ];ronziz, qononz,etc.

Declined forms of the 3rd person possessives nrane, ir;nze,


ir;nn;re,etc. are rarely, if ever, found in modern usage. Instead of these, the
declined forms of the appropriate substantives in the possessive (gen. + definite
article) may be used.
Qo kar6iqin c;m karo[fawatal, ba\z Arm;ninin32(nranin)
karo[ ;m!
I cant trust your opinion, but I can (trust) Armens.
M;r gor6arani ya,arane f\ouranoziniz lawn h!
Our factorys cafeteria is betterthan the hotels.
3. The Present and Imperfect Indicative of some common verbs
a) The three common verbs git;nal to know, oun;nal to have and
arv;nal to cost form their present and imperfect indicative by adding the
personal endings directly to the verb stem.
Present Indicative
1sg
2sg
3sg
1pl
2pl
3pl

git;m
oun;m
git;s
oun;s
git;
ouni
(colloq. giti)
git;nq
oun;nq
git;q
oun;q
git;n
oun;n

arv;m
arv;s
arv;
(colloq. arvi)
arv;nq
arv;q
arv;n

Imperfect Indicative

32

The structure of this form is Armen Armen + possessive -in- + dative -i- +
the definite article -.

1sg
2sg
3sg
1pl
2pl
3pl

git;i
git;ir
git;r
git;inq
git;iq
git;in

oun;i
oun;ir
oun;r
oun;inq
oun;iq
oun;in

arv;i
arv;ir
arv;r
arv;inq
arv;iq
arv;in

The personal endings consist of the conjugated forms of the verb to be with
every h replaced by ; (e.g. h is but git; knows; hi I was but arv;i I
cost, hiq we were but oun;iq we had,etc.).
The negative of these verbs is formed by prefixing the particle c- directly to
the positive forms.
e.g.

cgit;nq, coun;ir, carv;in,etc.

b) Note that the verb karo[anal to be able, has in addition to the regular
indicatives (karo[anoum ;m, karo[anoum hir, c;s karo[anoum,etc.) the
forms karo[ ;m,etc., where the auxiliary itself is conjugated. In the negative,
the negated auxiliary c;m, c;s, ci,etc. precedes the participle karo[.
c) Note also that the verb kar6;l to suppose; mean; think maintains some of
its classical forms (in the 1st pers. sing., 2nd pers. sing. and pl. only), with a
special modal meaning: [kar6;m perhaps and kar6;s/kar6;q as if, as
though].
d) The irregular verb kam to exist is conjugated as follows (note that it has no
infinitive form):

1st
2nd
3rd

Present Indicative
Sing.
Pl.
kam
kanq
kas
kaq
ka
kan

Imperfect Indicative
Sing.
Pl.
ka\i ka\inq
ka\ir ka\iq
kar
ka\in

Recall that the 3rd person forms of this verb are also employed as existentials:
ka there is (as in .anoujin mot 'ostatoun ka there is a post office
near the store), kan there are, kar there was, ka\in there were.
As mentioned before, this verb is negated by prefixing the particle c- to the
positive forms, e.g. ckam, cka\inq, ckar,etc.

66
4. Verbs with more than one subject
When a verb has more than one subject, the following principles determine the
person of the verb (the number of the verb is always plural in this situation). If
all of the subjects are in the same person (e.g. you and you, he and she), the
verb is also in that person (e.g. 3rd person he and she selects a 3rd plural verb).
With heterogeneous subjects, if one of the subjects is in the 1st person, the verb
always selects the 1st plural suffix. If the heterogenous subjects are in the 2nd
and 3rd persons, the verb is in the 2nd person.
e.g.

Oc ;s, oc (hl) ;[ba\rs


.n]or c;nq siroum!
Dou 8 na (;rkousd hl)
aproum ;q :r8anoum!

Neither my brother nor I like


apples.
She and you both live in
Yerevan.

Note that the order of persons may be variable; for example, the first example
may also begin Oc ;[ba\rs, oc hl ;s . . .

Vocabulary
an,ou,t
a,.atanq, -i
acq, -i
a5=8
ard\ounq, -i
arf;st, -i
a', -i
baz
bawakan

of course, certainly (literary; colloquial ifark;)


work
eye
before, in front of (postposition + gen.)
result, effect, product
craft, trade; profession (literary)
coast, shore; palm (of the hand)
open
enough, sufficient (adj. and adv.); quite;
considerably
bawakan h
(that) is enough; for (+ gen.+ famar)
ga[a'ar, -i
idea
git;nal
to know (+ acc.)
d;5
still; yet
dimaz
across, opposite, facing (postposition + gen.)
entir
choice (adj.), fine, superb
j;rj, -i
sheet of paper; newspaper (cf. Voc. LessonV)
vo[owourd, vo[owrdi people
li(qe)
full; full of (+ instr.)
lour, -i
news
.ndir, .ndri
matter, problem, question
6anr
heavy; hard, serious (adj. and adv.)
6;r
old (person)
6i6a[;l
to laugh; laugh at (+ gen. + wra)
6ow, -i
sea
6owa', -i
seashore
kamaz (colloq.)
slow(ly); calm(ly), not loud(ly)
Kamaz!
Hush! Be careful!
kamaz-kamaz
so-so; slowly (emphatic)
kar6;l
to think, believe (+ acc.)
karmir
red
karo[anal (kar;nal) to be able (+ Inf.)
karo[ ;m,
I can; I may (colloq.)
karo[anoum ;m
faya.
often
fawatal
to trust, believe; in (+ dat.)
f;5ou
far, distant (adj. and noun.); far from, away from
(postposition + abl.)
mia\n
only

68
nkar, -i
npatak, -i
npatak oun;nal
nst;l
oc . . . oc (hl)
patk;r, -i
waya5;l
za6r
oun;nal
qic
mi qic

picture; painting; photo (colloq.)


purpose, aim, goal
to intend (+ Inf.)
to sit; sit down; sit down on (gen. + wra or dat.)
neither ... nor
image; picture (literary)
to sell (+ acc.); sell to (+ dat.)
low (adj. and adv.); soft(ly), not loud(ly)
to have (+ acc.)
little, somewhat (with both countable and mass
nouns)
a little

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

I2nc git;s a\d a,.atanqi ard\ounqn;ri masin!


An,ou,t karo[ ;q m;x f;t gal!
Fiwand t[an d;5 ci karo[ dasi gnal!
Nra ma\re faya. h a\z;loum m;x!
M;r toune 6owa'iz bawakan f;5ou h!
A\d .anoujoum entir fagoustn;r ;n waya5oum!
Bawakan h! Inco2u ;s 6i6a[oum in] wra!
A\s amis nranz ;[ba\re ci karo[ m;kn;l Moskwa!
Dasaranoum Arm;ne mi,t patoufani mot h nstoum!
Kamaz! C;2s karo[ za6r .os;l!
A\d ;rkroum am;n mard ir arf;stn ouni!
Nra npatakn;re axniw c;n!
A\d qa[aqoum ,at bar;kam oun;i, ba\z a\st;[ qic mardik
;n in] yanacoum!
^;r marde 6anr hr lsoum 8 za6r .osoum!
Ir;nziz d;5 lour coun;nq!
Karo2[ ;m ];x mi farz tal (mi ban farzn;l)!
Nra 'oqr ;[ba\re 7raj;rj h waya5oum 'osti a5=8!
Wa[e das oun;2q!
A\s ;r;ko ousouzicn;re vo[ow oun;n!
:r;.a\i gawaje li h kajow!
A[=ikn;rn ir;nz s;n\akn ;n maqroum!
Im enk;rn;re ];r Tigrani f;t ;n a,.atoum!
;r anoune law c;m fi,oum!
A\d 6;r mardou acq;re law c;n t;snoum!
Na ci karo[ ls;l ];x ir s;n\akiz!

70
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

I am going to their house.


The people in that country do not believe in such ideas.
What do your friends know about this matter?
How many houses are there on your street? Eight.
Can you give me a little money?
Ani is not coming with us this evening.
Do you remember them?
Anahits brother is choosing a car for her.
Theres still no work for them.
That old man does not know (how) to read, but hes very intelligent.
The post office is opposite our store.
The Armenians are quite an old (ancient) people.
The child is sitting on a little red chair.
We have many paintings at our school.
That was not my purpose.
We were expecting a letter from him.
What profession does your friend have?
Can you hear me? No, you are speaking too softly.
They live quite far from us.
Of course you know him, he used to work with you.
Those girls always laugh at their friends.
Why dont you go to that restaurant?
Every day Armen takes his father home from work.
This newspaper writes about the news of the entire world.
Can you take this heavy box to the post office?

Lesson 9
1. The Future Indicative
The future indicative of verbs in Armenian is formed by combining the future
participle (which consists of the infinitive + the suffix -ou) with the conjugated
present forms of the auxiliary verb lin;l be (;m, etc.).
love
1.
2.
3.

sir;lou ;m
sir;lou s
sir;lou h

speak
Singular
.os;lou ;m
.os;lou s
.os;lou h

read

1.
2.
3.

sir;lou ;nq
sir;lou ;q
sir;lou ;n

Plural
.os;lou ;nq
.os;lou ;q
.os;lou ;n

kardalou ;m
kardalou ;s
kardalou h
kardalou ;nq
kardalou ;q
kardalou ;n

Like the present indicative, the negative future is formed by prefixing c- to the
auxiliary verb, followed by the participle:
e.g.

groum ;m I write
gr;lou ;m Ill write

c;m groum I dont write


c;m gr;lou I wont write

The irregular verbs git;nal, oun;nal, arv;nal, karo[anal, gal,


lal, and tal form their future indicative according to the regular pattern, e.g.
git;nalou ;m, karo[analou ;s, arv;nalou ;n, c;nq oun;nalou,
c;qarv;nalou, galou ;m, c;s lalou, talou ;n, etc.
As in English, the future sense is often expressed by the present indicative
rather than the future tense:
e.g.

I will go home tomorrow.


I (am) go(ing) home tomorrow.

Wa[e toun ;m gnalou!


Wa[e toun ;m gnoum!

When will you leave for Yerevan?


When do you leave for Yerevan?

:2rb ;s m;kn;lou :r8an!


:2rb ;s m;knoum :r8an!

2. The Future Indicative in the Past


This is formed in the same way as the future indicative with the corresponding
past forms of the auxiliary (hi, etc.).

72
love
1.
2.
3.

sir;lou hi
sir;lou hir
sir;lou hr

speak
Singular
.os;lou hi
.os;lou hir
.os;lou hr

1.
2.
3.

sir;lou hinq
sir;lou hiq
sir;lou hin

Plural
.os;lou hinq
.os;lou hiq
.os;lou hin

read
kardalou hi
kardalou hir
kardalou hr
kardalou hinq
kardalou hiq
kardalou hin

The negative is formed in a manner parallel to the imperfect indicative, e.g. :


groum hi I was writing
gr;lou hi I was going to write,
I would have written

chi groum I wasnt writing


chi gr;lou I wasnt going to write,
I wouldnt have written

Some examples of usage:


:r;k ;s gnalou hi ;k;[;zi!
Yesterday I was (supposed) to go to the church.
Na ir m;q;nan waya5;lou hr Arm;nin!
He was going to sell his car to Armen.
3. Declension of nouns (part B): the -ou declension
The majority of nouns ending in -i belong to this declension. Except in
colloquial speech, the final -i is deleted before the case endings are added, e.g.:

Nom.
Acc./Gen./Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular33
ordi
ordou
ordouz
ord(i)ow
ordou m;=

Exceptions:

33

Recall that all the distinctions in declension (-i, -ou, etc.) occur in the
singular forms only, declension in the plural being uniform, i.e. according to the
-i pattern: ordin;ri, ]i;row, kirakin;riz, etc.

a) As described in Lesson 6.1, proper nouns (Ani, etc.) and the days of the
week belong to the -i declension, even if they end in -i; e.g. Ani-i Ani-gen.,
kiraki-ow Sunday-instr., etc.
b) In monosyllabic words ending in -i (e.g. ]i horse, ji oar, di corpse)
the root vowel -i is not deleted when the case endings are added: ]iou, ]iouz,
]iow, etc. (not *ju, *ju, *jov).
c) The noun mard man also belongs to the -ou declension. However, its plural
has some peculiarities:
Nom.
Acc./Gen./Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
mard
mardou
mardouz
mardow
mardou m;=

Plural
mardik
mardkanz
mardkanziz
mardkanzow
mardkanz m;= (also mardkanzoum)

4. Expressions of time (part 1)34


Temporal substantives can be used in different cases to express various points in
time, durations, and frequencies.
Points in Time
Nominative, Indefinite
vam hour
7r day
,abaj week
a\s this
amis month
am;n every +
tari

a5awot morning
;r;ko evening
gi,;r night
Also:
a\s7r
;r;k

am;n tari every year


a\s ,abaj this week
etc.

today
yesterday

Nominative, Definite
gi,;re
at night
34

Only a few of these are discussed here. See further Lesson 27.

74
a5awote
wa[e
gi,;rn;re
a5awotn;re
;r;kon;re
kiraki (7re)
,abaj (7re)

in the morning
tomorrow
at night, during the nights
in the morning(s)
in the evenings
on Sunday
on Saturday

But:
a5awot\an in the morning
;r;ko\an
in the evening
(archaic datives of a5awot, ;r;ko)
Dative, Definite
k;s7rin
at noon; in the daytime
k;sgi,;rin
at midnight
a\s vamin
at this hour
o2r vamin
at which hour?
a\s pafin
at this moment
o2r pafin
at which moment?
In order to denote the point in time at which an action begins, the
postposition i w;r beginning from, since (+ ablative) is usually used. Note
that Armenian employs the present tense in this situation, unlike English (cf.
Lesson 14.2). However, i w;r is often omitted.
e.g.

A\d ;r;ko\iz i w;r m;nq nranz toun c;nq gnoum!


We havent gone to their house since that evening.

Duration
Nominative
(mi) ambo[=
a whole, the entire
;r;q, etc.
three

7r(e)
gi,;r(e)
tari(n)
mi ambo[= 7r an entire day
vam
ambo[= gi,;re the whole night
,abaj
;r;q vam (for) 3 hours
amis
etc.
tari

Instrumental35
fing vamow
for five hours
fing 7row
for five days
fing amsow
for five months
fing tarow for five years
Frequency
vame
7re
+
tarin
year
etc.

m;k
vame m;k angam once an hour
;rkou + angam 7re ;rkou angam twice a day
;r;q
tarin ;r;q angam three times a
etc.

etc.

Note that with the numeral m;k/mi one the adverb angam time(s) is usually
omitted.

35

Nouns denoting time (7r, vam, tari, etc.) belong to the -wa declension,
to be discussed in Lesson 27. The instrumental case of these nouns is regular (ow).

76
Vocabulary
a5awot
a5awot\an
glou., gl i
gl.azaw, -i
da5nal
dar, -i
;rb
;r;ko\an
;r;q,abji
;rkou,abji
h,, -i
i w;r
lin;l
kariq, -i
kariq(e) oun;nal
k;sgi,;rin
k;s7rin
kiraki
kow, -i36
faw, -i
fing,abji
]i, -ou
yanaparf, -i
naw, -i
,abaj (7r)
,af, -i
,norfakal lin;l
cor;q,abji
paf, -i
paron, -i
sks;l
stanal
wax;l
36

morning
in the morning (adverbial); morning (adj.)
head
headache (cf. zaw pain)
to become (+ acc.)
century, age
when (interrogative and relative)
in the evening (adv.); evening (adj.)
Tuesday
Monday
donkey, ass (colloq.)
since (time), beginning from (postposition + abl.)
to be
need; necessity
to have (a/the) need, to be in need (of) (+ gen.)
at midnight
at noon
Sunday
cow
chicken
Thursday
horse
road, way
ship, vessel
Saturday
profit; gain; interest
to thank; to be thankful for (+ gen. + famar); to be
thankful to someone (+ abl.)
Wednesday
moment, while
gentleman, sir, Mr.
to begin, start (+ acc.); start with (+ abl.)
to get, receive (+ acc.); receive from (+ abl.)
to run

Note that in Armenian there are no special terms for the meats derived from
animals (cf. English cow beef, chicken poultry, sheep mutton, etc.)
.Word combinations such as kowi mis beef, fawi mis chicken (dish), etc.
are used instead.

wa.;nal
wa[
wastak;l
wiyak, -i
t;[i oun;nal
t;sak, -i
tikin37
t.our
zaw, -i
zankanal
ou,
ourbaj
7gn;l
7rinak, -i
7rinak(i famar)
7riord, -i

37

to be afraid; be afraid of (+ abl.); to fear; be afraid


for someone (+ gen. + famar)
early (adj. and adv.)
to earn (+ acc.)
state, condition; lot
to take place
kind, type, sort
lady, Mrs.; wife
sad (adj. and adv.)
pain (cf. gl.azaw)
to desire, want, wish (+ acc.); want to (+ dat.)
late, tardy (adj. and adv.)
Friday
to help, aid, assist (+ dat.); help with (+ instr.)
example; copy ; example of (+ abl.)
for example
young lady, Miss

This word belongs to the -o= declension; see Lesson 14.

78
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Kiraki wa[ a5awot\an ];x f;t ;k;[;zi ;m gnalou!


:2rb ;n ousouzicn;re sks;lou ir;nz vo[owe!
Am;n ,abaj ir;niz namak ;m stanoum!
"oqrikn;re dproziz toun hin waxoum!
A\d banworn;re bawakan ,at dram ;n wastakoum!
Vo[owe m;r dasaranoum hr t;[i oun;nalou!
Paron Fa\ke ]i h gn;lou ir t[a\i famar!
A\d t[an;riz m;kn h 7gn;lou q;x!
Wa[e douq a,.at;lo2u ;q!
Fing,abji ;r;ko\an miasin gnalou ;nq tikin Anafiti
toun!
:rkar chinq spas;lou nranz!
A\s yanaparfi wra ,at 6a5;r kan!
Wa[n ambo[= 7re xba[wa6 ;nq lin;lou!
Tigrane ir fin m;q;nan in] hr waya5;lou!
A\d t;sak mardkanz kariqe coun;nq!
Bvi,ke i2nc git; nra wiyaki masin!
:rkou tari h ;[ba\rs famalsaran h gnoum!
Qou\rd qani2 xawak (colloq. ;r;.a) ouni! :rkou t[a, mi
a[=ik ouni!
Cor;q,abji (7re) gnazqe ouh fasnoum Bosjon!
Karo[analo2u ;q in] ka\araniz toun tan;l!
:[anake ,at ar8ot h! C;2q zankanoum m;x f;t 6ow gnal!
M;nq ,at ,norfakal ;nq ];x(a)niz!
Fawi mis siro2um ;s!
<at ;m ouxoum nranz toun gnal a\s ;r;ko!
A\d 6anr pafiz i w;r na mi,t t.our h!
T[a\id wiyake law ch, ;2rb ;s bv,ki tan;lou nran!

Translate into Armenian:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

That intelligent young lady is going to be a doctor.


On Monday I will speak to my friend on the telephone.
Will you see your friend (acc.) tomorrow morning?
We were going to sell our house to them.
Many children fear the sea.
When will he arrive in Boston?
Do you need money?
Every morning Armen drinks a full glass of milk.
Where do you buy your clothes (from)?
The meeting will take place in that small room.
What kind (of) work do you want? For example, do you want to work in a
factory?
We make (have) a large profit from our store.
He will speak to his parents about that matter.
I am very busy at the moment.
The children will be playing outside today.
On Tuesday Armen was going to receive money from his parents by mail.
When will you (sg.) be able to visit us?
Both of them will be present at the meeting.
Do you (pl.) often eat chicken (meat) at home?
Early Friday morning the teacher will speak to Ani about her lessons.
Tomorrow I will take flowers to my sick friend. She has been ill for seven
weeks.
In this century people do not travel by donkey or horse.
Of course I will not go to the city without you.
They prefer to travel by ship.
He will send a copy of his book to his parents.
Yesterday evening I had a headache.

Lesson 10
1. The Aorist Indicative (part 1)
Verbs in Armenian have a present stem (the infinitive without the ending -;l/al) and an aorist stem. These may differ in various ways, but in all cases the
endings for the aorist indicative belong to one of two groups:

1.
2.
3.

Group I
Sing.
Pl.
-i
-inq
-ir
-iq
zero
-in

Group II
Sing.
Pl.
-a
-anq
-ar -aq
-aw -an

Here we shall study the largest group of verbs, which forms the aorist stem
by replacing the final -l of the infinitive with -z. The Group I endings are added
to the aorist stem to form the aorist indicative.
a) Verbs in -;l have aorists in -;z:
e.g.
sir;l to love
1.
2.
3.

Sing.
sir;zi
sir;zir
sir;z

Pl.
sir;zinq
sir;ziq
sir;zin

b) Verbs in -al have aorists in -az:


e.g.
kardal to read
1.
2.
3.

Sing.
kardazi
kardazir
kardaz

Pl.
kardazinq
kardaziq
kardazin

Note: Though as;l to say has an infinitive in -;l, it forms its aorist according
to the -al pattern:
1.
2.
3.

Sing.
asazi
asazir
asaz

Pl.
asazinq
asaziq
asazin

However, in colloquial speech the forms as;zi, as;zir,etc. may also be


heard.
The aorist negative is formed by prefixing the negative particle c- to the
positive aorist indicative forms.
e.g.

csir;zi, ckardaziq, casaz,etc.

2. Abstract nouns in -ouj\oun


An unlimited number of abstract nouns can be formed in Armenian by adding
the ending -ouj\oun (related to the English suffix -(a)tion) to a stem. The stems
from which nouns in -ouj\oun are formed are usually either adjectives or verbal
stems, but may also be nouns.
Deadjectival forms:
dvwar difficult
car wicked, evil
axniw honest
y,marit true

dvwarouj\oun difficulty
carouj\oun wickedness, evil (noun)
axnwouj\oun honesty
y,martouj\oun truth

Deverbal forms:
7gn;l to help
patm;l to tell
yam'ord;l to travel
famb;r;l to be patient

7gnouj\oun help (noun)


patmouj\oun story
yam'ordouj\oun trip, journey
famb;rouj\oun patience

Denominal forms:
un dog

nuyun adultery

Such nouns belong to the inner -a- declension, which changes the final -ouof the suffix into -a- (cf. Lesson 21). The -ouj\oun nouns follow the -i
declension in the plural, however. Thus, the noun y,martouj\oun truth
declines as follows:
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.

Singular
y,martouj\oun(e)
y,martouj\oun(e)
y,martouj\an
y,martouj\an(e)
y,martouj\ouniz

Plural
y,martouj\ounn;r(e)
y,martouj\ounn;r(e)
y,martouj\ounn;ri
y,martouj\ounn;ri(n)
y,martouj\ounn;riz

82
Instr.
Loc.

38

y,martouj\amb38
y,martouj\ounoum
(-ouj\an m;= preferable)

y,martouj\ounn;row
y,martouj\ounn;roum

The expected regular instrumental form -ouj\ounow is also common.

Vocabulary
axnwouj\oun, -\an
ank;[6ouj\oun, -\an
an]r8, -i
b;r;l

honesty
sincerity
rain
to bring (+ acc.); bring for (+ dat., or gen. +
famar)
bnakcouj\oun, -\an
population
b[aw;l
to shout; shout at (+ gen. + wra)
bnaw
(not) at all (rather literary)
g;[;zkouj\oun, -\an
beauty
gitouj\oun, -\an
science, knowledge
gr;j;
almost
dvwarouj\oun, -\an
difficulty
;rb;q
never
enk;roufi, -ou
friend (female)
vamanak, -i
time; during (noun and postposition + gen.)
vamanakin
on time; upon a time (adverbial)
;rkar vamanak
for a long time (adverbial)
mi vamanak
once (upon a time)
.nam;l
to take care of, nurse (+ acc.)
faya.;l
to attend, frequent; attend to someone (+ dat.),
attend somewhere (+ acc.)
fay;li
pleasant
famb;rouj\oun, -\an
patience
faskanal
to understand; realize (+ acc.)
f;taqrqir
interesting (adj. and adv.)
(also f;taqrqrakan)
f;t8;l
to follow, pursue (+ dat.)
fska, -i
giant, enormous (adj. and noun)
y\ou[, -i
branch
y,marit
true
y,martouj\oun, -\an truth
,norfiw
thanks to, due to (postposition + gen.)
orowf;t8
because
car
bad, evil, wicked
carayyi
naughty
carouj\oun, -\an
wickedness, evil
patya5
cause; reason
patya5ow
because of, on account of (postposition + gen.)
patm;l
to tell, recount; tell something (+ acc.); tell about

84

patmouj\oun, -\an
patoufan, -i
parx
parxouj\oun, -\an
s.al, -i
qa\l;l
7gnouj\oun, -\an

something (+ gen. + masin); tell to someone


(+ dat.)
story; history
window
simple, plain
simplicity
mistake; wrong(ly) (noun, adj., and adv.)
to walk
help, aid (noun)

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

:r;k ;r;ko\an Tigrane a\z;l;z m;x!


A\s girqe m;6 dvwarouj\amb kardazi!
Ambo[= yanaparfe f;t8;zinq nranz!
Nraniz axnwouj\oun bnaw c;m spasoum!
Am;n a5awot tats nstoum h patoufani a5=8!
Anz\al tari gr;j; cors amis ca,.at;zi!
Fa\ke mi f;taqrqir (f;taqrqrakan) patmouj\oun
patm;z!
Qou\rs bnaw famb;rouj\oun couni!
:[ba\rs oux;z 6.a.ot gn;l, ba\z m;r 'o[ozi .anoujn;re
'ak hin!
A\d marde gitouj\amb 8 gitouj\an famar h aproum!
Am;n mard siroum h nran ir g;[;zkouj\an famar!
:r;q vam spas;zinq m;r bar;kamn;rin!
^;r marde ank;[6ouj\amb .os;z m;r ;rkri
dvwarouj\ounn;ri masin!
Patoufann;rn inco2u 'ak;ziq, n;rse ,at ,og h!
Gnazqe ;2rb m;kn;z Bosjon!
A[=ikn;re mi g;[;zik ;r;ko\an fagoust gn;zin ir;nz
enk;roufou famar!
Inco2u ];r m;q;nan nran cwaya5;ziq!
A\d y,marit patmouj\oune ;2rb ls;ziq! A\s a5awot!
Anafitn ambo[= patmouj\oune patm;z in]!
Anz\al ,abaj bar;kamis ;rkou namak gr;zi!
Kiraki a5awotn;re tikin Anin ir part;xiz 6a[ik h
b;roum m;x!
Anafiti fagoustn;ri parxouj\ounn ;m siroum!
M;r dvwarouj\ounn;ri masin bnaw c;q ouxoum ls;l!
A5awot\an gr;j; fing vam qa\l;zinq! Fima fangstanalou
;nq!
:rkar vamanakiz i w;r enk;roufous ;r;.a\in ;m .namoum,
orowf;t8 enk;roufis 6anr fiwand h!
Famalsarani mot fska mi 'ostatoun ka5ouz;zin!

86
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Did you send copies of your book to your brothers?


I helped my friends yesterday, during the history class.
When did you learn that trade?
He never expects (any) aid from them.
Anis mother bought her a beautiful dress.
Honest men dont believe in such wicked ideas at all.
I sat right in front of her.
He (has) chose(n) this branch of science because he wishes to become a
doctor.
On Saturday they cleaned the classroom windows.
Did you attend school last year?
Why didnt you sell your old books to me?
Anahit took care of her grandfather for seven years.
Because of the rain we will go home by car.
The naughty children did not like their teacher.
Did you visit my parents last night?
I was resting all day yesterday.
They were trying to read, but they were not able to understand the foreign
words.
Dont you remember your mistakes?
I dont like him at all because he is not a pleasant man.
Thank you very much. You helped me considerably.
Our teacher told us an interesting story.
Thanks to their assistance we will be able to attend the university.
The mother was shouting at her little boy because he was not drinking his
milk.
The population of our town is not very great.

Lesson 11
1. The Relative/Interrogative Pronoun
In modern Eastern Armenian the relative/interrogative pronoun or (plural
oronq) which; that, who stands for both persons and things. It is declined as a
substantive, and like other substantives distinguishes between human and nonhuman direct objects. Thus:
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
or
or (non-human)
ori (human)
ori
ori
oriz
orow
oroum (ori m;=)

Plural
oronq
oronq (non-human)
oronz (human)
oronz
oronz
oronziz
oronzow
oronzoum (oronz m;=)

Note that whereas in English the relative pronoun is not always expressed
overtly, it is obligatory in Armenian, and is preceded by a comma.
the girl who loves me
the girl I love
the man you met yesterday
the pen with which I write
my letters
the window from which
you can see the church
the book in which I read...
the children to whom
she is reading a story

(a\n) a[=ike, ore siroum h in]


(a\n) a[=ike, orin ;s siroum ;m
(a\n) marde, orin ;r;k fandip;zir
(a\n) grice, orow namakn;rs ;m groum
(a\n) patoufane, oriz karo[
;s t;sn;l ;k;[;zin
(a\n) girqe, oroum ;s kardazi...
(a\n) ;r;.an;re, oronz (famar) na
patmouj\oun h kardoum

Note the rendering of English whose:


the man whose son I love
our old friends by whose help...
7gnouj\amb...
the students in whose school...

(a\n) marde, ori t[a\in siroum ;m


m;r
fin
bar;kamn;re,
oronz
(a\n) ousano[n;re, oronz dprozoum...

Note also that the interrogative pronoun o2r who? is used attributively; cf.
Lesson 13.1.

88
2. The Imperative of regular verbs
Modern Eastern Armenian has two types of imperative forms, positive and
prohibitive, each of which occurs in both the singular and plural of the second
person. (For the expressions let us X, let them X, etc. the subjunctive forms
are used; cf. Lesson 23.) The singular is based on the present stem (the infinitive
without the ending -;l-/-al), and the plural is based on the aorist stem (the
infinitive with the final -l replaced by -z). Imperatives are marked with the
stress sign .
The imperative forms of regular verbs have the following pattern.
a) for verbs ending in -;l:

Sing.
Pl.

-i#r
-;z;#q

sir;l

.os;l

siri#r
sir;z;#q

.osi#r
.os;z;#q

Note: in colloquial speech the final -r drops in the singular (siri#),and in


the plural the -;z-sequence drops (sir;#q).
b) for verbs ending in -al (also for the verb as;l; cf. Lesson 10.1b):
kardal
Sing.
Pl.

-a#
karda#
-az;#q kardaz;#q

As with the -;l verbs, the -az- can be omitted in the plural in colloquial speech.
The prohibitive forms are preceded by the particle mi# (not oc).
e.g.

mi siri(r)
mi# sir(;z);q
mi# karda
mi# kardaz;q
mi# asa
mi# as(az);q
etc.

dont love (sg.)!


dont love (pl.)!
dont read (sg.)!
dont read (pl.)!
dont say (sg.)!
dont say (pl.)!

Vocabulary
artasan;l
to recite; pronounce (+ acc.)
artasanouj\oun, -\an declamation; pronunciation
bar]ra]a\n
aloud; loud(ly) (adj. and adv.)
bazatr;l
to explain (something (+ acc.)) (to someone (+ dat.))
bazi
except, besides (prep. or postpos. + abl.)
bolor
all (adj.)
bolore, bolorn hl
all the, all of them (substantive)
g;tin, getni
ground, floor, earth
dasa.os, -i
lecturer
xgal
to feel (something (+ acc.))
xrouz;l
to converse (with (+ gen. + f;t))
endoun;l
to receive; admit, accept (+ acc.)
j;j8
light (not heavy); easy (adj. and adv.)
.osakzouj\oun, -\an conversation, talk
.ostanal
to promise (something (+ acc.)) (to someone (+ dat.))
krkin
(once) again
krkn;l
to repeat (+ acc.)
fa\tn;l
to let know, reveal (something (+ acc.)) (to someone
(+ dat.))
fa\tni
evident; well-known, famous
fandip;l
to meet (+ dat.)
fnc;l
to sound; ring
]a\n, -i
voice; sound
];5q, -i
hand
];5q-];5qi
hand in hand
dinner, meal; dish (such as shish kebab; not plate)
ya,, -i
max, -i
hair
minc8
before; till, until; up to (prep. + Nom.)
mi=8
between (postposition + gen.)
na\;l
to look (at (+ dat.))
n;rq8
down(wards) (adv. and postpos. + abl.)
n,anawor
famous, remarkable
nou\n
(the) same
,arounak;l
to continue (+ acc. or infinitive)
or
which (relative/interrogative pronoun)
ca', -i
measure, quantity; as ... as (postpos. + gen.)
ca'axanz
extremely
patrast
ready
patrast;l
to prepare (+ acc.) (for (+ dat. or + gen.+ famar))

90
saka\n
siroun(ik)
sirt, srti
s.alw;l39
w;r(8)
t.rouj\oun, -\an

39

but
pretty (colloq.)
heart
to err, be wrong (in something (+ Loc.))
above; up(wards) (adv. and postpos. + abl.)
sadness

See Lesson 25 for details.

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

40

Krkn;z;q a\n patmouj\oune, ore ;r;k Tigrane patm;z ];x!


A\s .anoujiz gn;zi a\n matitn;re, oronzow fima douq
groum ;q!
A\n marde, ori f;t a,.atoum ;m, ,at bari sirt ouni!
G;tni wra mi# nst;q, ,at sa5n h!
A\n t[an, orin das ;s talis, .;lazi2 h!
Wa[e gn;lou ;m a\n girqe, ori kariqe oun;s!
>ostanoum ;m fin grq;rs q;x tal!
Yanaco2um ;s ;rkar max;row a\d t[a\in!
A\n ;ritasardn;re, oronz f;t .os;zinq, famalsarani
ousano[n;r ;n!
<norfakalouj\oun bolor nranz, oronq 7gn;zin m;x!
Wa[e fandip(;z);#q nran ya,arani a5=8!
;r ;r;.an;re ,at .;lazi, ba\z carayyi ;n!
A\n marde, ore ];r gor6aranoum h a,.atoum, bawakan
dram h wastakoum!
Ousouzice, orin fandip;zinq ;rkou,abji ;r;ko\an, ,at
n,anawor mard h!
S.aln;rs endounoum ;m, douq hl ];r s.aln;rn endoun(;z);#q!
Ya,e d;5 c;2q patrast;l! Nranq fima galou ;n!
Spas(;z);#q m;x minc8 ;r;ko!
Tas angam bazatr;z in] ir t.rouj\an patya5e!
<arounak(;z);#q, m;nq bolors hl lsoum ;nq ];r .osakzouj\oune!
Law sowor(;z);#q ];r das;re!
:ritasardn;re qa\loum hin ];5q-];5qi!
Nranz .osakzouj\an ]a\ne lsoum hi f;5wiz40!
W;r8 mi# gna! Na a\nt;[ ch!
Bazi in]aniz, bolor ousano[n;re s.al artasan;zin a\d
dvwar ba5e!
Drsiz fnc;z nra bar]r ]a\ne!
Arm;nn a\s7r krkin law ci xgoum (ir;n)!

Nom. f;5ou.

92
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

Read these two pages aloud.


The pretty girl who was crying is my sister.
The lecturer you were talking to is one of the famous teachers of our
university.
Did you earn much money last year?
This is the same man who we used to see every day on the train.
The book which I read last night was light but interesting.
The clothes you wanted arent ready yet.
Look at the little boy who is playing outside on the cold ground.
How do you feel today? I feel exceedingly happy.
Repeat to me the ideas you were explaining to your friend at the meeting!
My brother doesnt like the man with whom I used to go to work.
Do you know the girl who was sitting between us at church?
The family we will visit this evening is an Armenian family.
The plane by which my parents are coming is arriving in Yerevan exactly
on time.
Do you know Anis parents? We are now living opposite them.
Tell him the same interesting story you told me last week.
The people in front of whom we were sitting were talking very loudly.
Are those the flowers Armen sent to you yesterday?
Do not sit there!
Did you hear the man who was shouting outside?
Answer my letter! Ive been expecting a letter from you for two weeks.
The man from whom I bought my car is an honest man.
Dont look at her, look at me, Im talking to you.
That road is closed now.

Lesson 12
1. Cardinal Numbers
The cardinal numbers 1-10 were given in Lesson 4. The remaining numbers
from 11 to 1,000,000 and zero are as follows:
0
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

xro
tasnm;k
tasn;rkou
tasn;r;q
tasncors
tasnfing
tasnw;z
tasn\oj
tasnouj
tasnine

20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
1,000
1,000,000

qsan
;r;soun
qa5asoun
fisoun
wajsoun
\ojanasoun
oujsoun
innsoun
far\our
faxar
milion

21
22
23
24
etc.

qsanm;k
qsan;rkou
qsan;r;q
qsancors

Note that for the numbers 11, 14, 15, 16, 17 an unwritten schwa (-e-) is
pronounced after the -sn cluster, e.g. tasn(e)m;k, tasn(e)cors, etc.
Cardinal numbers may be substantivized and declined (according to the -i
declension). :rkou receives a final -s before suffixes (cf. Lesson 6.2b).
e.g. Qsan;rkouse m;6 h ;rkousiz!
Twenty-two is bigger than two.
In derivation and declension the form inn is more usual than ine,
especially before vowels, e.g. inn(e)soun, inniz, innow,etc.; but tasnine,
qsanine, etc.
Compound numbers
112
far\our tasn;rkou
1,525 faxar fing far\our qsanfing
Note that in Armenian one does not say fifteen hundred or fifteen, twentyfive; nor does one say one hundred, one thousand.
In declension only the last component is declined:
e.g. faxar ouj far\our \ojiz from 5,807

94
Note that nouns following numbers are singular, with the exceptions noted
in Lesson 4.3a.
e.g. 5,000 children

fing faxar ;r;.a (not *;r;.an;re)

2. Reduplicated numerals
The repetition of a cardinal number indicates a grouping, mainly in colloquial
speech.
e.g.

;rkou-;rkou
m;k-m;k

two by two, in twos


one by one (in turn)

Ousano[n;re ;rkou-;rkou nst;zin dasaranoum!


The students sat two by twoin the classroom.
M;k-m;k .os(;z);q, asaz ousouzicn ir a,ak;rtn;rin!
Speak in turn (one by one), said the teacher to his pupils.
See further Lesson 18.4.
3. Ordinal Numbers
The ordinal numbers are formed by adding -;rord to the nominative form of
the cardinal numbers. Note that the ordinals first, second, third, and fourth
are irregular, but all other ordinals are regular (including eleventh, twentysecond, and so on):
first
a5a=in
tasna5a=in)
second
;rkrord
third
;rrord
fourth
corrord
fifth
fing;rord
sixth
w;z;rord
seventh
\oj;rord
eighth
ouj;rord
ninth
inn;rord
tenth
tas(n);rord

11th

tasnm;k;rord

12th
13th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
19th
20th
21st
etc.

tasn;rkou;rord
tasn;r;q;rord
tasncors;rord
tasnfing;rord
tasnw;z;rord
tasn\oj;rord
tasnouj;rord
tasninn;rord
qsan;rord
qsanm;k;rord (not qsana5a=in)

All forms not based on cardinal numbers are regular.

(not

qani2;rord

e.g.

how many-eth?

In compound numbers only the last component takes the ordinal suffix:
355th

;r;q far\our fisounfing;rord

Ordinal numbers are declined regularly according to the -i declension.


:s a5a=in gnazqow ;m gnalou, dou` ;rkrord!
Ill go by the first train, you by the second.

e.g.
4. Fractions
half
three and a half

k;s
;r;q ou k;s

Note that forms involving k;s are sometimes written without word breaks, e.g.
;r;qouk;s, m;kouk;s etc.
quarter
seven and a quarter

qa5ord
\oj 8 qa5ord

However, 7 1/4 is \oj (ambo[= integer), m;k qa5ord not*\oj (ambo[=),


corrord,i.e.both the numerator and denominator are read.
For other fractions the ordinals are used:
one third
two-fifths
three-tenths

m;k ;rrord
;rkou fing;rord (N.B. singular!)
;r;q tasn;rord

Note that with expressions such as half of, a third of, part of (mi
mase), the Genitive is usually used rather than the Ablative (cf. Lesson 6).
e.g.

Na waya5;z ir grq;ri(z) k;se!


He sold half of his books.

These fractions are declined in regular fashion. For decimal fractions see
also Lesson 18.
5. Prices
The notion of for in prices is indicated by the instrumental case.

96
e.g.

A\s girqe qsan dramow gn;zi!


I bought this book for twentydrams.
Na in] ;rkou dollarow gric waya5;z!
He sold me a pen for two dollars.

For questions, qaniso2w for how much/many..., the instrumental case of


qani,is used:
e.g.

Qaniso2w gn;zir a\s grice!


How much did you buy this pen for?

But:

>n]ori kilon (kilograme) ;rkou far\our dram h!


Apples are two hundred drams a kilo(gram).

Also:

:r;k cors far\our drami(n) .n]or gn;zi!


Yesterday I bought apples with (the) four hundred drams.

Note also the use of the ending -anoz to render value or an actual
denomination of money.
e.g.

Fing faxar dramanoz mi fagoust gn;zi nra famar!


I bought her a dress worth 5,000 drams.
Qsanfing dramanoz oun;2s!
Do you have a 25 (dram bill)?

6. Use of numbers in expressions of dates


The date in years is expressed with the definite dative form of the noun
jwakan (jiw) number; year, or by the dative of the last number of the date.
e.g.
or:

in 1066

faxar wajsounw;z jwakanin (jwin)


faxar wajsounw;zin

Jwakan (jiw)with the adjectival form of numbers is also used in the


following sense:
oujsounakan jwakann;r (jw;r)
or simply oujsounakann;r the eighties.
For the adjectival form in -akan see further Lesson 18.5.

Note also that expressions such as on the 17th of February are formed
with the definite dative of the numeral and the definite dative of the month, e.g.
amsi ";trwarin tasn\ojin.

98
Vocabulary
Learn the cardinal and ordinal numbers 0 to 1,000,000.
ambo[=
grakanouj\oun, -\an
dolar, -i
jwakan, -i
vaman;l
.osq, -i
kar8or
k;s, -i
kilo(gram), -i
Fa\astan, -i
fark, -i
Farouj\oun <mawon\an
,i,, -i*
5oubli, -ou
w;p, -i
t;[awor;l
tp;l (tpagr;l)
qa5ord, -i

41

integer
literature
dollar
year, date
to arrive (somewhere (+ acc.))
speech; word, phrase
important
half (noun and adj.)
kilo(gram)
Armenia
floor, story; tax
Harutyun Shmavonian41
bottle
ruble (unit of money)
novel
to place, locate (+ acc.)
to print (+ acc.)
quarter; one fourth (fraction)

Editor of the first Armenian newspaper, Azdarar.

Translate into English:


fing - tasncors- ;r;souncors - far\our qsan\oj - faxar
far\our w;z - ;r;q faxar tasnm;k - qsan faxar qsan;rkou ;r;sounine faxar \oj far\our innsounine - far\our faxar fing
- ;rkou far\our faxar tasnfing - cors far\our faxar fing
far\our qsan - cors far\our qsanm;k faxar \oj far\our
wajsouncors - qsanm;k milion w;z far\our \ojanasounfing
faxar cors far\our qa5asounm;k!
2. T[as dasaranoum a5a=inn h!
3. A\s ,i,e qani2 litranoz42h!
4. A\s s;n\akoum karo2[ ;q tasncors fogi t;[awor;l!
5. :rkou far\our qa5asoun\oj fogouz43 far\our qsanfing fogi`
nawow, far\our w;z fogi` 7danawow, 8 wasnw;z fogi hl`
m;q;na\ow vaman;zin!
6. A\s hl qani2;rord angamn h, or nou\n .osq;rn h krknoum!
7. M;r f;5a.osi famarn h` ;r;souncors -qsan\oj- tasnouj!
8. Fing;rord dare ,at kar8or h fa\ grakanouj\an patmouj\an
famar!
9. Kardazi2q ,,Faxar ine far\our oujsouncors,, w;pe!
10 M;k tou' 6.a.ote qani2 dram arv;!
11. Qaniso2w gn;ziq ];r nor m;q;nan!
12. A[=ikn;re cors-cors toun m;kn;zin!
1.

42

Note the same suffix -anoz (point 5 above) with measurements: litr liter
litranoz containing (a) liter; kilo kilogram kilo\anoz
containing (a) kilogram; m;tr meter m;tranoz containing (a) meter;
etc.
43 fogi, gen. hogu.

100
Translate into Armenian:
1.

17; 29; 48; 52; 85; 96; 131; 263; 777; 1,001, 6,908; 8,749; 68,467; 319,526;
123,456,789.
2. 2nd; 3rd; 7th; 11th; 13th; 21st; 1st.
3. He bought his house last year for 25,000 roubles but today it is worth
2,500,000.
4. How many girls are there in your class?
5. They were conversing in groups of three.
6. Our house has two doors, four large rooms on the first floor (loc.), six small
rooms on the second, and sixteen windows.
7. A year has twelve months, fifty-two weeks, and 365 or 366 days.
8. Next year nearly 9000 students will attend Yerevan University, of which
one-tenth will be foreigners.
9. My grandfather lived in the second half of the nineteenth century.
10. Three-quarters of the books in the shop are44 about Armenia.
11. In the market only one shop sells fifty or sixty different kinds of flowers.
12. Harutyun Shmavonian printed the first Armenian newspaper in 1794.

44

Note that the corresponding verb in Armenian may also be singular, provided
that the subjects are referred to as one unit; cf. nranz k;se /mi mase gnaz,
etc.

Lesson 13
1. Interrogative/relative pronouns
a) In Modern Eastern Armenian the interrogative/relative pronouns or which
(one of) and inc what (kind of) can also be used as interrogative adjectives.
e.g.

O2r ousano[n;re n;rka c;n lin;lou wa[e!


Which students will not be present tomorrow?
O2r 6a5iz qa[;zir a\d .n]ore!
Which tree did you pick that apple from?
O2r gricow ;s gr;lou namake!
Which pen will you write the letter with?

When or is employed as an interrogative adjective, the substantive it


modifies must take the definite article.
The pronoun ow who (pl. owq;r) can only represent humans. It is
declined as follows:
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
ow
oum
oum
oum
oumiz
oumow
oum m;=

Plural
owq;r45

Note that the definite article cannot be added to ow.


e.g. O2w h! :s ;m!
Ou2m ;s t;snoum!
Oumi2z gn;zir a\d girqe!

Who is it? It is me.


Whom do you see?
Who did you buy that book
from?
;xaniz o2w (or o2re) spas;z in]! Which (one) of you waited for
me?

45

Note that in the oblique cases the singular forms are used for plural entities as
well. If one wants to stress that the entity is plural, the plural forms of the
pronoun or are used instead; see Lesson 11.1.

102
For non-humans the pronoun inc (pl. inc;r) is used. It is declined as
follows:
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
inc
inci
inci
inc
inciz
incow
incoum (inci m;=)

Plural
inc;r
inc;ri
inc;ri
inc;r
inc;riz
inc;row
inc;roum (inc;ri m;=)

When used as a substantive, inc can be either definite or indefinite:


e.g.

I2nc ;s ouxoum as;l!


What do you mean (want to say)?
Inc;2r;q anoum!
What are you doing?!
I2nce zaw patya5;z q;x! What hurt you?
Inco2w ;s groum!
What do you write with?

However, inc can also function as an interrogative adjective with the


meaning which, what kind of, used with both persons and things.
e.g.

I2nc npatak(n;r) ouni na!


What aim(s) does he have?
I2nc t;sak mard h ];r ousouzice! What kind of person is your
teacher?

Note that, unlike with or, the interrogative adjective inc always requires
the substantive it modifies to be indefinite. Compare, for example:
I2nc grq;r ;s ouxoum! What (kind of) books do you want?
O2r grq;rn entr;zir! Which (ones of the) books did you choose?
b) The pronouns ow and inc when undeclined may also introduce subordinate
clauses (optionally followed by or in formal speech; cf. Lesson 11.1 for the
pronoun or.)
e.g.

Am;n mard, ow (or) galis ha\st;[, im bar;kamn h!


Every one who comes here is my friend.
(A\n), ince (or) patm;zi, ,at kar8or h!
What (that thing which) I told is veryimportant.

2. Object clauses
Subordinate object clauses in modern Eastern Armenian are introduced by the
particles j; or more usually or, which is undeclined (cf. Lesson 11.1). The
particle cannot be omittedas that often is in Englishand is preceded by a
comma.
e.g.

(:s) git;m, or yi,t ;s!


Dou asoum ;s, or na s.al h!

I know that you are right.


You say he is wrong.

The tense in the subordinate clause is generally that of the original


statement.
Thus: (Na) gr;z.,,Galou ;m,,!
He wrote: I shall come.
in indirect speech becomes:
Gr;z, or galou h!
He wrote (that) he would come.
If the object clause is interrogative, the particle j; rather than or is used in
addition to the interrogative word. It should be noted that in indirect questions
j; is usually followed by ard\oq whether, perhaps.
:s ouxoum ;m imanal, j; ard\oq ;rb ;n vaman;lou nranq!
I want to know when theywill arrive.

e.g.

Git;2q, j; (ard\oq) our ;nq gnoum!


Do you know where we are going?
:s cgit;m, j; ow a\dqan'o[ ouni!
I do not know who has that much money.
3. Or in interrogative clauses
In interrogative sentences the same particle j; (not kam) is used to render or,
and takes the interrogative marker 2 .
e.g.

Grico2w ;q gr;lou, j;2 matitow!


Will you write with a pen or with a pencil?

Note that along with kam ... kam either ... or we have also j;# ... j;#
both ... and (usually with stress signs).

104
Compare:
Kam gini ;nq .m;lou, kam` gar;=our!
Well drink either wine or beer.
>m;lou ;nq j;# gini,(8) j;#gar;=our!
We shall drink both wine and beer.

Vocabulary
a\dqan46
a\nqan
a\sqan
a=, -i
a5a=
ardi
ard\oq
banak, -i
gz;l
dasa.osouj\oun, -\an
;rg, -i
;rg;l
;rgic, ;rgci
;rgcoufi, -ou
xangafar;l
(colloq. xang;l/xang tal)
xinwor, -i
xorawar, -i
enjazq, -i
enjazqoum
j;
j,nami, -ou
jwal
... jwoum h, j;
jou\latr;l (colloq. jou\l tal)
incqan (orqan)
ka.;l
katar;l
k\anq, -i
ko[m, -i
mi ko[miz...(m\ous) ko[miz
Fakob\an
fogn;l
framan, -i
fou\s, -i
fou\s oun;nal
fousal
46

so (much), that (much)


so (much), that (much)
so (much), this (much)
right (not left) (adj. and noun)
ago; before (postpos. + Abl)
modern
whether (often preceded by j;)
army
to drop (+ acc.)
lecture
song
to sing (+ acc.)
singer (male)
singer (female)
to telephone, call (on the phone) (+ dat.)
soldier
general, military leader
course, process
during, in the course of (postpos. + gen.)
that; whether; or
enemy (adj. and noun)
seem; look, appear
...it seems to (+ dat.), that ...
to allow, let somebody (+ dat. + Inf.)
how much; how many (rel./int.)
to hang, suspend (+ acc.)
to perform, carry out, execute (+ acc.)
life
side; direction; area, region (when in pl.)
on the one hand...on the other hand
Hakopian (an Armenian last name)
to get tired; of (+ abl.)
order, command
hope
to hope; hope for something (+ gen.)
to hope (used mostly in the infinitive)

In colloquial speech the forms hdqan, hnqan, hsqan are very common.

106
fousam
]a., -i
na.
,outow
ow
pat, -i
pat;raxm, -i
patya5;l
spa, -i
span;l
t;[, -i
zaw;l
oura.ouj\oun, -\an
'ntr;l
qa[;l
qa=ouj\oun, -\an

I hope
left (not right) (adj. and noun)
first, first of all (adv.)
soon
who
wall
war
to cause (something (+ acc.)) (to someone (+
dat.))
military officer
to kill (+ acc.)
place, location; site; seat
to be sorry (for (+ gen. + famar))
joy, happiness
to look for, search (+ acc.)
to pick (+ acc.)
courage

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

<at g;[;zik ]a\n h! O2w h ;rgice!


In] jwoum h, or (also jh) douq a\s t;sak ya,;r c;q siroum!
I2nc npatakow ;s talis a\d farz;re!
Paron Fa\k Fakob\ane dasa.osouj\oun h kardalou ardi fa\
grakanouj\an masin!
O2um f;t ;q ;k;[;zi gnalou!
O2um masin ;q a\dqan mta6oum!
Cgit;2s, j; ort;[ ;n t;[awor;lou banake!
A\d nkare inco2w ka.;zir patiz!
A,ak;rte g;tin gz;z ir matite!
Ani#, o2um part;xiz qa[;zir a\d siroun 6a[ikn;re!
Mi# kar6ir, j; mia\n qo k\anqn h li dvwarouj\ounn;row!
Nranziz o2rn h bvi,ke! Na, or s;n\aki ]a. ko[moum h fima!
Fousam (fou\s oun;m), or enk;rs ,outow a\z;l;lou h in]!
A5anz drami incp;2s ;s apr;lou!
Pat;raxmi enjazqoum span;re qa=ouj\amb katar;zin
ir;nz xorawari framann;re!
Ou2m ;s xang(afar)oum!
Tigrane oumi2z gn;z a\d ajo5n;re!
I2nc m;q;na\ow ;nq gnalou! ^no[n;ris m;q;na\ow!
;r ma\rn inco2w h xba[wa6 a\s7r!
O2um ;s spasoum am;n a5awot, dprozi a5=8!
O2ur hir mi vam a5a=!
;r namake m;6 oura.ouj\oun patya5;z in]!
A\s gi,;r t;[ gnalo2u ;q!

108
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.

The teacher allowed him to come with us.


What type of literature do you prefer to read?
Whose class are you from?
What are you going to open the window with?
With whom does your father work?
What do you think about this idea?
During the war the enemy army killed 1,036 of our soldiers.
On which side of the room does grandmother sit? On the right hand side
or the left?
With whose help did you prepare your lesson?
Who are these children you are taking care of?
Which of these students attend Harvard University?
He says that you were wrong, but I do not believe him.
You are hanging the picture incorrectly.
I think that your pupils are all very clever.
In whose room will the meeting take place?
Who are you looking for? Im looking for my little boy.
You are so pretty in that picture.
Sing a song for me. You have such a pleasant voice. Which (ones of the;
kind of) songs do you want to hear?
To whom are you writing your letter?
What did you make this box out of?
To whom is Armen speaking?
The young soldiers got tired very soon.
I am very sorry that you are not able to help us.

Lesson 14
1. The Perfect and Pluperfect
The perfect and pluperfect tenses of verbs in -al are formed by adding -;l to the
aorist stem (thus forming the past participle) plus the present or imperfect tenses
of the verb to be respectively. Thus, for the verbs kardal read and gnal
go the following paradigms are formed:
1.
Sg. 2.
3.
1.
Pl. 2.
3.

Perfect
kardaz;l ;m gnaz;l ;m
kardaz;l ;s gnaz;l ;s
kardaz;l h
gnaz;l h
kardaz;l ;nq gnaz;l ;nq
kardaz;l ;q gnaz;l ;q
kardaz;l ;n gnaz;l ;n

Pluperfect
kardaz;l hi gnaz;l hi
kardaz;l hir gnaz;l hir
kardaz;l hr gnaz;l hr
kardaz;l hinqgnaz;l hinq
kardaz;l hiq gnaz;l hiq
kardaz;l hin gnaz;l hin

The past participle of -;l verbs is identical to their infinitive. Thus, the
perfect and pluperfect tenses of sir;l love and .os;l speak are as follows:
1.
Sg. 2.
3.
1.
Pl. 2.
3.

Perfect
sir;l ;m
sir;l ;s
sir;l h
sir;l ;nq
sir;l ;q
sir;l ;n

.os;l ;m
.os;l ;s
.os;l h
.os;l ;nq
.os;l ;q
.os;l ;n

Pluperfect
sir;l hi
sir;l hir
sir;l hr
sir;l hinq
sir;l hiq
sir;l hin

.os;l hi
.os;l hir
.os;l hr
.os;l hinq
.os;l hiq
.os;l hin

2. The Perfect and Pluperfect Negative


The negatives are formed from the corresponding positives in the same way as
the indicative tense forms: c;m sir;l, chir kardaz;l, c;q .os;l, chin
gnaz;l,etc.
e.g.

A\s girqe kardaz;2l ;s!


Have you read this book?
Nranq ;rb8h c;n a\z;l;l :r8an!
They have never visited Yerevan.
:rb enk;ro=d fandip;zi, na ard;n na.aya,;l hr!
When I met your friend he had already had breakfast.

110
Ousano[n;re chin karo[anoum patas.an;l farz;rin,
orowf;t8 nranq chin kardaz;l ir;nz grq;re!
The students could not answer the questions because they had not read
their books.
Note that when the English perfect expresses a continuous state that still
holds in the present, Armenian employs the present indicative (cf. Lesson 9.3).
e.g.

Qani2 tari ;q a\st;[ bnakwoum!


How long (how many years) have you been here?

But:

Qani2 angam ;s 6no[n;rid f;t .os;l w;r=;rs!


How often have you spoken to your parents lately?

3. Some kinship terms


Armenian nouns expressing kinship relations generally belong to two special
declensions:
i) the inner -o- declension,
ii) the -o=- declension.
a) Only the words fa\r father, ma\r mother, and ;[ba\r brother belong
to the inner -o- declension, which is so called because it changes the diphthong
a\ into o in all cases other than the nominative.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

fa\r
for
for
for
foriz
forow
for m;=

ma\r
mor
mor
mor
moriz
morow
mor m;=

;[ba\r
;[bor
;[bor
;[bor
;[boriz
;[borow
;[bor m;=

b) To the -o=-declension belong such nouns of kinship as kin wife; woman,


tikin wife; Mrs., qou\r sister, sk;sour husbands mother, tagr
husbands brother, tal husbands sister, an;r wifes father. (The words
xoqanc wifes mother and sk;sra\r husbands father belong to the
regular -i declension.) It should be noted that in colloquial speech the words
sk;sour, tagr, tal, an;r are also declined regularly.
Nouns of the -o= declension are declined as follows:

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

kin
kno=
kno=
kno=
kno=iz
kno=ow
kno= m;=

qou\r
qro=
qro=
qro=
qro=iz
qro=ow
qro= m;=

an;r
an;ro=
an;ro=
an;ro=
an;ro=iz
an;ro=ow
an;ro= m;=

Note the vowel reduction in the declined cases of the words kin (kno=, etc.),
qou\r (qro=, etc.); also sk;sour (sk;sro=), tikin (tikno=, etc.).
The words t;r lord; owner and enk;r friend, companion; comrade
also belong to the -o=- declension; the Genitive of t;r for example is tiro=.
Furthermore, compounds in which the above-mentioned words are the last
component belong to the corresponding declension patterns:
for;[ba\r fathers brother
moraqou\r mothers sister
foraqou\r fathers sister
Tirama\r the Virgin Mary
bavn;t;r shareholder
gor6enk;r colleague
etc.

for;[bor
moraqro=
foraqro=
Tiramor
bavn;tiro=
gor6enk;ro=

Note that q;5i, -ou is usually used for mothers brother; mor;[ba\r is
rather literary.
Kinship terms follow the same rules of plural selection as other nouns (i.e.
monosyllables select the -;r plural and polysyllables select -n;r), and follow
the -i declension in the plural. The only exceptions are kin (plural kana\q)
and tikin (plural tikna\q), though the regular plurals tikinn;r,
tikinn;ri, etc. are also used.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

kana\q
kananz
kananz
kananz
kananziz
kananzow
kananz m;=

tikna\q
tiknanz
tiknanz
tiknanz
tiknanziz
tiknanzow
tiknanz m;=

The classical plurals t;arq gentlemen (from t;r) and tikna\q


ladies are used in formal address.

112
4. The declension of ser love
The word s;r love is declined irregularly in the singular, where the -;becomes -i- in all cases but the nominative and accusative.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

s;r
s;r, siroun
siro
siroun
sirouz
sirow
siro m;=

The instrumental sirow with love, with pleasure is mostly used


adverbially.
e.g.

Ouxo2um ;s t;sn;l im nkare!


A\o, sirow!

Do you want to see my photo?


Yes, with love (pleasure).

Vocabulary
axgakan, -i
a.orvak, -i
amousin, amusnu
an;r, -o=
anko[in, anko nu(also-i)
ard;n
bar8;l
gradaran, -i
drouj\oun, -\an
;njadr;l
;r8al
(incp;s) ;r8oum h . . .
;rb8h
enjriq, -i
enjr;l
jatron, -i
lou5
.a[, -i
6a.s, -i
kaxmak;rpouj\oun, -\an
kin, kno
f;6aniw, hecanvi
for;[ba\r, hore bor
masnakz;l
mnal
moraqou\r, mora ro
mtafogouj\oun, -\an
na.aya,, -i
na.aya,;l
oro,;l
paf;l
pa[pa[ak, -i
patkan;l
s;r, siro
sir;li
sk;sra\r, -i
sk;sour, skesro
w;r=;rs

relative (noun)
appetite
husband
wifes father (father-in-law)
bed
already
to greet, salute (+ dat.)
library
situation, state
to suppose, assume (+ acc.)
to appear, seem; emerge
(as) it seems
ever (usually with negative perfects); at any time
supper
to have supper
theater
silent
game, play
expenses
organization
woman; wife
bicycle
uncle (paternal)
to take part, participate (in (+ dat.))
to remain; stay
aunt (maternal)
worry, concern (noun)
breakfast
to have breakfast
to decide, determine (+ acc.)
to keep (+ acc.)
ice cream
to belong (to (+ dat.))
love (see point 4 above)
dear, beloved
husbands father (father-in-law)
husbands mother (mother-in-law)
lately

114
w;r=in
wyar;l
tagr, -o=tal, -o=t;r, tiro=
zankouj\oun, -\an
zouzarar, -i
qani (d;5)
qani or
q;5i, -ou
(literary mor;[ba\r,-o-)

last, final
to pay (+ acc.) (to (+ dat.))
husbands brother (brother-in-law)
husbands sister
master, lord; owner; Mr.(only in conjunction
with tikin Mrs.)
wish; desire
demonstrator
as long as
since
uncle (maternal)

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
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23.

Amousins ir mor famar mi nor toun h gn;l!


M;nq ard;n oro,;l hinq jatron gnal a\s ;r;ko!
A\s t;sak .a[i masnakz;2l ;s w;r=;rs!
A\dpisi .osq;r ;rb8h chi ls;l!
Ousano[e chr karo[anoum faskanal dasa.osouj\oune,
qani or chr masnakz;l das;rin!
Na ,at h gr;l fa\ vo[owrdi n;rka drouj\an masin!
Kar6oum hi, j; nranq m;kn;l hin ard;n N\ou {orqiz! Ba\z
;r;k ls;zi, or ;rkou ,abaj d;5 a\nt;[ ;n mnalou!
Qani or d;5 c;q na.aya,;l, m;x spas(;z);q!
:rkou vamiz i w;r sk;sro=s (also sk;souris) ;m 'ntroum a\s
,ouka\oum!
Inco2u anko[ins c;q patrast;l minc8 fima!
Arm;nn ir 'oqr ;[bor famar mi f;6aniw h b;r;l Bosjoniz!
Zawoum ;nq, or ;rkar ;q spas;l m;x!
Ir mtafogouj\an patya5ow a.orvak couni 8 oc mi ban ci
ouxoum out;l!
:2rb ;s w;r=in angam fandip;l Anafitin! W;r=;rs,
gradaranoum!
Bolor 6a.s;re wyar;z Arm;ni an;ro= ;[ba\re!
Mi vamanak fawatoum hi nra ga[a'arn;rin!
A\s g;[;zik nkare inco2u c;q ka.;l patiz!
Talo=s a[=ike, orin ;rkou ,abaj .nam;zi, wa[e toun h
m;kn;lou!
Oro,;2l ;s ard;n, j; or famalsarann ;s faya.;lou!
:r;.an inco2u ci .m;l ir kaje!
A\d lou5 zouzararn;re o2r kaxmak;rpouj\ann ;n
patkanoum!
Sir;lis, i2nc zankouj\ounn;r oun;s!
O2w h a\s m;q;na\i t;re! Inco2u ;q lou5! Patas.an(;z);#q!

116
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
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6.
7.
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24.

Hayk had already spoken to me about the same matter.


Have you ever heard her voice?
Armen has explained the entire situation to you, hasnt he?
I have never traveled by train.
Have you decided what you are going to prepare for supper?
Anahit has already sent three letters to her sister this week.
It seems that they had never heard such an interesting story.
I suppose your father is going to pay for this bicycle.
That student wont be able to prepare his lessons this evening because he
has left his books at his brothers house.
Anahit has chosen a beautiful dress for her mother-in-law.
We are very tired (perf.). We hope we can go soon.
She had never worked before her husbands death.
When you greeted us, we were coming from the theater.
They have closed the schools today.
I havent yet read the newspaper.
He had written to my parents about his wifes condition.
I hear theyve built a new library on your street.
The young man repeated to (for) his father the story which his friend had
told him.
I am sure they have made a mistake.
His uncle (maternal) has a wish to remain in our organization.
In our letter we have answered all your questions.
How many times have you visited New York? I have visited New York
only once or twice in my life.
Why havent you sent us the book we had requested?
She has always helped her sister-in-law.

Lesson 15
1. Comparison
In order to form the comparative degree of adjectives in Armenian, the adverb
aw;li more is employed with simple adjectives:
e.g.

law good

aw;li law better

The superlative degree can be expressed by a number of different


constructions.
a. The object of comparison may be put into the ablative (if it is a substantive
other than the subject), or into the nominative preceded by qan (j;)than.
e.g.

I am weaker than you.


It is better to work than to play.

:s q;x(a)niz aw;li jou\l ;m!


(or q;x(a)niz jou\l ;m)
Aw;li law h a,.at;l, qan (j;)
.a[al!

If the comparison refers to the subject of the clause, only the second
construction is possible:
e.g.

Food was cheaper then than now.

A\n vamanak snounde aw;li


hvan hr, qan (j;) fima!

b. The superlative is generally introduced by the prefix am;na- most or the


suffix -agou\n -est added to the simple adjective. Note that in Armenian all
qualitative adjectives may take either am;na- or -agou\n, but never both at the
same time. Thus, am;nalaw or lawagou\n are both legitimate forms meaning
the best, but *am;nalawagou\n is not acceptable.
The superlative may sometimes be expressed by the form am;niz of all
plus the simple adjective.
That was the best plan (of all).
Da am;nalaw ga[a'arn hr!
Which is his best book?
O2rn h nra lawagou\n girqe!
She is the prettiest (of all) in the class. Na
dasarani
am;nizsirounn h!
Note that the adverbs ,at and .ist, both meaning very, are not strictly
superlative.
In general, Armenian reverses such English expressions as less (intelligent)
than, the least (intelligent) of literally.

118
He is less intelligent than his sister His sister is more intelligent than he
This is the least expensive dress in the shop This is the cheapest dress in
the shop
However, the comparative adverbial phrases aw;li pakas and aw;li
qic, each meaning less, and the superlative am;naqic least, fewest also
occur.
e.g.

Na (aw;li) pakas .;lazi h, qan ir qou\re!


He is less intelligent than his sister.
A\s kaxmak;rpouj\oune aw;li qic fa\tni h, qan m;re!
This organization is less famous than ours.

The expression as ... as is rendered with ca' degree (also more


colloquially with nman like) plus the genitive of the substantive (the dative is
used with personal pronouns).
e.g.

I am not as clever as he/ Armen is.


Your daughter is as beautiful as you.

:s nra/Arm;ni ca' .;lazi


c;m!
A[=ikd q;x nman g;[;zik h!

2. Indefinite pronouns
The pronoun m;ke (derived from the numeral 1) corresponds to English
someone, somebody in positive contexts and to anyone, anybody in
interrogative and negative contexts. In the plural, declined forms of omanq, the
plural of omn someone; a certain, are used.
These pronouns are declined as follows:
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
m;ke
m;ki
m;ki
m;ki
m;kiz
m;kow
m;koum (m;ki m;=)

Plural
omanq
omanz
omanz
omanz
omanziz
omanzow
omanzoum (omanz m;=)

The forms m;ks one of us and m;kd one of you are also found in all of the
declensional cases. The suffixes -s and -d are added to the declined forms:
m;kizs, m;kowd, etc.

Note that in the singular omn is used only in the nominative:


e.g.

Q;x xangafar;z omn Fa\k! Someone called Hayk phoned you.

Indefinite non-human objects are expressed by forms such as mi ban,


or8h ban, inc or ban, all meaningsomething/anything and declined
regularly (cf. point 5 below).
3. Negative pronouns
The human negative pronouns are oc oq (declined regularly) and oc m;ke
(declined as above), each meaning no one.
The non-human negative pronouns are ocinc (gen. ocnci, etc.) and oc mi
ban (declined regularly), each meaning nothing.
4. Indefinite adjectives
The indefinite adjectives or8h and inc-or both mean some/any, somewhat
and can refer to humans or non-humans.
5. Indefinite pronouns
Combining these adjectives with m;ke one and ban thing produces the
following indefinite pronouns:
someone/anyone
something/anything
e.g.

inc-or m;ke
or8h m;ke (the last component declined as above)
inc-or ban
or8h ban (the last component declined regularly)

Or8h m;kin or8h ban mi# patmir!


Do not tell anything to anyone.
Inc-or m;ke inc-or ban hr .ndroum!
Someone was asking for something.

120
Vocabulary
am;naam;niz
anzkazn;l
anzn;l
a5an]in
aw;li
gof
gof lin;l/mnal
dvgof
dvgof lin;l/mnal
;rax, -i
hvan
jarm
j;r8s
jou\l
inc-or
.ab;l
6ragir, cragri
(pl. 6ragr;r)
katar\al
karci , -i
karo[

most (superlative prefix)


most (of all) (superlative adverb)
to spend; to pass (+ acc.)
to pass, cross (+ acc.)
alone; separate(ly) (adj. and adv.)
more
satisfied
to be/get satisfied (by (+ abl.))
dissatisfied
to be/get dissatisfied (by (+ abl.))
dream
cheap
fresh
perhaps
weak; less capable
some (any), somewhat
to trick, deceive (+ acc.; the object must be human)
plan, project

perfect
opinion
able, capable (mostly predicative; cf. Vocabulary:
Lesson 8)
karo[ lin;l
to be able
fa\r;niq, -i
homeland, country
quiet, comfortable (adj. and adv.); rest (noun)
fangist, hangsti
(also archaic gen. fangst\an)
fankar6(aki)
suddenly
fiwandouj\oun, -\an
illness
m;ke
someone/anyone
m\ous, -i
other, another (adj. and noun)
nman
like, alike (+ dat.); (also in as ... as expressions +
gen.; see point 1 above)
nman lin;l
to look (a)like, resemble (+ dat.)
n,anak;l
to mean, signify; appoint (+ acc.)
omn
a certain, someone (see point 2 above)
ocinc, oni
nothing
oc oq, -i
no one, nobody
or8h
any (some), somewhat

(aw;li) pakas/
aw;li qic
patas.an, -i
snound, snndi
sout, sti
qan

less (see point 1 above)


answer, reply
nutrition, food
false, untrue (adj. and adv.); lie (noun)
than

122
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5.
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7.
8.
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10
11.
12.
13.
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16.
17.
18.
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20.
21.
22.
23.

47

Oc oq katar\al ch!
A\s gor6e m\ousiz aw;li kar8or h!
Im kar6iqow nranz 6ragire am;nalawn h!
M;ke jarm 6a[ikn;r h ou[ark;l Anafitin!
,,Pat;raxm 8 .a[a[ouj\oune,, am;naf;taqrqir girqn h,
or kardaz;l ;m!
Da Bosjoni am;nabar]r ,;nqn h !
Inc-or m;kiz ls;zinq, j; dou 6anr fiwand ;s! Oura. ;nq, or
loure yi,t ch!
N;rsoum drsiz zourt h!
Or8h m;ki f;t .os;2l ;s m;r w;r=in 6ragr;ri masin!
M;x famar w;r=in das;re a5a=inn;riz aw;li f;,t ;n!
Paron Fakob\ani toune m;r qa[aqi am;nam;6 tounn h!
;r kar6iqow Arm;nn aw;li .;lazi2 h ir qro=iz!
Aw;li kar8or h lin;l .;lazi, qan (j;) faroust!
Nranziz oc m;kin c;m fawatoum47!
Ma\rs ir am;niz fin fagoustn;re a[qatn;rin h talis!
Omanq ouxoum ;n ir;nz ambo[= k\anqe a5an]in anzkazn;l!
Omanq ;raxn;rin fawatoum ;n, omanq hl c;n fawatoum!
C;m faskanoum, j; (ard\oq) incou ir fiwandouj\an masin oc
mi ban ci as;l in]!
Am;n ,abaj a5awot\an tikin Anafite 7gnoum h
am;najou\l a,ak;rtn;rin!
A\d t;sak bani famar a\sqan dram carv; wyar;l!
<at a[qatn;r c;n karo[ sowor;l famalsaranoum!
M;r ousouzice ;rb8h ci .aboum or8h m;kis!
A\s girqe inco2w h nman m\ousin!

Note that Armenian, like most languages (but not English), employs double
negation, as distinct from English. Cf. oc m;kin c;m fawatoum! I dont trust
anyone.

Translate into Armenian:


1.
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7.
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The story which Tigran told us was the most interesting of all.
He speaks our language better now than he did a year ago.
Perhaps you are wealthier than your brother, but that does not mean
that you are as intelligent as he is.
You cant ask him for anything.
The baby is more quiet here than in your room.
I want to do something for someone.
Which is the latest of Mr. Hayks books?
I am not very satisfied with your answers.
Who is your dearest friend?
Some deceive their friends more easily than (they do) strangers.
Just at that moment someone shouted that the enemy was coming.
Is Ani older (m;6) than you? No, I am two years (;rkou tarow)older
than she is.
Armen has heard from someone that one of our countrys most famous
doctors will visit our school.
Your oldest boy looks exactly like his father.
Tigrans father is always talking about his children.
Perhaps your brothers plan is the best of all.
My friend walks much (,at aw;li)faster than I do.
When was the last time I saw you?
It seems that their train will arrive very late this evening.
At the meeting all the young people were talking about their countrys
difficulties.

Lesson 16
1. The Aorist Indicative (part 2): Irregular verbs, A
As noted in Lesson 10, the great majority of verbs in Armenian form their aorist
stem by replacing their final -l with -z, as in sir;l aorist stem sir;z;
kardalkardaz. Besides this regular process, there exist several irregular
morphological patterns. Seven general categories may be distinguished:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Verbs with an -n- suffix in the present stem which drops in the aorist (all of
these verbs belong to the -;l conjugation).
Verbs with an -an- suffix in the present stem; this -n- is replaced by -z in
the aorist (all of these verbs belong to the -al conjugation).
Verbs with the suffix -;n- in the present stem; this -n- is replaced by -z in
the aorist (all of these verbs belong to the -al conjugation).
Verbs with the suffix -c- in the present stem which drops in the aorist (all of
these verbs belong to the -;l conjugation).
Verbs with the suffix -zn- (also -azn-,-;zn-) in the present stem; the -n- is
replaced by -r- (all of these verbs belong to the -;l conjugation).
Irregular verbs that follow no general pattern.
Verbs which use different roots for the present and the aorist stems.

In this lesson we deal with categories 1 and 7; the remainder are discussed
in Lesson 19.
1. Category 1 verbs form the aorist with the group 2 endings -a,-ar,-aw,anq,-aq,-an. For example, the paradigm of i=n;l to descend is as follows:
1
2
3

Singular
i=a
i=ar
i=aw

Plural
i=anq
i=aq
i=an

Some other verbs belonging to this category are:


a5n;l
to buy (colloq.); take
anzn;l
to pass; cross
gtn;l
to find
enkn;l
to fall
f;6n;l
to mount (a horse)
fagn;l
to wear
fasn;l
to get; arrive
m;5n;l
to die

mtn;l
t;sn;l

to enter
to see

Though the -n- in jo[n;l to let; abandon drops in the aorist, it belongs to the
regular -;l conjugation; thus: jo[;zi, jo[;zir, jo[;z, jo[;zinq,
jo[;ziq, jo[;zin.
Note that -n- is sometimes part of the verb root, rather than a suffix, and
therefore does not delete in the aorist. For example:
fogn;l to get tired
kangn;l to stop; stand

fogn;zi, fogn;ziq, fogn;zin,etc.


kangn;zi, kangn;ziq,etc.

7. Some important verbs of class 7 are:


gal to come
lin;l to be
out;l to eat

:
:
:

aorist stem ;kaorist stem ;[aorist stem k;r-

These verbs also use the group 2 endings -a,-ar,-aw, etc. to form the
aorist indicative: ;ka I came, ;[anq we were, k;ran they ate,etc.
Two other regular verbs, lal cry and tal give, take the group 1
endings (-i,-ir,-inq,-iq,-in):
lal aorist laz;zi, laz;zir, etc.
tal
aorist tw;zi, tw;zir, etc.
2. The Perfect and Pluperfect of irregular verbs, A
It is important to note that the past participle of the preceding verbs are always
formed from the aorist stem. Therefore the perfect and pluperfect paradigms
work as follows:
class 1

class 7

Perfect
i=;l ;m
fas;l ;s
t;s;l ;m
fag;l ;m
gt;l ;m
jo[;l ;m

Pluperfect
i=;l hi,etc.
fas;l hi,etc.
t;s;l hi,etc.
fag;l hi,etc.
gt;l hi,etc.
jo[;l hi,etc.

;k;l ;m
;[;l ;m
k;r;l ;m

;k;l hi,etc.
;[;l hi,etc.
k;r;l hi,etc.

126
laz;l ;m
tw;l ;m

laz;l hi,etc.
tw;l hi,etc.

3. The -en plural


In colloquial speech proper and common nouns representing humans may also
have a special plural form, along with their regular plurals. This special plural is
formed with the suffix -;nq, which means roughly household, family, circle.
Thus:

Anafit;nq, q;5i;nq, Fakob\an;nq,etc.

This plural formation is used to render English possessive constructions


such as Anahits in the sense Anahits house, family, etc.
e.g.

M;nq gnazinq Anafit;nz! We went to Anahits


M;nq gnazinq q;5i;nz!
We went to (our) uncles.
M;nq gnazinq Fakob\an;nz! We went to the Hakobians.
(Note that Anafit;nz etc. are in the accusative case.)

The declension of plurals in -;nq resembles that of m;ronq, ];ronq (see


Lesson 8.2).

Vocabulary
anmi=ap;s
anzn;l
a5jiw
a5n;l
bawarar
bawarar lin;l
gtn;l
d;m
d;m lin;l
d;pq, -i
;t (also f;t)
;rkra,arv, -i
enkn;l
j;8 (...ba\z)
jo[n;l
vptal
i=n;l
L8on
lour=
6;rouj\oun, -\an
6n;l
6nw;l48
kaska6, -i
Karap;t\an
kary
fambour;l
fa\fo\;l
far8an, -i
f;6n;l
f;to
m;5n;l
moutq, -i
nw;r, -i
nou\nisk
48

at once, immediately
to pass, go past; cross (by/through (+ instr.)); to be
taught (+ acc.) (colloq.)
on the occasion of (postposition + gen.)
to take, get; buy (+ acc.) (colloq.)
enough; sufficient
to be enough; suffice (for (+ gen. + famar))
to find (+ acc.)
against (postposition + gen.)
to oppose (+ dat.)
event, occasion; accident
back (adv.)
earthquake
to fall
although (... yet)
to let; leave, abandon (+ acc.)
to smile (at (+ dat.))
to descend; come/go down (+ abl.) (by (+ instr.))
Levon (male name)
serious
old age
to give birth to (+ acc.)
to be born
doubt
Karapetian (family name)
short; brief (adj. and adv.)
to kiss (+ acc.)
to curse (+ acc.)
neighbor
to mount, ride (+ acc.)
after (postposition + abl.); afterwards, then (adv.)
to die (of (+ abl.)); (for (+ gen. + famar))
entrance
gift, present
even (adv.)

The passive of cnel bear, give birth to; cf. Lesson 25. Note that the
expression (I) was born is rendered into Armenian by the perfect Tense, e.g.
(:s) cnvel ;m.

128
pataf;l
p;s
p;tq, -i (archaic)
p;tq h
soworakan
w;r=, -i
w;r=oum
tar;dar]

to happen; come across something/someone (+ dat.)


as, like (postposition + gen.); as soon as (conjunction
+ dat.)
need; urgency
must; ... it is necessary (+ Inf.) (for (+ dat.))
usual, customary, ordinary
end, ending
in the end (of (+ gen.))
anniversary, birthday

Translate into English:


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5.
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7.
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49

Vo[owiz anmi=ap;s f;to Anafit;nq gnazin!


Gnazqiz i=anq 8 t;sanq, or oc m;ke chr spasoum m;x!
Nra ;rkou t[an hl nou\n fiwandouj\ouniz ;n m;5;l!
Tigrani 6no[n;re :r8anoum ;n 6nw;l!
A\s7r t;[ ;m gnalou!
Ousouzice ci galou dasi, orowf;t8 d;pq h pataf;l!
Tatiks ambo[= 7re ban ci k;r;l! J;r8s fiwand h!
Ir mor tar;dar]i a5jiw Arm;ne 6a[ikn;r b;r;z nran!
Ourbaj ;r;ko\an na soworakani49 p;s ou, ;kaw toun!
Fa\rs hl Tigrani mot gor6 gtaw! Ba\z ,abaje ;r;q 7r h
a,.at;lou mia\n!
:rb ;[bord fandip;zinq, inqnaji5iz nor hinq i=;l!
Cgit;i, or douq hl ;q m;r kaxmak;rpouj\ane patkanoum!
T;r 8 tikin Karap;t\ann;re ;r;k ;r;ko\an gnazin
q;5i;nz, ba\z ;rkar cmnazin a\nt;[!
M;nq a\d dase c;nq anz;l!
Qani2 fogi m;5aw ;rkra,arviz!
:ritasarde ir nor fagouste fagaw 8 qa[aq gnaz!
:r;k gor6i c;kaw! I2nc hr pataf;l!
A\s yanaparfe ];r qa[aqow h anznoum!
Kaska6 coun;m, or nra fiwandouj\oune 6;rouj\an ard\ounq h!
J;8 lour= dvwarouj\ounn;r oun;r, ba\z a,.atoum hr mi,t
vptal!
Am;nakary yanaparfow ;kanq toun!
;r 'o[e m;x p;tq ch! A\sqane50 bawarar h!
Jatroni moutqi a5=8 in] spas(;z);q!
Vo[owrdi m;6 mase d;m h ];r kar6iqin!
Ir kno= tar;dar]i a5jiw Fa\ke ;rkou angam fambour;z
nran! F;to miasin 5;storan gnazin!

Note that the adjective soworakan may be substantivized and declined


regularly.
50 Note that the definite article is used when the adjective is substantivized.

130
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
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16.
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23.

He was already dead when the doctor arrived.


Since we didnt have any money, we ate at home.
Have you seen the history book which I took from the library yesterday?
Did you see what happened?
What did you buy your mother for her birthday?
What has happened to your neighbor?
He couldnt take his sister to the theater because she was busy.
We went to New York by train, but we came back (;t ;kanq) by plane.
My sisters first baby was born seven months ago.
When did you begin to study history?
We found these old clothes on the street.
Is this money sufficient for that car?
Didnt you see her at church yesterday?
Levon entered the room and immediately began to curse.
Her grandmother died six years ago.
How did you find our house?
What did the children eat this morning?
On Sunday morning the girls put on their newest dresses and went to
church.
Even your neighbors came to the meeting.
I couldnt (chi karo[) stay any longer because my sister was waiting for
me at home.
Tigrans brother brought him a gift from Yerevan.
Where was your teacher born?
Last night Anahit prepared a delicious dinner for her friends.

Lesson 17
1. Uses of the -a6 participle
This participle generally denotes the result of a completed action. It is formed by
adding -a6:
a) to the present stem of regular -;l verbs, e.g.
nst;l
gr;l

nsta6 sitting
gra6 written

b) to the aorist stem of -al verbs, e.g.:


kardal
.a[al

kardaza6 read; well-read


.a[aza6 played

Note that the irregular verbs of categories 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7 ending in -;l form
their -a6 participle from the aorist stem, e.g.:
m;5n;l
gtn;l
out;l
lin;l

m;5a6 dead
gta6 found
k;ra6 eaten
;[a6 been; occurred

The negative forms cnsta6, ckardaza6, cgta6, c;[a6,etc. are used


in a sense parallel to that of the corresponding positive participles.
The -a6 participle is widely used in modern Armenian as a) a verbal form,
b) an adjective, and c) a substantive.
a) As a non-finite verbal form it can be used in participial constructions.
e.g.

Ambo[= 7re tane nsta6, spasoum hi q;x!


I was waiting for you, sitting at home the whole day.

With finite forms of the auxiliary lin;l to be, the -a6 participle can be
used as a predicate.
e.g.

:r;.an qna6 ch!


The child is not asleep.
Na kangna6 hr m;r tan a5=8!
He was standing (also: hasbeen standing) in front of our house.

132
b) When used attributively, the -a6 participle may still be accompanied by
modifiers.
e.g.

fogna6 ;r;.an;r
tired children
cqna6 mard
a man who hasnt slept
Arm;ni gna6 girqe f;taqrqir ch!
The book Armen bought is not interesting.

Note the passive shade of meaning in Arm;ni gna6 bought by Armen.


However, it is more obviously felt in passive verb forms in -wa6; see further
Lesson 25.
However, the -a6 participle sometimes acts as an adjective.
e.g.

Nra ;[ba\re kardaza6 t[a h!


His brother is a well-read boy.
:s qa[za6 c;m!
I am not hungry.

c) When used as a substantive the sense of being derived from a verb can be
completely lost, e.g.:
>orowa6e ,at fam;[ hr!
The barbecue(d meat) was very tasty.
Compare also sira6 sweetheart, n,ana6 fiancee.
2. The declension of spatial postpositions
a) Postpositions such as m;= in(side), mot near, wra on; over, tak
under, a5=8 before, in front of, dimaz across, opposite, w;r(8) above,
;t(8) behind, etc. may be declined (generally according to the -i declension).
e.g.

Katoun dours ;kaw s;[ani takiz!


The cat came out from under the table.

b) Postpositions must be put into the appropriate case when governed by a verb;
for example, anzn;l to pass by/along takes the instrumental case.

e.g.

Awtobouse dprozi a5=8ow h anznoum!


The bus passes in front of the school.
(literally passes by the front of the school)

c) When modifying nouns, postpositions stand in the genitive case:


e.g.

m;r dimazi far8ane our neighbor (living) opposite us


qo taki ajo5e
the chair underneath you

Furthermore, if the modified noun is not expressed, the attributive


postposition (in the genitive) be substantivized by adding -n- plus the definite
article.
e.g.

dimaz opposite
tak under

dimazine that which is opposite


takine that one underneath

3. Postpositions with articles


The definite article is commonly used with postpositions before the verb to be,
or when the postposition comes at the end of a sentence.
e.g.

S;[ani tak mi girq ka! There is a book under the table.

But:

Ort;2[ h girqe!
S;[ani tak(e)!
(S;[ani takn51 h)

Where is the book?


Under the table.

When pronouns of the first or second person (sing.) are involved, the
suffixes -s and -d may be used.
e.g.

51

Wras taq fagoust cka! Im not wearing any warm clothes.


(literally There are no warm clothes on me)
Dimazd na\i#r!
Look (out) in front of you!

Note that the postposition takes -n before the verb h.

134
Vocabulary
axat
anta5, -i
apafow
astiyan, -i
awtobous, -i
awtobousow (Instr.)
ardar
go[, -i
;ln;l
irawounq, -i
irawounq oun;nal
6a\r, -i
ktor, -i
faxiw
fa[j;l
fa\azq, -i
fasz;, -i
(f);t8oum
(f);t8iz
na.kin
n;t;l
,ounc, ni
,our=
,our=e
otq, -i
pafan=;l
pa,tpan;l
sarsa';l
sqanc;li
wa., -i
t;saran, -i
tramwa\, -i
tramwa\ow (instr.)
qa[za6
qn;l

free
forest, wood
safe, secure
degree, grade; stair
bus
by bus
fair, just
thief
to go up, out; to rise (a cat. 1 irreg. verb)
right; law (as system)
to have a right (of/to (+ gen.))
tip; verge
piece; cloth
hardly, scarcely
to win, beat (in a game) (someone/thing (+ dat.))
look, glance
address
behind (postposition + gen.)
from behind; after (postposition + gen.)
former
to throw, cast (+ acc.)
breath
round; about (postposition + gen.)
around; about (adv. and postposition + gen.)
foot; leg
to demand (+ acc.) (from (+ abl.))
to protect, defend (+ acc.) (from (+ abl.))
to be horrified (by (+ abl.))
wonderful, splendid
fear, dread
view; scenery
tram
by tram
hungry
to sleep; fall asleep

Translate into English:


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7.
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24.

Nra ou[arka6 namakin c;m patas.an;lou!


M;nq anta5i 6a\roum ;nq bnakwoum!
Awtobousiz i=a6 pafis ;[ba\rd anzaw im a5=8ow!
Faxiw toun mta6, marde sks;z ir kno= wra b[aw;l!
Karap;ti nsta6 t;[iz t;sarane ,at g;[;zik h!
Ou2m h patkanoum ];r dimazi toune!
Qa[za6 'oqrike faz hr pafan=oum!
Kardaza6d grq;re inco2u c;s patmoum m;x!
Anafite, ,ounce pafa6, lsoum hr nran!
Ir;nz wastaka6 'o[ow toun ;n gn;lou!
Nra nor baza6 .anouje yi,t m;r na.kin dprozi dimazn
h!
^;r marde nsta6 qn;l hr 'o[ozoum!
O2w fa[j;z, spitakn;2re, j; s8;re!
Anii faga6e ca'axanz g;[;zik h!
O2rn h ];r na.entra6 ya,arani fasz;n!
Vo[owi vamanak ir bolor lsa6n;re Arame patm;z m;x!
M;r a5=8ine ,at n,anawor mard h!
Qa[za6 marde m;6 a.orvakow k;raw msi mnaza6
ktorn;re!
Loure faxiw a5a6, anmi=ap;s ];x mot ;ka!
A\s7r sowora6e krkn;lou ;nq wa[e!
Go[e mi fa\azq n;t;z ir ,our=e 8 arag wax;z!
O2rn h qo am;niz na.entra6 gou\ne!
Tigrane o2um f;t hr gnaz;l fam;rg!
Sarsa'a6 marde faxiw ;law t;[iz!

136
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4.
5.
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7.
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24.

Is that man sitting next to you your father?


We were in Boston at the time of his arrival in America.
Who wrote the book you read last week?
Do not repeat what I said.
The letter he wrote yesterday has not yet arrived.
The bus he saw in the street is our schools.
Dont we have what he wants?
Not having heard the question, I cannot answer you.
The flowers I brought from the garden are on the table.
It was very cold the day we arrived in New York.
She went to her uncles, scarcely having heard about his illness.
The building next to Tigrans is a post office.
Ill give you (sing.) as much money as you want.
Standing in the street, Armen was waiting for a tram.
Who lives in the room opposite us?
The frightened (horrified) cat ran out (from) under the chair.
All the places we visited were very interesting.
The soldiers defended the city to (minc8)the last man.
Do not listen to them. They have no right to demand anything from you.
Where is the newspaper the boy brought this morning?
The book I found is Anahits.
Not having seen (ct;sa6) that man yet, speak no evil about him.
The pictures you sent us were splendid!
The child that hadnt slept (cqna6) the night didnt have an appetite.

Lesson 18
1. Reciprocal pronouns
There are three different ways of rendering each other, one another in modern
Eastern Armenian: irar, mim\anz,and m;km;kou. These pronouns do not
have nominative or plural forms. M;km;kou is only used in literary registers.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

irar
irar
irar
irariz
irarow
iraroum,
irar m;=

mim\anz
mim\anz
mim\anz
mim\anziz
mim\anzow
mim\anzoum,
mim\anz m;=

m;km;kou
m;km;kou
m;km;kou
m;km;kouz
m;km;kow
m;km;koum (rare),
m;km;kou m;=

2. Reflexive pronouns
The reflexive pronouns myself, yourself, etc. are derived from inq(e)self:
Singular
(;s) inqs
(dou) inqd
(na) inqe

1.
2.
3.

Plural
(m;nq) inqn;rs
(douq) inqn;rd
(nranq) inqn;re

The reflexive pronouns inqs, inqd,etc. are not declined in Armenian. But
when one wishes to emphasize the reflexive sense, these pronouns may be
accompanied by a declined form of the corresponding personal pronouns (cf.
Lesson 8.1).
e.g.

Inqd q;x law c;s yanacoum!


You do not know yourself well.
Na 'or]oum h .ab;l inqn ir;n52!
He is trying to deceive himself.

3. Distributive pronouns
There are two distributive pronouns, \ouraqanc\our each (used attributively)
and am;n every. These can be substantivized by adding the definite article
(plus m;k or q in the case of am;n):
52

This form may also be written as a single word, though inqnir;n may also
serve as an adverb, meaning on ones own, by oneself.

138
\ouraqanc\our each \ouraqanc\oure each one
am;n every am;n m;ke, Pl. am;nqe everyone; everybody
These are declined regularly, according to the -i declension.
4. Distributive numbers
These are formed by adding the suffix -akan to the cardinal number.
e.g.

{ouraqanc\ouri famar corsakan .n]or gn;z!


He bought them each four apples.

In colloquial speech the cardinal number can simply be doubled, e.g. cors-cors
(cf. Lesson 12.2).
Note that the -akan suffix is also used to form decimal fractions, in
combination with tasnord (derived from the ordinal numeral tasn;rord
by deleting -;r-).
e.g.

:rkou ambo[= ( integer) fing tasnordakan 2.5

Note also the following adjectives, which are often used substantively and
declined:
m\ous other
(mi) ouri, (an)other
bolor all the

ambo[= entire

,at much, many

mi qani a few, some

m\ouse, m\ousn;re the other(s)


ouri,e, ouri,n;re (an)other one(s)
bolore all of them
(cf. bolors (hl)all of us)
ambo[=e the whole
,at;re (the) many; most (of (+ abl.))
mi qanise some (of (+ abl.))

Vocabulary
a\z;louj\oun, -\an
andam, -i
bnaworouj\oun, -\an
b5n;l53
gndak, -i
gow;l
xgou,anal**
emb5n;l
enk;ranal**
irar, mim\anz, m;km;kou
.;[y
.rat, -i
6anojanal**
6;6;l
koroust, korsti
(also archaic gen. korst\an)
kousakzouj\oun, -\an
krak, -i
faka5ak
fayou\q, -i
fama]a\n
fama]a\n lin;l
famar;l
fand;p
farganq, -i
mo5anal*
mot;nal*
mt;rim (colloq. motik)
\ouraqanc\our(e)
na.adasouj\oun,-\an
n;[
n,anakouj\oun, -\an
s.almamb
53

visit
member
nature, character
to catch, hold (+ acc.); match (+ gen. + f;t)
ball; bullet
to praise (+ acc.)
to be careful, beware of (+ abl.)
to grasp, comprehend (+ acc.)
to become friends with (+ gen. + f;t);
accompany (+ dat.)
each other, one another (see point1 above)
poor, miserable
advice, counsel
to get acquainted (with (+ dat. or + gen. + f;t))
to beat; knock (colloq.) (+ acc.)
loss
party (political)
fire
contrary to; despite (prep. and postpos. + dat.)
pleasure
in agreement with, according to (prep. and
postpos. + dat.)
to agree (with (+ dat. or + gen. + f;t))
to consider (oneself...)
with regard to, towards (postpos. + gen.)
respect; towards (+ gen. + fand;p)
to forget (+ acc.)
to approach, come near (+ dat.)
close, intimate
each one, every (one)
sentence (grammatical)
narrow
meaning; significance
by mistake, wrongly

This is a regular verb; the -n is part of the root.


For the aorist indicatives of these irregular verbs see Lesson 19.
* See Lesson 19 for the aorist indicative.
**

140
t;[;kouj\oun, -\an54

54

information

Unlike in English, the plural form t;[;kouj\ounn;r is quite usual in


Armenian.

Translate into English:


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5.
6.
7.
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9.
10.
11.
12.
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23.

"or];q aw;li law yanac;l irar, orowf;t8 miasin ;q


a,.at;lou!
Tigrane mi,t inqnir;n .osoum h!
Inco2u ;s am;n mardou .rat talis! Na. inqd q;x na\ir!
Faka5ak ir bnaworouj\ane, na ,at lour= h a\s7r!
Paron Fa\ke ir \ouraqanc\our xawakin ;rkou faxarakan
dolar h talou!
Mim\anz na\;z;q 8 sks;z;q bar]ra]a\n 6i6a[;l!
:r;.an inqnir;n .a[oum hr part;xoum!
Anz\al ,abaj Aramn ir kno= famar mi m;q;na gn;z!
M;nq oro,;l hinq mi 7r :r8an gal! :w ;kanq!
>;[y mardn inqnir;n span;z ir bnaworouj\amb!
Ir;nq ir;nz ,at ;n gowoum a5anz patya5i!
Inqd q;x .aboum ;s am;n t;sak ga[a'arn;row!
Mim\anz fand;p oc mi farganq coun;n!
Ambo[= 7re nou\n na.adasouj\ounn h krknoum!
Car t[an;re 6;6oum hin irar!
Ir bnaworouj\an masin ga[a'ar coun;m!
Ouri,n;rin mi# patm;q ];r lsa6n;re!
Kousakzouj\an bolor andamn;rn hl fama]a\n hin m;r
kar6iqin!
M;r ousano[n;re m;6 farganq oun;n ir;nz ousouzicn;ri
fand;p!
A\s fin qa[aqoum ,at n;[ 'o[ozn;r kan!
;x enk;ranale m;6 fayou\q h in] famar!
Am;nqn hl n;rka hin vo[owin!
:r;.an;re krakiz wa.;noum ;n!

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2.
3.
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6.
7.
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22.

Can I accompany you home (minc8 toun)?


My older brothers are very close to each other.
They have great respect for each other.
He tried to prepare his lessons by himself, but later he asked his sister.
After his serious illness his wife took care of him.
She considers herself beautiful.
Cant you grasp the meaning of this sentence?
Dont think so badly of yourself.
They are not against our plans.
Your gain is my loss.
Holding his brothers hand, Tigran entered the school.
They looked at each other and smiled.
Each one read a sentence from the book.
The advice (pl.) of his elders has no meaning for him.
Young people get acquainted with each other more easily than old people
do.
What you did yesterday is contrary to your character.
Which room did the fire begin from?
Aram caught the ball with his hands.
From whom do they get such information? From each other.
Most members of that Armenian party were students until recently.
Do you consider yourselves intelligent?
My grandmother gives me the same advice every Sunday.

Lesson 19
1. The Aorist Indicative (part 3): Irregular verbs, B
Here we continue from Lesson 16 our study of the categories of verbs that have
irregular aorists.
Category 2

1.
2.
3.

Verbs with the suffix -an- in the present stem form their
aorist stem by replacing the -n- with -z- and dropping the
infinitive suffix -al. So for example the aorist paradigm of
barkanal to become angry is as follows:

Singular
barkaza
barkazar
barkazaw

Plural
barkazanq
barkazaq
barkazan

Other -anal verbs such as karo[anal, bar]ranal, go[anal,


xgou,anal, 6anojanal, enk;ranal, mo5anal, etc. are similarly
conjugated.
Category 2 is quite productive, and contains many verbs that describe a
state and are derived from nouns:
e.g. amousin husband

sex)
w;r= end, finish

fangist rest (also adj.)

amousnanal to get married (either


w;r=anal to come to an end
fangstanal to rest

Note that the nouns amousin and fangist lose their -i- when suffixes
are added. Note also that in such verbs as pa,tpan;l to defend,
artasan;l to pronounce, patas.an;l to answer, -an- is not a
suffix, but rather is part of the root. Consequently, these verbs form their aorist
indicative according to the regular paradigm (-;zi, etc.).
Category 3
e.g.

Verbs with the suffix -;n-in the present stem form their aorist
stem in the same way as the verbs of Category 2.
mot;nal to approach: mot;za, mot;zar, etc.
wa.;nal to be afraid: wa.;za,etc.
oun;nal to have: oun;za,etc.

144
Category 4

e.g.

Verbs with the suffix -c- in the present stem form their aorist
stem by dropping the -c- together with the infinitive -;l, and
adding the endings -a,-ar,-aw, etc.
'a.c;l (also 'a.n;l) to escape, flee: 'a.a, 'a.ar,
'a.aw, 'a.anq, 'a.aq, 'a.an
korc;l to be lost: kora, korar,etc.
j5c;l (also j5n;l) to fly; flee: j5a, j5ar,etc.

Verbs in which the -c- is not a suffix, but rather belongs to the root, follow
the regular paradigm for -;l verbs.
e.g.

kanc;l to call: kanc;zi, kanc;zir,etc.


,nc;l to breathe: ,nc;zi,etc.

Category 5

1
2
3

Verbs with the causative suffixes -azn-,-;zn-, and -zn- form


their aorist stem by replacing the -n- with -r-. These three
causative can attach to virtually any simple verbs, forming
causative infinitives in -;l (cf. Lesson 30). Thus for example
the paradigms of korzn;l to lose; cause to be lost and
w;r=azn;l to finish (something); put (something) to an end
are as follows:

Singular
Plural
korzr(;z)i korzr(;z)inq
korzr(;z)ir
w;r=azr(;z)iq
korzr;z
korzr(;z)in

Singular
Plural
w;r=azr(;z)i w;r=azr(;z)inq
korzr(;z)iq
w;r=azr(;z)ir
w;r=azr;z

w;r=azr(;z)in

Note that the reduced forms korzri, w;r=azriq, w;rzrinq, etc. are
more characteristic of colloquial speech.
The verb farzn;l to ask; inquire patterns with the verbs of this
Category, despite the fact that its -zn- is a part of the root rather than a suffix.
Thus: farzr(;z)i, farzr(;z)ir,etc.
Category 6

Several verbs form their aorist stem irregularly:

dn;l
place, set, put

an;l
do

tan;l
take

tal
give

dr(;z)i
dr(;z)ir

ar(;z)i
ar(;z)ir

tara
tarar

tw(;z)i
tw(;z)ir

dr;z
dr(;z)inq
dr(;z)iq
dr(;z)in

ar;z
ar(;z)inq
ar(;z)iq
ar(;z)in

taraw
taranq
taraq
taran

tw;z
tw(;z)inq
tw(;z)iq
tw(;z)in

(w;ra)da5nal w;r k;nal


(re)turn; become get/stand up
(w;ra)dar]a
(w;ra)dar]ar
(w;ra)dar]aw
(w;ra)dar]anq
(w;ra)dar]aq
(w;ra)dar]an

w;r kaza
w;r kazar
w;r kazaw
w;r kazanq
w;r kazaq
w;r kazan

2. The Perfect and Pluperfect of irregular verbs, B


As noted in Lesson 16.B, it is important to remember that the past participles of
the preceding verbs are formed from the aorist stem.
Thus the forms are:
Category 2

but:

barkaz;l ;m, hi
amousnaz;l ;m, hi
mo5az;l ;m, hi
karo[az;l ;m, hi
6anojaz;l ;m, hi
pa,tpan;l ;m, hi
patas.an;l ;m, hi
artasan;l ;m, hi

Category 3

mot;z;l ;m, hi
wa.;z;l ;m, hi
oun;z;l ;m, hi

Category 4

'a.;l ;m, hi
kor;l ;m, hi
j5;l ;m, hi
kanc;l ;m, hi
,nc;l ;m, hi

but:

Category 5

korzr;l ;m, hi
w;r=azr;l ;m, hi

146
(also farzr;l ;m, hi)
Category 6

55

dn;l dr;l ;m, hi


an;l ar;l ;m, hi
tan;l tar;l ;m, hi
tal tw;l ;m, hi
(w;ra)da5nal (w;ra)dar];l ;m, hi
w;r k;nal w;r ;m kaz;l, w;r hi kaz;l55

Note that in periphrastic verbs the auxiliary is usually placed between the two
components.

Vocabulary
amousnanal
anf;tanal
a5a=nord, -i
a5a=nord;l

to marry, get married (to (+ gen. + f;t))


to disappear, vanish
leader
to lead, guide someone (+ acc.) ((to) somewhere
(d;pi) + acc.))
Ararat (Masis)
Mount Ararat
awart;l
to complete (+ acc.)
arw;stag;t, -i
artist
bar;ba.tabar
fortunately, luckily
barkanal
to become angry; with (+ gen. + wra)
gagaj, -i
summit, peak
gl.ark, -i
hat; headdress
go[anal
to steal (+ acc.) (from (+ abl.))
(w;ra)da5nal
to (re)turn; become (+ Nom.)
dar]\al
again
dn;l
to put, place (+ acc.) (on (+ gen. + wra))
xarmanal
to be surprised, astonished (at (+ gen. + wra))
j5c;l
to fly; flee
lawanal
to get better, improve; recover (colloq.) (from (+
abl.))
lzn;l
to fill; pour into (+ acc.)
lousankar, -i
photo(graph)
.';l
to hit, strike (+ acc.)
karot;l
to long for, miss (+ dat.)
korc;l
to be lost
korzn;l
to lose (cause to be lost) (+ acc.)
fangstanal
to rest
farmar
suitable, fitting (adj. and postpos. + dat.)
masnag;t, -i
specialist
maqour
clean, pure; fresh (air)
m;6ouj\oun, -\an
greatness; size
m;=t;[, -i
middle, space between
m;=t;[e (m;=t;[oum) in the middle of (postpos. + gen.)
n;rqin
inner, internal
n\ouj, -i
substance; subject, topic
w;r=anal
to come to an end
w;r=ap;s
finally, at last
w;r=azn;l
to bring to an end, complete (+ acc.)
tariq, -i
age (years old)

148
zou\z tal

to indicate, show, point out (something (+ acc.)) (to


someone (+ dat.))

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W;r=;rs Anafite a\laxgi mi t[a\i f;t amousnazaw!


Barkaza6 vamanak ;[ba\rs oc m;ki f;t ci .osoum!
Ararati gagaje o2w h a5a=in angam bar]raz;l!
Tigrane mo5az;l hr, j; ort;[ hr dr;l ir grq;re!
Arw;stag;ti` w;r=;rs awarta6 gor6e ;2rb ;nq
karo[analou t;sn;l!
W;r=ap;s t;sanq irar! <at hi karot;l nran!
O2rn h gnazqi w;r=in ka\arane!
:rgicn incp;2s korzr;z ir ]a\ne!
Na mi qic gini lzr;z bavakis m;=!
Nranz .osa6 fa\;r;ne ,at maqour h!
Das;re anz\al amis w;r=azan!
Ousouzicn ir a,ak;rtn;rin (d;pi) dimazi anta5n hr
a5a=nordoum!
S.almamb kar6;zinq, j; a\d girqe m;x h patkanoum!
Nra dasa.osouj\ounn;riz ban c;m faskaz;l!
:[ba\rs n;rqin fiwandouj\ounn;ri n,anawor masnag;t h!
W;r=in angam a\d n\ouji masin c.os;zinq!
M;r qa[aqi 7de mi vamanak aw;li maqour hr!
Paron Fa\ke ousano[n;rin zou\z tw;z ir nor gra6 girqe!
Anin ir fin fagoustn;rn in] tw;z!
Ambo[= drams awtobousoum korzri! :r8i go[azan!
Go[;rn ir;nz go[aza6 m;q;na\ow anf;tazan!
O2w h ];r a5a=norde!
Bar;ba.tabar tramwa\e vamanakin kangn;z 8 c.';z
;r;.a\in!

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23.

Have you finished your dinner?


How did they lose that much money?
We stayed in New York for ten days.
Tigran climbed the stairs (astiyann;row)but no one was there.
Do you understand what I have just said?
The book she wrote is about womens rights.
(Of) what size is that photograph you lost (lost by you)?
Havent you seen the box I put on the table?
Arent they married yet? (Perfect)
Since they were going to town, they took my daughter with them.
What was the subject of your long conversation on the phone?
Where did you put Fathers tools?
I turned back (f;t dar]a) and saw that he was no longer (hl)
following me.
Have you completed your work?
Foreigners are always surprised at the size of New York.
We are very grateful for what we have.
Your brother and my sister are (of) the same age.
The workmen have finally completed their work.
I miss you very much. When will you return home?
Hes turned into an intelligent young man.
Where have you put all the photographs of your family?
Last week my little brother fell from the window again; fortunately he is
recovering already.
You may have a rest now; tell us the end of the story later.

Lesson 20
1. Formation of adverbs
a) Most adjectives may be used without change as adverbs:
(Aw;li) bar]r .os;z;q!
Speak (more) loudly!
Lour= a,.at;zi!
I worked hard.
Na law a[=ik h 8 law h ;rgoum! She is a good girl andshe sings
well.
Note also that short (one- or two-syllable) adverbs may be doubled in
colloquial speech for emphasis.
e.g.

arag-arag
(very) quickly
kamaz-kamaz
(very) slowly
(for kamaz see below, point e.)

Sometimes this doubling takes on an idiomatic sense, as in:


m;6-m;6 .os;l
to boast
(note that m;6 big, great on its own is not used adverbially)
Kamaz-kamaz!
so-so (in response to a question)
b) Some substantives in the instrumental case may function as adverbs:
e.g.

sirow
fayou\qow
<outow ;kaw!
Ou,adrouj\amb ls;zinq!

gladly, willingly (with love)


with pleasure, willingly
He came soon.
We listened attentively.

See further the discussion of instrumental infinitives in Lesson 24.


c) Various suffixes may be added to adjectives, nouns, and even adverbs to form
adverbs:
1)
2)
3)
4)

-abar:
-(a)p;s:
-owin:
-or;n:

dvba.tabar
parxap;s
ambo[=owin
aragor;n

unfortunately
simply, merely
entirely
quickly (cf. arag above)

d) For languages the suffix is -;r;n or sometimes -ar;n (cf. the Appendix on
geographical names).

152
e.g. Fa\;r;n
5ous;r;n
angl;r;n
wraz;r;n
parsk;r;n
jourq;r;n
inc;r;2n
founar;n

(in) Armenian
(in) Russian
(in) English
(in) Georgian
(in) Persian
(in) Turkish
in what language? (or i2nc l;xwow)
(in) Greek

Note that these original adverbs are used for the names of the languages. Thus,
fa\;r;n also means the Armenian language (cf. Vocabulary, Lesson I).
As substantives, these may be declined:
e.g.

Fa\;r;niz bazi na .osoum h fing l;xwow!


Apart from Armenian, he speaks five (other) languages.

e) Some other important adverbs are:


e.g.

akama
kamaz
j;r8s
our;mn
anpa\man
anpatya5

unintentionally
slowly
perhaps
so, well then
certainly, by all means
indeed

f) The following adverbs have already been introduced:


a\st;[, a\dt;[, a\nt;[
fima, a\vm
;rb;mn; ;rb;q+negative
bnaw + negative

here, there
now
sometimes; never
never, not at all

2. Imperatives of irregular verbs, A


The same categories are used here as in Lesson 16.
Category 1. Verbs with infixed -n- in the present stem
These verbs form their imperative from the aorist stem, with the endings -ir for
the singular and -;q for the plural.
Thus:

gti#r, gt;#q
i=i#r, i=;#q

But:

mti#r, mt;#q
fasi#r, fas;#q
a5n;l a#5 (not *a5i#r), a5;#q
t;sn;l t;#s (not *t;si#r), t;s;#q

Prohibitives are formed by placing the prohibitive particle mi# before the
imperatives.
mi## a5, mi## a5;q
mi## gtir, mi## gt;q
Category 7. Verbs with different roots for the present and aorist stems
gal

lin;l
out;l

;#k (also ari#), ;k;#q


;[i#r, ;[;#q
k;#r, k;r;#q

Some other verbs also form their imperatives irregularly:


b;r;l to bring
as;l to say

Prohibitives:
mi# b;r, mi# b;r;q
mi# asa, mi# as;q

b;#r, b;r;#q
asa# (not *asir), as(az);#q (not *as;z;q)

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Vocabulary
akama
a[mouk, -i
ambo[=owin
angl;r;n
ankaska6
anpa\man
anpatya5
ans.al
antarb;r
a5a=ark, -i
a5a=ark;l
a58tour, ar8tri
a5nwaxn
astiyanabar
arag(or;n)
bavan;l
bazatrouj\oun, -\an
bolorowin
gon;
dvba.t
dvba.tabar
dirq, -i
;r8aka\;l
xarmanali
xarmanalior;n
xba[w;l*
endfanrap;s
.;loq
fama]a\n(w);l*
fandart
m;[m(or;n)
mrs;l
nkatmamb
ou,adrouj\oun, -\an
ou,adrouj\oun dar]n;l
*

See further Lesson 25.

unintentionally, involuntarily
noise
entirely, totally
(in) English, the English language
without doubt, undoubtedly
indeed, surely
by all means, certainly
right, correct (adj. and adv.)
indifferent (adj. and adv.)
proposal; suggestion, offer
to propose; offer (+ acc.) (to (+ dat.))
trade; commerce
at least (literary)
gradually
quick(ly) (adj. and adv.)
to divide; (colloq.) distribute (+ acc.) (from (+
abl.))
explanation
at all (+ negative)
at least
unfortunate
unfortunately
position
to imagine (+ acc.)
surprising, amazing
surprisingly, amazingly
to be engaged in; be busy (with (+ instr.))
in general, generally (speaking)
clever; well-behaved (colloq.) (adj. and adv.)
to agree (with (+ gen. + f;t or + dat.)) (in (+
loc.))
still, quiet(ly) (adj. and . adv.)
soft(ly), quiet(ly)
to be cold; catch cold
regarding, towards (postpos. + gen.)
attention
to pay attention; be careful (to (+ gen. + wra))

our;mn
parxap;s
5ous;r;n
sirow

so; well then


simply, merely
(in) Russian, the Russian language
gladly, willingly (with love)

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56

Arm;#n, tikin Anafiti famar mi ajo5 b;#r!


Bolorowin antarb;r mi# ;[;q a\d .ndri nkatmamb!
Ou,adrouj\amb
f;t8(;z);#q
paron
Fakob\ani
dasa.osouj\ane!
Bvi,kn asaz (not *as;z), or fors wiyake astiyanabar
lawanalou h!
Dvba.tabar ];r l;xwow d;5 c;m karo[anoum law .os;l!
Tigrani .anoujiz fa\kakan gini gn;z;#q!
:t8i ko[miz mt;#q, orowf;t8 a5=8i dou5e 'ak h!
:r;.a\i s;n\ake mi# mt;q, f;nz nor56 qn;z!
Arm;ni ara6 a5a=arkin akama fama]a\n(w);zi!
:rkou kousakzouj\ounn;rn hl m;x anpatya5 fa\tn;lou ;n
ir;nz dirqe a\s .ndri nkatmamb!
Vo[owiz f;to ;k;#q gradaran, ;s a\nt;[ ;m lin;lou!
Astiyann;row kamaz i=ir!
Gna#, t;#s, j; inc g;[;zik 8 fay;li h Anafit;nz part;xe!
Asa in], j; inc h ouxa6d!
:j; mrsa6 ;q, tane mnaz;q 8 fangstaz;q!
Xgou,ouj\amb qa\l(;z);q, yanaparfe n;[ h!
A\d ya,arane mi# gnaz;q, bolorowin maqour ch!
;r bolor bar;kamn;re fayou\qow 7gn;lou ;n ];x!
Wa[e a5awot\an ;[;#q ka\aranoum!
M;q;nan;ri a[moukiz` gi,;rn;re c;nq karo[anoum qn;l!
Xarmanali h, ba\z nranq parxap;s ckaro[azan
faskanal ];r twa6 bazatrouj\ounn;re!

(F;nz) nor just, just now.

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Speak softly, everyone is sleeping.


Go and see the new library.
Unfortunately this is not a quiet place. Well go somewhere else.
Generally Armenians engage in trade.
Follow your teachers explanation attentively.
Enter the room from the other side.
I will gladly do that for you.
She is totally indifferent with regard to the unfortunate.
You cannot imagine what things he said.
Go and get a pencil for your little sister.
Eat this Armenian dish; its very delicious.
Dont be so naughty.
Undoubtedly Tigran was there too last night.
At least seven people agreed to our proposals.
Generally (speaking), everything she says is correct.
The well-behaved child sat quietly at his mothers side.
Bring your friend with you tomorrow evening.
Dont eat too much.
Be here early tomorrow morning.
Dont go too far away (mi# f;5az;q), well be leaving within an hour.
Take (a#5)one of these.
You learned Armenian surprisingly quickly.
Come home now, its time for supper (gen.).
He willingly accepted the money his grandfather offered him.

Lesson 21
1. Nouns with Genitive in -an
There are several categories of nouns whose genitive ends in -an.
A. Abstract nouns in -oum (mostly derived from verbs).
e.g. Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

lou6oum solution
lou6oum
lou6man
lou6man
lou6oumiz
lou6mamb
(lou6oumow)
lou6man m;=

bazoum opening
bazoum
bazman
bazman
bazoumiz
bazmamb
(bazoumow)
bazman m;=

oro,oumdecision
oro,oum
oro,man
oro,man
oro,oumiz
oro,mamb
(oro,oumow)
oro,man m;=

Note that -ou- drops in the genitive/dative.


B. Monosyllabic nouns that originally ended in a consonant plus -n but later
lost the final -n (These and the nouns in A retain their -n in the plural (Lesson
4.B)).
e.g.

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

l;5 mountain, hill


l;5
l;5an
l;5an
l;5(an)iz
l;5(an)ow
l;5an m;=

dou5 door
dou5
d5an
d5an
d5niz
d5now
d5an m;=

]ouk fish
]ouk
]kan
]kan
]k(an)iz
]k(an)ow
]kan m;=

Other members of this class include jo5 grandchild, mouk mouse, and
nou5 pomegranate.
C. Miscellaneous
a) The noun maf death usually belongs to the -an declension (gen.
mafwan), but can also follow the -i declension (gen. mafi).
b) The nouns denoting the four seasons (garoun spring, ama5 summer,
a,oun autumn, ]m;5 winter) also belong to the -an declension. For details
see Lesson 27.

c) The genitive ending of 6nound birth, fangist rest, and koroust loss
can be either -(\)an (plus reduction of the root vowel) or the regular -i.
e.g.

6nnd\an 7r
birthday
fangst\an toun rest house
korst\an gnow
at the price of loss

2. The inner -a- declension


The root vowel -ou- changes into -a- in the genitive/dative of this declension, to
which belong:
A. Abstract nouns in -ouj\oun (genitive -ouj\an, represented in the vocabularies
in this textbook as -\an).
B. ar\oun blood gen. ar\an, abl. ar\ouniz,instr. ar\ounow, ar\amb
toun house
gen. tan, abl. t(a)niz,instr. tnow,loc. tan m;=57
,oun dog
gen. ,an
Other nouns belonging to this class include ]\oun snow and ank\oun angle,
corner.
Note that in modern Armenian most of the nouns of class 2B can also
follow the -i declension.
C. anoun name

gen. anwan,dat. anwane,abl. anouniz,


instr. anounow,loc. anwan m;=

Note that the root vowel -ou- becomes -w-.


The plurals of the nouns in classes 1 and 2 follow to the regular -i
declension.
e.g.

lou6oumn;ri, ]kn;ri, ,n;ri, anounn;ri,etc.

3. Some irregular declensions


Armenian possesses many irregularly declined nouns; of these we discuss
a[=ik girl; daughter (colloq.) and doustr daughter here.
Thus:

57

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.

a[=ik(e)
a[=kan(e)
a[=ka

doustr(e)
dst;r(e)
dst;r

The locative of house is preferably rendered by the definite dative tane.

160
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

a[=kan(e)
a[=kaniz
a[=kanow
a[=ka m;=

dst;r(e)
doustriz (rare: dst;riz)
doustrow (rare: dst;row)
dst;r m;=

Note that the i and ou reduce when endings are added.

Vocabulary
axatouj\oun, -\an
an], -i
a5o[=ouj\oun, -\an
ar\oun, -an
bar;kamoufi, -ou
bar]rafasak
bazoum, baman
jank
lou6oum, lucman
6nound, cnndyan/cnndi
Sourb ^nound
kamq, -i
k;ndani, -ou
kotr;l
krjouj\oun, -\an
Fakob
fand;s, -i
farmarw;l58
farz, -i
farz tal
f;[inak, -i
fianali
fi,atak, -i
]8;l
]ouk, jkan
m;6anal
n\oujakan
oro,oum, oroman
,oun, -an
orp;s
pa\man, -i
sourb, srbi
stip;l
wtangawor
t8;l
ton, -i
58

See further Lesson 25.

freedom; liberty
person; self
health
blood
female relative, friend
tall (for people)
opening
expensive; dear, precious
solution (of a problem)
birth; birthday (colloq.)
Christmas, Nativity
will
animal; living, alive (noun, adj. and adv.)
to break (+ acc.)
education
Hakob (male name)
celebration, party; review
to adjust oneself, get used to (+ dat.)
question; matter
to ask a question
author
wonderful
memory, souvenir
to form, shape, cut (clothes) (+ acc.)
fish
to grow; increase in size or age
material; financial (colloq.)
decision
dog
as
condition; circumstance (often pl.)
holy; saint (adj. and noun.)
to force, compel; insist (+ acc.)
dangerous
to last, continue
festivity; feast; holiday (colloq., also used in pl.)

162
ousoum, usman
qa[aqakan

study
political

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59
60

Ar\an fiwandouj\oune wtangawor h!


M;r entaniqi fagoustn;re kins h ]8oum!
Fa\kakan fand;sn;ri n;rka ;[a2r N\ou {orqoum ;[a6d
vamanak!
Nranz .anouji gn;re m;x farmar c;n, ,at ;n jank!
:j; ;r;.an;re c;n ouxoum out;l, mi# stipir!
Fakobe ci karo[analou ir krjouj\oune ,arounak;l` a5anz
m;r n\oujakan 7gnouj\an!
Dvba.tabar d;5 or8h farmar lou6oum c;nq gt;l a\d
farzin!
Bolor .;lazi a,ak;rtn;rin a5an]in dasaranoum
t;[awor;zinq!
;r qou\re a\nqan hr m;6az;l, or faxiw karo[aza yanac;l
ir;n!
Papiki a5o[=ouj\an famar oro,;zinq mnal qa[aqoum!
Nranz a5a=norde katar;z fand;si bazoume!
A\s ;r;ko m;x mot ya,i ;k;q!
Sourb 6nnd\an toni a5jiw, anz\al kiraki ,at mard kar
m;r ;k;[;zoum59!
Ma\riks ir fin bar;kamoufou a\z;louj\ouniz gof mnaz!
M;r nor tan t;[e aw;li farmar h, qan na.kin tan t;[e!
P;tq h farmarw;l k\anqi pa\mann;rin!
O2w hr a\n an]e, ori f;t ;r;k gi,;r .osoum hiq!
Fa\rs m;6 kamqi t;r mard h!
Qa[aqakan farz;row c;m xba[woum!
Vamanake jank h, c;m karo[ bolor fa\kakan fand;sn;rin
n;rka lin;l!
A\d marde ,at wtangawor h, f;te gor6 mi# oun;z;q60!
;r a5a=arka6 pa\mann;re c;nq karo[ endoun;l!

Note that the -i of the root eke ei drops before the locative -um.
See further Lesson 22.

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How long will the lecture last?


Do you prefer fish or meat?
Dont despair, I have found the solution to your problem.
Unfortunately, the glass your daughter broke was very expensive.
Many people were present at the opening of the new library.
We are dissatisfied with the explanation he gave.
The author of this book died young.
They keep the animals in a big field behind their house.
He stood in front of the door until they opened the shop.
Keep these photographs as a precious souvenir of our visit.
The view from the top of the mountain is marvelous.
The circumstances forced him to leave.
What is your daughters (dst;r)name?
I can only pay for the cost of my education in ten years.
Armen is going to marry the priests daughter.
Besides your studies (sing.) what else are you engaged in?
Freedom has always been the most important political issue.
That childs mother does not allow him to go far away from his house.
Hes grown so much that now hes even taller than his father.
Many people adjust to the circumstances of life without difficulty.
Do you know that Anahits photograph was in the Armenian
(news)papers?
My little sisters love horses, dogs, and almost every other kind of animal.

Lesson 22
1. Imperatives of irregular verbs, B
We discuss here categories 2-6 (cf. Lesson 19).
Category 2 Verbs with the suffix -an- in the present stem form their
imperatives from the aorist stem in -az- plus -ir for the singular and -;q for
the plural.
e.g.

barkanal to get angry

barkazi#r, barkaz;#q

However, patas.an;l to answer, pa,tpan;l to defend, and


artasan;l to pronounce form their imperatives from the present stem:
patas.ani#r, patas.an;#q
pa,tpani#r, pa,tpan;#q
artasani#r, artasan;#q
Category 3 Verbs with the suffix -;n- in the present stem form their
imperatives in the same way as the verbs of category 2.
e.g.

mot;nal to approach
oun;nal to have

mot;zi#r, mot;z;#q
oun;zi#r, oun;z;#q

Category 4 Verbs with the suffix -c- in the present form their imperatives from
the aorist stem (deleting the -c-) plus -ir for the singular and -;q for the plural.
e.g.

'a.c;l to flee
'a.i#r, 'a.;#q
j5c;l to fly
j5i#r, j5;#q

However, note that dipc;l to touch imperative dipci#r, dipc;#q, despite


the fact that the -c- disappears in the aorist (dipa, dipar, dipaw,etc.).
Category 5 Verbs with the suffixes -azn-,-;zn-, and -zn- also form their
imperatives from the aorist stem, plus -ou for the singular and -;q for the plural.
e.g. korzn;l to lose, cause to be lost
w;r=azn;l to (put an) end (to)
farmar;zn;lto adjust
farzn;l to ask
19)

korzrou#, korzr;#q
w;r=azrou#, w;r=azr;#q
farmar;zrou#, farmar;zr;#q
farzrou#, farzr;#q (cf. Lesson

166
Category 6 These verbs are quite irregular in the imperative as well:
dn;l to place
an;l to do
tan;l to take; carry
tal to give
(w;ra)da5nal to (re)turn
w;r k;nal to get/stand up
lal to weep
as;l to say

di#r, dr;#q
ara#, ar;#q
ta#r, tar;#q
tou#r, tw;#q
(w;ra)dar]i#r,(w;ra)dar];#q
w;#r kaz, w;#r kaz;q
la#z(ir), laz;#q
asa#, as(az);#q

Note that the regular verbs ;ln;l to rise and baz;l/banal to open
often have irregular contracted forms in the imperative singular.
baz;l
;ln;l

ba#z(i#r), baz;#q
;#l(i#r), ;l;#q

As mentioned earlier, there is a tendency in Modern Armenian to form


prohibitives by adding the particle mi# directly to the imperative. Thus:
mi# barkazir
mi# mot;z;q
mi# 'a.ir
mi# korzrou
mi# dir
mi# tar
etc.

dont get angry!


dont come near!
dont flee!
dont lose (it)!
dont put (it on)!
dont give!

2. To wear
The notion of wearing or putting on in Armenian is expressed by a variety of
different verbs:
verb
dn;l to put on
fagn;l to wear
kap;l to bind
kr;l to bear; wear

used with
hats, gloves, glasses, rings, earrings
dresses, clothes, shoes, socks, coats
watches, ties, belts
necklaces, decorations

Note that the verbs fagn;l and kr;l have a broad range of uses, and
sometimes are employed instead of dn;l and kap;l.

e.g. Kiraki 7re nor fagousts ;m fagn;lou!


On Sunday Ill wear my new suit.
:r;k ir;nz fin ko,ikn;re fagan!
Yesterday they put on their old shoes.
(Note the aorist of the irregular verb fagn;l)
;5nozn;rd di#r!
Put on your gloves.
Kins ci kroum ir normatanin!
My wife is not wearing her new ring.
Inco2u c;s kap;l vamazou\zd!
Why havent you put on your watch?

168
Vocabulary
aknoz61, -i
ar8i aknoz
afa (rare: afawasik)
a\lap;s
a\l8s
angliazi, -ou
ar8;l\an
ar8mt\an
ar6aj, -i
barak
baz
g\ou[, -i
goumar, -i
dipc;l
;[anak, -i
jangaran, -i
j; ch
.namq, -i
6a.s;l
6ou\l
kap;l
karot, -i
ko,ik, -i
k5w;l
kr;l
faxwag\out
fa,iw, havi
fa,iw maqr;l
fa=ord
f;t8\al
];5noz, -i
matani, -ou
mug
n;[ouj\oun, -\an
61

(eye) glasses
sunglasses
here ((it) is); voici; now (as parenthesis)
otherwise
no longer; no more (+ negative verb; hl is also
used in this sense)
English person
eastern; oriental
western
silver (noun)
thin, fine
open; light (of color)
village
sum, amount
to touch; collide with (+ dat.)
weather, season (cf. Lesson 1); melody; manner
museum
or else; otherwise
care; attendance
to spend (+ acc.) (on something (+ gen. + wra))
lazy
to tie; bind (+ acc.)
yearning, longing (noun); lacking, in need of (+
gen.)
shoe; boot
to fight, quarrel (with (+ gen. + f;t)) (for (+
gen. + famar))
to carry; wear (+ acc.)
rare, scarce
account, bill
to settle an account (with (+ gen. + f;t))
next
following
glove
ring
dark (of color)
trouble; difficulty; poverty

Note that the Armenian form is singular, unlike in English.

n;[ouj\oun kr;l
nkaragir, nkaragri
adj. + nkaragri t;r
partq, -i
partq w;rzn;l
soworabar
ou[i[

to trouble oneself; be in trouble


character (moral)
a man of +adj.+ character
debt
to borrow money (from (+ abl.))
usually
right, straight ahead (adj. and adv.)

170
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3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
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16.
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20.
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23.

62

Afa(wasik) ];r 'ntra6 girqe!


A\l8s c;m karo[ apr;l a\dpisi a[=ka f;t!
Papis ar6aj;62 vamazou\ze minc8 fima pafoum ;nq!
Ma\rs ci siroum baz gou\ni fagoustn;r, mi,t mouj gou\ni
fagoustn;r h kroum!
A\d m;6 goumare ir ;[boriz h partq w;rzr;l!
Ar8;l\an ;[anakn;r c;n siroum, ar8mt\an ;[anakn;r ;n
na.entroum!
A\s 'oqrikn;re .namqi karot ;n!
M;r far8ann;re mi,t k5woum ;n 8 b[awoum mim\anz wra!
M;r famalsarani gradarane faxwag\out ,at grq;r ouni
Fa\astani 8 fa\;ri masin!
M;nq m;r fa,iwn;re ard;n maqr;l ;nq!
Bavan(;z);#q ousano[n;rin f;t8\al grq;re!
Fa\rs ;rb;q ];5noz ci dnoum!
Soworabar angliazin;re amousnouj\an matani c;n dnoum!
<at axniw mard h, oc m;kin n;[ouj\oun ci patya5oum!
:2rb ;q w;rada5nalou Fa\astan!
<at fogna6 ;q, mi qic fangstaz;#q!
Tanizs anmi=ap;s dou#rs ;k;q!
;r fin fagoustn;rn ou ko,ikn;re a[qatn;rin tw;q!
^ou\l;rin mi# 7gn;q!
Namakis k;se gr;l ;m, m\ous k;se wa[n ;m gr;lou!
Axniw nkaragri t;r mardik a\dpisi ban;r c;n anoum!
<at ;r;.an;r m;6anoum ;n n;[ouj\an m;=!
Inco2u ;q kangna6! Nst(;z);#q, axat t;[;r ,at kan!

See Lesson 6.2.

Translate into Armenian:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

Last night thieves stole several rare paintings from the museum.
Here is the house where they live.
Put on your clothes, put on your shoes, gloves, and hat, and follow us.
Dont be angry; I did not want to deceive you.
I have never seen a book with such thin pages.
Go into (mti#r)the next village and buy some bread and wine.
Our house has a very fine location in the forest outside Yerevan.
Do not touch the pictures in the museum.
Turn back, the road is usually dangerous in this season.
She has already spent half of her money.
Put on your new clothes tomorrow. Grandfather will be visiting us.
The next three lessons are the most difficult in the book.
Take care of your mother; she is seriously ill.
Put on your sunglasses today, otherwise you may hurt your eyes.
Go straight, then turn right at the next street (Abl.).
Stand up when the teacher comes into the classroom.
Dont wear this hat! Its better without (it).
Show us all the new books on Armenian history that you have bought this
year.
Dont ask so many questions.
Put the wine glasses on the small table (s;[aniki wra).
After the fourth century Eastern Armenia was larger than Western
Armenia.
Do you know when and where you lost your gloves?

Lesson 23
1. The Subjunctive Mood
In modern Eastern Armenian the subjunctive has two tenses: future and
imperfect. These are formed by replacing the -l of the infinitive ending with the
present and imperfect endings, as illustrated below for the verbs to be and to
read:
;s
dou
na
m;nq
douq
nranq

Future
lin;m
kardam
lin;s
kardas
lini
karda
lin;nq kardanq
lin;q
kardaq
lin;n
kardan

Imperfect
lin;i
karda\i
lin;ir
karda\ir
lin;r
kardar
lin;inq
karda\inq
lin;iq
karda\iq
lin;in
karda\in

Note in the 3rd person singular the zero consonant ending and the change of
-;-into -i- in -;l verbs (e.g. gr;l to write gri). Also note that the glide -\is inserted in both a-i and ;-i sequences (as in the imperfect paradigms
above), but is not written in ;-i sequences (;i, not *;\i).
The subjunctive forms are negated by attaching the particle c- to the finite
forms: cgr;m, ckarda\inq, etc.
The perfect and pluperfect subjunctives are formed by adding the present
and imperfect subjunctives respectively of the auxiliary lin;l to be to the -a6
participle of the main verb:
Perfect Subjunctive
Pluperfect Subjunctive

gra6 lin;m, kardaza6 lin;m, etc.


gra6 lin;i, kardaza6 lin;i, etc.

1.1. Some uses of the Subjunctive


A. Verbs in the subjunctive mood express longing, wish, exhortation, command
or doubt.
e.g.

Gnanq toun!
Jo[ a\st;[ mnan!

Lets go home.
Let them remain here.

1) Longing is generally introduced by the modal word ;rani (j;)or simply by


the exclamation point .
e.g.

(:rani j;) m;5a6 lin;i!

I wish I were dead.

Gnam, t;sn;m im Fa\astane! I am longing to go and see my


Armenia!
:rani + the Dative case renders lucky, blessed is/are....
e.g.

:rani nran, ow t;sn;lou h a\d 7re!


Lucky (is) the one who sees that day.

2) Wish is expressed with the phrase aw;li law h... one had better... (literally
it is better to...). When used with negatives, this construction has more of a
sense of warning.
e.g.

Aw;li law h gnam toun!


Id better go home.
Aw;li law h c.osi ir for f;t! Hed better not speak to his father.

Note how the English expression why not (+ infinitive) is rendered into
Armenian:
A\s7r ]ouk cout;2nq!

Why not eat fish today?


(literally Might we not eat fish today?)

The subjunctive may also express doubt:


I2nc an;nq!
What are we to do?
cf. also Inco2u cgnanq!
Why dont we go?
(for why not go? cf. point 2 above)
3) The negative forms of the 2nd person singular and plural as prohibitives,
which express exhortation or warning rather than command.
e.g.

Cas;s nran a\d masin!


Cgna#q a\nt;[!

Dont tell him about it.


Dont (youd better not) go there.

Commands in the first person (lets... or let me...) are expressed by ari
(or rarely ;k(;q)) + the subjunctive.
e.g.

Ari# (;k;#q) ank;[6 .os;nq!


Lets speak sincerely.
Ari t;sn;m, j; inc karo[ ;m an;l!
Let me see what I can do.

174
4) Commands in the third person employ jo[63 + the subjunctive.
e.g.

Jo[ wa[e ga!

Let him come tomorrow/


He should come tomorrow.

5) Sometimes, usually in colloquial speech, the pattern karo2[ h (or karo2[


a)may, might + the positive forms of the subjunctive is used in this sense.
e.g.

Karo2[ h vamazou\z oun;naq!


Would you (happen to) have a watch?
(= Could you tell (me) the time?)
karo2[ h as;iq` vame qani2sn h!
Could you tell me what time it is?

6) Future subjunctives of several verbs have become modal words:


e.g.

T;sn;s galo2u h!
I wonder if he will come.
A\np;s h .osoum, as;s (kar6;s) fa\rs lini!
He speaks as if he were my father/
The way he speaks, youd think he was my father.
As;nq (j;) ;ka, f;to2...
Suppose (Lets say) I came, what then?

B. The subjunctive has a wide variety of uses in subordinate clauses. Two


categories will be discussed in this lesson:
1. Requests and commands (with or)
2. Purpose clauses (with orp;sxi, sometimes or)
1.

>ndr;z, or ir;n lawouj\oun an;nq!


He asked us to do him a favor.
M;r ousouzicn;re pafan=oum ;n, or dasaranoum c.os;nq!
Our teachers demand that we not talk in class.
Ouxo2um ;s, or ya,i ganq wa[e!
Do you want us to come to dinner tomorrow?

63

Jo[ is the singular imperative of jo[n;l to let, allow.

2.

Gnoum ;nq :r8an, orp;sxi a\z;l;nq fa\kakan n,anawor


;k;[;zin;re 8 jangarann;re!
We are going to Yerevan to see the famous Armenian churches and
museums.
Na andadar a,.atoum h, orp;sxi ir entaniqe law
apri!
He works very hard (without rest) so that his family can live well.
Na andadar a,.atoum hr, orp;sxi ir entaniqe law
apr;r!
He used to work very hard (without rest) so that his family could live
well.
<abaje ;rkou angam a\z;loum hin m;x, or m;nak cmna\inq!
They used to visit us twice a week so that we wouldnt be left alone.
When used with the negative, this construction renders the meaning lest.
e.g.

<at mi# .mir, or(p;sxi) cfiwandanas!


Dont drink too much, lest you become ill.
(cf. point A3 above)

Note: The orp;sxi + subjunctive construction is used if the subjects of


the main and subordinate clauses are different. If the subjects are the same, the
dative of the infinitive may be used. See further Lesson 24.
C. Note the duplication of subjunctives, the second being negative, under certain
conditions.
e.g.

fawan;n-cfawan;n
oux;i-coux;i

whether they like it or not


I had no choice. (whether I liked it or not)

2. The Obligatory Mood


The Obligatory also has future and imperfect tenses. It is formed by adding the
indeclinable form piti (or p;tq h) it is necessary to the corresponding
forms of the future and imperfect subjunctives, as well as the perfect and the
pluperfect. For the negatives the particle c- attaches either to piti or p;tq h.
e.g.

piti ;rg;m, p;tq h gar, piti ;ka6 lin;r


cpiti gna\in, cp;tq h ;rg;inq, cp;tq h gnaza6 lin;iq

176
etc.
Note that piti and p;tq h are also used with the infinitive in a similar
(though impersonal) meaning; see further Lesson 24.
2.1. Some uses of the Obligatory
The obligatory denotes obligation, necessity, intention, or moral duty, as with
the English modal verbs must, have to, need to, should, ought to.
e.g.

Wa[e piti m;kn;m qa[aqiz!


Tomorrow I have to leave the city.
P;tq h w;rzra6 lin;ir girqd nraniz!
You had to take your book from her.
Cp;#tq h a\dqan ,at dram 6a.s;s!
You shouldnt/dont have to spend that much money.

Vocabulary
axga\in
Frac\a Aya5\an
ay;l
amousnouj\oun, -\an
andadar
apaga, -i
apaga\oum
arv;q, -i
aw;lanal
danda[
d;r, -i
;rani (j;)
endfanour
jo[
imastouj\oun, -\an
irakanouj\oun, -\an
lawouj\oun, -\an
ka\an, -i
ka\aran, -i
kanga5, -i
ka5awar;l
ka5awarouj\oun, -\an
kar6;s (j;)
fawasarap;s
fawan;l
fodwa6, -i
nafang, -i
n;rk;l
nkat;l
,tap;l
orp;sxi
pa,ton, -i
partakanouj\oun, -\an
piti (p;tq h)
wa[ouz
wa[ouz i w;r
w;rsks;l
w;rzn;l
ta5ap;l

national
Hrachea Adjarian (a famous Armenologist)
to grow, increase
marriage
without rest, hard (adj. and adv.)
future
in the future
value, worth
to increase in number; be left over (+ abl.)
slow (adj. and adv.)
part, role
I wish; would that
general, common
let (+ subjunctive)
wisdom
reality
favor
parking (for cars and planes)
railway station
stop (for buses, etc.)
to govern (+ acc.)
government
as though (see point A6 above)
equally
to like (+ acc.)
article
state, province
to paint (+ acc.)
to notice (+ acc.)
to hurry
so that, in order to
position, office
duty, obligation
must, it is necessary that (+ obligatory)
long ago
for a long time now
to resume, begin again (+ acc.)
to take; lift, pick up (+ acc.) (from (+ abl))
to suffer (from (+ abl.))

178
7da(nawa)ka\an, -i

airport (cf. ka\an parking above)

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
9.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

<tap(;z);#q,
orp;sxi
vamanakin
fasn;nq
7danawaka\an!
M;r m;6 t[an (eldest son) fou\s ouni, or apaga\oum fa\oz
patmouj\an dasa.os piti da5na!
:rani douq hl m;r a[=ka amousnouj\ane n;rka ;[a6 lin;iq!
Irakanouj\oune da ch, ];x .ab;l ;n!
>ndroum ;m, or a\d lawouj\ounn an;q in]!
For;[bors a[=ike :r8ani famalsaranoum endfanour
patmouj\oun h soworoum!
:rkou qou\r;ris hl fawasarap;s siroum ;m!
Fawan;q-cfawan;q` a\s fagousts piti fagn;m!
Masnag;tn;re faya. fodwa6n;r ;n groum, orp;sxi anoun
oun;nan!
Fa\rs m;r nafangi ka5awarouj\an m;= bar]r pa,ton ouni!
P;tq h lour= a,.at;s, orp;sxi partakanouj\ounn;rd law
katar;s!
Grq;rd w;rzrou# s;[ani wra\iz, orp;sxi karo[anam ya,i
s;[an patrast;l!
:rani (j;) git;na\i yi,t patas.ane!
Ouxoum ;m, or im grqiz mi 7rinak oun;nas!
Banworn;rin asa, or ;rb a\d gor6e w;r=azn;n, jo[ toun
cgnan!
Enjriqin fawi mis cout;2nq!
Gor6e ir;n zou\z tanq, t;sn;nq i2nc piti asi!
Bvi,ke danda[ hr .osoum, orp;sxi fiwande faskanar ir
asa6n;re!
Mi qic hl spas;nq, j;r8s ga!
M;r tan pat;re i2nc gou\n(i) n;rk;nq!
Ouri,n;ri wra mi# 6i6a[ir, orp;sxi ouri,n;rn hl wrad
c6i6a[;n!

180
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

All members of the organization must be present at the next meeting.


For the last ten years the value of this picture has been gradually
increasing.
Our uncle used to play an important role in national affairs.
Fortunate are those who can eat meat once a week.
The entrance to the museum is on the other side of the building.
The following students should remain in class after the lesson.
I wish I could speak Armenian as well as you.
In the past the Armenians used to govern their country wisely and well.
Lets get off at the next stop.
Have you noticed how many buildings are going up in Yerevan?
When we arrived at the airport, nobody was waiting for us.
They are demanding that we pay our debts immediately.
She has been suffering from the same illness for a long time.
Mother did not want me to marry a poor student; she preferred that I
marry a rich doctor.
I wish I had gone to Armenia when Adjarian was still alive.
Where (whence) should we begin?
She is always asking us to shut the door quietly.
He bought a car in order to be able to visit his girlfriends more often.
Why dont we write to them and explain what happened?
Be careful lest you fall down the stairs!
We used to leave the house early on Sundays in order to buy flowers for
Grandma.
It looks as though its going to rain all day (an]r8 piti ga).

Lesson 24
Uses of the Infinitive
The infinitive plays a large role in Armenian both as a verbal participle and as a
substantive. The Infinitive is negated by prefixing the negative particle c-, e.g.
cgnal, c.os;l.
Notice that, as in English, perfect infinitives can be formed by adding the
infinitive of the auxiliary lin;l to be to the -a6 participle of the main verb.
The perfect infinitive is negated by prefixing c- to the auxiliary lin;l.
e.g.

tara6;l to spread; extend

tara6a6 lin;l to have spread, to have extended


tara6a6 clin;l not to have spread, not to have extended

1. As a verbal participle the Infinitive is found in:


a) compound verbal predicates, in combination with full finite forms.
e.g. Ouxoum ;m m;kn;l f;nz a\s7r!
I want to leave today.
Ousano[n;re sks;zin gr;l!
The students began to write.
Na karo[ h 'o.a6 lin;l ir fawatqe!
Oro,;zinq cgnal!
We decided not to go.
b) impersonal commands, orders and instructions (especially on signs).
C6.;#l!
Kaxm;l parx na.adasouj\ounn;r!

No smoking!
Make up simple sentences.

2. Substantivized infinitives
When substantivized the infinitives follow the -ou-declension in the singular.
Note that for the locative only the genitive + m;= is used.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

.os;l
.os;l
.os;lou
.os;lou
.os;louz
.os;low
.os;lou m;=

kardal
kardal
kardalou
kardalou
kardalouz
kardalow
kardalou m;=

lin;l
lin;l
lin;lou
lin;lou
lin;louz
lin;low
lin;lou m;=

Some examples of the usage of declined forms of the Infinitive:

He may

182
Nominative

Lo[ale a5o[=arar h! Swimming is healthy.


Note here the use of the definite article as in Lesson 3.5b.

Accusative

:s ,at ;m fawanoum qo par;le!


I like your dancing very much.
The accusative in non-specific contexts such as :s siroum ;m
par;l I like to dance may be considered to be part of a
compound verbal predicate; cf. point 1a above.

Genitive

Im .a[alou vamanake The time for me to play


This case form, often used with famar for, is widely
employed as a modifier of purpose for the main predicate.
e.g. :kanq ];x t;sn;lou (famar)!
We have come to see you.
The genitive may also express the purpose or function of an
object (primarily in colloquial speech).
e.g. gr;lou jou[j
writing paper
out;lou ban
something to eat
Sa kardalou girq ch! This is not a book to (be) read.
Note that the genitive coincides in form with the -u participle.
However, the latter is only used with the auxiliary to form the
future indicative (cf. Lesson 9).

Dative

Na spasoum h ir amousnou vaman;loun!


Shes waiting for her husbands arrival.
The postposition p;s like is used with the definite Dative in
the sense as soon as.
e.g. ^ragire kaxm;loun p;s, zou\z tour ousouzcid!
As soon as you make the program, show it to your
teacher.
toun fasn;loun p;s

as soon as (you) get home


Remember that the possessive suffixes are inherently definite.
Ablative

A\spisi grq;r kardalouz ]an]raz;l ;m!


I am tired of reading such books.

Instrumental

Wax;low n;rs mtaw!


He came in running.
:rrord angame lin;low... (Being) the third time...
Gor6iz ]an]raza6 lin;low... Having been bored by the
work...

Locative

;r k5w;lou m;= law ban c;m t;snoum!


I dont see any good in your quarreling.

184
Vocabulary
akoumb, -i
amac;l
an]nakan
a5ij, -i
a5o[=arar
g6;l
danak, -i
:wropa, -i
lo[al
.ousa';l
6a5a\;l
kaxm;l
k;[6
ktr;l
fawat(q), -i
f;taqrqrouj\oun, -\an
fianal
f\our, -i
]an]ranal
Mat;nadaran, -i
,nc;l
par;l
sastik
wstaf;l
tara6;l
'a\loun
'o.anak
'o.;l
'rk;l
qa,;l
q,;l

club
to be ashamed (of (+ abl.))
personal
opportunity; occasion; cause
healthy (promoting health)
to draw a line
knife
Europe
to swim
to avoid (+ abl.)
to serve, wait upon (+ dat.)
to form; make (up) (+ acc.)
false, feigned
to cut (+ acc.) (with (+ instr.))
belief; faith
interest (not monetary)
to admire (+ instr.)
guest
to grow (be) weary, tired, bored (of (+ abl.))
Matenadaran (the main manuscript library in
Yerevan)
to breathe, inhale (+ acc.)
to dance
severe, strong; too (adj. and adv.)
to count on (+ dat.); trust (something (+
acc.) (to somebody (+ dat.))
to spread; expand (+ acc.)
bright; shining
instead of (prepos. + gen.)
to change; alter (+ acc.)
to save; rescue (+ acc.)
to pull, draw (+ acc.)
to expel; drive, ride (colloq.) (+ acc.)

Translate into English:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Ort;2[ ;s paf;l ford an]nakan namakn;re!


Ma\rikin mi bavak j;\ tour!
Qa\l;le a5o[=arar h bolor nranz famar, oronq srti
fiwandouj\oun oun;n!
Bolor n;rkan;re fiazan` t;sn;low a[=ka par;le!
M;r galoun mi# spas;q, douq ];r ya,e k;r;q!
Wa[e a5awot\an 6owa' piti gnanq` lo[alou!
Kardalouz ]an]raza! Dours gnanq` mi qic jarm 7d ,nc;lou!
M;r far8ani kine k;[6 f;taqrqrouj\amb mors a5o[=ouj\an
masin farzr;z!
G6;low xba[wa6, nranq cnkat;zin ousouzci n;rs mtn;le!
Sastik an]r8i tak q,;l ckaro[analow, Aramn ambo[=
gi,;re ir m;q;na\i m;= anzkazr;z!
:k;[;zi gnalou vamanak cmo5anaq m;x mot mtn;l!
For;[ba\rs, ya,;louz f;to, akoumb h gnoum` fa\;r;n j;rj;r
kardalou!
Arm;nin mi nw;r ;nq talou` ir tar;dar]i a5jiw!
"o.anak tane enjriq patrast;lou` 5;storan gnanq!
Wax;louz ,at ,out ;m fognoum!
Mi,t .ousa';l ;m qa[aqakan or8h kaxmak;rpouj\an
patkan;louz!
:r8aniz w;rada5nalouzs i w;r fa\;r;n .os;lou a5ij c;m
oun;z;l!
A\s .osakzouj\ouniz ]an]raza, ;k;#q (ari#) 'o.;nq n\ouje!
Kar6oum ;q, or f\our;re vamanaki2n piti vaman;n!
Danake apafow t;[ paf(;z);q, orp;sxi 'oqrikn;ri
];5qe cenkni!
S;[ane mi qic a\s ko[m qa,;nq, orp;sxi m;r m\ous enk;rn;rn
hl nst;n!

186
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
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16.
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18.
19.
20.
21.

This (now) is not the time to talk about such things.


I am going to the library to get some books on Armenian history.
It is a pleasure for us to serve you.
Arent you afraid of climbing that dangerous mountain?
My friends are going to Europe next month to visit their family.
After her guests departure, she continued her work.
He must settle his debts before he leaves tomorrow.
Arent you ashamed to wear such a short dress?
It seems they have forgotten to tell you that I will not be coming home for
dinner.
Instead of going by car, walk to the museum; its healthier for you.
Avoid forming opinions on things you know nothing about.
Do you have anything to do this evening?
He has no right to curse at his older brother like that.
Hurry up, we have no time to lose.
I am looking for someone whom I can count on. This work is very
important.
Is there no one here who can save us?
Ani is waiting for her friend so that they can go dancing together.
His faith is a shining example to us all.
Dont decide anything before hearing my proposal.
So many young men have deceived her that now she does not trust
anybody.
Who spread that false news about my sisters wedding?

Lesson 25
1. The Passive
Armenian possesses a suffix -w- that can be used to mark passives, intransitives,
reflexives, and reciprocal verbs; for convenience we refer to this -w- as the
passive morpheme. In order to form the passive infinitive (for transitive verbs
only), one inserts -w-:
a) For verbs in -;l it is inserted between the present stem and -;l.
e.g.

endoun;l to accept
sir;l to love

endounw;l to be accepted
sirw;l to be loved

b) For verbs in -al (and transitive verbs of categories 2 and 3; cf. Lesson 19) the
passive is formed by inserting -w- between the aorist stem and the Infinitve
suffix -;l.
e.g.

kardal to read

mo5anal to forget

mot;nal to come near

kardazw;l to be read
mo5azw;l to be forgotten
mot;zw;l to be brought near

c) For the irregular transitive verbs of category 6 (cf. Lesson 19) the passive is
also formed from the aorist stem.
e.g.

dn;l
an;l
tan;l

tal

(w;ra)da5nal

drw;l to be put
arw;l to be done
tarw;l to be taken/fascinated
(also colloq. to be defeated
trw;l to be given
(w;ra)dar]w;l to be (re)turned

d) The only transitive verb in category 7 verb, out;l to eat, has two passive
infinitives, outw;l and k;rw;l to be eaten.
e.g.

A\s ya,e ci karo[ outw;l! This dish cant be eaten.


Ya,e k;rw;l hr/k;rw;z!
The dish has been/was eaten.

e) A few verbs can imply a passive meaning without -w-.


e.g.

Lou\se mar;z!
The light was turned off.
Na mar;z lou\se! He turned off the light.

188
f) There is a group of verbs containing the passive -w- which do not have active
counterparts in Modern Armenian.
e.g.

xba[w;l
bnakw;l
warvw;l
farmarw;l
far]akw;l
s.alw;l
fousafatw;l
etc.

to be busy with
to dwell, inhabit
to get trained; get used to
to accommodate
to attack, come upon
to err
to despair, give up

g) The passive of a few verbs has a reciprocal meaning.


e.g.

fambourw;l
to kiss each other
gvtw;l
to break with one another
grka.a5nw;l to embrace each other
etc.

Note that the -w- in the following verbs is part of the root, and not the
passive morpheme.
k5w;l
zaw;l
graw;l

to fight with
to ache; be sorry
to occupy (Passive graww;l to be occupied)

h) For the passive of factitive verbs see Lesson 30.


2. Uses of the Passive
1) Unlike English, Armenian only allows passive constructions in which the
direct object becomes the subject. Consequently, constructions such as I am
taught, Armen was told, We were shown and the like are never found in
Armenian; the active forms They teach me, They told Armen, They showed
us occur instead.
e.g.

Am;n mard faskazaw nran!


(S)he was understood by everyone.
(literally every man understood her)

2) In Modern Armenian the 3rd plural is widely used to make general


statements.

e.g.

A\spisi ban;r c;n anoum ouri,n;ri n;rka\ouj\amb!


Such things are not done in the presence of others.

:r8anoum, mi vamanak, am;n t;[


waya5oum!
Once, in Yerevan ice cream was sold everywhere.
but:

pa[pa[ak

hin

Aswoum h, j;...
It is said that...
(better: asoum ;n, j;... they say that...)

3) The meaning of verbs that are grammatically passive may differ in


unpredictable ways from their active counterparts. For example, the meaning of
the verb in:
Arm;ne tarw;l h a\d a[=kanow!
Armen is carried away with that girl
is more than simply the passivization of its active counterpart:
A[=ike tar;l h Arm;nin!
The girl has taken Armen away.
However, in the sentence:
Arm;ne tarw;l h fiwandanoz!
Armen is/was taken to the hospital.
the meaning of the form tarw;l h is simply the passive of the verb tan;l to
take.
Some other idiosyncratic passive forms:
gtn;l to find

war;l to conduct; drive

gtnw;l to be found
but also be located
warw;l to be conducted (rare)
but usually to handle; act; behave

4) When the animate subject of an active verb is passivized, it appears either in


the ablative case or in the genitive case followed by ko[miz on the part of.
e.g.

Ir xawakn;re siroum ;n ir;n!


Her children love her.

190

Na sirwa6 h ir xawakn;ri ko[miz!


She is loved by her children.
Ir bar;kamn;re .ab;zin ir;n!
His friends cheated him.

Na .abw;z ir bar;kamn;riz!
He was cheated by his friends.
The tool of an action takes the Instrumental case.
e.g.

Na spanw;z frazanow!
He was killed with/by a rifle.

5) As discussed in Lesson 17, the -a6 participle may have a passive sense. For
this reason the active form of the -a6 participle is preferred when the agent of
the passive verb is overtly mentioned.
e.g.
rather than

Arm;ni gna6 girqe the book bought by Armen


* Arm;ni gnwa6 girqe

However, verbs employing the passive -w- regularly keep this -w- in the a6 participle. In these cases the agent generally occurs in the instrumental, the
ablative, or the genitive followed by ko[miz, as above.
e.g.

Na sirwa6 h ir xawakn;ri ko[miz!


She is loved by her children.

6) Reflexive verbs can also be formed by adding the -w- to certain verbs.
e.g.

fagn;l to put on fagnw;l to dress oneself


sanr;l to comb sanrw;l to comb ones hair
lw(an)al to wash lwazw;l to wash oneself

Note also ,arvw;l to move (by oneself); cf. point 1f above.


7) With passive verbs, when the subject is singular in form but plural in
meaning, the verb is also singular.
e.g.

Tase faxar dram trw;l h a[qatn;rin!


Ten thousand drams were given to the poor.

W;z fogi spanw;z (or spanw;l h)!


Six people were killed.

192
Vocabulary
a\r;l
a\rw;l
arg;l;l
bouv;l
bv,kouj\oun, -\an
bnouj\oun, -\an
gir, gri
d;5(8s)
;r8ou\j, -i
est ;r8ou\jin
xanaxan
enk;rouj\oun, -\an
jaqnw;l64
lw(an)al
lwazw;l
koc;l
k5iw, kvi
fawasar
f;taqrqr;l
f;taqrqrw;l
fiwandanoz, -i
frazan, -i
fousafatw;l
mar;l
n;rka\ouj\oun, -\an
n;rka\ouj\amb
noriz
,arv;l
,arvw;l
pafan=, -i
pa5k;l
sanr;l
sanrw;l
soworouj\oun, -\an
warvw;l
warw;l
64

to burn (+ acc.)
to burn (intrans.)
to prohibit (+ acc.); (+ Inf.)
to cure (+ acc.) (from (+ abl.))
medicine (science)
nature
letter; script
yet; still
phenomenon
apparently
various
friendship, society; company
to hide oneself
to wash (+ acc.)
to wash oneself
to call, name (after (+anounow))
fight; quarrel
equal
to interest (someone (+ dat.)) (in something
(+ instr.))
to take an interest (in (+ instr.))
hospital
rifle
to give up; despair (from (+ abl.))
to put out; extinguish; faint
presence
in the presence of (postpos. + gen.)
again, anew
to move (+ acc.)
to move (by oneself) (intrans.)
demand; need (of (+ gen.))
to lie down
to comb (+ acc.)
to comb ones hair
habit; custom
to get used to (+ dat.)
to act, behave; handle, treat (+ gen. + f;t)

The passive counterpart of jaqzn;l to hide; cf. Lesson 30.

wirawor;l
wiraworw;l
ouv, -i
qa[aqawarouj\oun, -\an
qar, -i
7r;nq, -i

to hurt; wound (+ acc.)


to get hurt, offended, wounded
force, strength, power
politeness; civility
stone
law

194
Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Axgakanid namake ckaro[aza kardal, orawf;t8


5ous;r;now hr grwa6!
Anafite ir bolor bar;kamn;ri ko[miz sirwa6 h, orowf;t8
bari ou axniw a[=ik h!
Krakn inco2w mar;zin!
Ir ambo[= ouve gor6a6;low` faxiw karo[azaw s;[ane
t;[iz ,arv;l!
Am;n k;ndanou mis ci outwoum!
Endfanrap;s,
fa\riks
qa[aqakan
.ndirn;row
h
f;taqrqrwoum!
T[a\is, ir papi anounow, Fakob ;nq koc;l!
Endfanrap;s,
7r;nqn;re
bavanwoum
;n
xanaxan
fodwa6n;ri!
Arm;ne, otq;re ajo5in dra6, qn;l hr!
Im f;taqrqrouj\oune d;5 ci mar;l a\d gor6i nkatmamb!
Kamaz-kamaz
p;tq
h
warvw;nq
a\s
;rkri
soworouj\ounn;rin!
Qani fa\e ka` fa\;r;ne cpiti mo5azwi!
Ir a5a=arke d;58s endounwa6 ch!
A\dpisi k;[6 patmouj\ane incp;2s ;q fawatoum!
A\s qa[aqoum fa\kakan dproz ka2! :j; ka, ort;2[ h
gtnwoum!
Go[e ;rkrord angam b5nw;z, ba\z noriz 'a.aw!
K5wi vamanak qarow wiraworw;l hr!
A,.arfi am;nam;6 enk;rouj\ounn;re Am;rika\oum ;n
gtnwoum!
Mardik 6nwoum ;n fawasar!
Gitouj\oune d;5 ci karo[az;l bazatr;l bnouj\an bolor
;r8ou\jn;re!
Q;x(a)niz m;6;ri f;t mi,t qa[aqawarouj\amb warwir!

Translate into Armenian:


1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

Everyone should be equal before the law.


By the time of your arrival, everything had already been prepared.
Only give fresh meat to the dog.
He has changed quite a bit since I first met him.
What was asked was more than what was needed.
Because he speaks so slowly, what he says is understood even by
foreigners.
Smoking is prohibited in the hospital.
Thanks to modern medicine, we may be able to cure her.
This was not explained to me before.
My friend was wounded by the enemy during the last war (fight).
The man was sought for three years before he was caught.
All the deceased mans money was given to the church for the building of
a new school.
Such things are not said in the presence of children.
Show us the most intelligent of your pupils.
The book I found was written in ancient script (fin grow).
Where are the children hiding? Tell them to come here at once.
Comb your hair and wash yourself before going to school.
Burn these personal letters lest they fall into anyone elses hands.
When we went to visit the sick man, he was lying down asleep
(pa5ka6, qna6 hr).
The demonstrators made (put) new demands every hour.

Lesson 26
1. The Conditional Mood
This mood has two tenses, future and imperfect. It is formed by attaching the
conditional particle k- to the subjunctive forms.
;s
dou
na
m;nq
douq
nranq

Future
kgr;m
kgr;s
kgri
kgr;nq
kgr;q
kgr;n

Imperfect
kgr;i
kgr;ir
kgr;r
kgr;inq
kgr;iq
kgr;in

kkardam
kkardas
kkarda
kkardanq
kkardaq
kkardan

kkarda\i
kkarda\ir
kkardar
kkarda\inq
kkarda\iq
kkarda\in

The negative conditional is formed by adding the negative forms of the auxiliary
to the indeclinable negative participle.
The negative participle is formed by dropping the final -l of the infinitive
and changing the -;- of -;l verbs into -i.
e.g.

Infinitive
gr;l
.os;l
kardal
.a[al

Negative participle
gri
.osi
karda
.a[a

The negative of the future conditional is formed with the present negative forms
of the auxiliary lin;l - c;m, c;s, ci, c;nq, c;q, c;n. The negative of the
imperfect conditional is formed with the past negative forms of the auxiliary
lin;l - chi, chir, chr, chinq, chiq, chin.
Be sure not to confuse the negative participle with the 3rd person singular
of the subjunctive.
The negative conditional forms for gr;l write and kardal read are
therefore:
Future Conditional Negative
c;m gri
c;m karda
c;s gri
c;s karda
ci gri
ci karda
c;nq gri
c;nq karda
c;q gri
c;q karda

Imperfect Conditional Negative


chi gri
chi karda
chirgri
chirkarda
chr gri
chr karda
chinq gri
chinq karda
chiq gri
chiq karda

c;n gri

c;n karda

chin gri

chin karda

Note that the negative participle follows the finite negative forms of the
auxiliary to be, as usual.
The perfect and pluperfect are formed by adding the conditional forms of
the auxiliary lin;l to be to the -a6 participle of the main verb.
Future
;s
dou
na
m;nq
douq
nranq

gra6 klin;m
gra6 klin;s
gra6 klini
gra6 klin;nq
gra6 klin;q
gra6 klin;n

kardaza6 klin;m
kardaza6 klin;s
kardaza6 klini
kardaza6 klin;nq
kardaza6 klin;q
kardaza6 klin;n

Imperfect
;s
dou
na
m;nq
douq
nranq

gra6 klin;i
gra6 klin;ir
gra6 klin;r
gra6 klin;inq
gra6 klin;iq
gra6 klin;in

kardaza6 klin;i
kardaza6 klin;ir
kardaza6 klin;r
kardaza6 klin;inq
kardaza6 klin;iq
kardaza6 klin;in

Future Negative
;s
gra6 c;m lini
dou
gra6 c;s lini
na
gra6 ci lini
m;nq
gra6 c;nq lini
douq
gra6 c;q lini
nranq
gra6 c;n lini

kardaza6 c;m lini


kardaza6 c;s lini
kardaza6 ci lini
kardaza6 c;nq lini
kardaza6 c;q lini
kardaza6 c;n lini

Imperfect Negative
;s
gra6 chi lini
dou
gra6 chir lini
na
gra6 chr lini
m;nq
gra6 chinq lini
douq
gra6 chiq lini
nranq
gra6 chin lini

kardaza6 chi lini


kardaza6 chir lini
kardaza6 chr lini
kardaza6 chinq lini
kardaza6 chiq lini
kardaza6 chin lini

2. Some uses of the Conditional Mood


Besides occurring in conditional sentences (see point 3 below), this mood may
have other uses in Armenian as well.

198
a) the future conditional is used to denote an action sure to be performed.
e.g.

Wa[e na kga m;r toun!


Tomorrow he will (is sure to) come to our house.
Dou ankaska6 c;s ani a\d bane!
You certainly wont do it.

In this modal sense it may be easily replaced by the future obligatory or the
future indicative.
Compare:

Wa[e ;s kgnam - piti gnam - gnalou ;m - a\nt;[!


Tomorrow I am to - have to - shall go there.

b) the imperfect conditional expresses unreal wishes and desires, primarily in


the 1st person singular.
e.g.

Fayou\qow fima pa[pa[ak kout;i!


I would now eat ice cream with pleasure.

c) the 2nd person interrogative form of the imperfect and future conditional
negative expresses polite request, offer, invitation.
e.g.

Chi2q (c;2q) ou[;kzi in] toun!


Mi gawaj soury chi2q .mi!

Wont you see me home?


Wont you drink a cup of coffee?

d) the perfect conditional may denote a state certain to come to pass (cf. point
(a) above) only if accompanied in the sentence by an indicator of future time.
e.g.

Mi amsiz nra 6no[n;re ;ka6 klin;n!


His parents will (are sure to) have come in a month.

However, without an indicator of future time, it expresses a state that is


supposed to exist in the present.
e.g.

T[an;re fima ;ka6 klin;n!


The boys seem to have come (are already there) now.

The pluperfect conditional is rarely found in simple sentences.

3. Conditional sentences
In Armenian complex sentences with conditional clauses and a variety of verbal
mood and tense forms may be juxtaposed, though with certain restrictions. If is
rendered by ;j;.
The most usual types are the following:
1. For statements of fact, expressing real conditions.
e.g. :j; asoum ;m, our;mn git;m! (Pr. Ind./Pr. Ind.)
If I say (it), then I know.
:j; na .ndroum h, apa p;tq h gnas! (Pr. Ind./Future Obl.)
If he asks, then you have to go.
:j; 7gn;l ;s m;r j,namin;rin,(our;mn) dawayan ;s!
(Perf. Ind./Pr. Ind.)
If you have helped our enemies, (then) youre a traitor.
:j; na ga, m;nq kgnanq miasin jatron! (Fut.Opt./Fut.Cond.)
If he comes, well go to the theater together.
:j; patoufane kotrwa6 lini, sa5e 7de n;rs kga!
(Fut. Perf. Opt./Fut. Cond.)
If the window is broken the cold air will come in.
Note that the pattern {future subjunctive (subordinate clause) + future
conditional (main clause; both future and imperfect tenses)} is the most common
one for Armenian conditional sentences.
2. For hypothetical statements expressing unreal conditions, i.e. conditions that
did not actually occur in the real world. Note that only the imperfect and
pluperfect subjunctives are found in conditional sentences of this type.
e.g.

:j; a\s mise out;ir, kfiwandana\ir! (Imp. Opt./Imp. Cond.)


If you ate that meat, you would fall ill.
:j; vamanakin gnazq cnst;i, vo[owiz ou,aza6 klin;i!
(Imp. Opt. Neg./Pluperf. Cond.)
If I hadnt caught the train on time, I would have been late for the
meeting.
:j; ;s lin;i qo t;[e, nra f;t a\dp;s chi warwi!
(Imp. Opt./Imp. Cond. Neg.)

200
If I were you, I wouldnt treat him that way.
:j; ;r;k ;ka6 lin;ir, kkaro[ana\ir t;sn;l nran!
(Plup. Opt./Imp. Cond.)
If you had come yesterday, you would have been able to see him.

Vocabulary
a\dp;s
apa
Astwa6, Ast6o
Astwa6 cani!
"a5q Ast6o!
Araqs, -i
arka6, -i
ba.t, -i
gl.awor
go\ouj\oun, -\an
go\ouj\oun oun;nal
dawayan, -i
dimanal
;j;
;j; + negative
;ritasardouj\oun, -\an
;r=ankouj\oun, -\an
xbosanq, -i
xbosanqi gnal
xgou,ouj\oun, -\an
joulanal
imazn;l
.;lq, -i
.or(e)
famar]akw;l
fanzanq, -i
farwa6, -i
fiwandanal
masamb
m;6 masamb
miak
mtadrw;l (mtadir lin;l)
n;r;l
n;ro[ouj\oun, -\an
N;ro[ouj\o#un!
n;ro[ouj\oun .ndr;l

thus, so
then (in that case); afterwards
God, Lord
God forbid
Thank Goodness!
Araxes (a river)
adventure; incident
luck; fate
chief, prime (adj.)
existence
to exist
traitor
to endure, withstand (+ dat.)
if
unless
youth (abstract collective noun)
happiness
walk (noun)
to go for a walk
caution
to weaken
to inform; let (someone (+ dat.)) know
(something (+ acc.))
intellect, wit
deep; profound (adj.)
to dare (+ Inf.)
fault; crime
blow, strike (noun)
to fall ill, become sick (with (+ instr.))
partly
mostly
only, single
to intend to (+ Inf.)
to forgive, excuse (someone (+ dat.)) (for
something (+ acc. or + gen. + famar))
apology; excuse
Im sorry! (Excuse me!)
to apologize (to someone (+ abl.)) (for
something (+ gen. + famar))

202
patarag, -i
patv;l
wjar, -i
wjari ;njarkw;l
tar;kan
Qani2 tar;kan ;s!
ouv;[
ou[;kz;l
ou,anal
'a.zn;l

liturgy, mass
to punish (+ acc.) (for (+ gen. + famar))
traffic accident
to have (suffer) an accident
yearly; X years old (e.g. ten years old)
How old are you?
strong
to accompany; see off (+ acc.)
to be late (for (+ abl.))
to snatch (+ acc.) (from (+ abl.)); miss (train,
chance, etc. (rare))

Translate into English:


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5.
6.
7.
8.
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20.

:j;, Astwa6 cani, or8h d;pq patafi, anmi=ap;s xang;#q


in]!
:j; dawayane b5nwi, anpa\man piti patvwi!
:j; .;lq oun;nar, a\dpisi car ban;r chr ani!
Mi# 'or]ir k5w;l nra f;t, na ,at ouv;[ h!
Fa\astaniz mi qani ,i,gini b;r;zin m;x!
P;tq h dimanal ba.ti farwa6n;rin!
:j; n;ro[ouj\oun c.ndr;ir, na q;x chr n;ri!
Cou,ana#s, orowf;t8 c;nq karo[ spas;l q;x!
:j; a\d ko[m;re gnaq, go[;riz xgou,az;#q!
Ir k\anqe m;6 masamb g\ou[;roum h anzkazr;l!
:j; nra f;t xgou,ouj\amb warw;s, gor6;rd aw;li law
kgnan!
:j; Fa\astan cga\i, chi karo[ana a\sqan law fa\;r;n
.os;l!
:j; m;x imazn;in, or a\st;[ ;q, ;[ba\rs ou ir kinn hl m;x
f;t kga\in!
Qo asa6n;re mia\n masamb ;n yi,t!
Minc8 pataragi sksw;le ,at qic mard kar ;k;[;zoum!
:j; mtadrw;l ;s npatakid fasn;l, apa piti aw;li lour=
a,.at;s!
:j; wa[n an]r8 cga, m;r tan a5=8i masn hl kn;rk;nq!
M;q;na\i wjariz f;to d;58s ci karo[anoum ou[i[ qa\l;l!
"oqrik t[a\in arg;l;zin .ore =ri m;= lo[al!
Yi2,t h, or ;r;soun tar;kaniz f;to mardou ouve sksoum h
joulanal!

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2.
3.
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7.
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9.
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12.
13.
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19.
20.

If that is the case, one of us must be wrong.


If it rains tomorrow, there will be no class.
What would you do if you were to find a thousand dollars?
Our prime concern is that the others not arrive before us.
You should drive your car cautiously in order not to have an accident.
My brother informed me last night that their first child was born
yesterday.
The Araxes is too deep for animals to cross (= so deep that animals
cannot cross).
Take care that you dont fall ill again.
Let us know when you get back home.
If you intend to buy a car, it would be better to buy a new one.
The mistakes of his youth were only minor ones.
Next week Ill be thirty-seven.
Whatever you do, do not miss that chance.
If you havent given him any money, he will not be able to buy what you
wanted.
Were you to arrive at the time you said, you would find everyone out (=
would not find anyone at home).
If you send that letter tomorrow morning, it will arrive the next day.
Do not do that unless you want to be punished.
They would know what we were talking about had they been present at
our last meeting.
When she began not to go for a walk every day, her health considerably
weakened.
If you had informed us that you intended (had an intention) to come by
train, we would have gone to the station with the car.

Lesson 27
Expressions of time (part 2)
Some examples of these expressions have already been discussed in Lesson 9.3.
Here we consider the topic further, focusing on the declension of nouns denoting
time.
1. Declension
Most temporal nouns in Modern Armenian belong to -wa declension in the
singular, though they can also follow the -i declension (like all nouns, they
follow the -i declension in the plural). In the paradigm below the preferred
variants are underlined in cases where two forms are in use.
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.65
m;=

hour
vam
vamwa,vami
vamwa,vami
vam
vamwaniz,vamiz
tarwaniz,tarouz
vamow
vamoum,vamwa m;=

day
7r
7rwa, 7ri
7rwa, 7ri
7r
7rwaniz,7riz

year
tari
tarwa, tarou
tarwa, tarou
tari

7row
7roum,7rwa m;=

tarow
taroum,tarwa

Some other temporal nouns (preferred variants underlined):


autumn
century
day
daytime
evening
hour
midnight
minute
month
morning
night
noon
second
65

a,oun, gen. a,nan (adj. a,nana\in)


dar, -i
7r, -wa, -i (see the declension pattern above)
z;r;k, -wa; abl, -waniz; instr.erekov by day
;r;ko, gen. ;r;ko\i (-\-inserted); ;r;ko\an (archaic)
vam, -wa, -i (see the declension pattern above)
k;sgi,;r, -wa, -i; abl.-waniz, -iz
rop;, -i (-\- pronounced but not written)
amis, gen. amswa, amsi; abl.-waniz, -iz; instr. -ow
a5awot, -wa; -\an (archaic); abl. -waniz,-iz
gi,;r, -wa; abl. -waniz; instr. gierov by/at night
k;s7r, -wa; -i
wa\rk\an, -i

For the locatives see the end of point 1.

206
spring
summer
time
today
tomorrow
week
winter
year
yesterday

garoun, gen. garnan (adj. garnana\in)


ama5, gen. aman, amawa (adj. ama5a\in )
vamanak, -wa; -i
a\s7r,-wa
wa[e, gen. wa[wa (note that the -e drops)
,abaj, -wa; -i; abl. abwaniz,abiz; instr.-ow
]m;5, gen. jman, jmeva(adj. ]m;5a\in)
tari, -wa, -ou; abl. tarwaniz, -ouz; instr. -ow
;r;k, -wa

The notion of occurring in a specific interval of time is expressed by


the genitive case + m;= in or enjazqoum during, or (for certain nouns) by
the locative -oum (cf. Lesson 9.3).
e.g.

kary vamanakoum
in a short time
wa\rk\anoum/rop;oum/vamoum 10 km
10 km per second/minute/hour

But:

garnane/am5ane/a,nane/]m5ane
in spring/summer/autumn/winter
(jwin)1993-in
In (the year) 1993
kiraki(7re)
on Sunday
a\d 7re
on that day

2. Time of day
What time is it?
(It is) two (oclock).
(It is) half past three.
(It is) a quarter past four.
(It is) a quarter to five.
(It is) ten past six.
(It is) twenty five to seven.

Vame qani2sn h!
(Vame) ;rkousn h! or :rkouse!
;r;qn anz k;s (h)!
corsn anz (h) qa5ord!
fingin qa5ord h pakas!
W;z(n) anz h tas!
{ojiz qsanfing (h) pakas!

at noon
at midnight
at what time?
on what day?
in what month?

yi,t
vame
;rkousin,
;r;qin...(dat.)
inn anz qa5ord(in)or inn anz
tasnfing(in)
tasiz
qa5ord/tasnfing
pakas
tasn;rkousin tasn;r;q (rop;)
pakas
k;s7rin
k;sgi,;rin
o2r vamin (= ;2rb)
o2r 7re
o2r amsin

but:
in what year?
in the future
in the past
on time

o2r taroum
apaga\oum
anz\aloum
vamanakin

promptly at two, three... oclock


at a quarter past nine (nine fifteen)
at a quarter to ten
at thirteen minutes to twelve

Qnnouj\oune t8;z vame inn anz qa5ordiz minc8 tasnm;kn anz


k;s!
The exam lasted from a quarter past nine to eleven thirty (half past eleven).
Wa[waniz sksa6 ,abaje ;r;q angam das piti oun;nanq!
Beginning tomorrow we will have class three times a week.
Minc8 ;r;k bolorn hl kanonawor (k;rpow) hin faya.oum!
Up until yesterday they all attended regularly.
Famalsarann ambo[= ama5(e) 'ak h!
The university is closed all summer.
Nor tarwa ar]akourde ]m5ann h trwoum!
New Year holiday is (given) in the winter.
T;r8n;rn a,nann ;n ja'woum!
The leaves fall in the autumn.
3. Derivatives in -akan
Forms involving the ending -akan can be used as adjectives (or nouns) and
also sometimes in expressions of time.

208
e.g. 7rakan daily, per day
7rakan (or 7re) ;r;qangam p;tq h out;q!
You should eat three meals (times) a day.
,abajakan weekly, per week
M;r fa\;r;ni dase ,abajakan ;rkou angam h!
Our Armenian class is twice a week.
amsakan monthly, per month
tar;kan yearly, per year; annual; X years old
Qani2 tar;kan ;s (;q)!
How old are you?
M;r enk;rouj\an tar;kan vo[owe t;[i h oun;noum
a,nane!
The annual meeting of our society takes place in the autumn.
vamakan (preferrably vamoum or vame) hourly, per hour
vamoum (or vame) fisoun km
50 kilometers per hour
(see point 1 above)

Vocabulary
ama5, -wa (or am5an)
amsakan (or amise)
Anglia, -i
a,oun, anan
aragouj\oun, -\an
ar]akourd, -i
ar]akourd gnal
bnakouj\oun fastat;l
garoun, garnan
dim;l
;r;k ch m\ous (or a5a=in) 7re
;r;ko, -i (or ;r;ko\an (archaic))
ja';l
ja'w;l
vamakan (pref. vamoum or vame)
kanonawor
k;rp
...k;rpow (instr.)
k;sgi,;r, -wa; -i
k;s7r, -wa; -i
k;s7riz f;to
fa=o[w;l
but in] (dat.) fa=o[w;z...
]m;5, -wa (or ]m5an)
]ri
mi=oz, -i
sksa6
wa[ouz, -wa
wa[ouzwaniz (colloq.)
wa\rk\an, -i
t;r8, -i
z;r;k, -wa
qnnouj\oun, -\an
qnnouj\oun fan]n;l (colloq. tal)
7rakan

summer
monthly, per month
England
autumn; fall
speed; velocity
holiday, vacation
to go on vacation
to settle
spring
to apply to (+ dat.)
the day before yesterday
evening; party
to spill; throw away (+ acc.)
to fall; overflow
hourly, per hour
regular; proper (adj. and adv.)
fashion, way, manner
in ... way, fashion, manner
midnight
noon
afternoon
to be a success, succeed
I succeeded (in)...
winter
free of charge
means
beginning (postpos. and prepos. + abl.)
for a long time (adv. and noun)
long since, long ago
second (of time)
leaf
daytime; afternoon
examination
to take an exam
daily, per day

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7.
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66

A,nan t;r8n;re tarb;r gou\n;r oun;n!


:r8ane ,at g;[;zik h garnane!
K;sgi,;riz a5a= tane p;tq h lin;s!
Wa[waniz sksa6 das;re aw;li ,out piti sksw;n!
Vame ;rkousin bolore w;radar]an!
Minc8 vame finge bolord hl w;radar]a6 piti lin;q!
re qani2 vam ;q qnoum!
;r banworn;re o2r amsin ;n ar]akourd gnoum!
A5awot\an vame qanisi2n h arjnanoum ma\rd!
Nran cfa=o[w;z fan]n;l tar;kan qnnouj\oune!
A\s ,abajwa qa[aqakan lour;re ca'axanz t.our hin!
Gi,;r-z;r;k a,.at;zi, orp;sxi a\s amis w;r=azn;m
gor6s!
A\n vamanakwa soworouj\ounn;re dvba.tabar fima
mo5azwa6 ;n!
Nra mafwan66 patya5n;re minc8 fima cgit;nq!
Fa\;re ,at wa[ouzwaniz bnakouj\oun ;n fastat;l 7tar
;rkrn;roum!
:j; c;s karo[ a\d gor6e katar;l, mi# .ostazir!
I2nc ;q kar6oum, o2r vamin piti gan ];r bar;kamn;re!
Tarin a5nwaxn m;k angam p;tq h dim;l bv,ki!
Ka5awarouj\oune qa[aqakan i2nc mi=ozn;ri p;tq h dimi!
Soworabar,
vamakan
(vamoum)
oujsoun
kilom;tr
aragouj\amb h q,oum ir m;q;nan!
Karo2[ ;s t;sn;l nran wa[e z;r;ke, ;rkousiz f;to!
A\s ;r;ko .ist xba[wa6 ;m, karo2[ ;s gal wa[e ch m\ous
7re!

Note that maf death can follow the -wa(n) declension; cf. Lesson 21.

Translate into Armenian:


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6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
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16.
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19.
20.
21.

Generally, the summers are long and hot in Yerevan.


Where are you intending to go for your winter vacation?
In England shops are usually closed from one to two in the afternoon.
He spends his evenings working (a,.at;low)and his mornings
sleeping (qn;low).
Many people wrongly suppose that noon is the hottest time of the day.
The population of Armenia is now about 3.5 million.
Each day has twenty-four hours and each hour has sixty minutes.
He regularly helps the poor people of their village.
I am sure that all our students will pass (law kfan]n;n)their annual
examinations.
It is three oclock; it is seventeen minutes past five; it is half past eleven;
it is twenty-one minutes to seven; it is a quarter to eight.
The meeting will begin promptly at 8:15 in the evening.
At what time do you usually have breakfast?
Today the shop will be closed from midday until 3:30.
Look out or you will burn yourself!
Unless you attend classes regularly, it will be difficult for you to finish
the Armenian course.
For many years, the population of the world has been rapidly increasing.
She has not eaten anything since yesterday.
How many free copies of their book do authors usually receive?
The leaves fell to the ground from the autumn trees.
For the last seventeen years that writer has been busy writing a novel
about life in modern Armenia.
I last (w;r=in angam)saw your friend the day before yesterday.

Lesson 28
Participles (continued)
There are some participles in Armenian which may be used without a finite
verb. One of these, the -a6 participle, was discussed in Lesson 17.1; in Lesson
24.2 we discussed of the difference between the Genitive case of Infinitives (in ou) and the future participle in -ou. Remember that the latter cannot be used
independently; it is only employed to form the finite future indicative (Lesson
9).
1. The present participle
The present participle in -o[ denotes an action or the agent/subject of an action.
It is formed by adding the suffix -o[ (passive -wo[):
a) to the present stem of -;l verbs
e.g. sir(w);l to love
sir(w)o[ loving; lover; beloved
.os(w);l to speak .os(w)o[ speaking; speaker; (being)
spoken
b) to the aorist stem of -al verbs
e.g. kardal to read kardaz(w)o[ reading; reader; (being)
read
.a[al to play .a[az(w)o[ playing, player; (being)
played
Note that the passive participles kardazwo[, .a[azwo[,and the like
rather originate from the corresponding causative verbs kardazn;l,
.a[azn;l to cause to read/play, since there are no passives for kardal and
.a[al (cf. Lesson 30).
The -o[ participle, like the English present participle, may serve as an
adjective or substantive. When substantivized, it follows the -i declension.
1.1. Examples of usage
;rkou xawak oun;zo[ kin
lso[n;re
Gro[n;ri miouj\oune
Am;rika\oum bnakwo[ fa\;re

a woman having (or with) two children


the listeners
the Writers Union
the Armenians living in America

Note that the -o[ participle cannot be used to render the English present
participle as in while crossing the street I saw... (see point 2 below).

2. The -is participle


Besides the form in -oum, Armenian verbs have a second imperfect participle,
formed by adding the ending -is to the infinitive.
e.g.

gr;l
kardal

gr;lis
kardalis

Note that the -oum participle is found only in finite verb forms, i.e.
accompanied by the auxiliary to be (cf. Lessons 3, 5). The -is participle never
forms the main predicate of a sentence. It rather serves as an adverbial modifier
denoting an action simultaneous to that of the main predicate.
Thus, the sentence while crossing the street I saw... corresponds to
Armenian 'o[ozn anzn;lis ;s t;sa... .
Note that if the agent in this type of construction is not expressed, it must
refer to the main subject. Thus for example 'o[ozn anzn;lis ;s t;sa...
means while I was crossing the street I saw.... The sentence 'o[ozn
anzn;lis, awtobouse kangn;z can only mean the bus stopped while (it
was) crossing the street; it cannot mean *the bus stopped while I was crossing
the street. The latter sense requires an overt reference to the subject of the
subordinate clause: im 'o[ozn anzn;lis, awtobouse kangn;z.
3. Verbal adjectives in -i
These correspond to the English adjectives with the suffix -able; they are formed
by adding -i to the Infinitive.
e.g.

also:

sir;l

endoun;l

pa,t;l

karo[anal (kar;nal)

sir;li
endoun;li
pa,t;li

lovable
acceptable
adorable
kar;li

This verbal adjective is mostly used predicatively (cf. Lesson 29.3).


Note that when substantivized these adjectives follow the regular -i
declension, despite the fact that we might expect them to follow the -ou
declension since they end in -i.
e.g.

Im sir;lii namake in] cfasaw!


The letter from my beloved (one) didnt reach me.
sir;lin;rs
my dear ones!
pa,t;lis

permissi

214
my darling
Recall that substantivized Infinitives belong to the -ou declension, not the -i
declension: sir;lou, sir;louz, endoun;low,etc.
Substantivized adjectives in -i often take the suffix -q in a collective sense.
In this circumstance they may still serve as noun modifiers.
e.g.

.m;l - .m;li - .m;liq


out;l - out;li - out;liq

to drink - drinkable - drink


to eat - eatable - food

Vocabulary
a\l
anendoun;li
anfog
anfogouj\oun, -\an
banali, -ou
bnakan
bnakic, bnaki
gor6, -i
gtnw;l

other
unacceptable
carefree; indifferent; negligent
indifference; negligence
key
natural
inhabitant
work; business; piece of art or literature
to be situated; be found (passive of gtn;l
to find) (see Lesson 25.2.3)
grouj\oun, -\an
note (short letter)
endoun;li
acceptable
ibr8 (j;)
supposedly; as if
.m;liq, -i
drink, beverage
.micq, -i
drink (usually alcoholic)
6a5a\ouj\oun, -\an
service
6i6a[;li
ridiculous
kaska6;li
suspicious, strange
fa\;li, -ou
mirror
fangamanq, -i
circumstance
fanra\in
public (adj.)
fawaq;l
to collect, assemble, gather (+ acc.)
fawaqw;l
to come together
f;t8abar
consequently, so
m;6agou\n
greater, very great, greatest
miouj\oun, -\an
union
mitq, mt i
mind; thought, idea
m,akou\j, -i
culture
m,akouja\in
cultural
n;rka\azn;l
to introduce, represent; perform (a play) (+
acc.) (to/for (+ dat.))
n;rka\azouzic, nerkayaui representative
,arvoum, ar man
motion, movement; gesture
,r=aka\q, -i
environment, neighborhood
out;liq, -i
food
ouranal
to deny, renounce (+ acc.)
pa,t;li
adorable
pa,ton\a, -i
official (person)
paraga, -i
circumstance, case

216
p;touj\oun, -\an

state

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5.
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An]nakan patya5n;row ckaro[aza vo[owin n;rka


gtnw;l!
Bazi draniz, a\l .ndirn;row hl xba[w;zinq!
A\d gro[i gor6;re hl c;m kardoum, orowf;t8 c;m faskanoum
dranq!
Fanra\in gor6;row xba[wo[n;re 8 vo[owrdi ko[miz
entrwa6 bolor n;rka\azouzicn;re p;tq h kardan a\d
kar8or fodwa6e!
N;rka ;[o[n;ri (or n;rkan;ri) m;6agou\n masn endoun;z nra
a5a=arke!
Nra ,arvoumn;re bolorowin hl bnakan c;n!
Tigrann ourazaw anz\al amswa qa[aqakan vo[own;rin
ir masnakza6 lin;le!
Ka5awarouj\an pa,ton\an;re fa\tn;zin, or axga\in
partqe mi qani milionow aw;laz;l h!
Fangamanqn;re stip;zin nran waya5;l ir fin toune!
A,.atanq coun;zo[n;re p;touj\an 7gnouj\oune p;tq h
.ndr;n!
A\d ko[m;re xbosanqi gnalis, ];r out;liqn ou .m;liqe
(.micqe) ];x f;t tar;q, orowf;t8 ,r=aka\qoum .anoujn;r
c;q gtni!
As;liq ,at oun;m! Mi 7r fandip;nq, orp;sxi am;n inc
patm;m ];x!
Imaza6 ;[;q, or qnnouj\oune ,at dvwar piti lini!
;r asa6n;re parx ;n, krkn;lou kariq coun;q!
Gor6i gnalouz a5a=` fa\rs m;x fambouroum h!
Mi qani rop;iz 'ost ;m gnalou! :j; ou[ark;liq namakn;r
oun;q` tw;#q, tan;m!
Xba[w;lou mi mi=oz p;tq h gtn;l, a\lap;s ocinc can;low
k]an]rananq!
Gro[n;ri miouj\an andamn;re ort;2[ piti fawaqw;n!
A\s paraga\oum nra anfogouj\ounn anendoun;li h in]
famar!
Fankar6aki, a5anz or8h patya5i, prn. Fakob\ane
m;kn;z qa[aqiz!

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20.

Most of the towns paper factories are situated on the right (not left) bank
of the river.
A man with a watch does not need to ask strangers the time.
After her adorable husbands death, she lost her former happiness.
He supposedly came to help us, but in reality he did more harm than
good.
Because of the services he has rendered everyone, he is liked by all.
That man is suspect; keep away from him.
Our daughter wants to become a famous writer.
She has read too many novels, consequently her ideas about life are
ridiculous.
Wherever Armenians are to be found, they always form various cultural
unions.
Our Armenian teacher has written many books on the history of
Armenian thought.
Last night the theater performed Hamlet for the third time this month.
The inhabitants of our neighborhood are from various countries of the
world.
He broke the key while opening the door.
How many letters do you have to write this week?
I have a lot of things to do; you will have to wait a few more minutes.
The enemies proposals were quite unacceptable, so the war continued.
He is a very rapid speaker, so the lecture should not last long.
When combing her hair my elder sister spends hours in front of the
mirror.
He didnt even leave a note while leaving.
Because of his negligence he soon lost his position.

Lesson 29
1. Result clauses
Clauses of result are introduced by conjunctive words such as ousti (8)hence,
therefore, f;t8abar consequently, so, and a\np;s or so (that). Note
that a\np;s or so (that) requires the use of an subjunctive verb when it
introduces a purpose clause. Compare:
Result:

Na .os;z a\np;s, or bolore xarmazan!


He spoke so (in such a way) that everyone was surprised.

Purpose:

Na .os;z a\np;s, or bolore xarmana\in!


He spoke so (in such a way) that everyone would be surprised.

Further examples:
Girqn anf;taqrqir hr, ousti (8) ckaro[aza w;r=azn;l a\n!
The book was uninteresting, so I couldnt finish it.
A\s7r gnazq cka, f;t8abar vamanakin t;[ c;nq fasni!
There is no train today, therefore we wont arrive on time.
Paps ,at 6;r h, a\np;s or ci karo[ qa\l;l a5anz 7gnouj\an!
My grandfather is very old, so he cant walk unaided.
Distinguish between the result clauses in the examples above and similar
clauses expressing manner, measure, etc. in the sentences below:
e.g.

Paps a\nqan 6;r h, orci karo[ qa\l;l a5anz 7gnouj\an!


My grandfather is so old that he cannot walk unaided.

Or:

Na .os;z a\np;s, or bolors fiazanq!


She spoke in such a way that we all marvelled.

In fact, the manner and measure clauses are introduced by the conjunction
or that, not a\np;s or; in these cases a\np;s belongs to the main clause, is
separated from or by a comma, and need not be adjacent to it.
e.g.

A\np;s .os;z na, or...


She spoke in such a way that...

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2. Concessive clauses
These may be introduced by the conjunctive words j;8, j;p;t (8), cna\a6
(or) (al)though, faka5ak (a\n bani) or despite (the fact) that, etc.
Examples:
Na ,arounakoum hr ;rg;l, j;8 oc oq chr lsoum ir;n!
He continued to sing, although no one was listening to him.
J;p;t(8) fawan;l hi nkare,(ba\z)67 ckaro[aza gn;l a\n,
qani or 'o[ coun;i!
Though I liked the picture, I couldnt buy it, because I had no money.
Cna\a6 (or) an]r8 hr galis, gnazinq xbosn;lou!
Though it was raining we went for a walk.
Faka5ak (a\n bani) or Po[os\ane fiwand hr, na n;rka ;[aw
vo[owin!
Despite the fact that Poghosian was ill, he attended the meeting.
Like the English phrases in spite of and contrary to, the conjunctions
cna\a6 and faka5ak may also take simple objects, in the Dative case.
e.g.

cna\a6 an]r8in
ir oro,mane faka5ak

in spite of the rain


contrary to (despite) his decision

3. Some simple expressions of politeness


Along with rare and high-style expressions such as bar;fay;#q (fay;z;#q)
please, karton;2q would you allow (it)?, and frama#nqd your
command, there are some simple forms in common use. For example:
>ndr;m
e.g.

(1st person singular subjunctive of .ndr;l to beg, ask) is


roughly equivalent to English please.
W;rzr;#q, .ndr;m!
Tw;#q, .ndr;m, ];r girqe!
N;#rs ;k;q, .ndr;m!

Take it, please.


Give me your book, please.
Come in, please.

>ndr;m is also used as a response to requests or thanks.


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The use of bay here is more colloquial, and only allowed if the concessive
clause precedes the main clause.

e.g.

O2ur h im aknoze!
>ndr;#m!
Anca' ,norfakal ;m!
>ndr;#m! (also Carv;#!)

Where are my glasses?


Here you are.
Thank you very much.
Youre welcome. (Not at all.)

Note that the plural of .ndr;m is never found.


In response to an apology, carv;, fog ch never mind, or (colloquially)
ocinc are used.
e.g. N;r;z;#q kopit ba5;ris famar! I am sorry for my harsh
words.
Carv;#/Fog ch#/Oci#nc!
Never mind/Its nothing!
The imperatives fam;zi#r (singular) and fam;z;#q (plural) express a
general invitation which means (depending on the situation) come in, sit
down, help yourself, etc.
The imperative forms bari# ;[ir/;[;q... be kind enough to..., do,
please! when used by themselves or as a parenthesis maintain their basic
meaning. However, if followed by a notional infinitive they imply resentment.
e.g.

Bari# ;[ir c.a5nw;l nra gor6;rin!


Be kind enough not to interfere with his affairs.

For expressions of politeness through negative interrogative forms see


Lesson 26.2c.
The expression {kar;li2 h + infinitive} renders may I?, is it possible
to...?, etc.
e.g.

Kar;li2 h ];x mi ban farzn;l!


May I ask you something?

In colloquial speech the phrase kar;li2 h is common in phone


conversations, meaning will you call ...?.
e.g.

N;r;z;q, Tigranin kar;li2 h (.ndr;l)!


Excuse me, will you call Tigran to the phone?

The negative prohibitive phrase ci kar;li means it is forbidden, it is not


permitted and is often used by parents to forbid their children to do something.

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e.g.

Ci# kar;li a[mk;l!


Its forbidden to be noisy! (Dont make noise).

Vocabulary
a[b\our, -i
a\np;s
a\np;s or
anfamb;rouj\oun, -\an
anxgou,ouj\oun, -\an
an]amb
arjnanal (xarjn;l)
bari ;[ir/;[;q
bar]rouj\oun, -\an
bar]ounq, -i
est
j;8
j;p;t(8)
incp;s ... a\np;s (hl)
isk
kanon, -i
kar;li
kar;li2 h...
Ci# kar;li...
k;[tot
kilom;tr, -i
faka5ak
(end)faka5ake
fam;z;q/fam;zir
]\oun, -an
]\oun gal (or t;[al)
ma[janq, -i
mu, man
mjin (colloq. mjnow)
motaworap;s
nou\np;s
stw;r, -i
stoug;l
stou\g
w;radar], -i
wstafouj\oun, -\an
toms(ak), -i
zou\z, -i

source; spring
so (in such a way)
so (that)
impatience
carelessness
personally; by oneself
to wake up (from (+ abl.))
(see point 3 above)
height
height (e.g. of a hill)
according to (prep. + gen.)
(al)though
(al)though
as ... so (often both ... and)
but, whereas
rule; regulation
permissible (predicative)
may I...?; is it possible to...?
it is forbidden to...
dirty
kilometer
opposite (adj.); despite; opposite to (prep. and
postpos. + dat.)
on the contrary
please (see point 3 above)
snow
to snow
wishes (for someone else)
dark (adj. and noun)
in the darkness; under the cover of the darkness
about, approximately
likewise, also
shade; shadow
to check, verify (+ acc.)
exact, precise (adj. and adv.)
return (noun)
trust, confidence
ticket; card
demonstration

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qa\l, -i

step, footstep

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An]r8iz f;to a\nqan ]\oun ;kaw, or ckaro[azanq gi,;re


toun w;rada5nal!
A\nqan barkaza6 hr ;r8oum, or cfamar]akw;zi ir;n
mot;nal!
S;n\akn a\nqan mouj hr, or patin .'w;zi!
Tan n;rse maqour hr, isk dourse` k;[tot!
Incp;s nranq, a\np;s hl m;nq k;s7rin ya,c;nq outoum!
Dvba.tabar ,at ou,h, hl c;nq karo[ nra twa6
t;[;kouj\ounn;re stoug;l!
M;6 anfamb;rouj\amb 6no[n;ri w;radar]in h spasoum!
Faka5ak ir asa6n;rin, ;s a\dpisi mardkanz nkatmamb
wstafouj\oun coun;m!
rwa a,.atanqe w;r=azn;louz f;to, na am;n ;r;ko
xbosanqi h gnoum!
^;r marde danda[ qa\l;low ,ouka hr gnoum!
Axnwouj\ou#n oun;z;q 8 as;#q o[= y,martouj\oune!
Sa fa\kakan ya,h, fousam68 kfawan;q! Bari# a.orvak!
Go[e 'a.aw 8 anf;tazaw mjan m;=!
Faka5ak m;r soworouj\an, ;r;k ,at qn;zinq, orp;sxi
a\s7r arjnananq 8 gor6e vamanakin w;r=azn;nq!
Am;rikazin;re dvwarouj\amb ;n artasanoum ,at
anounn;r!
Ir famar m;6 fayou\q h ar]akourde m;nak anzkazn;le!
Faka5ak ,at 6;r lin;loun, na an]amb inqn h
patas.anoum bolor namakn;rin!
N;r;z;q, .ndr;m, vame chi2q asi!
<norfakal ;m bari ma[janqn;rid famar!
Wa[e ch m\ous 7re fam;z;q m;r toun` ya,i!
Kar;li2 h w;rzn;l ];r grice! ->ndr;#m!

I hope (1st person singular subjunctive).

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He was so weak that he couldnt even lift the chair.


What is the height of the Mt. Ararat? I am not sure, but I think it is
approximately 5,150 meters.
The rules of the organization were accepted by its members at the last
meeting.
The distance between Yerevan and Moscow is about 3,000 kilometers.
The teachers informed their students that not one had passed
(fan]n;l)the history exam.
The girl sat down in the shade of the old apple tree.
Fish is so expensive now, that we have not bought any for several weeks.
According to reliable sources, at least three people were killed in
yesterdays demonstration.
Since I was unable to buy tickets for the theater, we had to change our
plans at the last moment.
In summer the days are longer than the nights, but in winter the opposite
is the case (faka5akn h).
I am free, so lets have beer somewhere.
Although the windows were closed, he could still hear the noise from (=
of) the street.
I cannot talk to you now, because I am in a hurry.
Despite the fact that as a child he had had no opportunity to attend school
regularly he has become a high official.
Be kind enough to explain to me how you lost your shoes on the way (=
while coming) home.
Because he was not paying attention, the wine glasses he was carrying all
fell to the floor.
Although I am satisfied with your work, you will have to work harder if
you want to be the best in the class.
Although she is very clever, she was unable to grasp the meaning of the
teachers remarks.
The quickest way to reach the university is by bicycle.
Excuse me, please, will you call Armen to the phone?

Lesson 30
Causative verbs
All transitive and intransitive verbs can have a causative form, meaning roughly
to make/cause (somebody/something) to do/be (something).
1. Causatives with -nFor many verbs the causative (which constitutes the class of category 5 irregular
verbs; see Lesson 19) is produced by inserting the appropriate causative suffix (;zn-,-azn-,-zn-) between the verb root and the infinitive ending -;l.
a) Some simple verbs in -;l and almost all verbs with the suffix -;n- select the
causative suffix -;zn-69:

But:

.m;l to drink
l5;l to be silent
mot;nal to approach
;rg;l to sing

.m;zn;l to cause to drink


l5;zn;l to silence
mot;zn;l to bring near
;rgazn;l to make someone sing

b) Some simple verbs in -al and almost all verbs with the suffix -an- select the
causative suffix -azn-:
.a[al to play

play
joulanal to weaken (intrans.)

.a[azn;l to make someone


joulazn;l to weaken (trans.)

c) Almost all verbs containing the suffixes -n- or -c- delete these suffixes and
select the causative suffix -zn-:

But:

mtn;l to enter

mtzn;l to bring in
fagn;l to put on clothes
fagzn;l to dress someone/thing
'a.c;l to run away

'a.zn;l to snatch away


i=n;l to descend

i=;zn;l to lower
not *i=zn;l (see the Appendix on consonantal clusters)

d) Some irregularities:
out;l to eat
lal (laz;l)to cry; weep

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k;rzn;l, out;zn;l to feed


laz;zn;l to make someone cry

In colloquial speech the suffix -;zn- is replaced by -azn-.

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w;r k;nal to get/stand up
anzn;l70to pass

(w;ra)da5nal to (re)turn
(intrans.)

w;rkazn;l to make someone


get/stand up
anzkazn;l to take someone/thing
through; to spend
(w;ra)dar]n;l to (re)turn
(trans.)

The causative verbs in -azn-,-;zn- or -zn- require their direct object to be


in the definite Accusative case.
The aorist of verbs in -azn-,-;zn-,-zn- (cf. Lesson 19, cat. 5):
e.g.
But note:

joulazn;l
fagzn;l
anzkazn;l
anzn;l
(w;ra)dar]n;l

joulazr(;z)i,etc.
fagzr(;z)i,etc.
anzkazr(;z)i,etc.
anza,etc.
(w;ra)dar]r(;z)i,etc.

The imperatives and prohibitives follow the regular pattern (Lesson 22, cat.
5).
e.g.

joulazn;l

fangzn;l
anzkazn;l

joulazrou#, joulazr;#q
(mi# joulazrou, mi# joulazr;q)
fangzro#u, fangzr;#q
anzkazrou#, anzkazr;#q

2. Causatives with tal


However, for many simple verbs the causative is rarely formed with the suffixes
-azn-,-;zn-,-zn-. Instead, the causative is formed in these cases by adding the
auxiliary verb tal to give (here used in the sense to cause/make/have, etc.)
to the Infinitive of the main verb.
e.g.

an;l to do
baz;l to open

an;l tal to make someone do


baz;l tal to cause to open

Note that only tal is conjugated in these compound causative verbs. It


requires that its object be in the dative case.
2.1. Examples of usage
D;r]ake karyazr;z baykons!
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Note that in this verb the -z- is a part of the root: anz-n-;l.

The tailor shortened my jacket.


M;x ;rkar ;s a,.at;znoum!
You make us work long.
>oso[e l5;zr;z ir faka5akordn;rin!
The speaker silenced his opponents.
Na ;r;.a\in tabat fagzr;z!
He put on trousers on the child.
Gini .m;zrin nran!
They made him drink wine.
Na mi toun ,in;l tw;z!
He had a house built.
^no[n;rs ir;nz toune a\d banworn;rin ka5ouz;l tw;zin!
My parents had those workmen build their house.
Na (warsawirin) ktr;l tw;z ir max;re!
He had the barber cut his hair./He had his hair cut.
Ma\re ;r;.a\in .n]or k;rzr;z (out;zr;z)!
The mother fed her child an apple.
2.2. The passive of causatives
When forming the passive of the causative, the final -n- of the causative suffixes
drops out.
e.g. karyazn;l to shorten
karyazw;l to be shortened
(w;ra)dar]n;l to (re)turn (w;ra)dar]w;l to be (re)turned
However, passive causative verbs are not very common; the impersonal 3rd
person plural usually renders such expressions.
e.g.

The speaker was introduced.

>oso[in n;rka\azr(;z)in!
(rather than n;rka\azw;z)

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Vocabulary
a,.atawar], -i
a,.at;zn;l
baykon, -i
bazaka
g;t, -i
gofazn;l
(w;ra)dar]n;l
d;r]ak, -i
xarmazn;l
entrouj\oun, -\an
entrouj\ounn;r
joulazn;l
l5;l
l5;zn;l
.m;zn;l
6anojazn;l
kangn;zn;l
karyazn;l
k;rzn;l
korc;l
fagzn;l
faka5akord, -i
fa\r;nakiz, hayrenki
fa\r;nakzakan
f\ourasir;l
matouz;l
m;6azn;l
mtzn;l
mot;zn;l
na.agaf, -i
nst;zn;l
pa5k;zn;l
parafand;s, -i
pok;l
pokw;l
sa5(c);l
sa5;zn;l

salary
to make someone work; put into action, start (+
acc.)
jacket
absent
river
to satisfy; please (+ dat.) (with (+ instr.))
to (re)turn (transitive) (+ acc.)
tailor
to astonish, surprise (+ acc.) (with (+ instr.))
choice, election (of (+ gen.))
elections
to weaken (+ acc.)
to be silent
to silence (+ acc.)
to make someone drink (+ acc.)
to introduce someone (+ acc.) (to (+ dat. or +
gen. + f;t))
to stop (+ acc.); park
to shorten (+ acc.)
to feed (+ acc.) ((with) something (+ acc.))
to get lost, disappear
to clothe, dress (+ acc.) (with (+ acc.))
opponent
compatriot, fellow countryman
compatriotic
to treat, host (+ acc.) (with (+ instr.))
to offer; serve on (+ dat.) (something (+ acc.))
to enlarge (+ acc.)
to bring in, push in, insert (+ acc.)
to bring near (+ acc.) (to (+ dat.))
president; chairman
to seat (+ acc.)
to lay down, put to bed (+ acc.)
dance (noun); ball
to detach, pick (off) (+ acc.) (from (+ abl.))
to come off
to be cold, freeze (intrans.)
to freeze (+ acc.)

sowor;zn;l
to teach (+ acc.); train (to (+ dat.))
warsawir, -i
hairdresser, barber
tabat (colloq. ,alwar), -i
t;[;kazn;l
to inform, notify (+ acc.) (about (+ gen. +
masin)

(pair of)

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di sa5e lin;lou patya5ow ckaro[azanq a,.at;zn;l


m;q;nan!
^ou\l ousano[n;re c;n karo[ gofazn;l ir;nz ousouzicn;rin!
Kar8or as;liq oun;zo[n;rin l5;zn;le law ch!
:j; a\s ko[mow gnanq, yanaparfe kary;zra6 klin;nq!
Kori#r a\st;[iz, c;m ouxoum q;x t;sn;l a\l8s!
"oqrike 'a.coum hr, orp;sxi ma\re ckaro[anar ir;n
fagzn;r!
Sargs\ann;re i2nc f\ourasir;zin ir;nz f\our;rin ;r;kwa
ya,in!
Drsoum spaso[n;rin ;t8i d5niz n;#rs mtzr;q!
Douq o2r kousakzouj\ounn ;q n;rka\aznoum!
Minc8 w;r=in rop;n a5a=norde cgit;r, j; ir;n ort;[
piti nst;zn;n!
Tarin qani2 angam ;s warsawiri mot gnoum!
Fin vamanakn;roum a[=ik 'a.zn;le endounwa6 ban hr!
Faka5ak fogna6 lin;lous, in] noriz ;rgazr;zin!
Angl;r;n cgit;nalou patya5ow, namakn;re ouri,n;rin h
gr;l talis!
In] mi fi,;zrou nra patya5a6 dvwarouj\ounn;re!
Fousam, or na.agafe m;r a,.atawar];re kaw;lazni
m\ous tari!
Fa\ vo[owrdi patmouj\an masin nra gra6 fodwa6n;re
mi,t barkaznoum ;n in]!
Inci2z ;q ;njadroum, or douq yi,t ;q, isk ;s` s.al!
A,nana\in ;rkar ;r;kon;rn anzkaznoum hr w;p;r gr;low!
Bazakan;rin o2w piti t;[;kazni m;r oro,oumn;ri masin!

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He entered the tailors shop in order to buy a new pair of trousers and a
jacket.
In Armenia the rivers usually freeze in the winter.
Armen, turn the pages of that book one at a time, please.
The results of the elections completely astonished the entire population of
the city.
Because of his political ideas, he has many opponents.
Do not make people drink if they do not wish to drink.
An old friend introduced me to my future husband at a New Years
dance.
What kind of food do you feed your cat?
In every country there is at least one Armenian compatriotic society
named after some Armenian town.
Every Sunday a priest offers the liturgy in our church.
Bring your chairs nearer if you want to see better.
Who will introduce our speaker this evening, as our chairman is absent?
What time do you normally put your children to bed? The bigger one
goes to bed at 8:45, the little one at 7:30.
How many languages are taught at your school?
His last illness has so weakened him that now he can hardly walk.
In the heat of the summer we like to lie in the garden picking fruit from
the trees.
It is forbidden to park cars on this street at night.
Do not forget to inform us of your plans for the coming holidays.
There is no doubt that in past times people were made to work longer
than now.
We had the picture of the children enlarged for their grandmother.

Lesson 31
1. Days and months
Sunday
kiraki
Monday
;rkou,abji
Tuesday
;r;q,abji
Wednesday
cor;q,abji
Thursday
fing,abji
Friday
ourbaj
Saturday
,abaj
2. Usage of case forms (-i declension)
The Accusative is employed to express the day on which an event occurs:
:rkou,abji fandip;nq!
Lets meet on Monday.
Kiraki 7r;re ;k;[;zi ;m gnoum!
On Sunday I go to church.
<abaj 7r;re j;nis .a[alow h anzkaznoum!
He spends his Saturdays playing tennis.
Genitive:
:r;q,abji 7rwa j;rje t;s;2l ;s!
Have you seen Tuesdays paper?
Ablative:
cor;q,abjiiz minc8 cor;q,abji
from Wednesday to Wednesday
Anz\al ourbajiz (or ourbaj 7rwaniz) i w;r...
Since last Friday...
January
February
March
April
May
June

founwar
';trwar
mart
april
ma\is
founis

July
August
September
October
November
December

foulis
7gostos
s;pt;mb;r
fokt;mb;r
no\;mb;r
d;kt;mb;r

Usage:
Founwarin (or founwar) amsin ,at ]\oun h galis!
In January it snows lot.
martiz (minc8) ma\is
from March to May
3. Dates
Amsi qani2sn h a\s7r!
What is todays date?
A\s7r (amsi)25-n (qsan fingn) h!
Today is the twenty-fifth.
A\s7r aprili 13-n (tasn;r;qn) h!
Today is the thirteenth of April.
Marti 7-in (\ojin)
on the seventh of March
Founisi tasn\ojiz (17-iz) minc8 7gostosi w;r=in 7re
from June 17th to the last day of August
4. Age
Qani2 tar;kan ;s!
How old are you?
Tasnfing tar;kan ;m!
I am fifteen (years old).
18(tasnouj) tar;kaniz i w;r wata5o[= h!
Since (she was) eighteen she has been in poor health.
5(fing) tar;kaniz sks;z dproz faya.;l!
At the age of five he began going to school.
mot(aworap;s)19(tasnine) tar;kan mi a[=ik
a girl of about nineteen

236
Translate into Armenian:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

By how much do you intend to increase our salaries next year?


Apart from my brother and myself, there were 27 people present at the
meeting.
We always play tennis together on Tuesday evenings.
For several centuries there have been no kings or princes in Armenia.
Last night it snowed for the first time this winter.
His circle of acquaintances is surprisingly narrow.
They went straight to the station without even having dinner.
What a marvelous speech Mr. Sarkisian gave the other evening!
What strange opinions your uncle has on todays most important political
problems.
Lets make a final attempt to find the right solution.
From which direction does the wind usually blow in summer?
I last saw my grandfather when I was a boy of seven.
On the twenty-seventh of next month I have to go to New York on
business (Instr.).
Every year we take our summer vacation in the last two weeks of August.
Thirty days have September, April, June, and November; all the rest
except for February have thirty-one.
I intend to stay there until the third of the following month.
He is the sort of man who never expresses his inner feelings.
Did you really spend last night studying in the library all alone?
In the middle (k;s) of next month, lets meet somewhere.
February has 28 days, and 29 in each leap (nafan=)year.

Lesson 32
Movses Arazie (1878 - 1964), born in Georgia, lived and wrote in Armenia.
The following story, written during the First World War, is taken from his
collection of short stories Karmir m;.akn;r.

KARMIR FAMBU#R
Pat;raxmi da,te a\n da,tn h, our 6a[ikn;re lalis ;n,
nou\np;s wirawor ou fa,mandam...
Mi fatik 6a[ik h ,o\oum d;mqs, ;rb mot;znoum ;m g;tnin, a\n
hl a,nan d;[in 6a[ik h, - mafwan 6a[ike...
- M;nawo#r 6a[ik, jo[ emp;m qo zo[e, 6araws fag;zn;m,
j;koux mafwan jou\n lini a\d!
Ba\z dou ar\ounot ;s, wirawor in] nman...
...Diakn;r... anw;r= diakn;r...
Nranq enka6 ;n .a5ni.ou5n, j,namin ou bar;kame miasin!
:w bolori d;mqin dro,mwa6 h mi larwa6 an,arvouj\oun, as;s
am;n m;ke m;.;l h fi,o[ouj\an m;= ir t;sa6e 8 spasoum h, or
af;[ ]a\now patmi a,.arfin!
...Ang[;re pttwoum ;n w;r8oum...
Nranq i=noum ;n, mot;noum xgou,ouj\amb, apa xgalow
m;5;louj\oune` famar]ak fo,otoum ;n marminn;re!
Afa nranziz m;ke ktzafaroum h ja'wa6 ou[;[e!
- Farga2nq, ow ang[ d;pi mardka\in ou[;[e... Na arvani hr
ouri, wiyaki, - ,anjafa2r ou[;[e ... ba\z a\vm dar];l h ang[;ri
k;rakour...
***
...+o2ur, mi kajil =o2ur...
<arvwoum ;m a5a= 7rfasakan yigow!
Inc hl lini, piti 'ntr;m` piti gtn;m =oure...
Faxiw ;rkou qa\li ca' 'orso[oum ;m ou enknoum joulaza6!
Diakn;re pat;l n; ,our=s ou c;n jo[noum f;5anam, nranq
kancoum ;n cors ko[miz, frawiroum masnakz;lou ir;nz lou5
.of;rin...
Tavan;li2 ou[;[, dou kpa\j;s a\s lou5 .osakzouj\ouniz...
A\s l5ouj\oune mi fxor a[mouk h, oriz 'rkouj\oun cka...
***

238
A5=8s enka6 h ar\ounot d;mq, fo\akap mi marmin enka6 h
an,arv!
Pata5ota6 w;rarkoui takiz ;r8oum h vamazou\zi ;rkaj;
,[jan, ka.wa6 'oqrik patk;row!
Mot;noum ;m mi 'oqr, na\oum patk;rin ou sirts sksoum h
baba.;l ouvgin!
:rkdimi patk;r h, - ;rkou imastas;rn;ri .ofoun
yakatn;row!
Hi,o[ouj\ouns a\rwoum h 'ntr;low a\n mardoun, ori ];5qin
t;s;l ;m a\d patk;re!
- :s q;x yanacoum ;m, enk;r!
2, law klin;r` cyanac;i, cxat;i q;x a\s anjiw diakn;riz...
Patmi#r, a\d incp;#s ;[aw, or m;nq j,nami ;nq irar, or im
o[=ou\ni t;[ gouz; q;x fandip;z im davan gndake!
Patmi#r...
Ba\z dou c;s karo[ .os;l, - b;rand liqn h ar\ounow, 8 mafwan
.awarn i=;l h acq;rid...
Fi,o2um ;s a\n ;r;kon, ;rb dourse bouq ou ]\oun hr, isk a\n
an,ouq tane krake wa5woum hr 7=a.oum dour;kan yaryat\ounow!
Ou m;nq, - 7taraxgi enk;rn;rs` i mi fawaqwa6, - .osoum hinq
galiq 7r;riz... :w dou, fi,o2um ;s vpite d;mqid ,'oum hir
matn;row a\s 'oqrik patk;re...
Git;m, enk;r, hn 7=a.oum krake mar;l h ard;n 8 mouj
gi,;rn;re, ,n;ri o5noziz arjnaza6` qo 'oqrik t[an k6kwoum h
mor grkoum 8 farznoum`
- Fa\rike ;2rb kga!
Isk ma\re arzounqn;re xsp;low asoum h!
-<outo2w, ,outo2w...
Asoum h ou kar6;s fawatoum, or dou kw;rada5nas...
***
...:r;kon galis h! L5oum ;n jndanojn;re!
- O2w fa[j;z, enk;rn;r. m;2nq, j;2 douq... ;2s... j;2 dou...
Lswoum ;n mardka\in ]a\n;r ;k;l ;n wiraworn;rin fawaq;lou!
Galis ;n, ,arvoum diakn;re, apa froum ;n in] ou asoum.
- Jo[ mna, jo[ m;r j,namin 'ti hs ama\i da,toum...
***

- Jo[ mnanq hs ama\i da,toum` ar\ounot enk;r!


M;nq kspas;nq gi,;rwan, ou k;ln;nq, kxarjn;zn;nq
diakn;rin anjiw ou kqa\l;nq d;pi qa[aqn;re qarafatak...
Bouq ou borani f;t m;nq k.ouv;nq am;nour;q, ,5ind ou
,.kozow kbananq 'ak d5n;rn ou n;rs ktan;nq zrtafar,
ar\ounot m;r y,martouj\oune...
M;nq af;[ad[ord 'o[;r kfnc;zn;nq, dvo.a\in
sa5sou5 ktanq m;r dafiyn;rin, ou fr;[;n patgamn;r kn;t;nq
a,.arfiz a,.arf...
Ou kga hn 7re... Fa[jakan kamarn;ri takow m;nq kanzn;nq
nor k\anqi ,arq;row...
- Endouni#r fambou\rs, enk;#r, ar\ounot, karmir fambou\rs...
Ktrw;l h m;r enk;rakan ,[jan, ;k miazn;nq amo2ur 8 amo2ur...
:k fangc;nq miasin hs ar\ounot da,toum minc8 ;ln;le...
- Minc8 ;ln;2le...

Lesson 33
Vakhtang Ananian (1905 - 1980) is famous for his hunting stories addressed
to young people. His short stories reveal a deep knowledge of the nature of
Armenia. This story was written during World War I.

^ARAW
Fing 7r m;nq qara\ri m;= jaqnwa6` dimadroum hinq j,namoun!
Fing 7r hr, or =our chinq .m;l!
"am'ou,te w;r=anoum hr, 6arawe` .;[doum!
J,namin a\np;s amour hr 7[ak;l va\5e, or gi,;row angam
,[jan pat5;lou fnaraworouj\oun ckar!
W;z;rord gi,;re mi molorwa6 ptoutafo[m anzaw m;r va\5i
wra\ow! Am;n inc irar .a5nw;z, mardik korzrin ir;nz glou.n;re!
:s in] n;t;zi ptoutafo[mi m;= 8 .awaroum, qar;rin ou j';rin
xarnw;low, ]orn enka!
:rb ,our=s am;n inc fandartw;z, 8 ou,qi ;ka, lousni lou\sow
t;sa, or va\5e, our jaqnwa6 ;n im enk;rn;re, f;5ou` w;r8oum h
mnaz;l!
Qar;ri takow koux;koux za6 wax;zi! orake w;r=azaw 8
sksw;z gor,-karmrawoun m;rk blourn;ri ,arqe! :ra,t tarin a\d
wa\r;rn anapat ;n! Kraqari lou6ou\jow fag;za6 zamaqo[
a[b\our mia\n l;5n;roum kgtn;s!
Fogna6ouj\ouniz 8 6arawiz joulaza6` ;s qn;l ;m mi
f;[;[atoum! :rb arjnaza, ard;n bar]r ;rknakamari wra\iz
krak ;r ja'woum blourn;ri 8 a[out da,t;ri wra!
<o,a';zi pi=akis asta5e` jou[je t;[n hr! P;tq h ,tap
faszn;l partixanakan =okati framanatarin, va\5oum
'akwa6 t[;rqi 'rkouj\ounn in]aniz, mimia\n in]aniz h
ka.wa6! Ou waxoum ;m .an]wa6 blourn;ri ';,;row! Ba\z
xarmanali ban -- oc mi kajil qrtinq cka im ma,ki wra, ma,ks
nou\nisk ci .onawanoum! Nstoum ou ,o,a'oum ;m andamn;rs!
Pataf;2l h, or d;kt;mb;rin 6a5i wra\iz .n]or pok;q! :rkar
6araw mnalouz marmins nra p;s kouc h ;k;l, .or,om;l-zamaq;l!
Faskanoum ;m, or wa.yans mot h, otn;rs do[do[oum ;n, acq;ris
a5a= s8 b6;r ;n waxwxoum, glou.s ptou\t h galis!
Qar, ;m galis fotiz ;t mnaza6 ka[ oc.ari p;s! Ar8e
mot;noum h x;nijin 8 a\roum, .an]oum h j';ri ou .ot;ri

mnazordn;re! Mi ka\6` 8 kb5nk;n .or,afar a\d o[orm;li bou\s;re,


a\nqan 6araw ;n mnaz;l ou kixw;l w;r8iz!
:s Araxda\ani l;5n;roum, orsi pafin, o[= 7re 6araw
maglz;l ;m ,ikaza6 va\5;re` qara\6;ri bn;re fasn;lou famar!
Orsow tarwa6` ;s faya. ;m 6araw mnaz;l a\d an=our
wa\r;roum! Ba\z a\spisi 6araw mia\n mi kino-`ilmoum ;m dit;l,
j; i#ncp;s Mi=in Asia\i awaxoutn;roum m;r xorqiz ktrwa6
=okati mardik 6arawiz .;lagarwoum ;n, apa m;5noum!
N;rss a\rwoum h, l;xous a\np;s h zamaq;l, or b;rans ci
bazwoum! Grq;roum kardaz;l hi, or Arabia\i anapatn;roum
yam'ord;lis mardik lobou ca' o[ork qar ;n dnoum b;rann;rn ou
66oum! Jouq h fawaqwoum, koul ;n talis ou m;[moum ir;nz 6arawe!
A\dpisi mi qar gta 8 b;rans gz;zi! Pa5k;l ;m joulaza6 ou
66oum ;m! Mi kajilaca' jouq yarw;z, gnaz kokordoums inc-or
koutakwa6 vangi pataf;z 8 .an];z l;xwis armate!
...Vam;r anzan, ;s mi qani far\our qa\l ;m a5a= gnaz;l! A\vm
cor;qjaj ;m gnoum, otqi wra kangn;lou ouv cka!
Acqs 'akoum ;m - a5a=s m;r sar;ri glglan a5wakn;rn ;n
waxoum wyi2t, sa25e...! Incp;2s ;s c;m pa,t;l m;r l;5n;ri
sa5norak a[b\ourn;re...
A\vm ;s faskanoum ;m, j; incou# arabe 6ounr h dnoum =ri a'in
8 7rfn;lis a5at =our h zankanoum, orp;s bnouj\an am;nam;6
bariqe! +ri masin arabn a\npisi srta5ouc ;rg;r ouni forina6,
incp;s m;nq` m;r siroufou!
:s hl a\vm patrast ;m aw;li banast;[6akan ou frywaliz
.osq;row dim;lou =rin, qan j;llon dimawor;z D;xd;mona\in`
pat;raxmiz w;rada5nalouz f;to! Ba\z a\vm ;s .amra6 bou\si
p;s glou.s fak;l ;m kr6qis ou jmra6 mnaz;l!
Ouv;rs fawaq;zi 8 cor;qjaj mi blour hl anza! Mi ]orak hl
bazw;z a5a=s, 8 sirts jrj5az oura.ouj\ouniz, kar6;s dra.ti
d5n;re bazw;zin a5a=s, ]oraki w;r8oum, ,r=apati gor,
.an]wa6 `oni wra, d;[nawoun-kanacawoun ;[;gn;r ;n ;r8oum!
- +o2ure...
+our klini a\nt;[, ba\z i2nc f;5ou h, in] jwoum h` minc8 k\aqis
w;r=e c;m fasni!
A5a= ;m so[oum m;k, ;rkou vam! Ar8n ard;n j;qw;l h d;pi
l;5an ouse! :s a5a= ;m so[oum, apa fangist a5noum ou nwwoum!
Tar7rinak ban, sirts gr;j; kang h a5;l, ,o,a'oum ;m
xark;raks - jo2u\l, faxiw h tro'oum! Ba\z f;nz or ,arvwoum ;m,
sirts jprtoum h, jprtoum ou noriz jwoum h, j; kang h a5noum!

242
;5qs 6ozs ;m tanoum - ma,ks .,.,oum h maga[aji p;s, fima
kyaqyqi 8 ;s km;5n;m ou ag5awn;ri bavin kda5nam a\dp;s h
linoum na8 Arabia\oum - yaqyqwoum ;n ou m;5noum...
Ou in] tan=oum h a\d mitqe ou krknaki h da5noum im
tan=anqe a\n gitakzouj\ouniz, or ;s km;5n;m a\st;[, jou[je
t;[ faszno[ ci lini, enk;rn;rs 7gnouj\oun c;n stana ou
kocncanan qaran]awoum 'akwa6!
A\d mtqiz ou[[aki .;lagarwoum ;m! J';re pokot;zi, 6am;zi
ou go5azi ,our=s m;5;la\in l5ouj\oun h, kar6;s a\d ,ikaza6
dvo.qoum k;ndani arara6e mia\n ;s ;m, sa5nar\oun 7];rn angam
.onaw fo[i end;rqn ;n anz;l! A2., our h, fnar lin;r ;s hl fo[i
takn anzn;i marmins sa5e .onawouj\oun h t;ncoum...
Qic jouq fawaq;zi ou koul twi. kokords wa5;low za6 i=aw, 8
in] jwaz k;s yam'in kang a5aw! N;rss sks;z borboqw;l! I2nc
wiyakoum ;n fima enk;rn;rs qaran]awoum... :s w;r=in ouv;rs
fawaq;zi, otqi kangn;zi 8 ,a[wa6 fa\azqs kanac 7axisin
fa5a6` farba6i qa\low a5a= gnazi! Otqs mi j'i a5aw, enka 8
a\l8s ocinc c;m fi,oum!
...Sa5nouj\oun xgazi yakatis 8 ou,qi ;ka! Mi afagin 7] za6
;kaw ;r;sizs 8 kamaz ir boune qa,w;z!
K;6aza6 .yi wra\ow so[azi d;pi w;r, d;pi 'rkarar
kanace! Afa mot h, fo[e .onawanoum h, .ot;ri zo[oun;re k;siz
za6 kanac ;n! Hli so[azi, matn;row qand;zi fo[e 8 ;r;ss
ja[;zi nra .onaw kr6qi m;=! .a2\, i2nc xow h, inc dour;kan, ;j;
mi qic =rali lini, kar;li h out;l...
Sa5e fo[n in] ouv tw;z! A5a= so[azi. fo[e f;txf;t;
.onawanoum h, kanace` ,atanoum! Mta ;[;gnoute, z;.i parx
n,ann;r kan!
-+o2ur, =o2ur, - frywanqiz go5azi ;s ou k\anq a5a6` w;r kaza,
7rorw;low a5a= gnazi! :w =oure, am;n incin k\anq two[ pa,t;li
a\d f;[oukn ir xow ,ncow dimawor;z in]! Coq;zi 8 papaka6
a5a= m;knw;zi, or .m;m fankar6 nwa[o[ a[b\ouri akounqoum mi
ban pa\j;z, z;. ou .iy ;r;sows .'w;zin!
Dimazi blriz nkat;l hin!
:s ou,qi ;ka 8 o#c mi gndak in] ;t paf;l =riz a\l8s chr
karo[! A\d rop;in oci#nc, oci#nc, o#c k\anq, o#c maf, o#c a,.arf in]
famar go\ouj\oun coun;r, bazi =riz! >m;2l, .m;2l fag;nal, k\anq
a5n;l 8 jou[je t;[ faszn;l!
:s z;.i m;= m;knwa6, ;r;ss ja[a6 p[tor =ri m;=` klanoum ;m
agafouj\amb!

Mi nor farwa6 - =oure karmr;z, a\vm ;s ar\ouna.a5n ou


z;.a.a5n mi f;[ouk ;m .moum...
:s k\anq a5a6` blourn anz kaza 8 incqan ouv oun;i, wax;zi
d;pi m;r =okati dirq;re!
:rb t[;rqe j5an ]i;ri wra` va\5oum pa,arwa6
partixan;rin 7gnouj\an fasn;lou famar, p;te kargadr;z
,tap kanc;l bouvakin 8 ksk6ali fa\azqow na\;z d;mqis!
;5qow ,o,a';zi n;rqin 6nots - inc-or jaz lpr6oun 'os hr
a\nt;[ atamn;ris n;rqin ,arqe lnd;ris f;t miasin ckar...
:s pa5k;zi 8 enk[mw;zi .ore anxga\ouj\an m;=!
Anour=i m;= =ri karkac\oun hi lsoum...

Lesson 34
Vigen Khechumian (1916 - 1975) was born in Yerevan. For many years he
combined literary and scientific work at the Matenadaran. The heroes of his
works are medieval Armenian miniaturists and writers.

^AKO{ FOWNANE
...an]razaw 6a[ko[ Fownane` anfrapou\r ou n;[ fn]anoum
;rkar vamanak nst;louz, ]g;z drsi ar8e! W;rzn;low
n;rkamann;re, gricn;rn ou maga[aj; aw;tarane` dours ;kaw
na!
A\gin;ri w;r=oum mi kisaw;r ,inwa6q kar, ori a5=8 .o.o=o[
a5wake 'oqrik lyak hr go\azr;l! Aw;raki wra gounatw;l hr
mamou5e, anja5am 6a[ik;re coraz;l hin, a,nan ;r'n;rang
gou\n;re ka.ardakan patk;rn;r hin st;[6;l 6a[ko[i famar!
A5at hr oskin, karmire, la=warde` ;rkri ;r;sin ou lyaki fa\;lou
wra...Fownanin mi girq hr jwoum da,te, or 6a[k;l hr anfasan;li
m;6 mi 6a[ko[! Dvwar hr xi=;l a\d t;sarane dalouk d;mqow,
acq;re w;r fa5a6 Matj8os aw;taranicin, ori patk;re piti
nkar;r a5a=in h=oum! A\nqan mi7rinak hr 8 a\nqan ta[tkali!
Grawoum hin .orann;rn ou lousanzaxard;re, or ,r=apati
gou\n;re w;rzn;low nrbor;n f\ousoum, gounawor j;l;ri yarpik
.a[ow na 6a6koum hr j;rj;re!
Fownane na\oum hr =rin! Lyaki mak;r8ou\jiz ir;n hr ditoum ir
d;mqe! Na tarw;z artazolwa6 patk;rn;row! W;rznoum hr
manr qar;r, gzoum awaxani m;=, d;mqn ambo[=owin .a5nwoum hr,
'5woum al\akn;ri wra, .'woum a'in, 8 xgou\, 6agoum hr anaknkal
mitqe! Inco2u Matj8osi 'o.ar;n cnkar;m im d;mqs,- m,ou,woum
hr gl.oum 8 zaw hr patya5oum, or nman hr wa.i! Astwa6 karo[
h fatouzoum pafan=;l srbap[6ouj\an famar! Astwa26
am;nat;s, anqnin, animanali... ba\z 8 Aristak;sn hr asoum, j;
am;nqiz bari h na, am;nqiz n;ro[! Isk g;[;zkouj\an fama2r...!
:w lzwa6 anas;li tagnapow` Fownane mo5azaw a,.arfe!
Farmar t;[aworw;low lyaki a'in` sks;z nkar;l! G;[;zik,
la\n yakat, s8 max;r, kary morouq, krakot acq;r... ;5qn ou
mitqe klanw;l hin a,.atanqow! Fianoum hr ou fouxmounqiz
katakn;r anoum ir patk;ri f;t. qar hr gzoum, zroum patk;re
lyi ;r;siz, =ourn iskou\n fandartwoum hr. ou krkin ;r8oum hr nou\n
.ofoun, ar8awa5 d;mqe!

Noriz qar n;t;z! Krkin d;mqe souxw;z =ra.ot;ri tak,


]oulw;z .n]or;nou d;[in t;r8n;ri artazolwa6 psaki m;=!
Lyake .a[a[w;z, ba\z 6a[ko[e xarmaza6 fa\azqow
,arounakoum hr na\;l! Lyaki fa\;loum, famar\a kpa6 ir .5iw
max;rin` ;r8oum hr mi a[=ka glou.! Goun;[ ja,kinakow faze
s;[m;l hr kr6qin, mi ];5qow b5n;l hr koulan, or drwa6 hr ousin, ou
=ri ,arvoumiz 7rorwo[ fa\azqow ditoum hr 6a[ko[i 6nkane
drwa6 girqe! <'ojw;l hr a[=ike nkari ou nkarci nmanouj\ouniz 8
j;j8 mi wa., kam aw;li ,out xarmanq hr xgoum` grqiz ir;n
ou[[wa6 6anr fa\azqe t;sn;low! Fownane sja'w;low
bar]razr;z glou.e! Ko[qin kangn;l hr Anafite! Xgou,ouj\amb
n;rq8 dr;z girqe, w;r kazaw nsta6 t;[iz! Mi paf nran
xa\rou\j patya5;z a[=ka n;rka\ouj\oune. Anafite ktr;z ir;n
gou\n;ri ;raxakan a,.arfiz, our cgit;r, kkaro[ana2r noriz
dn;l otqe!
- Inco2u ;kar...
- Q;x inc!
- :s nkaroum hi, isk do2u...
- :s hl na\oum hi nkara6id!
- Gna#!
Anafite mjn;z, vpite koraw go[trik d;mqiz!
- Kgna#m, - asaz na .5ow ]a\now, ,r=w;z ou f;5azaw!
Fownane na\oum hr nra ;t8iz, xa\ranoum hr ir wra! Ouri,
vamanak ;rb;q a\dqan kopit chr ;[;l Anafiti f;t .os;lis, 8
mia\n a\s hr, ;rb na .angar;z ir k\anqi mi faxwag\out
xgazoume!
- :t kga2s, - farzr;z 6a[ko[e!
A[=ike ,ou5 ;kaw, ouxoum hr mi ban as;l, ba\z mia\n lsw;z.
- C;#m ga!
- Ari#, kspas;#m...
- Ch#!
- Kga#s!
Anafite ,arounak;z gnal, aw;li f;5azaw!
- H2\, - bazaganc;z Fownane qa\ln a5a= dn;low, - kgas...
Anafite 6a6kw;z 6a5;ri ;t8oum! Fownane ;t ;kaw, krkin
nst;z lyaki a'in!
Isk ;j; cga2! Mi8nou\n h. a\l8s c;m nkari, kspas;m!
:w spas;z! Pa5k;l hr .n]or;nou stw;ri tak! Dvwaranoum
hr mtq;re fawaq;l, oronq kar6;s souxw;zin =ri m;= 8 al\akn;ri
j8;rin nsta6` zrw;zin lyaki ;r;sin!

246
A\s tari fars koux;m Anafitin, - mta6oum hr na 8 noriz
wa. hr xgoum! - :j; or8h m;kn imana, or m;nq fandipoum ;nq
irar ou s;r ;nq anoum, wat wa.yan koun;nan mta6mounqn;rs!
Fankar6 wanafa\rn imanar... hl chr jo[ni grq;re 6a[k;l,
kp[6w;in! Wanafa\rn ixour hr drdoum, or ;s wanq mtn;m! C;#m
gna! Aw;li law h a\sp;s` a\g;pan ou 6a[ko[!
Vamanakn anznoum hr, ar8n a,nan ir j;q yanaparfow
i=noum hr za6, ba\z a[=ike ckar!
:j; ga, hl kopit c;m lini! - F;to fankar6aki 6aga6 mi
nor mitq ,;[;z mtoroumn;ri yanaparfe! Fownane .ore
fouxmounq xgaz. ,';z ];5q;re, vptaz!
Jo[ ga, na anca' nman h tiramore... nran hl knkar;m,
knkar;m astwa6amor 'o.ar;n... Angi2n im Anafit tiro=
famar m;[q ch s;re...!
Frd;fwo[ mtq;re ,ikaznoum hin nra d;mqn ou 'a\l;znoum s8
.a[o[afat;ri p;s acq;re!
Ls;low ja'wa6 t;r8n;ri wra\ow anzno[ otna]a\n;r,
Fownane kangn;z t;[oum! ^i6a[;low anznan ;rkou a[=ik 8
ct;san ir;n!
Inco2u c;kaw Anafite...!
^a[ko[i srtoum anfag siro karotn hr 'ojorkoum,
spasoumiz rop;n;re ;rkaroum hin, da5noum vam;r! Ard;n mtqoum
g6agroum hr Anafiti nkare maga[aji wra, astwa6amor
fa\azqow! Noriz otna]a\n lsw;z! ^a5;ri takiz dours galow`
Anafite kamaz a5a= ;kaw! Fownane vptaz, b5n;z nra ];5qe!
- Ari#, ;s git;i, or kgas,- 8 baz;z girke!
- Kt;sn;2n...
- Oci#nc...
T[an grk;z a[=kan, fambour;z nra taq ,rjounqn;re...
Pagik tanq ou pagik a5ninq,
Mard mi m;r s;ren cimana...
fandiz lswoum h fota[i ;rge!
Nranq nst;zin lyaki a'in!
- Jo[ mi karotow na\;m acq;rid m;=, - asoum hr Fownane, - ;s
qo glou.e knkar;m a\s grqoum... Knkar;m, girqe kapri ,at, ,at
;rkar, in]niz hl, q;xniz hl ,at! Grqi f;t kapr;n m;r
patk;rn;re, fogi2s...
- M;[q h, Fownan, mi# ani, kimanan, kyanac;n, 8 wanafa\re
kani6i m;x!

- Ch#, ocinc hl ci lini, mi wa.;na, mia\n j; oc oqi cas;s!


^a[ko[e pa5k;l hr m;=qi wra, glou.e dr;l Anafiti 6nkn;rin
8 .osoum hr sirow! Nra ou,adrouj\oune graw;zin a[=ka
goulpan;re!
- Karmir, kapou\t, d;[in, - bar]ra]a\n fa,woum hr na
goulpan;ri gounawor j;l;re! - O2w h gor6;l!
- :s!
- G;[;zik na.,;r oun;n!
- Q;x famar ;s goulpan;r ;m gor6;l. nranq aw;li lawn ;n!
- In] famar dou# ;s am;nalawe...
Lyaki a'in a,nan ar;gaki ,o[;ri tak, A\rarat a,.arfi
p;ry gou\n;ri m;=` Fownann sks;z nkar;l ir sira6 a[=kan`
astwa6amor 'o.ar;n!
r;r anzan! Sksoum hin zrt;re! Da,ti a,.atanqe
w;r=anoum hr!
Am;n 7r fande faz tan;louz f;to Anafite galis hr
kisaw;r matou5i mot 8 Fownane nkaroum hr nran! :rb a,nan
a,.atanqn awartw;z, na 6a[k;z 8 w;r=azr;z o[= ];5agire, 8
kaxm;louz f;to, mi a5awot, 6;rouni gric Aristak;si f;t
wanafor mot taraw! Grice fiazmounqow na\oum hr 6a[ka6
grqin, j;rjoum skxbiz minc8 w;r=. gou\n;rn ou nebaj;l
f\ouswa6qn;re tanoum hin nran f;qiaja\in a,.arfn;row!
- A\s angam, ordi, 6a[k;l ;s, .osq coun;m... Law ,norfq oun;s, gowoum hr na, - ch#, ,at law ,norfq oun;s...- Na nkarn;re
cyanac;z!
Fownane lou5 lsoum hr! Na gof hr, or grice cyanac;z ir;nz,
cna\a6 nman hin a\nqan, a\nqan parx hr nkar;l! - I2nc kasi
wanafa\re, mta6oum hr na, - gouz; cfi,i2, kam gouz;
anou,adrouj\an patya5ow wripi gl.i enkn;louz! Isk ;j;
imana2!
N;rs mtan!
- Bari lou\s, srbaxa#n!
- Ast6ou o[=ou\ne ];x, xawakn;rs! Gi2rqn ;q b;r;l!
Na w;rzr;z aw;tarann ou sks;z j;rj;l!
G;[;zik hin .orann;re, kar6;s bnouj\ounn hr ir am;nafnarq
.a[;re da=;l maqour maga[ajn;ri wra, kar6;s faxaragou\n
a,ounn hr ir n;rk;re fra,qow ja';l a\dt;[, ;ranga.a[
6ia6ann;row inqe fo,otoum hr ir orse... Ba\z am;niz nourb,
go[trik hin astwa6amor patk;rn ou Matj8os aw;taranice,
oronz d;mq;ri wra ar\an ou ar8i k;ndani .a[n hr ,ncaworw;l...

248
Wanafa\re j;rj;z o[= ];5agire, noriz ,ou5 tw;z ou
fa\azqow kang a5aw nkarn;ri wra! F;to hli ,r=;z, noriz baz;z
nkarn;re! M5a\lw;z nra a5anz a\n hl m5a\l d;mqe! S8 ou .it
fonq;rn i=an, acq;re 6a6k;zin! Fownane ga[tni wa. hr xgoum,
sirte jprtoum hr kr6qi tak ou oc mi k;rp chr fnaxandwoum!
- Fownan, - dim;z na 6a[ko[in, - afa j; incpisin ;s dou, afa
j; incp;s ;s osk;l, 6a[k;l! Law ;s nkar;l, ba\z... - Na mi paf
waran;z, kar6;s noriz k,5;low ir mtq;re, - fark h ls;l im
.orfourde, wanq mtn;l! Ast6o sourb tayari 6a5an klzwi
,norfqow, 8 t;re qa[zr kna\i nran!
Cimaza2w, cfaskazaw ocinc, - oura.aza6 mta6oum hr
6a[ko[e 8 a\l8s chr lsoum wanafore, ore d;5 ;rkar vamanak
.orfourdn;r hr talis wanakan da5nalou famar!
Na l5;z! Fownane tarw;l hr ir mtq;row!
->orfir, - ordis, - krkin asaz wanafa\re, - t;re jo[ mitqe
qo maqri, jou\l ta da5nalou ir 6a5an .onarf!
- Kmta6;m, srbaxan, - patas.an;z Fownane 8 wanafor
a=e fambour;low dours n;tw;z!
Fown an,,ouk .a[oum hr nra yakatin '5wa6 s8 max;ri f;t!
Nra ko[qow qa\loum hr 6;rouni grice` fognab;k ou tan=wa6!
Na\;low Aristak;sin, Fownane lzwoum hr barouj\amb d;pi a\d
koram;=q 6;rounin, zankanoum hr mi qa[zr .osqow ,o\;l nran,
ba\z ocinc chr gtnoum! I2nc as;r, i2nc karo[ hr as;l a\d dvba.t
mardoun! Ir;ne s;rn hr, or na coun;r, ir;nze nkarn;rn hin! Sirtn
ou5coum hr, sirtn ouri, gou\n;r, gou\n;r hr ;raxoum! :w ;rb kang
a5an grci .zi a5=8, l;xoun baz;z ga[tniqe!
- Gna, Aristak;s, - ,ikn;low mrmn=az Fownane, - im ko[miz
gna, Anafitin farsnazou ouxir in] famar...
- Inc;2r ;s asoum, - ;t enkrk;z 6;rounin, - isk wanqe, wanqe
c;2s mtn;lou!
- Ch#, c;m karo[... im 6a[ikn;re kcoranan wanqi parispn;ri
m;=! Nranz ar8 h p;tq, lou\s ou ar8, or snw;n baz 7doum` k\anq
stanan n;rki ;rangn;re!
m5an w;r=in, anqnouj\ouniz fogna6 6;rouni Aristak;se
w;rzr;z ir ma,wa6 ou s8aza6 a[ojagirqe, wa5;z ];ji yrage,
fi,atakouj\ounn;ri w;r=oum krkin aw;lazr;z mi qani to[.
Gof ;m q;xaniz, Astwa#6 am;nabari, 6a[ko[ Fownane
';sa\azaw, Anafitn farsnazaw i jwin...
Isk a,nan gou\n;row gi2rqe...

Apr;z a\d anmaf ];5agire` dar;r ,arounak, fawit;nakan


k\anqi kniqe yakatin, ;rkou go[trik ou k;ndani d;mq;r
paf;low ir m;=, orp;s faw;rvor;n animanali ga[tniq!

Lesson 35
Paruyr Sevak (1924 - 1971), an outstanding Armenian poet, came to fame
following the publication of his poem Anl5;li xangakatoun dedicated to
Komitas. Among his well-known collections are :[izi lou\s and Marde
a'i m;=. The poems below are taken from these collections.
S:RUNDN:RI F:RJA"O>UJ{UNE
Am;n s;round
Na. 8 a5a= mta6oum h l5ouj\an m;=,
Isk ;rb .os;l h sksoum`
Barkaznoum h awagn;rin
:w barkaznoum ank;[6or;#n,
Orowf;t8... krts;re` mi,t anfaskazo[,
Isk awage... faskazo[ h!
Awa2g astwa6,
Mi2j; iroq famani, ;n ou famaxor
Faskazo[n ou kaska6o[e...
Am;n s;round
Na. 8 a5a= mafanoum h kaska6;low!
PITI...
A2. a\s anw;r= piti-n
W;r= oun;na2 piti...
Piti... a\sp;s an;nq,
Piti... a\np;s an;nq,
Piti... a\sp;s lini,
Piti... a\np;s lini!
Piti... piti... piti ...
A\sp;s piti-n piti
Nsti gafi wra,
Isk m;nq mnanq otqi,
:rkrpag;nq nran...

FPANZIKUJ{UN
:rb w;r=alou\sn h m.rywoum amp;ri m;=` sanri nman,
Ou fototo[ barak qamin, ,niki p;s, kang h a5noum
Am;n j'i, 6a5i, gou[]i 8 am;n mi mardou a5a=.
Ou ;rb zourte ;ritasard zou\z h talis ir ouvn ard;n`
Stip;low ,apik koyk;l ou mrmn=al .osq;r dvgof.
Ou ;rb mjan jaw,i wra 7rwa facozn h .lanoum,
Isk fat ou k;nt lou\s;rn as;s da5noum ;n fin xardankar, Miami2t ;m da5noum noriz,
Fawatoum ;m ardarouj\a#n,
Ou jwoum h, j; ;s piti im... bnakan mafow m;5n;m...
NORR{A AOJQ
Ard;n tari, tari, tari
:s wa.;noum ;m,
<a2t ;m wa.;noum
B\ourawor ou bo#uj fawataz\aliz,
B\ourat;sq ou so#ut fawataz\aliz!
:j; astwa6 ;q`
"c;z;#q nranz bolor mom;re,
Mar;z;#q nranz kanj;[n;rn am;n,
Fangzr;#q nranz =af;rn a\laxan,
Or... ;[izi lo2u\s!
:w o2c mi gawjoum mi# endoun;z;q
Nranz mata[e,
Or ir;nze ch, a\l go[azwa6 h!
M;rv;z;q nranz xo#fn hl .ostaz\al,
Or... xof cgna inqe fawate`
Maqo2ur-ws;2me,
Ank;2[6-anso2ute!
Ou j; astwa6 ;q`
Amour 'ak;z;q ];r akan=n;#rn hl
Nranz so[oskoun a[ojqi dimaz`
Angi2r-inqnafo2s-fa,w;k,5wa26 a\n a[ojqn;ri,
Orow .aboum ;n o#c ir;nz,
A\l ];#x!
:w -bawaka2n h- faskaz;#q endmi,t,

252
Or ast6oun no#u\nisk fa\fo\o[n;re
<a2t aw;li ;n g;radas;li,
Wasnxi nranz barkazer;l h inqe fawate`
>ozwa26 - ar\ouno#t,
A\rwo2[ - aptakwa#6,
Zawa26 - ycazo#[,
Mano#uk fawate,
Or fa\r da5nalou famar h 6nw;l!
Ou ;j; fa\r ;q`
Mi# jo[;q,
Or sout fawataz\aln;rn span;n nran!
Incqan ;l 6anr h manouk ja[;le,
Manouk paf;le 6anr h aw;li...
MIANGAMIZ
Asoum ;n, j; miangamiz k\anqoum oci2nc ci katarwoum.
Miangamiz o#c mi karp;t 8 o#c mi gorg ci pate5woum,
Miangamiz b;rd ci ,inwoum ou ci qandwoum miangamiz,
Miangamiz ]\oun ci galis 8 ci 'coum angam qamin!
Mi#rg ci fasnoum miangamiz, o2ur mnaz j;` .;loqanan!
Xo#u\g c;n kaxmoum miangamiz, o2ur mnaz j;` ;r;qanan!
Miangamiz c;n k,tanoum 8 c;n xgoum =ri kariq,
O#c a\s7rn h anz\al da5noum, o#c hl wa[n h da5noum galiq!
A\s am;ne yi,t h, farka#w,
F;nz a\sp;s h, incp;s or ka!
Saka\n ;j; im k\anqi m;= g;j farzn;in mi# angam in],
J; ;s i2nc ;m g;radasoum,
I2nc ;m ouxoum
Ou ;raxoum
:s kas;i.
- Inc linoum h` jo[ or lini miangami2z...

Lesson 36
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.

A[qate fazi h karot, farouste am;n bani!


Am;n bar8 two[i ir;n bar;kam h kar6oum!
Am;n inc ir faka5ak ;r;sn ouni!
Am;n mard mi zaw ouni!
Am;n s8 fagno[ qafana ch!
Anoune ka, amanoume cka!
Acqe t;sa6iz h wa.;noum!
Asa ow h enk;rd, kas;m ow ;s dou!
Ar\oune =our ci da5na!
Ba.ti aniwe mi,t pttwoum h!
Barkazo[ marde ,out k6;rana!
Ga\liz axatw;z, ar=i yankn enkaw!
Gvi famar 7r;nq cka!
Glou.d sa5e pafir, otq;rd` taq!
Go[, sirte do[!
Go[i f;t apro[e go[ouj\oun ksowori!
Danaki w;rqe klawana, .osqine` oc!
Dou q;x mi gowir, jo[ ouri,e gowi!
Dourse qafana, n;rse satana!
:s asoum ;m, ;s` lsoum!
:s tan] ;m asoum, dou .n]or ;s faskanoum!
:rkaje taq-taq ;n 6;6oum!
:'a6 fawi 6i6a[n hl kga!
Hvan mise fam couni!
H,in 6;6;l h'ntroum!
H,n i2nc giti, nou,n inc h!
Enk;rowi mafe farsaniq h!
Jankiz hvane cka!
Inc or as;s, a\n kls;s!
Inc or zan;s, a\n kfn];s!
Inqn ir stw;riz h wa.;noum!
Law h mardou acqe dours ga, qan anoune!
Law h ou,, qan ;rb;q!
Laze laz h b;roum!
L;xoun ardar, sirte car!
L5ouj\oune oski h!
>;lqe tariqi m;= ch, gl.i m;= h!
>;loqin m;k asa, fimarin` faxar!

254
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
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53.
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56.
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69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
77.
78.
79.

>n]ore 6a5iz f;5ou ci enkni!


^a5n ir ptou[ow h yanacwoum!
^i6a[i w;r=e laz h!
Katwi .a[, mkan maf!
Karkoute 6;6a6 t;[n h 6;6oum!
Karmir kowe ir ka,in ci 'o.i!
Kou\rn inc h ouxoum` xou\g acq!
Fala6 \ou[i t;[ endoun;l!
Famb;rouj\oune k\anq h!
Fast ou barak mi gin h!
Far8ani farse siroun h linoum!
Far\ouri k;se fisoun h!
Fogse zaw h b;roum, zawe` maf!
;5qe 'ak h!
8;l cgiti, mkrate ];5qiz za6 ci dnoum!
ou go[azo[e ]i hl kgo[ana!
ouke gl.iz h fotoum!
Ya,akin enk;r cka!
Mardous acqe 6ak h!
Mi .;lqe law h, ;rkousn` aw;li law!
Mi 6a[kow garoun ci ga!
Minc8 cga w;r=ine, ci fi,wi a5a=ine!
<an anoune tour, 'a\te ];5qd a5!
<at ban imanas, ,out k6;ranas!
<at mi# sirir, at;l ka, ,at mi# atir, sir;l ka!
<ate gnaz, qice mnaz!
<ati f;t8iz enkno[e qicn hl kkorzni!
<oune faci, qamin 'ci!
<oune ,an jaj ci k6i!
Ow alari, oc dalari!
Ow ,out, na kou,t!
Otqd w;rmakid ca'ow m;knir!
Orbin faz two[ cka, .rat two[ ,at ka!
Cka cariq a5anz bariqi!
+our 6;6;l!
+oure ktani, 6araw f;t kb;ri!
+oure ct;sa6` mi bobikana!
Wardn a5anz ',i ci linoum!
W;rqe tiro=e zaw kta!
Ta,a6 qare g;tnin ci mna!
Tase ca'ir, m;k ktrir!

80.
81.
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.

T;[ ka sow h, t;[ ka 6ow h!


Ounqe ,in;lou 'o.ar;n` acqn hl f;te fan;z!
Ou,lini, nou,lini!
Outo[, ourazo[!
Ouri,i famar 'os 'oro[e, inqe m;=e kenkni!
Ouri,i ];5qin na\o[e sowa6 kmna!
"or]wa6 jane an'or] ma6niz law h!
Qa[zr l;xoun 7]in bniz kfani!
Qamou b;ra6e qamin ktani!
Qani l;xou git;s` a\nqan mard ;s!
re kga, barin f;te!

Appendix 1: Vowel Alternations


In classical Armenian, unstressed vowels underwent certain changes. For
example, the verb formed from the noun shr love (MEA s;r) is sir;l to
love, not * shr;l; because stress (nearly) always falls on the last full vowel in a
word, the h in the verb is unstressed, and subsequently reduces to i. Such
changes are no longer fully operative in modern Armenian. For example, the
genitive of fand;s celebration; review is fand;si, not *fandisi as one
might expect (see point 3 below). However, many Classical Armenian forms
have been retained in the modern literary language, which makes it difficult to
formulate regular rules for vocalic alternation based solely on modern Armenian
usage. A summary of these alternations will help to elucidate many declined
forms and compounds.
1

i zero/e
gi#r script gr;#l to write
amousi#n husband amousnana#l to marry
dirq position drouj\oun situation (but gen. dirqi)
ko,ik shoe ko,kakar shoemaker (but gen. ko,iki)

ou zero/e
sou#t lie st;#l to lie
]ou#k fish gen. ]ka#n, ]knawaya#5 fishmonger

;i
incp;#s as incpisi# such, what kind of
fand;#p towards fandip;#l to meet
Note: d;#pq accident gen. d;pqi# (no reduction)

ou\ou
lou#\s light lousawo#r full of light
(but lou\si#, lou\s;#r, etc.)
gou#\n color gounawo#r colored
(but gou\ni#, gou\n;#r, etc.)

\a, ia;
wa\rk\a#n second wa\rk;naka#n momentary
(but wa\rk\ani#, wa\rk\ann;#r, etc.)
tari# year tar;ka#n annual (i.e. tari + akan)

1. Vowel Sequences
When two vowels occur together, the glide -\- is normally pronounced between
the two. Note that the glide is always written if the first vowel is a or o:
e.g.

,ouka market ,ouka\i, ,ouka\ow, ,ouka\oum


,ouka\akan
market
(attributive

adjective)
In all other situations, the glide is not written.
e.g.

t;sn;i (1st singular subjunctive of t;sn;l to see)


not *t;sn;\i

Appendix 2: Consonant Clusters


The written forms of Armenian words often contain clusters of as many as ten
consonants; however, as a general rule no more than three consonants in a row
are actually pronounced together. For example, mkrt;l to baptize is spelled
with a sequence of four consonants, but is pronounced [me.ker.t;l], with
schwas inserted after the m and the k; as a result, the word as it is pronounced
contains no sequence of more than two consonants. The challenge for the nonnative speaker of Armenian is to determine where these unwritten schwas
should be inserted. The following general rules should be of some help. (For the
pronunciation of words to which suffixes have been added, see the end of this
section.)
The basic rule is that Armenian syllables are of the shape CVCC; in other
words, a syllable typically consists of a single consonant followed by a vowel
followed by a sequence of one or two consonants. There are three exceptions to
this generalization:
i. The first consonant in the syllable can be followed by \, as in ]\oun snow.
ii. The first consonant in the syllable can be preceded by s, x, or ,, as in spa
officer, xgou\, careful, ,tap;l to hurry.
iii. At the end of a word, the sequence of consonants at the end of the syllable
can be followed by q, even if this results in a sequence of three consonants,
e.g. partq debt.
1. Clusters of two consonants
A. Word-initial
In a sequence of two consonants at the beginning of a word, a schwa (e) is
pronounced between the two consonants, with the following two exceptions:
If the second consonant is \, schwa (e) is generally not inserted; cf. ]\oun
snow (not *]e\oun).
ii. If the first consonant is s, x, or ,, and the second consonant is a stop (i.e. b,
d, g, p, t, k, ', j, or q), schwa is generally not inserted. However, one
sometimes hears a schwa pronounced before the entire cluster, e.g. [e]spa
officer. In a few isolated cases, schwa is pronounced between the two
consonants in these cases, but only when a vowel has been deleted between
the two consonants, e.g. sout false [set;l] to lie, not *[st;l].

i.

Thus:

Spelling
nman
krak
sr;l

Meaning
similar
fire
to sharpen

Pronunciation
[ne-man]
[ke-rak]
[se-r;l]

But:

s.al
,'oj;l
xba[w;l
xgou\,
sja'w;l
skixb
span;l
stanal
s'o';l
sqanc;li
,tap;l

mistake
to confuse
to be occupied
careful
to come to ones sense
beginning
to kill
to get, receive
to console
wonderful
to hasten

[se-.al]
[,'o-j;l]
[ex-ba[-w;l]
[ex-gou\,]
[es-ja'-w;l]
[es-kixb]
[es-pa-n;l]
[es-ta-nal]
[es-'o-';l]
[es-qan-c;-li]
[e,-ta-p;l]

B. Word-medial
In a sequence of two consonants that occurs between two vowels within a word,
no schwa (e) is inserted; instead, the first consonant ends the preceding syllable,
and the second consonant begins the next syllable.
Thus:

Spelling
apr;l
tarb;r
kardazn;l

Meaning
to live
different
to cause to read

Pronunciation
[ap-r;l]
[tar-b;r]
[kar-daz-n;l]

C. Word-final
In a sequence of two consonants at the end of a word, no schwa (e) is inserted
unless the second consonant is n or r, or m preceded by v. In each of these cases
a schwa is inserted between the two consonants.
Thus:

But:

Spelling
p;tq
pat;raxm
sourb
=;rm
arf;st
fiwand
omn
manr
'oqr
a\vm

Meaning
need
war
holy
warm
trade, skill
ill
someone
small
small
now

Pronunciation
[p;tq] (one syllable)
[pa-t;-raxm]
[sourb] (one syllable)
[=;rm] (one syllable)
[ar-f;st]
[fi-wand]
[wo-men]
[ma-ner]
['o-qer]
[a\-vem]

Note that m;[r (honey) is pronounced either [m;[r] or [m;-[er].

260
2. Clusters of three consonants
A. Word-initial
In sequences of three consonants at the beginning of a word, a schwa is
generally pronounced between the first two consonants. Before sk, etc. (see
1.A.ii), e must also be pronounced before the first consonant. A schwamay also
appear after the second consonant if an original vowel has dropped.
Thus:
But:

Spelling
wstaf
'rk;l
ptt;l

Meaning
certain
to save, rescue
to stroll

sks;l

to begin

Pronunciation
[wes-taf]
['er-k;l]
[pe-te-t;l]
(cf. the noun ptou\t)
[es-ke-s;l](cf. 1.A)

B. Word-medial
In sequences of three consonants between two vowels within a word, generally
no schwa is inserted. However, if the first two consonants do not form a
possible word-final sequence, a schwa is inserted after the first or the second
consonant.
Thus:

But:

Spelling
an]r8
jargmanic
pa,tpan;l
a[mk;l

Meaning
rain
translator
to defend
to make a noise

ocncazn;l

to annihilate

atryanak

pistol

Pronunciation
[an]-r;w]
[jarg-ma-nic]
[pa,t-pa-n;l]
[a[-me-k;l]
(cf. the noun a[mouk)
[wo-cen-caz-n;l]
(cf. the noun ocinc)
[a-ter-ya-nak]

Recall that a schwa is pronounced after the n in the numbers 11 and 14 - 17,
where the sequence sn is followed by a consonant. Thus [tas-nem;k],[tas-ne-cors],etc. (cf. Lesson 12.1).
Note that the negative prefix an- does not change the syllabification of the
words to which it is added; e.g. anfnar impossible [an-fe-nar], not
*[a-nef-nar] (cf. [fe-nar] possible).
C. Word-final
In sequences of three consonants at the end of a word, a schwa is inserted before
the third consonant, unless the third consonant is the classical plural -q.
Thus:

doustr

daughter

[dous-ter]

But:

bar]r
partq
b5ounzq

high
debt
fist

[bar-]er]
[partq] (one syllable)
[be-5ounzq]

In modern Armenian ast[ star is usually pronounced as one syllable.


3. Clusters of four consonants
It is difficult to formulate the rules governing the appearance of e in clusters of
four or more consonants.
A. Word-initial
The following subcategories may be distinguished:
a) CVCC-C
b) CV-CVC-C
c) CVC-CV-C
a)

.ndr;l

to ask

[.end-r;l]

Note that in this word e does not occur in the same location as the i in the word
from which it is derived, .ndir; in other words, the correct pronunciation is
not *[.en-de-r;l].
But:

grg5;l

to irritate

[ger-ge-5;l]
(cf. grgi5 irritant)

b)

bv,kouj\oun

medicine

mkrt;l
w5nd;l

to baptize
to expel

[be-ve,-kou-j\oun]
(cf. bvi,k doctor)
[me-ker-t;l]
[we-5en-d;l]

j5zn;l

to cause to fly

c)

[je5-ze-n;l]
(but cf. 1B and 2B)

Note also the initial e in sksnak beginner [es-kes-nak]; cf 1A.


B. Word-medial
The most common pattern is C-CVC-C.
enkrk;l
to fall back
fangstanal to rest

[en-ker-k;l]
[fan-ges-ta-nal]
(cf. fangist)

262
.orfrdakan counselor

[.or-fer-da-kan]

But note na.an]a.ndrouj\oun zeal [na-.an-]a-.end-rouj\oun];cf. A a) above.


Compounds formed with the prefixes an- and end- do not change the
syllabification of the words to which they are added:
anqnn;li
an.[yor;n

incomprehensible
unscrupulously

endwx;l

to rebel:

[an-qen-n;-li]
[an-.e[-yo-r;n]
(cf. .i[y)
[end-we-x;l]

When the negative prefix c- is added to consonant-initial words, it is


pronounced with a following e.
cfangstanal not to rest
c.ndr;l
not to ask

[ce-fan-ges-ta-nal]
[ce-.end-r;l]

When prefixed to vowel-initial words, no schwa is inserted.


camousnanal not to marry
ci=n;l
not to descend

[ca-mous-na-nal]
[ci=-n;l]

C. Word-final
No word end in four consonants.
4. Clusters of five consonants
A. Word-initial
Several patterns are attested:
a) CVC-CVC-C
b) CVCC-CV-C
c) CV-CVCC-C
a)

y,grtouj\oun

exactitude

frm,touq
bustle, pushing
m,tn=;nakan eternal

b)

'ntrtouq

searching

.[ymtanq

remorse

[ye,-ger-tou-j\oun]
(cf. y,grit)
[fer-me,-touq]
[me,-ten-=;-na-kan]
(cf. mi,t)
['en-ter-touq]
[.e[y-me-tanq]
(but cf. 3B)

(cf. .i[y, mitq)


b5nzqamart boxing

c)

[be-5enz-qa-mart]
(cf. b5ounzq fist)

B. Word-medial
These are very rare except in compounds:
e.g.
j\oun]

Note also

wr;v.ndrouj\oun

vengeance:

[we-r;v-.end-rou-

anbv,k;li
ankrkn;li

incurable
unrepeatable

(cf. 3B)
[an-be-ve,-k;-li]
[an-kerk-n;-li]
(cf. krkin)

anskxbounq

unprincipled

[an-es-kex-bounq].

C. Word-final
Clusters of five consonants in word-final position do not exist.
5. Clusters of six consonants
There are very few examples of clusters of six consonants; the behavior of these
clusters is not easy to categorize.
A. Word-initial
qrjmn=al

to complain

B. Word-medial
anm,tn=;nakan not eternal

[qerj-men-=al]
[an-me,-ten-=;-na-kan]
(cf. 4Aa)

C. Word-final
Clusters of six consonants in word-final position do not exist.
6. Suffixes
The demonstrative/possessive suffixes -s,-d, and -n attach directly to a
preceding vowel, e.g. katou cat katous my cat [ka-tous]. In all
other situations, a schwa is inserted before the demonstrative/possessive suffix:
matits
matitd
girqs

my pencil
your pencil
my book

[ma-ti-tes]
[ma-ti-ted]
[gir-qes]

264
girqd
your book
arf;sts
my trade
arf;std
your trade
partqs
my debt
partqd
your debt
doustrd
your daughter
(but cf. [dous-ter], 2C above).

[gir-qed]
[ar-f;s-tes]
[ar-f;s-ted]
[part-qes]
[part-qed]
[doust-red]

Appendix 3: Countries and People


1. The five continents (ma\r zamaqn;re)
Each of the following follows the regular -i declension; note that, as with all a
+ i sequences, the glide \ is inserted before the i (therefore the genitive of these
continents for example ends in -\i).
Am;rika; am;rik\an
America; American
Asia; asiakan
Asia; Asian
Awstralia; awstraliakan Australia; Australian
A`rika; a`rik\an
Africa; African
:wropa; ;wropakan
Europe; European
2. The country suffix -stan
All of the following formations belong to the regular -i declension, except for
those that end in -i (i.e. cinazi and wrazi), which belong to the -ou
declension.
country
Fa\astan
Founastan
Cinastan
Parskastan71
Wrastan

people
fa\
fou\n
cinazi
parsik
wrazi

language
fa\;r;n
founar;n
cinar;n
parsk;r;n
wraz;r;n

adjectival form
fa\kakan
founakan
cinakan
parskakan
wrazakan

meaning
Armenia
Greece
China
Iran
Georgia

3. The country suffix -ia


As above, all of the following formations belong to the regular -i declension,
except for those that end in -i (i.e. angliazi, etc.), which belong to the -ou
declension. Note that again the glide \ is inserted in a + i sequences (therefore
the Genitive of these countries for example ends in -\i).
country
Anglia
Awstria
B;lgia
G;rmania
Jourqia
Italia
Folandia
aponia
71

people
angliazi
awstriazi
b;lgiazi
g;rmanazi
jourq
italazi
folandazi
=aponazi

Also Iran, iranakan.

language
angl;r;n

adjective
angliakan
awstriakan
b;lgiakan
g;rman;r;n g;rmanakan
jourq;r;n
jourqakan
ital;r;n
italakan
folandakan
=apon;r;n =aponakan

meaning
England
Austria
Belgium
Germany
Turkey
Italy
Holland
Japan

266
Nor X;landia
<w;\zaria
,w;\zarazi
~`ransia
`ransiazi

Nor X;landazi
,w;\zarakan
`rans;r;n `ransiakan

nor x;landakan
Switzerland
France

4. Miscellaneous countries
As above, all of the following formations belong to the regular -i declension,
except for those that end in -i (i.e. angliazi, etc.), which belong to the -ou
declension. Note that again the glide \ is inserted in a + i sequences (therefore
the Genitive of these countries for example ends in -\i).
country
people
Am;rika
am;rikazi
:giptos
;giptazi
Isra\;l
isra\;lzi73
Libanan
libananzi
Kanada
kanadazi
Miaz\al Nafangn;r
USA
Ourougwa\
ourougwazi

5. Miscellaneous regions
Ar8;l\an :wropa
Ar8mt\an :wropa
Farawa\in A`rika
F\ousisa\in A`rika

language
arab;r;n72
;bra\;r;n74
am;rikazi

adjectival form
am;rik\an
;giptakan
isra\;l\an
libanan\an
kanadakan

meaning
America
Egypt
Israel
Lebanon
Canada
the

ourougwa\akan Uruguay

Eastern Europe
Western Europe
South Africa
North Africa

6. Some Armenian communities in the Diaspora


The word for diaspora is s'\ou5q. All of the following belong to the regular i declension.
am;rikafa\
libananafa\
parskafa\
`ransafa\
s'\ou5qafa\

American-Armenian
Lebanese-Armenian
Iranian-Armenian
French-Armenian
Diaspora-Armenian

Armenians born in the modern republic of Armenia are called


fa\astanzi (genitive -ou).
72

Arabic.
But fr;a, -\i Jew.
74 Hebrew.
73

Appendix 4: The Conjugation of Regular Verbs


Infinitive
sir;l
.os;l
Present stem
Pres. Indic.
siroum ;m
.osoum ;m
Imperf. Indic.
siroum hi
.osoum hi
Future Indic.
sir;lou ;m
.os;lou ;m
Future Past Indic.
sir;lou hi
.os;lou hi
Future Subjunctive
sir;m
.os;m
Imperf. Subjunctive
sir;i
.os;i
Future Cond.
ksir;m
k.os;m
Imperf. Cond.
ksir;i
k.os;i
Future Oblig.
piti sir;m piti .os;m
Imperf. Oblig.
piti sir;i piti .os;i
karda\i
Aorist stem
Aor. Indic.
sir;zi
.os;zi
Perf. Indic.
sir;l ;m
.os;l ;m
Pluperf. Indic.
sir;l hi
.os;l hi
Imperative
Positive
siri#(r), sir(;z);#q
.osi#(r), .os(;z);#q
karda#, kardaz;#q
Prohibitive
mi# siri(r), mi# sir(;z);q
mi# .osi(r), mi# .os(;z);q
mi# karda, mi# karadaz;q
Participles
Present
Future
Perfect

siro[
sir;lou,
sir;li(q)
sira6

.oso[
.os;lou,
.os;li(q)
.osa6 (rare)

kardal
kardoum ;m
kardoum hi
kardalou ;m
karda;ou hi
kardam
karda\i
kkardam
kkarda\i
piti kardam
piti
kardazi
kardaz;l ;m
kardaz;l hi

kardazo[
kardalou,
kardali(q)
kardaza6

Appendix 5: The Most Common Declensions


1. Genitive in -i
Singular
Nom./Acc. ousano[(e)
Gen.
ousano[i
Dat.
ousano[i(n)
Abl.
ousano[iz
Instr.
ousano[ow
Loc.
ousano[i m;=, ousano[oum
ousano[n;roum

Plural
ousano[n;r(e)
ousano[n;ri
ousano[n;ri(n)
ousano[n;riz
ousano[n;row
ousano[n;ri

m;=,

2. Genitive in -ou
The plural endings of this declension are the same as those of the -i declension.
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
]i(n)
]iou
]iou(n)
]iouz
]iow
]iou m;=

3. Genitive in -an
The plural endings of this declension are the same as those of the -i declension.
a) abstract nouns in -oum
Singular
Nom./Acc.
,arvoum(e)
Gen.
,arvman
Dat.
,arvman(e)
Abl.
,arvoumiz
Instr.
,arvoumow
Loc.
,arvman m;=
b) Some monosyllabic nouns
Singular
Nom./Acc.
]ouk(e)
Gen.
]kan
Dat.
]kan(e)
Abl.
]k(a)niz

Instr.
Loc.

]k(a)now
]kan m;=

c) the four seasons


Singular
Nom./Acc.
garoun(e)
Gen.
garnan
Dat.
garnan(e)
Abl.
garnaniz, garouniz
Instr.
garnanow, garounow
Loc.
garnan m;=, garnane
d) death
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
maf(e)
mafwan
mafwan(e)
maf(wan)iz
maf(wan)ow
mafi m;=

4. Genitive in -o=
Mostly nouns of kinship; the plural endings of this declension are the same as
those of the -i declension.
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
qou\r(e)
qro=
qro=(e)
qro=iz
qro=ow
qro= m;=

5. Genitive in -wa
Most of the nouns belonging to this declension denote periods of time. The
plural endings of this declension are the same as those of the -i declension.
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.

Singular
7r(e)
7rwa
7rwan
7r(wan)iz

270
Instr.
Loc.

7r(wan)ow
7rwa m;=, 7roum

6. Genitive in -z
This declension contains mostly collective nouns in -q.
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Anafit;nq
Anafit;nz
Anafit;nz
Anafit;nziz
Anafit;nzow
Anafit;nz m;=

7. The inner -a-declension


The plural endings of this declension are the same as those of the -i declension.
a) abstract nouns in -ouj\oun
Singular
Nom./Acc.
carouj\oun(e)
Gen.
carouj\an
Dat.
carouj\an(e)
Abl.
carouj\ouniz
Instr.
carouj\ounow
Loc.
carouj\an m;=
b)
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
toun(e)
tan
tan(e)
t(a)niz
t(a)now
tan m;=, tane

c)
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.

Singular
anoun(e)
anwan75
anwan(e)
anouniz

75

The -v- in this form is the outcome of the -u- of the root before a vowel; do
not confuse it with the -wa declension.

Instr.
Loc.

anounow
anwan m;=

8. The inner -o-declension


This declension contains mostly nouns of kinship. The plural endings are the
same as those of the -i declension.
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
ma\r(e)
mor
mor(e)
moriz
morow
mor m;=

9. Some irregularities
a) girl, daughter
Singular
Nom./Acc.
a[=ik(e)
Gen.
a[=ka
Dat.
a[=ka(n)
Abl.
a[=kaniz
Instr.
a[=kanow
Loc.
a[=ka m;=
b) daughter
Nom./Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Abl.
Instr.
Loc.

Singular
doustr(e)
dst;r
dst;r(e)
dst;riz
dst;row
dst;r m;=

c) The nouns 6nound, fangist,and koroust have Genitives in -\an:


6nnd\an, fangst\an, korst\an (note the reduction of the root vowel).
However, the rest of their declensional forms follow the regular -i declension
pattern.

Appendix 6: Glossaries
English-Armenian
This vocabulary is simply a memory aid for the exercises. Only basic forms are
given here; irregularities and difficulties must be elucidated from the lessons or
from the Armenian - English Vocabulary, which is more inclusive and gives
declensional information for nouns and the cases governed by verbs. The
various meanings of individual English words do not have separate entries but
are numerically classified.
a
abandon
able
be able
about
above
absent
accept
acceptable
accident
have (suffer) an accident
accompany
according
according to
account
settle an account
on account of
ache (n.)
ache (v.)
across
act
address
adjust
adjust oneself
admire
admit
adorable
adventure
advice

mi
jo[n;l; lq;l
karo[; ounak
karo[ lin;l, karo[anal (literary
kar;nal)
1. masin (prep.); 2. motaworap;s
(adv.); 3. ,our= (around)
wra (postpos.); w;r(8)(adverb)
bazaka
endoun;l
endoun;li
d;pq; patafar
wjari ;njarkw;l
ou[;kz;l
est
fama]a\n
fa,iw
fa,iw maqr;l
patya5ow
zaw
zaw;l
dimaz
gor6;l
fasz;
farmar;zn;l
farmarw;l
fianal
endoun;l
pa,t;li
arka6
.orfourd

afraid
after
afterwards
afternoon
again
against
age
ago
agree
aid (n.)
aid (v.)
aim
air
airplane
airport
alike
alive
all (the)
at all
allow
almost
alone
aloud
already
also
alter
although
always
amazing
amazingly
amount
ancient
and
animal
anniversary
another
answer (n.)
answer (v.)
any
apologize

wa.;nal
f;to; (f);t8iz
(draniz) f;to
k;s7r(iz f;to); z;r;k
krkin; dar]\al; noriz
d;m; endd;m
1. tariq (years old); 2. dar (century)
a5a=
fama]a\n(w);l; fama]a\n lin;l
7gnouj\oun
7gn;l
npatak
7d
inqnaji5; 7danaw
7da(nawa)ka\an
nman, p;s
k;ndani; o[=
bolor(e); am;n
bolorowin; bnaw (literary)
jou\latr;l (colloq. jou\l tal); jo[n;l
(colloq.)
gr;j;
a5an]in
bar]ra]a\n; bar]r (colloq.)
ard;n
hl; na8; nou\np;s
'o.;l
j;8; j;p;t(8)
mi,t
xarmanali
xarmanalior;n
qanak(ouj\oun); goumar
fin
1. 8; ou 2. isk
k;ndani
tar;liz; tar;dar]
m;k a\l; m;k ouri,
patas.an
patas.an;l
or8h
n;ro[ouj\oun .ndr;l

274
apology
apparently
appear
appetite
apple
apply
appoint
approach
army
around
arrive
article
artist
as
as ... as
as if
as long as
as soon as
as though
ask
assemble
assist (v.)
assume
astonish
be astonished
at least
attempt (n.)
attempt (v.)
attend
attendance
attention
pay attention
aunt
author
autumn
avoid
away
baby
back

n;ro[ouj\oun
est ;r8ou\jin; fawanabar
1. ;r8al; fa\tnw;l; 2. jwal
a.orvak
.n]or
dim;l
n,anak;l
mot;nal
banak
,our=e
vaman;l; fasn;l
fodwa6
nkaric; arw;stag;t
orp;s; incp;s; p;s
a\nqan ... orqan; a\np;s ... incp;s;
ca'
ibr8(j;)
qani (d;5)
f;nz (or)
kar6;s (j;)
1. farzn;l;2. .ndr;l (request)
fawaq;l
7gn;l
;njadr;l
xarmazn;l
xarmanal
gon;; a5nwaxn
'or]
'or];l
faya.;l
.namq
ou,adrouj\oun
ou,adrouj\oun dar]n;l
moraqou\r
(maternal);
foraqou\r
(paternal)
f;[inaki
a,oun
.ousa';l
f;5ou
'oqrik
(f);t

bad(ly)
ball
barber
be
bear
be born
beat
beautiful
beauty
because
because of
become
bed
beer
before
begin
beginning (postpos. and prep.)
behave
behind
belief
believe
belong
beloved
besides
between
beware
bicycle
big
bind (v.)
birth
give birth to
birthday
black
blow (n.)
blue
book
boot
borrow
both
bottle

wat, car
1. gndak; 2. parafand;s (fancy ball)
warsawir
lin;l
kr;l; 6n;l
6nw;l
6;6;l; .';l
g;[;zik
g;[;zkouj\oun
orowf;t8
patya5ow
da5nal
1. mafyakal; 2. anko[in
gar;=our
minc8; a5a=; a5=8
sks;l
sksa6
warw;l
(f);t8oum
fawat(q)
fawatal; kar6;l
patkan;l
sir;li
bazi
mi=8
xgou,anal
f;6aniw
m;6
kap;l
6nound
6n;l
tar;dar]; 6nnd\an 7r (colloq.
6nound)
s8
farwa6
kapou\t
girq
ko,ik
partq(ow) w;rzn;l
;rkousn hl; 8'... 8'; j;'... j;'
,i,

276
box
boy
branch
bread
break
breakfast
have breakfast
breath
breathe
brief
bright
bring
broad
brother
brother-in-law
build
building
bullet
burn
bus
business
busy
but
buy
call
calm(ly)
can (n.)
can
canteen
car
care
take care of
careful
be careful
carefree
carelessness
carry
carry out
case
cast

tou'
t[a
y\ou[
faz
kotr;l; endfat;l
na.aya,
na.aya,;l
,ounc
,nc;l
kary (adj. and adv.)
'a\loun
b;r;l
la\n
;[ba\r
tagr (husbands brother); an;r]ag
(wifes brother)
ka5ouz;l; colloquial ,in;l
,;nq
gndak
a\r(w);l
awtobous
gor6
xba[wa6
saka\n; ba\z
gn;l; a5n;l (colloq.)
koc;l
danda[; kamaz (colloq.)
tou'
karo[ lin;l
ya,aran
m;q;na
.namq
.nam;l
xgou\,
xgou,anal
anfog
anxgou,ouj\oun
kr;l; tan;l
katar;l
d;pq; paraga
n;t;l

cat
catch
cause (n.)
cause (v.)
caution
celebration
century
certain
certainly
chair
chairman
change
character
cheap
check
chicken
chief
child
choice (n.)
choice (adj.)
choose
church
cigarette
circumstance
city
class
class
clean (v.)
clean (adj.)
clever
clock
close (v.)
close (to) (adj. and postpos.)
closed
cloth
clothe (v.)
clothing
cloudy
club

katou
b5n;l
patya5; a5ij
patya5;l
xgou,ouj\oun
fand;s
dar
wstaf (adj. and adv.)
anpa\man; anpatya5; ifark;;
an,ou,t (literary)
ajo5
na.agaf
'o.;l
1. bnaworouj\oun; 2. nkaragir
hvan
stoug;l
faw
gl.awor
;r;.a
entrouj\oun
entir
entr;l
;k;[;zi
6.a.ot
fangamanq; paraga; pa\man (often
in pl.)
qa[aq
das
dasaran
maqr;l
maqour
1. .;lazi; 2. .;loq
vamazou\z
'ak;l
mt;rim; motik (colloq.)
'ak
ktor
fagzn;l
fagoust
ampot
akoumb

278
coast
coffee
cold
be/catch cold
collect
color
comb
comb ones hair
come
come off
coming
command
commerce
common
company
compatriot
compatriotic
compel (v.)
complete (v.)
complete
comprehend
comrade
concern (n.)
concerning
condition
confidence
consequently
consider
considerable
continue
contrary to
on the contrary
conversation
converse
correct (ly)
cost (v.)
counsel
count on
country

a'
soury
sa5e
mrs;l
fawaq;l
gou\n
sanr;l
sanrw;l
gal
pokw;l
fa=ord; galiq
framan
a58tour
endfanour
enk;rouj\oun
fa\r;nakiz
fa\r;nakzakan
stip;l
w;r=azn;l; awart;l
ambo[=
emb5n;l
enk;r; bar;kam
mtafogouj\oun
masin, w;rab;r\al
1. pa\man (circumstance); 2. wiyak
(state)
wstafouj\oun
f;t8abar
famar;l
xgali; bawakan(in)
,arounak(w);l; t8;l
faka5ak
(end)faka5ake
.osakzouj\oun, xrou\z
xrouz;l
yi,t; ans.al
arv;nal
.orfourd
wstaf;l
1. ;rkir (state); 2. fa\r;niq (homeland);
3. qa[aqiz dours (countryside)

courage
course
cow
craft
crime
cross
cry
cultural
culture
cup
cure
curse
custom
cut
daily (n.)
daily (adv.)
dance (n.)
dance (v.)
dangerous
dare
dark
darkness
date
daughter
day
daytime
dear
debt
deceive
decide
declamation
deep
defend
degree
delicious
demand (n.)
demand (v.)
demonstration
demonstrator
deny

qa=ouj\oun; famar]akouj\oun
enjazq
kow
arf;st
fanzanq
anzn;l
lal (also laz;l, laz lin;l)
m,akouja\in
m,akou\j
gawaj
bouv;l
fa\fo\;l
soworouj\oun
ktr;l; ]8;l (dresses)
7raj;rj
7rakan
par
par;l
wtangawor
famar]akw;l
1. mouj; 2. moug (of color)
mouj; mjouj\oun
amsajiw
doustr; a[=ik (colloq.)
7r
z;r;k
1. sir;li; jankagin; 2. jank
(expensive)
partq
.ab;l
oro,;l
artasanouj\oun
.or(e)
pa,tpan;l
astiyan
fam;[; famow (colloq.)
pafan=
pafan=(w);l
1. zou\z;2. zouzadrouj\oun (display)
zouzarar
ouranal

280
descend
desire (n.)
desire (v.)
despair
despite
detach
determine
die
different
difficult
difficulty
dining-hall
dinner
dirty
disappear
dish
dissatisfied
be dissatisfied
get dissatisfied
distant (adj.)
distribute
divide
do
doctor
dog
dollar
donkey
door
doubt
down(wards)
dram
draw
dread (n.)
dream (n.)
dream (v.)
dress (n.)
dress (v.)
drink (n.)
drink (v.)
drive
drop (v.)

i=n;l, nwax;l
zankouj\oun
zankanal; oux;nal (colloq.)
fousafatw;l
faka5ak
pok;l
oro,;l
m;5n;l
tarb;r
dvwar
1. dvwarouj\oun; 2. n;[ouj\oun
ya,aran
ya,
k;[tot
korc;l; anf;tanal
ya,
dvgof
dvgof;l, dvgof lin;l
dvgof mnal
f;5ou
bavan;l
bavan;l
an;l
bvi,k
,oun
dolar
awanak, h,
dou5
kaska6
n;rq8
dram
1. g6;l; nkar;l 2. qa,;l (pull)
wa.
;rax
;rax;l
xg;st, ,or (colloq.)
fagzn;l
.micq, .m;liq
.m;l
war;l; q,;l
gz;l

due to
during
duty
each (one)
each other
early (adj. and adv.)
earn
earth
earthquake
eastern
easy (adj. and adv.)
eat
education
eight
elect
election(s)
emerge
end (n.)
end (v.)
come to an end
ending
endure
enemy (adj. and n.)
enlarge
enormous
enough (adj and adv.)
enter
entire
entirely
entrance
environment
equal
equally
err
even (adv.)
evening
event
ever
every (one)
evident
evil (n.)

,norfiw
enjazqoum, vamanak
partakanouj\oun
\ouraqanc\our(e); am;n mi
irar; mim\anz; m;km;kou
wa[
wastak;l
;rkir; fo[
;rkra,arv
ar8;l\an
f;,t; j;j8
out;l
krjouj\oun
ouj
entr;l
entrouj\oun(n;r)
;r8al; fa\tnw;l
w;r=
w;r=anal; w;r=azn;l
w;r=anal
w;r=
dimanal
j,nami
m;6azn;l
fska
bawakan; bawarar
mtn;l (intrans.), mtzn;l (trans.)
ambo[=
ambo[=owin
moutq
,r=apat; ,r=aka\q
fawasar
fawasarap;s
s.alw;l
nou\nisk; angam
;r;ko
d;pq
;rb8h
\ouraqanc\our(e); am;n mi
aknfa\t; fa\tni
carouj\oun

282
evil (adj.)
exact
exact(ly)
examination
take an exam
example
for example (parenthesis)
except
excuse
execute
exist
existence
expand
expect
expel
expenses
expensive
explain
explanation
extinguish
extremely
eye
factory
fair (adj.)
faith
fall (n.)
fall (v.)
fall asleep
fall ill
false
family
famous
far
fast
fate
father
father-in-law
fault
favor
fear (n.)

wat, car
yi,t; ans.al
stou\g
qnnouj\oun
qnnouj\oun fan]n;ltal (colloq.)
7rinak
7rinak(i famar)
bazi
n;ro[ouj\oun
katar;l
go\ouj\oun oun;nal
go\ouj\oun
tara6;l
spas;l
q,;l
6a.s
jank(arv;q)
bazatr;l
bazatrouj\oun
mar;l (trans. and intrans.)
ca'axanz
acq
gor6aran
ardar
fawat(q)
a,oun
enkn;l; ja'w;l
qn;l
fiwandanal
k;[6; sout (adj.)
entaniq
fa\tni; n,anawor
f;5ou
arag
ba.t
fa\r
1. sk;sra\r (husband's father); 2. an;r
(wifes father)
m;[q; fanzanq
lawouj\oun
wa.

fear
feed
feel
fellow-countryman
festivity
fight (n.)
fight (v.)
figure
fill
final
finally
financial
find
be found
fine
finger
finish
fire
first (adj.)
first (adv.)
fish
fitting
five
floor
flower
fly
follow
following
food
foot
footstep
for
force (n.)
force (v.)
foreign
foreigner
forest
forget
form (n.)
form (v.)

wa.;nal
k;rakr;l; sn;l
xgal
fa\r;nakiz
ton
k5iw; mart
k5w;l
jiw
lzn;l
w;r=in
w;r=ap;s
dramakan; n\oujakan (colloq.)
gtn;l
gtnw;l
1. fianali, fra,ali (wonderful); 2.
nourb, barak
mat
w;r=anal; w;r=azn;l; awart;l
krak
a5a=in
na. (8 a5a=)
]ouk
farmar (adj. and postpos.)
fing
fatak; fark
6a[ik
j5c;l
f;t8;l
f;t8\al
out;liq, snound
otq
qa\l
1. famar; 2. orowf;t8 (because)
ouv
stip;l
7tar
a\laxgi, 7tar;rkrazi
anta5
mo5anal
1. ]8; 2. dasaran
kaxm;l

284
former
fortunately
four
free
free of charge
freeze
frequent
fresh
friend
become friends
friendship
fruit
future
gain (n.)
game
garden
gather
general (military-n.)
general (adj.)
in general
generally
gentleman
gesture
get
get acquainted
get angry
get better
get tired
get used
giant
gift
girl
give
glad
gladly
gladness
glance (n.)
glass
(eye) glasses
sun-glasses

na.kin
bar;ba.tabar
cors
axat
]ri
sa5(c);l; sa5;zn;l
faya.;l
1. jarm;2. maqour (for air)
enk;r (male), bar;kam; enk;roufi
(female)
enk;ranal
enk;rouj\oun
mirg
apaga (n. and adj.)
,af
.a[
part;x; a\gi
fawaq;l
xorawar
endfanour
endfanrap;s
endfanrap;s
paron
,arvoum
stanal; fasn;l
6anojanal
barkanal
lawanal
fogn;l
warvw;l; farmarw;l
fska (adj. and n.)
nw;r
a[=ik
tal
oura.
sirow
oura.ouj\oun
fa\azq
1. bavak; 2. apaki (material)
aknoz
ar8i aknoz

glove
go
goal
God
good
good-bye
govern
government
grade
gradually
grandfather
grandmother
grasp
great
greatness
greet
ground
grow
guest
guide
habit
hair
hairdresser
half (n. and adj.)
hand
on the one hand...
on the other hand
hang
happen
happiness
happy
happy(ly)
hard (adj. and adv.)
hardly
hat
have
he (himself)
head
head-dress
headache
healthy

];5noz
gnal
npatak
Astwa6
law
zt;souj\oun
ka5awar;l
ka5awarouj\oun
astiyan
astiyanabar
pap(ik)
tat(ik)
emb5n;l
m;6
m;6ouj\oun
bar8;l
g;tin
ay;l; m;6anal
f\our
a5a=nord;l
soworouj\oun
max (usually plural)
warsawir
k;s
];5q
mi ko[miz ... m\ous ko[miz
ka.;l
pataf;l
;r=ankouj\oun
oura.
;r=anik
dvwar; 6anr; andadar (without rest)
faxiw (j;)
gl.ark
oun;nal
na (inqe)
glou.
gl.ark
gl.azaw
a5o[=arar; a5o[=

286
hear
heart
heaven
heavy
height
hello
help (n.)
help (v.)
here
here (it) is
hide
high
hill
history
hit (v.)
hold
holiday(s)
take holiday(s)
holy (adj. and n.)
home
homeland
honest
honesty
hope (n.)
hope (v.)
I hope
horse
hospital
hot
hotel
hour
hourly (per hour)
house
how
how many?
how much?
how much is (are)?
hungry
hurry (v.)
hurt
husband

ls;l
sirt
;rkinq
6anr
bar]rouj\oun; bar]ounq
bar8; o[=ou\n
7gnouj\oun
7gn;l
a\st;[
afa (rarely afawasik)
jaqnw;l (intrans.); jaqzn;l (trans.)
bar]r
l;5
patmouj\oun
.';l; farwa6;l
b5n;l
ton; ar]akourd
ar]akourd gnal/w;rzn;l
sourb
toun
fa\r;niq
axniw
axnwouj\oun
fou\s
fousal; fou\s oun;nal
fousam
]i
fiwandanoz
1. taq; 2. ,og, toj (of weather)
f\ouranoz
vam
vamoum; vame
toun
incp;s, onz (colloq.)
qani2; incqa2n, orqa2n
incqa2n (orqa2n)
i2nc arv;(n)
qa[za6
,tap;l
wirawor;l
amousin

I
ice cream
idea
if
ill
illness
image
imagination
imagine
immediately
impatience
impatient
importance
important
improve
in
increase (v.)
indeed
indicate
indifference
indifferent(ly)
indoors
inform
information
inhabitant
inner
inquire
insert
inside
instead of (prepos.)
intellect
intelligent
intend
interest (n.)
interest (v.)
be interested
interesting
internal
intimate
into

;s
pa[pa[ak
ga[a'ar, mitq
;j;
fiwand
fiwandouj\oun
patk;r
;r8aka\ouj\oun
;r8aka\;l
anmi=ap;s
anfamb;rouj\oun
anfamb;r
kar8orouj\oun; n,anakouj\oun
kar8or
lawanal
m;=
ay;l; m;6anal; aw;lanal
anpa\man; ifark;; an,ou,t (literary)
zou\z tal
antarb;rouj\oun
antarb;r
n;rs(e); n;rsoum
t;[;kazn;l; fa\tn;l
t;[;kouj\oun
bnakic
n;rqin
farzn;l, t;[;kanal
mtzn;l
m;=; n;rsoum; n;rs(e)
'o.anak
.;lq
.;lazi; .;loq
mtadrw;l (mtadir lin;l); npatak
oun;nal
1. f;taqrqrouj\oun;2. ,af
f;taqrqr;l
f;taqrqrw;l
f;taqrqir, f;taqrqrakan
n;rqin
mt;rim; motik (colloq.)
(d;pi) n;rs

288
introduce
involuntarily
iron (n.)
iron (adj.),
jacket
job
joy
just (adj.)
just (adv.)
keep
key
kill
Kilogram (Kilo)
kilometer
kind (adj.)
kind (n.)
kiss (n.)
kiss (v.)
knife
knock
know
knowledge
lady
language
large
last (v.)
last (adj.)
at last
late (adj. and adv.)
be late
lately
laugh (n.)
laugh (v.)
law
law
lazy
lead
leader
leaf
learn
leave

6anojazn;l; n;rka\azn;l
akama
1. ;rkaj (metal); 2. ardouk
;rkaj;
baykon
gor6, a,.atanq
oura.ouj\oun
ardar
f;nz; fima (of time)
paf;l
banali
span;l
kilo(gram)
kilom;tr
bari
t;sak
fambou\r
fambour;l
danak
jak;l; 6;6;l (colloq.)
git;nal; imanal
git;liq
tikin
l;xou
m;6
t8;l
anz\al; na.ord
w;r=ap;s
ou,
ou,anal
w;r=;rs; nor
6i6a[
6i6a[;l
7r;nq
7r;nq; irawounq (as a system)
6ou\l
a5a=nord;l
a5a=nord
t;r8
sowor;l
m;kn;l; jo[n;l

lecture
lecturer
left (adj. and n.)
leg
less
lesson
let
letter
library
lie (down)
lie (n.)
life
light (n.)
light
like (v.)
like (adv.)
listen
liter
little
a little
liturgy
live (v.)
living
locate
location
long (adj. and adv.)
long ago
no longer
longing (n.)
look (n.)
look (v.)
look (a)like
look for
lord
lose
be lost
get lost
loss
loud(ly)

dasa.osouj\oun
dasa.os
]a.
otq
(aw;li) pakas, aw;li qic
das
jou\latr;l (colloq. jou\l tal); jo[n;l
(colloq.); jo[ (Imperative)
1.namak (postal); 2. ta5
gradaran
pa5k;l
sout
k\anq
lou\s
1. j;j8 (not heavy); 2. lousawor (full of
light); 3. baz (of color)
fawan;l; dour gal; sir;l
nman, p;s
ls;l
litr
'oqr(ik); qic
mi qic
patarag
apr;l; bnakw;l
k;ndani; o[=
dn;l; t;[awor;l
t;[
;rkar
wa[ouz; wa[ouzwaniz (colloq.)
a\l8s
karot
fa\azq
1. na\;l; 2. jwal
nman lin;l
'ntr;l
t;r
korzn;l
korc;l
korc;l
koroust
bar]ra]a\n; bar]r (colloq.)

290
love (n.)
love (v.)
low (adj. and adv.)
luck
luckily
luma
mail
by mail
make
make up
man
manner
many
market
marriage
marry (also get married)
master
material (adj.)
matter
meal
mean
meaning
means
by all means
measure
meat
medicine
meet
meeting
melody
member
memory
merely
meter
middle
midnight
milk
mind
mirror
miserable
Miss

s;r
sir;l
za6r
ba.t
bar;ba.tabar
louma
'ost
'ostow
sarq;l; patrast;l; ,in;l
kaxm;l
mard
k;rp; ]8; ;[anak
,at
,ouka
amousnouj\oun
amousnanal
t;r
n\oujakan
.ndir; farz
ya,
n,anak;l
n,anakouj\oun
mi=oz
anpatya5
ca'
mis
1. bv,kouj\oun (science); 2. d;[ (drug)
fandip;l; pataf;l
vo[ow; fandipoum
;[anak
andam
fi,atak
parxap;s
m;tr
m;=t;[
k;sgi,;r
kaj
mitq
fa\;li
.;[y
7riord

miss
mistake
by mistake
modern
moment
money
month
monthly
more
morning
most (of all)
mostly
mother
mother-in-law
motion
mountain
move (v.)
movement
Mr.
Mrs
much
museum
must
name (n.)
name (v.)
narrow
nation
national
natural
nature
naughty
near
bring near
come near
necessity
need (n.)
need (v.)
negligence

1. karot;l (long for); 2. baz jo[n;l (a


train, chance, etc.)
s.al
s.almamb
vamanakakiz; ardi
paf
dram, 'o[ (colloq.)
amis
amsakan; amise (a month)
aw;li
a5awot
am;niz; am;na-(superlative prefix)
m;6 masamb
ma\r
sk;sour (husbands mother); xoqanc
(wifes mother)
,arvoum
sar, l;5
,arv(w);l
,arvoum
paron
tikin
,at
jangaran
piti, p;tq h
anoun
koc;l
n;[
axg
axga\in
bnakan
1.
bnouj\oun;
2.
bnaworouj\oun
(character)
carayyi
mot(ik)
mot;zn;l
mot;nal
kariq; anfrav;,touj\oun
pafan=; kariq; anfrav;,touj\oun
pafan=(w);l
anfogouj\oun

292
negligent
neighbor
neighborhood
neither ... nor
never
new
news
newspaper
next
night
nine
no
no one
nobody
noise
noon
note
nothing
notice
notify
novel
now
number
nurse
nutrition
obligation
occasion
on the occasion of
occasionally
occupied
of course
offer (n.)
offer (v.)
official (n.)
often
old
old age
on
once
at once

anfog
far8an
,r=apat; ,r=aka\q
oc ... oc (hl)
;rb;q
nor
lour
j;rj; lragir
fa=ord; galiq
gi,;r
inn, ine
oc; ch (colloq.)
oc oq
oc oq
a[mouk
k;s7r
grouj\oun; n,oum
ocinc
nkat;l
t;[;kazn;l; fa\tn;l
w;p
fima; a\vm
jiw; famar (phone number)
.nam;l
snound
partakanouj\oun
d;pq; a5ij
a5jiw
;rb;mn
xba[wa6
anpa\man; ifark;; an,ou,t (literary)
a5a=ark; a5a=arkouj\oun
a5a=ark;l; matouz;l
pa,ton\a
faya.
1. fin; 2. 6;r (of age)
6;rouj\oun
wra
1. mi angam;2. mi vamanak (upon a
time)
anmi=ap;s

one
one another
only
open (v.)
open (adj.)
opinion
opponent
opportunity
oppose
opposite (adj. and postpos.)
opposite
or
either ... or
or else
order (n.)
ordinary
organization
oriental
other
otherwise
out of
go out
outdoors
outside
owner
pack
page
pain
paint
painting
paper
parent
park (v.)
parking
part
participate
partly
party
pass
past (adj.)

m;k; mi (colloq.)
irar; mim\anz; m;km;kou
1. miak(adj.) 2. mia\n (adv.)
baz;l
baz
kar6iq
enddima.os; faka5akord
fnaraworouj\oun; a5ij
faka5akw;l; d;m lin;l
faka5ak
dimaz
kam; j;
kam ... kam
j; ch; faka5ak d;pqoum; a\lap;s
framan
soworakan
kaxmak;rpouj\oun
ar8;l\an
a\l; ouri,; m\ous
j; ch; faka5ak d;pqoum; a\lap;s
(d;pi) dours
;ln;l
dours(e); drsoum
dours(e); drsoum
t;r
tou'
h=
zaw
n;rk;l
nkar
jou[j; j;rj
6no[
kangn;zn;l (trans.); kangn;l (intrans.)
ka\an
1. mas; 2. d;r (role)
masnakz;l
masamb
1. kousakzouj\oun (political); 2. ;r;ko;
;r;kou\j (gathering)
anzn;l (cross); anzkazn;l (spend)
anz\al; na.ord

294
patience
patient (n.)
patient (v.)
pay
peak
pen
pencil
people
perfect
perform
perhaps
personal
personally
phenomenon
photo (graph)
physician
pick
pick off
pick up
picture
piece
place (n.)
place (v.)
plain
plan
play (n.)
play (v.)
pleasant
please (v.)
pleasure
point
politeness
political
poor
population
position
post
post-office
pour
poverty
power

famb;rouj\oun
fiwand
famb;ratar
wyar;l
gagaj
gric
matit
1. mardik (persons); 2. vo[owourd (folk)
katar\al
katar;l
j;r8s
an]nakan
an]amb
;r8ou\j
lousankar; nkar (colloq.)
bvi,k
qa[;l
pok;l
1.w;rzn;l; fawaq;l, 2. entr;l(choose)
nkar; patk;r (literary)
ktor; fat
t;[
dn;l; t;[awor;l
parx
6ragir; na.agi6
.a[
.a[al
fay;li
gofazn;l
fayou\q
zou\z tal
qa[aqawarouj\oun
qa[aqakan
a[qat (adj. and n.); .;[y
bnakcouj\oun
dirq; pa,ton
'ost
'ostatoun; 'ost (colloq.)
lzn;l
1. kariq, n;[ouj\oun;2. a[qatouj\oun
ouv

praise
precise(ly)
prefer
prepare
presence
present (n.)
present (adj.)
be present
president
pretty
price
priest (married)
prime
print
problem
process
product
profession
profit(n.)
profound
prohibit
project
promise
pronounce
pronunciation
proposal
propose
protect
public (adj.)
pull
punish
pupil
pure
purpose
put
put on
put out
quantity
quarrel (n.)
quarrel (v.)
quarter

gow;l
stou\g
na.entr;l
(na.a)patrast;l
n;rka\ouj\oun
nw;r
n;rka
n;rka lin;l
na.agaf
g;[;zik, siroun(ik)
gin; arv;q
qafana
gl.awor
tp;l; tpagr;l (literary)
.ndir; farz
enjazq
ard\ounq
masnagitouj\oun
,af
.or(e)
arg;l;l
6ragir; na.agi6
.ostanal
artasan;l
artasanouj\oun
a5a=ark; a5a=arkouj\oun
a5a=ark;l
pa,tpan;l
fanra\in
qa,;l
patv;l
a,ak;rt
maqour
npatak
dn;l; t;[awor;l
fagn;l
mar;l (trans. and intrans.)
ca'; qanakouj\oun
w;y; k5iw
k5w;l; wiy;l
qa5ord

296
queer
question
quick(ly)
quiet(ly)
quite
rain
rainy
rare
reach
read
ready
reality
realize
reason
recall
receive
recently
recite
recognize
recover
red
regular
relative (n.)
remain
remarkable
remember
renounce
repeat
reply (n.)
reply (v.)
represent
representative
request
rescue
resemble
reside
respect (n.)
respect (v.)
rest (n.)

kaska6;li
.ndir; farz
arag (adj. and adv.)
fangist (adj. and adv.); m;[m(or;n);
za6r (of voice); kamaz (colloq.)
bawakan(in)
an]r8
an]r8ot
faxwad;p, faxwag\out
fasn;l
kardal
patrast
irakanouj\oun
faskanal
patya5
fi,;l
stanal
w;r=;rs; nor
artasan;l
yanac;l
bouvw;l; lawanal (colloq.)
karmir
kanonawor
axgakan;
bar;kam
(male);
bar;kamoufi (female)
mnal
n,anawor
fi,;l
ouranal
krkn;l
patas.an
patas.an;l
6anojazn;l; n;rka\azn;l
n;rka\azouzic
.ndr;l
'rk;l
nman lin;l
apr;l; bnakw;l
farganq
farg;l
fangist

rest (v.)
restaurant
result (n.)
resume (v.)
retell
return (n.)
return (v.)
review
rich
ride
ridiculous
rifle
right (n.)
right
ring (n.)
ring (v.)
rise
river
road
role
room
round
ruble (bill)
rule
run
sad(ly)
sadness
safe
saint (adj. and n.)
salary
salute (v.)
same
satisfied
be satisfied
get satisfied
satisfy
save
say
scarcely

fangstanal
5;storan
ard\ounq
w;rsks;l
1. as;l; 2. (w;ra)patm;l
w;radar]
w;rada5nal(intrans.); w;radar]n;l
(trans.)
fand;s
faroust (adj. and n.)
f;6n;l; q,;l (colloq.)
6i6a[;li
frazan
irawounq
1. a= (adj. and n.); 2. yi,t (adj. and adv.);
3. ou[i[ (adj. and adv.)
matani
1. xngal, fnc;l ; 2. xang;l(phone)
;ln;l
g;t
yanaparf
d;r
1. s;n\ak (chamber); 2. t;[ (space)
,our=
5oubli
kanon
wax;l
t.our
t.rouj\oun
apafow
sourb
a,.atawar]
bar8;l
(mi8)nou\n
gof
gof lin;l
gof mnal
gofazn;l
'rk;l
as;l
faxiw (j;)

298
scenery
school
science
script
sea
search
seashore
season
seat (n.)
seat (v.)
second (adj.)
second (n.)
secure
see
see off
seem
sell
send
sentence
separate(ly)
serious
serve
service
settle
seven
severe
shade
shadow
shape (v.)
she (herself)
sheet (of paper)
shining
ship
shoe
shop
shore
short
shorten
shout
show
shut (v.)

t;saran
dproz
gitouj\oun
gir
6ow
'ntr;l
6owa'
;[anak
t;[
nst;zn;l
;rkrord (ordinal)
wa\rk\an
apafow
t;sn;l
ou[;kz;l
jwal; ;r8al
waya5;l; 6a.;l (colloq.)
ou[ark;l
na.adasouj\oun
a5an]in
lour=
6a5a\;l; matouz;l
6a5a\ouj\oun
bnakouj\oun fastat;l
\oj
sastik; davan
stw;r
stw;r
]8;l
na, inqe
j;rj
'a\loun
naw
ko,ik
.anouj
a'
kary (adj. and adv.)
karyazn;l
b[aw;l
zou\z tal
'ak;l

shut (adj.)
side
significance
silence (n.)
silence (v.)
silent
be silent
silver (n.)
silver (adj.)
simple
simplicity
simply
since
sincerity
sing
singer
single
sir
sister
sister-in-law
sit (down)
situation
be situated
six
size
sky
sleep
slow(ly)
small
smile (n.)
smile (v.)
snatch
snow (n.)
snow (v.)
so

so-so
society

'ak
ko[m
n,anakouj\oun; kar8orouj\oun
l5ouj\oun
l5;zn;l
lou5
l5;l
ar6aj (metal)
ar6aj;, ar6aj\a
parx
parxouj\oun
parxap;s
1. i w;r (of time); 2. qani or (as)
ank;[6ouj\oun
;rg;l
;rgic (male); ;rgcoufi (female)
1. miak; 2. amouri (not married)
paron
qou\r
1. tal (husband's sister); 2. q;ni (wife's
sister)
nst;l
drouj\oun; wiyak
gtnw;l
w;z
m;6ouj\oun
;rkinq
qn;l
danda[; kamaz (colloq.)
'oqr(ik)
vpit
vptal
'a.zn;l
]\oun
]\oun gal, t;[al
1. a\np;s (in such a way); 2. a\dqan;
a\nqan; a\sqan (that/this much); 3.
a\np;s or; orp;sxi (in order to); 4.
our;mn (well then)
kamaz-kamaz (colloq.)
enk;rouj\oun

300
soft(ly)
soldier
solution
some (any)
some (out) of
someone
sometimes
somewhat
son
son/daughter
song
soon
sort (n.)
sound (n.)
sound (v.)
sound (adj.)
source
souvenir
speak
specialist
speciality
speech
speed
spend
spill
splendid
spread
spring
stair
start
state
station (railway)
stay
steal
step
still
stone

m;[m(or;n); za6r (of voice); kamaz


(colloq.)
xinwor
1. lou6oum (of a problem); 2. lou6ou\j
(liquid)
inc-or, mi qani (a few)
mi qanise
m;ke; omn
;rb;mn
1. or8h; 2. qic (little)
ordi; t[a (colloq.)
xawak
;rg
,outow
t;sak
]a\n
fnc;l
1. a5o[=; 2. fousali(reliable)
a[b\our
fi,atak
.os;l; xrouz;l
masnag;t
masnagitouj\oun
.osq
aragouj\oun
1. 6a.s;l; 2. anzkazn;l (pass)
ja';l
fianali, sqanc;li
tara6;l
1. garoun; 2. a[b\our
astiyan
1. sks;l 2. a,.at;zn;l (a machine)
1. p;touj\oun; 2. wiyak (condition) ; 3.
nafang (province)
ka\aran
mnal
go[anal
qa\l
1. fandart (quiet - adj. and . adv.); 2.
d;5 (yet)
qar

stop (n.)
stop (v.)
story
straight
street
strength (n.)
strike (n.)
strike (v.)
strong
student
study (n.)
study (v.)
subject
substance
succeed
such
suddenly
suffer
sufficient (adj and adv.)
sugar
suggestion
suitable
sum
summer
summit
sun
sunny
superb
supper
have supper
suppose
supposedly
sure
surely
surprise
be surprised
surprising
surprisingly
suspicious
swim

kanga5 (for buses, etc.)


kangn;zn;l (trans.); kangn;l (intrans.)
patmouj\oun; patmwa6q
ou[i[
'o[oz
ouv
farwa6
.';l; farwa6;l
ouv;[
ousano[
ousoum
sowor;l
a5arka; n\ouj
n\ouj
fa=o[w;l (be a success)
a\dpisi, a\spisi, a\npisi (like
that/this)
fankar6(aki)
ta5ap;l
bawakan; bawarar
,aqar
a5a=ark; a5a=arkouj\oun
farmar (adj. and postpos.)
goumar
ama5
gagaj
ar8
ar8ot
entir
enjriq
enjr;l
;njadr;l
ibr8(j;)
wstaf (adj. and adv.)
anpa\man; ifark;; an,ou,t (literary)
xarmazn;l
xarmanal
xarmanali
xarmanalior;n
kaska6;li
lo[al

302
table
tailor
take
take part
take place
talk (n.)
talk (v.)
tall
task
taste
tasty
tax
tea
teach
teacher
telephone (n.)
telephone (v.)
tell
ten
than
thank (v.)
thanks (n.)
thanks to
that
theater
then
there
there are
there is
they (themselves)
thief
thin
thing
think
this
though
thought
three

s;[an
d;r]ak
w;rzn;l; tan;l
masnakz;l
t;[i oun;nal
.osakzouj\oun, xrou\z
.os;l; xrouz;l
bar]rafasak (for people)
gor6, fan]nararouj\oun
fam
fam;[; famow (colloq.)
fark
j;\
sowor;zn;l; ousouzan;l
ousouzic (male); ousouzcoufi (female)
f;5a.os
xangafar;l; xang;l, xang tal
(colloq.)
1. as;l; 2. patm;l
tas(e)
qan
,norfakal lin;l
,norfakalouj\oun
,norfiw
a\n, a\d (da)(demonstr.); j;, or (conj.)
jatron
1. our;mn (so), 2. f;to, apa
(afterwards); 3. a\d vamanak (at that
time)
a\nt;[
kan
ka
nranq (ir;nq)
go[
barak, n;[
ban
mta6;l; kar6;l
a\s (sa)
j;8, j;p;t(8)
mitq
;r;q

throw
throw away
thus
ticket
tie (v.)
till
time
at any time
for a long time now
for a long time
on time; upon a time (adverbial)
time(s)
tip
to(wards)
tobacco
today
together
come together
tomorrow
tongue
too
tool
topic
totally
touch
town
trade
traffic
train (n.)
train (v.)
traitor
tram
travel
treat
tree
trick (v.)
trouble (n.)
trouble (v.)
be in trouble

n;t;l
ja';l
a\dp;s; a\dpisow/a\spisow
toms(ak)
kap;l
minc8
vamanak
;rb8h
wa[ouz i w;r
wa[ouz; ;rkar vamanak
vamanakin
... angam
6a\r
1. d;pi; fand;p (to); 2. nkatmamb
(regarding)
6.a.ot
a\s7r
miasin
fawaqw;l
wa[e
l;xou
1. nou\np;s (adv.); 2. sastik,
ca'axanz, ca'iz aw;li (extremely)
gor6iq
n\ouj
ambo[=owin
dipc;l
qa[aq
1. a58tour; 2. arf;st
;rj8;kouj\oun
gnazq
sowor;zn;l; ousouzan;l
dawayan
tramwa\
yam'ord;l
1. f\ourasir;l;2. w;rab;rw;l
6a5
.ab;l
n;[ouj\oun; anfangstouj\oun
n;[ouj\oun patya5;l
n;[ouj\oun kr;l

304
trousers
true
trust (n)
trust (v.)
truth
try
two
type (n.)
unacceptable
uncle
under
understand
undoubtedly
unfortunate
unfortunately
unintentionally
union
university
unless
until
untrue
use (v.)
usual
usually
vacation
value
vanish
various
velocity
verge
very
view
village
visit (n.)
visit (v.)
voice
wait
wake (up)
walk (n.)
go for a walk
walk (v.)

tabat; ,alwar (colloq.)


y,marit
wstafouj\oun
fawatal, wstaf;l
y,martouj\oun
'or];l, a,.at;l
;rkou
t;sak
anendoun;li
q;5i (maternal); for;[ba\r (paternal)
tak
faskanal
ankaska6
dvba.t
dvba.tabar
akama
miouj\oun
famalsaran
;j; + negative verb form
minc8
k;[6; sout (adj.)
7gtagor6;l
soworakan
soworabar
ar]akourd
arv;q
anf;tanal
xanaxan
aragouj\oun
6a\r
,at
1. t;saran; 2. t;sak;t
g\ou[
a\z;louj\oun
a\z;l;l
]a\n
spas;l
arjnanal (xarjn;l)
xbosanq
xbosanqi gnal
qa\l;l

wall
want (n.)
want (v.)
war
warm
wash
wash oneself
watch
water (n.)
way
we
weak
weaken
wealthy
wear
weather
week
weep
well
well-known
Western
what
when
whence
where (to)
whereas
whether
which
while (adv.)
while (n.)
white
who
whole
why
wicked
wickedness
wide
wife
will (n.)
willingly
win

pat
1. zankouj\oun; 2. kariq (pl.)
1. zankanal; 2. oux;nal, oux;l (colloq.)
pat;raxm
taq
lw(an)al
lwazw;l
vamazou\z
=our
1. k;rp; ]8; ;[anak; 2. yanaparf
m;nq
jou\l
joulanal (intrans.); joulazn;l (trans.)
faroust
kr;l, fagn;l
;[anak
,abaj
lal (also laz;l, laz lin;l)
law
fa\tni
ar8mt\an
inc
;rb
ort;[iz
ort;[, our
isk; mincd;5
ard\oq, j;
or (mi), ore
minc
paf
spitak
ow
ambo[=
incou
wat, car
carouj\oun
la\n
tikin; kin
kamq
sirow
fa[j;l

306
window
wine
winter
wisdom
wish (n.)
wishes (to someone else)
wish (v.)
I wish ...
wit
with
without
withstand
woman
wonderful
wood
wooden
word
work (n.)
work (v.)
worker
world
worry (n.)
worry (v.)
worth (n.)
worth (v.)
wound (v.)
write
wrong
be wrong
wrongly
year
year old
yearly
yes
yesterday
yet
you (pl.)
you (sing.)
young (also - young person)
young lady

patoufan, lousamout
gini
]m;5
imastouj\oun
zankouj\oun
ma[janq
zankanal; oux;nal (colloq.)
:rani (j;)...
.;lq
f;t
a5anz
dimanal
kin
fianali, sqanc;li
1. 'a\t (material); 2. anta5 (forest)
'a\t;
ba5; .osq
a,.atanq, gor6
a,.at;l
banwor, a,.ato[
a,.arf
mtafogouj\oun
mtafogw;l
arv;q
arv;nal
wirawor;l
gr;l
s.al
s.alw;l
s.al; s.almamb
tari; jwakan, jiw (colloq.)
tar;kan
tar;kan
a\o, fa (colloq.)
;r;k
1. d;5(8s)(still); 2. ba\z (but); 3. ard;n
(already)
douq
dou
;ritasard
7riord

youth

;ritasardouj\oun

Armenian-English
This vocabulary contains all of the words used in Lessons 1-30. It does not
contain words used only in examples; personal names (these may be found in
the vocabularies after each lesson); the words in the Appendixes; and Lessons
31-36.
The cases governed by postpositions and prepositions have been indicated,
as have the cases governed by verbs. Special usages and idioms have been
explained. However, only those meanings appropriate to the given context have
been noted in this vocabulary. For further reading, a proper dictionary will be
required.
axat
axg
axgakan, -i
axga\in
axniw
axnwouj\oun, -\an
ajo5, -i
a.orvak, -i
akama
aknoz, -i
ar8i aknoz
akoumb, -i
afa (rare: afawasik)
a[b\our, -i
a[=ik
a[mouk, -i
a[qat
ay;l
amac;l
ama5, -wa (or am5an)
ambo[=
ambo[=owin
am;n (mi)
am;naam;niz
am;rikazi
amis
ampot
amsakan (or amise)
amousin, -ou

free
nation; folk
relative (noun)
national
fair, honest
honesty
chair
appetite
unintentionally, involuntarily
(eye) glasses
sun-glasses
club
here (it) is; voici; now
source; spring
girl; daughter (colloq.)
noise
poor (adj.; and noun)
to grow, increase
to be ashamed (of (+ abl.))
summer
complete, entire, whole
entirely, totally
each, every, all
most (superlative prefix)
most (of all) (superlative adverb)
American (person)
month
cloudy
monthly, a month
husband

amousnanal
amousnouj\oun, -\an
a\d (da)
a\dp;s
a\dpisi
a\dqan
a\vm
a\l
a\laxgi
a\lap;s
a\l8s
a\n
a\np;s
a\np;s or
a\npisi
a\nt;[
a\nqan
a\o
a\s (sa)
a\spisi
a\st;[
a\sqan
a\rw;l
a\z;l;l
a\z;louj\oun, -\an
angam
mi angam
angl;r;n
andadar
andam, -i
an;l
an;r, -o=
anxgou,ouj\oun, -\an
anendoun;li
ankaska6
ank;[6ouj\oun, -\an
anko[in, -ou (also-i)
anfamb;rouj\oun, -\an
anf;tanal
anfog

to marry, get married; with (+gen.+f;t)


marriage
that
thus, so
such (like that)
so (much), that (much)
now
other
foreign; foreigner
otherwise
no longer; not any more(+neg, verb; hl is
also used in this sense)
that (over there)
so (in such a way)
so (that)
such(like that)
there
so (much), that (much)
yes
this
such (like this)
here
so (much), this (much)
to burn (intrans.)
to visit; somewhere (+ acc.); smb. (+dat.)
visit
time(s); occasion; even(adv.)
once
(in) English (also the language)
without rest, hard (adj. and adv.)
member
to do
wifes father (father-in-law)
carelessness
unacceptable
without doubt, undoubtedly
sincerity
bed
impatience
to disappear, vanish
carefree; indifferent; negligent

310
anfogouj\oun, -\an
an]amb
an]nakan
an]r8, -i
an]r8ot
anmi=ap;s
an,ou,t
anpa\man
anpatya5
ans.al
anta5, -i
antarb;r
anzkazn;l
anz\al
anz\al 7re
anzn;l
anzn;l
anoun
a,ak;rt
a,.atanq, -i
a,.atawar], -i
a,.at;l
a,.at;zn;l
a,.arf
a,oun, -an
acq, -i
apa
apaga, -i
apaga\oum
apafow
apr;l
a=, -i
a5an]in
a5anz
a5a=
a5a=ark, -i
a5a=ark;l
a5a=nord, -i

indifference; negligence
personally; by oneself
personal
rain
rainy
at once, immediately
of course, certainly (rather literary)
indeed, surely
by all means, certainly
right, correct (adj. and adv.)
forest, wood
indifferent (adj. and adv.)
to spend; to pass (+ acc.)
last; past (adj. and noun)
the other day
to pass; cross (+ acc.)
to pass, go past; cross; by/through (+instr.);
to be taught (colloq.) (+ acc.)
name
pupil
work
salary
to work; try
to make smb. work; put into action, start (+
acc.)
world
autumn; fall
eye
then (in that case); afterwards
future
in the future
safe, secure
to live
right (adj. and noun)
alone; separate(ly) (adj. and adv.)
without (prep; + gen.)
ago; before (postpos. + abl)
proposal; suggestion, offer
to propose; offer (+ acc.); to (+dat.)
leader

a5a=nord;l
a5awot
a5awot\an (archaic dat.)
a5jiw
a5ij, -i
a5n;l
a5nwaxn
a5o[=
a5o[=arar
a5=8
a58tour, -i
as;l
astiyan, -i
astiyanabar
Astwa6, Ast6o
Astwa6 cani!
"a5q Ast6o!
awart;l
aw;lanal
aw;li
awtobous, -i
(awto) m;q;na, -i
arag
arag(or;n)
aragouj\oun, -\an
arg;l;l
ardar
ard;n
ardi
ard\oq
ard\ounq, -i
arjnanal (xarjn;l)
arv;nal
i2nc arv; (n)
arv;q, -i
ar6aj, -i
arka6, -i
arf;st, -i
ar]akourd, -i
ar]akourd gnal

to lead, guide smb. (+ acc.); (to) somewhere


((d;pi) + acc.)
morning
in the morning (adverbial); morning (adj.)
on the occasion of (postpos. + gen.)
opportunity; occasion; cause
to take, get; buy (colloq.)(+ acc.)
at least (rather literary)
healthy; sound
healthy (promoting health)
before, in front of (postpos. + gen.)
trade; commerce
to say; tell
degree, grade; stair
gradually
God, Lord
God forbid
Thank Goodness!
to complete (+ acc.)
to increase in number;be left over (+ abl.)
more
bus (by bus - awtobousow; the Instr.)
automobile
fast
quick(ly)
speed; velocity
to prohibit (+ acc.); (+ inf.)
fair, just
already
modern
whether (often preceded by j;)
result, effect, product
to wake up; from (+ abl.)
to be worth, cost
how much is (are) ?
value, worth
silver (noun)
adventure; incident
craft, trade; profession (literary)
holiday(s), vacation
to take holiday(s)

312
arw;stag;t, -i
artasan;l
artasanouj\oun, -\an
ar8;l\an
ar8mt\an
ar8ot
a', -i
bavak
bavan;l
ba.t, -i
baykon, -i
ba\z
ban
banali, -ou
banak, -i
banwor
ba5
bawakan
bawakan h
bawarar
bawarar lin;l
barak
bar;ba.tabar
bar;kam
bar;kamoufi, -ou
bari
bari ;[ir/;[;q
barkanal
bar]r
bar]rafasak
bar]ra]a\n
bar]rouj\oun, -\an
bar]ounq, -i
bar8
bar8;l
baz
baz
bazaka
bazatr;l

artist (man of art)


to recite; pronounce (+ acc.)
declamation; pronunciation
eastern; oriental
western
sunny
coast, shore
drinking glass
to divide; distribute (colloq.)(+ acc.); from
(+ abl.)
luck; fate
jacket
but; yet
thing
key
army
worker, workman
word
enough, sufficient (adj. and adv.); quite;
considerably
(that) is enough; for (+ gen. + famar)
enough; sufficient
to be enough; suffice; for (+gen. + famar)
thin, fine
fortunately, luckily
relative (colloq.); friend
female relative, friend
kind; well (response)
(see p. 3 above)
to become angry; with (+gen. + wra)
high; loud (adj. and adv.)
tall (for people)
aloud; loud(ly) (adj. and adv.)
height
height (as hill)
hello!
to greet, salute (+dat.)
open
open; light (of color)
absent
to explain; smth. (+ acc.); to smb. (+ dat.)

bazatrouj\oun, -\an
baz;l
bazi
bazoum, -an
b;r;l
bvi,k, -i
bv,kouj\oun, -\an
b[aw;l
bnakan
bnakic, -i
bnakcouj\oun, -\an
bnakw;l
bnakouj\oun fastat;l
bnaw
bnaworouj\oun, -\an
bnouj\oun, -\an
bolor
bolore, bolorn hl
bolorowin
b5n;l
bouv;l
gagaj, -i
gal
galiq
ga[a'ar, -i
gawaj
gar;=our
garoun, -an
g;[;zik
g;[;zkouj\oun, -\an
g;t, -i
g;tin, -i
gin
gini
gi,;r
git;nal
gitouj\oun, -\an
gir, -i
girq
gl.awor

explanation
to open
except, besides (prep. or postpos. + abl.)
opening
to bring (+ acc.); for (+dat. or + gen. +
famar)
doctor, physician
medicine (science)
to shout; at (+gen. + wra)
natural
inhabitant
population
to live, reside, dwell (+ loc.)
to settle
at all (rather literary)
nature, character
nature
all (adj.)
all the, all of them (substantive)
at all (+ negatives)
to catch, hold (+ acc.)
to cure (+ acc.); from (+ abl.)
summit, peak
to come
next, coming
idea
cup
beer
spring
beautiful, pretty
beauty
river
ground, floor, earth
price
wine
night
to know (+ acc.)
science, knowledge
letter; script
book
chief, prime (adj.)

314
gl.ark, -i
glou., -i
gl.azaw, -i
g6;l
g\ou[, -i
gnal
gnazq, -i
gndak, -i
gn;l
gof
gof lin;l/mnal
gofazn;l
go[, -i
go[anal
go\ouj\oun, -\an
go\ouj\oun oun;nal
gon;
gow;l
gor6
gor6, -i
gor6aran, -i
gor6iq, -i
gtn;l
gtnw;l
gradaran, -i
gr;j;
gr;l
gric
grouj\oun, -\an
gz;l
goumar, -i
gou\n
danak, -i
danda[
da5nal
(w;ra)da5nal
das
dasa.os, -i
dasa.osouj\oun, -\an
dasaran

hat; head-dress
head
headache (see also zaw pain)
to draw a line
village
to go
train
ball; bullet
to buy
satisfied
to be/get satisfied; by (+ abl.)
to satisfy; please (+dat.);with (+instr.)
thief
to steal(+ acc.); from (+ abl.)
existence
to exist
at least
to praise (+ acc.)
work, job; task, business
work; business; piece of art or literature
factory
tool
to find (+ acc.)
to be situated; be found (passive for gtn;l
to find)
library
almost
to write
pen
note (short letter)
to drop (+ acc.)
sum, amount
color
knife
slow (adj. and adv.)
to become (+ acc.)
to (re)turn; become (+ nom.)
lesson, class
lecturer
lecture
class (form; group; room)

dawayan, -i
dar, -i
dar]\al
(w;ra)dar]n;l
d;m
d;m lin;l
d;pi
d;pq, -i
d;5(8s)
d;5
d;r, -i
d;r]ak, -i
dvba.t
dvba.tabar
dvgof
dvgof lin;l/mnal
dvwar
dvwarouj\oun, -\an
dimanal
dimaz
dim;l
dipc;l
dirq, -i
dn;l
dolar, -i
dproz
dram (colloq. 'o[)
drouj\oun, -\an
dou
dou5 (pl. d5n;r )
dours
douq
;j;
;j; + neg. verb form
;ln;l
;k;[;zi
;[anak
;[anak, -i

traitor
century, age
again
to (re)turn (trans., + acc.)
against (postpos., gen.+)
to oppose (+dat.)
to(wards) (prep.; + acc.)
event, occasion; accident
yet; still
still; yet
part, role
tailor
unfortunate
unfortunately
dissatisfied
to be/get dissatisfied; by (+ abl.)
hard, difficult (adj. and adv.)
difficulty
to endure, withstand (+dat.)
across, opposite, facing (postpos. + gen.)
to apply to (+dat.)
to touch; collide (+dat.)
position
to put, place (+ acc.); on (+ gen. + wra)
dollar
school
1. money; 2. dram (Armenian national
monetary unit)
situation, state
you (sing.)
door(pl. - doors)
out of; outside, out-of-doors (see point 1
above)
you (pl.); polite form
if
unless
to go up, out; to rise (a cat. 1 irreg. verb)
church
weather; season
weather, season (cf. Lesson 1); melody;
manner

316
;[ba\r
;njadr;l
;s
;t (also f;t)
;rax, -i
;rani (j;)
;rb
;rb;mn
;rb;q
;rb8h

brother
to suppose, assume (+ acc.)
I
back (adv.)
dream
I wish; would that
when (interrogative and relative)
sometimes; occasionally
never
ever (usually with perfect negatives); at any
time
;rg, -i
song
;rg;l
to sing (+ acc.)
;rgic, -i
singer (male)
;rgcoufi, -ou
singer (female)
;r;.a
child
;r;k
yesterday (noun and adj.)
;r;k gi,;r
last night
;r;k ch m\ous (or a5a=in) 7re the day before yesterday
;r;ko
evening
;r;ko, -i (or archaic ;r;ko\an) evening; party
;r;ko\an (arch. dat. for ;r;ko) in the evening (adv.); evening (adj.)
;r;q
three
;r;q,abji
Tuesday
;ritasard
young; young person
youth (abstract; collective noun)
;ritasardouj\oun, -\an
;rkaj, -i
iron (metal-noun)
;rkaj;
iron (adj.), (see point 2 above)
;rkar
long (adj. and adv.)
;rkar
long (adj. and adv.)
;rkinq
sky, heaven
;rkir, -i
country
;rkra,arv, -i
earthquake
;rkou
two
;rkousn hl
both
;rkou,abji
Monday
;r=anik
happy (adj. and adv.)
;r=ankouj\oun, -\an
happiness
;r8al
to appear, seem; emerge
(incp;s) ;r8oum h...
(as) it seems
;r8aka\;l
to imagine (+ acc.)

;r8ou\j, -i
est ;r8ou\jin
xanaxan
xangafar;l(colloq.
xang;l/xang tal)
xawak
xarmanal
xarmanali
xarmanalior;n
xarmazn;l
xba[wa6
xba[w;l
xbosanq, -i
xbosanqi gnal
xgal
xgou,anal
xgou,ouj\oun, -\an
xinwor, -i
xorawar, -i
xrouz;l
hvan
hl
h,, -i
h=
emb5n;l
endfanrap;s
endfanour
endoun;l
endoun;li
enjazq, -i
enjazqoum
enjr;l
enjriq, -i
enk;r
enk;ranal
enk;rouj\oun, -\an
enk;roufi, -ou
enkn;l

phenomenon
apparently
various
to telephone, ring, give a call; to (+ dat.)
son, daughter
to be surprised, astonished; at (+ gen. +
wra)
surprising, amazing
surprisingly, amazingly
to astonish, surprise (+ acc.); with (+ instr.)
busy; occupied
to be engaged in; be busy (+ instr.)
walk (noun)
to go for a walk
to feel (something (+ acc.)); to feel oneself
(+ nom.)
to be careful, beware of (+ abl.)
caution
soldier
general, military leader
to converse; with (+ gen. + f;t)
cheap
also, too
donkey, ass
page
to grasp, comprehend (+ acc.)
in general, generally (speaking)
general, common
to receive; admit, accept (+ acc.)
acceptable
course, process
during, in the course of (postpos. + gen.)
to have supper
supper
friend, comrade
to become friends with (+ gen. + f;t);
accompany (+dat.)
friendship, society; company
friend (female)
to fall

318
entaniq
entir
entr;l
entrouj\oun, -\an
entrouj\ounn;r
est
jangaran, -i
jank
jatron, -i
jarm
jaqnw;l
ja';l
ja'w;l
j;
j;j8
j;\
j; ch
j;p;t(8)
j;rj, -i

family
choice (adj.), fine, superb
to choose, elect
choice; of (+ gen.)
elections
according to (prep. + gen.)
museum
expensive; dear
theater
fresh
to hide oneself
to spill; throw away (+ acc.)
to fall; overflow
that; whether; or
light (not heavy); easy (adj. and adv.)
tea
or else; otherwise
(al)though
sheet of paper; newspaper (cf. Lesson 5
vocabulary)
perhaps
although (... yet)
(al)though
number, figure; year (colloquial)
enemy (adj. and noun)
let (with the subjunctive)
to let; leave, abandon (+ acc.)
to fly; flee
seem; look, appear
...it seems to (+dat.), that ...
year, date
to weaken
to weaken (+ acc.)
paper
weak; less capable
to allow, let smb. (+ dat. + inf.)

j;r8s
j;8 (... ba\z)
j;8
jiw
j,nami, -ou
jo[
jo[n;l
j5c;l
jwal
... jwoum h, j;
jwakan (jiw), -i
joulanal
joulazn;l
jou[j, -i
jou\l
jou\latr;l (colloq.
jou\l tal)
vam
hour
vamakan (pref. vamoum or vame)
vamanak, -i
time; during (noun and postpos. + gen.)
vamanakin
on time; upon a time (adverbial)

hourly, p

;rkar vamanak
mi vamanak
vaman;l
vamazou\z, -i
vo[ow, -i
vo[owourd, -i
vptal
ibr8(j;)
imastouj\oun, -\an
imazn;l

for a long time (adverbial)


once (upon a time)
to arrive; whereto (+ acc.)
clock, watch
meeting
people
to smile; to (+dat.)
supposedly; as if
wisdom
to inform; let know; smth. (+ acc.); to smb.
(+dat.)
inn, ine
nine
i2nc
what?
inc-or
some (any), somewhat
incp;2s
how?
incp;s ... a\np;s (hl)
as ... so (often - both ... and)
inco2u
why?
incqan (orqan)
how much; how many (rel./int.)
inqe
he (himself), she (herself)
inqnaji5 (rarely 7danaw), -i (air)plane
i=n;l
to descend; come/go down (+ abl.); by (+
instr.)
isk
but, whereas
i w;r
since (time), beginning from (postpos. +
abl.)
irakanouj\oun, -\an
reality
irawounq, -i
right; law (as system)
irawounq oun;nal
to have a right; of/to (+gen.)
irar
each other, one another
(also mim\anz, m;km;kou,see point1 above)
ir;nq
they (themselves)
lal (also laz;l, laz lin;l)
to cry, weep
la\n
broad, wide
law
good; well
lawanal
to get better, improve; recover (colloq.);
from (+ abl.)
lawouj\oun, -\an
favor
tongue; language
l;xou, -i
l;5 (pl. l;5n;r)
hill; mountain
lin;l
to be
litr
liter

320
lo[al
l5;l
l5;zn;l
ls;l
lw(an)al
lwazw;l
lzn;l
lou6oum, -man
lou\s
lou5
lousankar, -i
lour, -i
lour=
.ab;l
.a[, -i
.a[al
.anouj
.;lazi
.;loq
.;lq, -i
.;[y
.m;l
.m;liq, -i
.m;zn;l
.micq, -i
.nam;l
.namq, -i
.ndir, -i
.ndr;l
.n]or
.osakzouj\oun, -\an
.os;l
.ostanal
.osq, -i
.or(e)
.rat, -i
.ousa';l
.';l
6a.s, -i
6a.s;l

to swim
to be silent
to silence (+ acc.)
to hear; listen to (+ acc.)
to wash (+ acc.)
to wash oneself
to fill; pour into (+ acc.)
solution (of a problem)
light
silent
photo (graph)
news
serious
to trick, deceive (+ acc.)
game, play
to play
shop
intelligent, clever
clever; well-behaved (colloq.) (adj. and
adv.)
intellect, wit
poor, miserable
to drink
drink, beverage
to make smb. drink (+ acc.)
drink (usually alcohol)
to take care of, nurse (+ acc.)
care; attendance
matter, problem, question
to ask, request
apple
conversation, talk
to talk; speak to
to promise; smth. (+ acc.); to smb. (+dat.)
speech; word, phrase
deep; profound (adj.)
advice, counsel
to avoid (+ abl.)
to hit, strike (+ acc.)
expenses
to spend (+ acc.); on smth.(+gen.+wra)

6a[ik
6a\r, -i
6anojanal
6anojazn;l
6anr
6a5
6a5a\;l
6a5a\ouj\oun, -\an
6;6;l
6;r
6;rouj\oun, -\an
6i6a[;l
6i6a[;li
6.a.ot
6n;l
6nw;l
6no[
6nound, -\an; -i
Sourb ^nound
6ow, -i
6owa', -i
6ragir, -i
(pl. 6ragr;r)
6ou\l
ka, kan
kaxmak;rpouj\oun, -\an
kaxm;l
kaj
ka.;l
kam, kam ... kam
kamaz (colloq.)
Kamaz
kamaz-kamaz
kamq, -i
ka\an, -i
ka\aran
kanga5, -i
kangn;zn;l
kanon, -i

flower
tip; verge
to get acquainted; with (+Dat or
+gen.+f;t)
to introduce; smb. (+ acc.); to (+ dat. or +
gen. + f;t)
heavy; hard, serious (adj. and adv.)
tree
to serve, wait upon (+ dat.)
service
to beat; knock (colloq.) (+ acc.)
old (of person)
old age
to laugh; at (+ gen. + wra)
ridiculous
tobacco; cigarette
to give birth to (+ acc.)
to be born
parent
birth
the Nativity
sea
seashore
plan, project
lazy
there is, there are
organization
to form; make (up) (+ acc.)
milk
to hang, suspend (+ acc.)
or; either ... or
slow(ly); calm(ly), not loud(ly)
Hush! Be careful!
so-so (also - response); slowly (emphatic)
will
parking (for cars and planes)
station; railway station
stop (for buses, etc.)
to stop; park (+ acc.)
rule; regulation

322
kanonawor
kap;l
kapou\t
ka5awar;l
ka5awarouj\oun, -\an
kaska6, -i
kaska6;li
katar;l
katar\al
katou
kardal
kariq, -i
kariq(e) oun;nal
kar6;l
kar6;s (j;)
kar6iq, -i
kary
karyazn;l
karmir
karo[
karo[ lin;l
karo[anal (kar;nal)
karo[ ;m
(also regular karo[anoum ;m)
karot, -i
karot;l
kar8or
k;[6
k;[tot
k;ndani, -ou
k;s, -i
k;sgi,;r, -wa; -i
k;sgi,;rin
k;s7r, -wa; -i
k;s7riz f;to
k;s7rin
k;rp
... k;rpow (Instr.)
k;rzn;l

regular; proper (adj. and adv.)


to tie; bind (+ acc.)
blue
to govern (+ acc.)
government
doubt
suspicious, queer
to perform, carry out, execute(+ acc.)
perfect
cat
to read
need; necessity
to have (the) need, to be in need; of (gen. +)
to think, believe (+ acc.)
as though (see point A5 above)
opinion
short; brief (adj. and adv.)
to shorten (+ acc.)
red
able, capable (mostly predicative; cf. Lesson
8 vocabulary)
can, to be able
to be able (+ inf.)
I can; I may (colloq.)
yearning, longing (noun); lacking, in need of
(predicative; + gen.)
to long for, miss (+ dat.)
important
false, feigned
dirty
animal; living, alive (adj. and adv.)
half (noun and adj.)
midnight
at midnight (adv.)
noon
afternoon
at noon
fashion, way, manner
in ... way, fashion, manner
to feed (+ acc.); (with) smth. (+ acc.)

kilogram (kilo), -i
kilom;tr, -i
kin, -o=
kiraki
k\anq, -i
ko[m, -i
mi ko[miz...
(m\ous) ko[miz
ko,ik, -i
koc;l
kow, -i
kotr;l
korc;l
korc;l
korzn;l
koroust, -i
(also -\an)
k5iw, -i
k5w;l
ktor, -i
ktr;l
krak, -i
kr;l
krjouj\oun, -\an
krkin
krkn;l
kousakzouj\oun, -\an
fa
fagn;l
fagzn;l
fagoust, -i
faxiw
faxwag\out
faka5ak
(end)faka5ake
faka5ak
faka5akord, -i
fa[j;l

kilogram
kilometer
woman; wife
Sunday
life
side; direction; area, region (when in pl.)
on the one hand...on the other hand
shoe; boot
to call, name; after (+anounow)
cow
to break (+ acc.)
to get lost, disappear
to be lost
to lose (cause to be lost) (+ acc.)
loss
fight; quarrel
to fight, quarrel; with (+gen.+f;t); for
(+gen.+famar)
piece; cloth
to cut (+ acc.); with (+ instr.)
fire
to carry; wear (+ acc.)
education
(once) again
to repeat (+ acc.)
party (political)
yes, yeah (colloq.)
to wear; put on (+ acc.)
to clothe, dress (+ acc.); with (+ acc.)
clothing, dress, suit
hardly, scarcely
rare, scarce
opposite (adj.); despite; opposite to (prep.
and postpos. + dat.)
on the contrary
contrary to; despite (prep. and postpos. +
dat.)
opponent
to win, beat (in a game); smb./smth. (+ dat.)

324
faya.
faya.;l
fay;li
fayou\q, -i
fam
fam;[ (colloq. famow)
famalsaran
fama]a\n
fama]a\n lin;l
fama]a\n(w);l
famar
famar
famar;l
famar]akw;l
famb;rouj\oun, -\an
fambour;l
fam;z;q/fam;zir
fa\
fa\azq, -i
fa\;li, -ou
fa\;r;n
fa\kakan
fa\fo\;l
fa\tn;l
fa\tni
fa\r
fa\r;nakiz, -i
fa\r;nakzakan
fa\r;niq, -i
fangamanq, -i
fangist, -i
(also archaic gen. fangst\an)
fangstanal
fandart
fand;p
fand;s, -i
fandip;l
fankar6(aki)

often
to attend, frequent; attend to smb. (+ dat.),
somewhere (+ acc.)
pleasant
pleasure
taste, flavor
tasty, delicious
university
in agreement with, according to (prepos. and
postpos., + dat.)
to agree; with (+ dat. or +gen. +f;t)
to agree; with (+gen. +f;t, also +dat); in
(+ loc.)
for (postpos.; gen. +)
number; telephone number (n.)
to consider; (oneself)...
to dare (+Inf.)
patience
to kiss (+ acc.)
(see p.3 above)
Armenian (n. and adj.)
look, glance
mirror
in the Armenian language (adverbial); the Armenian language (n.)
Armenian (adj.)
to curse (+ acc.)
to let know; smth (+ acc.); to smb. (+ dat.)
evident; well-known, famous
father
compatriot, fellow-countryman
compatriotic
homeland, country
circumstance
quiet, comfortable (adj. and adv.); rest
(noun)
to rest
still, quiet(ly) (adj. and . adv.)
with regard to, towards (postpos., gen.+)
celebration, party; review
to meet (+ dat.)
suddenly

fanra\in
fanzanq, -i
fa,iw, -i
fa,iw maqr;l
fa=o[w;l
but: I succeeded...
fa=ord
faskanal
fasn;l
fasz;, -i
faw, -i
fawan;l
fawasar
fawasarap;s
fawatal
fawat(q), -i
fawaq;l
fawaqw;l
fat
farganq, -i
fark, -i
farmar
farmarw;l
farwa6, -i
farz, -i
farz(;r) tal

public (adj.)
fault; crime
account, bill
to settle an account; with(+ gen. + f;t)
to be a success, succeed
In] (dat.) fa=o[w;z
next
to understand; realize (+ acc.)
to arrive; get, reach
address
chicken
to like (+ acc.)
equal
equally
to trust, believe; in (+ dat.)
belief; faith
to collect, assemble, gather (+ acc.)
to come together
see Lesson 4.3, 5
respect; towards (+ gen. + fand;p)
floor, story; tax
suitable, fitting (adj. and postpos., dat.+)
to adjust oneself, get used; to (+ dat.)
blow, strike (noun)
question; matter
to ask (a) question(s); to put (a) question(s)
to (+ dat.)
farzn;l
to ask, inquire; smth. (+ acc.); smb. (+ dat.)
rich, wealthy; rich man
faroust
far8an, -i
neighbor
faz
bread
f;6aniw, -i
bicycle
f;6n;l
to mount, ride (+ acc.)
f;[inaki, -i
author
f;,t
easy (adj. and adv.)
f;5a.os
(tele) phone
f;5ou
far, distant (adj. and noun.); far from, away
from (postpos. + abl.)
f;t
with (postpos. + gen.)
f;taqrqir, f;taqrqrakan interesting (adj. and adv.)
f;taqrqr;l
to interest; smb (+ dat.); with (+ instr.)

326
f;taqrqrw;l
f;taqrqrouj\oun, -\an
f;to
f;t8abar
f;t8;l
f;t8\al
(f);t8oum
(f);t8iz
fianal
fianali
fima
fin
fing
fing,abji
fi,atak, -i
fi,;l
fiwand
fiwandanal
fiwandanoz, -i
fiwandouj\oun, -\an
f\our, -i
f\ouranoz, -i
f\ourasir;l
fnc;l
fogi
fogn;l
fodwa6, -i
for;[ba\r, -ofska, -i
framan, -i
frazan, -i
fou\s, -i
fou\s oun;nal
fousal
fousam (archaic)
fousafatw;l
]a., -i
]a\n, -i
]an]ranal

to take an interest; in (+ instr.)


interest
after (postpos. + Abl.); afterwards, then
(adv.)
consequently, so
to follow, pursue (+ dat.)
following
behind (postpos. + gen.)
from behind; after (postpos. + gen.)
to admire (+ instr.)
wonderful
now ( colloq.) ; just (of time)
old, ancient
five
Thursday
memory, souvenir
to remember; recall
ill; patient
to fall ill; with (+ instr.)
hospital
illness
guest
hotel
to treat, play host to (+ acc.); with (+ instr.)
to sound; ring
person, soul (see Lesson 4.3, 5)
to get tired; of (+ abl.)
article
uncle (paternal)
giant, enormous (adj. and noun, with the
glide -\- when declined)
order, command
rifle, fire gun
hope
to hope; for something (+gen.)
to hope (used mostly in the infinitive)
I hope; hope (parenthesis)
to give up; despair; from (+ abl.)
left (adj. and noun)
voice; sound
to grow (be) weary, tired, bored; of (+ abl.)

];5noz, -i
];5q, -i
];5q-];5qi
]i, -ou
]m;5, -wa (or ]m5an)
]\oun, -an
]\oun gal (or t;[al)
]ri
]ouk, jkan (pl. ]kn;r)
]8;l
yam'ord;l
yanac;l
yanaparf, -i
ya,, -i
ya,aran, -i
yi,t
y\ou[, -i
y,marit
y,martouj\oun, -\an
max, -i
ma\r
ma[janq, -i
mas, -i
masamb
m;6 masamb
masin
masnag;t, -i
masnakz;l
mat (pl. matn;r)
matani, -ou
Mat;nadaran, -i
matit, -i
matouz;l
mard
mar;l
maqr;l
maqour
m;6
m;6agou\n

glove
hand
hand in hand
horse
winter
snow
to snow
free of charge
fish
to form, shape, cut (dresses) (+ acc.)
to travel; by (+ instr.)
to know; (re)cognize
road, way
dinner, meal; dish
dining-hall, canteen
right, correct; exact, precise (adj. and adv.)
branch
true
truth
(one) hair
mother
wishes (to someone else)
part
partly
mostly
about, concerning (postpos. + gen.)
specialist
to take part, participate; in (+ dat.)
finger
ring
Matenadaran (manuscript library) in
Yerevan
pencil
to offer; serve on (+ dat.); smth. (+ acc.)
man
to put out; extinguish; faint; (trans. and
intrans.)
to clean
clean, pure; fresh (for air)
great, big, large
greater, very great, greatest

328
m;6anal
m;6azn;l
m;6ouj\oun, -\an
m;k (colloq. mi)
m;ke
m;kn;l
m;[m(or;n)
m;nq
m;=
m;=t;[, -i
m;=t;[e (m;=t;[oum)
m;5n;l
m;tr
miak
mia\n
miasin
minc8
mi,t
mi=oz, -i
mi=8
mis, -i
mitq, -i
mirg
miouj\oun, -\an
m\ous, -i
mnal
m,akouja\in
m,akou\j, -i
mo5anal
mot(ik)
motaworap;s
mot;nal
mot;zn;l
moraqou\r, -o=
mtadrw;l (mtadir lin;l)
mtafogouj\oun, -\an
mt;rim (colloq. motik)
mtn;l
mtzn;l
mrs;l

to grow; increase in size or age


to enlarge (+ acc.)
greatness; size
one
someone/anyone
to leave from (abl.); for (+ acc.)
soft(ly), quiet(ly)
we
in (side) (postpos. + gen.; see Lesson 7
vocabulary)
middle, space between
in the middle of (postpos. + gen.)
to die; of (+ abl.); for (+ gen. + famar)
meter
only, single
only
together
before; till, until; up to (prep. + nom.)
always; ever
means
between (postpos., gen.+)
meat
mind; thought, idea
fruit
union
other, another (adj. and noun)
to remain; stay
cultural
culture
to forget (+ acc.)
near, close to (adj. and postpos.; gen.+)
about, approximately
to approach, come near (+ dat.)
to bring near (+ acc.); to (+ dat.)
aunt (maternal)
to intend; (have intention) (+Inf.)
worry, concern (noun)
close, intimate
to enter (+ acc.) ; into (gen.+ m;=)
to bring in, push in, insert (+ acc.)
to be cold; catch cold

moug
mouj, -an
moutq, -i
\oj
\ouraqanc\our(e)
na (inqe)
na.
na.agaf, -i
na.adasouj\oun,-\an
na.aya,, -i
na.aya,;l
na.entr;l
na.kin
nafang, -i
namak
na\;l
naw, -i
n;[
n;[ouj\an, -\an
n;[ouj\oun kr;l
n;t;l
n;rka, -i
n;rka\azn;l
n;rka\azouzic, -i
n;rka\ouj\oun, -\an
n;rka\ouj\amb
n;rk;l
n;ro[ouj\oun, -\an
N;ro[ouj\o#un!
n;ro[ouj\oun .ndr;l
n;rs
n;rqin
n;rq8
nkat;l
nkatmamb
nkar, -i
nkaragir, -i
adj. + nkaragri t;r

dark (of color)


dark (adj. and noun)
entrance
seven
each one, every (one)
he, she
first, first of all (adv.)
president; chairman
sentence
breakfast
to have breakfast
to prefer
former
state, province
letter (postal)
to look; at (+ dat.)
ship, vessel
narrow
trouble; difficulty; poverty
to trouble oneself; be in trouble
to throw, cast (+ acc.)
present (adj. and noun)
to introduce, represent; perform (a play) (+
acc.); to (+ dat.)
representative
presence
in the presence (postpos., gen.+)
to paint (+ acc.)
apology; excuse
I am sorry! (Excuse me!)
to apologize; to smb. (+ abl.); for (+gen. +
famar)
into; inside, indoors (see point 1 above)
inner, internal
down(wards) (adv. and postpos. + Abl.)
to notice (+ acc.)
regarding, towards (postpos. + gen.)
picture; painting
character (moral)
a man of+adj.+character

330
nman
nman lin;l
n\ouj, -i
n\oujakan
n,anak;l
n,anakouj\oun, -\an
n,anawor
nor
noriz
npatak, -i
npatak oun;nal
nst;l
nst;zn;l
nw;r, -i
nranq (ir;nq)
nou\n
nou\nisk
nou\np;s
,abaj
,af, -i
,at
,arv;l
,arvw;l
,arvoum, -an
,arounak;l
,aqar, -i
,;nq
,in;l
,i,, -i
,norfakal lin;l
,norfakalouj\oun
,norfiw
,nc;l
,og
,tap;l
,r=aka\q, -i
,ouka, -i
,oun, -an
,ounc, -i

like, alike (+ dat.); (also in expressions as ...


as; gen.+, see point 1 above)
to look (a)like, resemble (+ dat.)
substance; subject, topic
material; financial (colloq.)
to mean, signify; appoint (+ acc.)
meaning; significance
famous, remarkable
new; recently
again, anew
purpose, aim, goal
to intend (+Inf.)
to sit; sit down; on (gen.+ wra or dat.)
to seat (+ acc.)
gift, present
they
(the) same
even (adv.)
likewise, also
week; Saturday (pref. ,abaj 7r)
profit; gain; interests
very; (too) much, many
to move (+ acc.)
to move (by oneself) (intrans.)
motion, movement; gesture
to continue (+ acc.; or infinitive)
sugar
building
to build (of rare use)
bottle
to thank; to be thankful for (+ gen. +
famar); to smb. (+ abl.)
thanks
thanks to, due to (postpos. + gen.)
to breathe, inhale (+ acc.)
hot (adj. and noun.)
to hurry
environment, neighborhood
market
dog
breath

,out
,outow
,our=
,our=e
omn
o2nz
oc
ocinc, -i
oc ... oc (hl)
oc oq, -i
ow
otq, -i
or
ordi
oro,;l
orowf;t8
orp;s
orp;sxi
ort;2[
ort;[iz
or8h
car
carayyi
carouj\oun, -\an
ca', -i
ca'axanz
ch
cor;q,abji
cors
(aw;li) pakas, aw;li qic
paf, -i
pafan=, -i
pafan=;l
paf;l
pa[pa[ak, -i
pa\man, -i
pa,t;li
pa,ton, -i
pa,ton\a, -i
pa,tpan;l
pap(ik)

quickly (colloq.)
soon
round; about (postpos. + gen.)
around; about (adv. and postpos. + gen.)
a, someone (see point 2 above)
how (colloq.)
no
nothing
neither ... nor
no one, nobody
who
foot; leg
which (relative/interrogative pronoun)
son
to decide, determine (+ acc.)
because
as
so that, in order to
where?
whence (interrogative and relative)
any (some), somewhat
bad, evil, wicked
naughty
wickedness, evil
measure, quantity; as ... as (postpos. + gen.)
extremely
no
Wednesday
four
less (see point 1 above)
moment, while
demand; need (of (+ gen.)
to demand (+ acc.); from (+ abl.)
to keep (+ acc.)
ice cream
condition; circumstance (often in pl.)
adorable
position, office
official (person)
to protect, defend (+ acc.); from (+ abl.)
grandfather

332
pa5k;l
pa5k;zn;l
pat, -i
pataf;l
patas.an, -i
patas.an;l
patarag, -i
pat;raxm, -i
patv;l
patkan;l
patk;r, -i
patya5, -i
patya5;l
patya5ow
patm;l
patmouj\oun, -\an
patrast
patrast;l
patoufan, -i
paraga, -i
parafand;s, -i
par;l
parx
parxap;s
parxouj\oun, -\an
paron, -i
partakanouj\oun, -\an
part;x, -i
partq, -i
partq w;rzn;l
p;s
p;touj\oun, -\an
p;tq, -i (archaic)
p;tq h
piti (p;tq h)
pok;l
pokw;l
=our

to lie down
to lay down, put to bed (+ acc.)
wall
to happen; come across smth/smb. (+ dat.)
answer, reply
to answer, reply (+ dat.)
liturgy, mass
war
to punish (+ acc.); for (+ gen. + famar)
to belong; to (+ dat.)
image; picture (literary)
cause, reason
to cause; smth.(+ acc.); to smb. (+ dat.)
because of, on account of (postpos. + gen.)
to tell, retell; smth (+ acc.); about smth.
(+gen. + masin); to (+ dat.)
story; history
ready
to prepare (+ acc.); for (+ dat. or +gen.+
famar)
window
circumstance, case
dance (noun); ball
to dance
simple, plain
simply, merely
simplicity
gentleman, sir, Mr.
duty, obligation
garden
debt
to borrow money; from (+ abl.)
as like (postpos. + gen.); as soon as
(conjunct. + dat.)
state
need; urgency
must; ... it is necessary (+ inf.); for (+ dat.)
must, it is necessary that (+ obligatory)
to detach, pick off (+ acc.); from (+ abl.)
to come off
water

5;storan, -i
5oubli, -ou
5ous;r;n
saka\n
sanr;l
sanrw;l
sa5;zn;l
sa5e (or sa5n before a vowel)
sa5(c);l
sastik
sarsa';l
sarq;l
s;[an, -i
s;n\ak, -i
s;r, siro
sir;li
sirow
sirt, -i
siroun(ik)
s.al, -i
s.almamb
s.alw;l
sk;sra\r, -i
sk;sour, -o=
sksa6
sks;l
snound, -i
soworabar
soworakan
sowor;l
sowor;zn;l
soworouj\oun, -\an
spa, -i
span;l
spas;l
spitak
stanal
stip;l
stw;r, -i
stoug;l

restaurant
ruble (bill)
(in) Russian (also the language)
but
to comb (+ acc.)
to comb ones hair
to freeze (+ acc.)
cold
to be cold, freeze (intrans.)
severe, strong; too (adj. and adv.)
to be horrified; by (+ abl.)
to make
table
room (chamber)
love (see point 4 above)
dear, beloved
gladly, willingly (with love)
heart
pretty (colloq.)
mistake; wrong(ly) (noun, adj. and adv.)
by mistake, wrongly
to err, be wrong; in smth. (+ loc.)
husbands father (father-in-law)
husbands mother (mother-in-law)
beginning(postpos. and prep; + abl.)
to begin, start (+ acc.); with (+ abl.)
nutrition, food
usually
usual, customary, ordinary
to learn
to teach (+ acc.); train; to (+ dat.)
habit; custom
military officer
to kill (+ acc.)
to wait; for (+ dat.); expect; smth (+ acc.) ;
of smb. (+ abl.)
white
to get, receive (+ acc.); from (+ abl.)
to force, compel; insist (+ acc.)
shade; shadow
to check, verify (+ acc.)

334
stou\g
sout, -i
sourb, -i
soury
sqanc;li
s8
wax;l
wa., -i
wa.;nal
wa[
wa[e
wa[ouz
wa[ouz i w;r
wa[ouz, -wa
wa[ouzwaniz (colloq.)
waya5;l
wa\rk\an, -i
wastak;l
wat
warvw;l
warsawir, -i
warw;l
w;p, -i

exact, precise (adj. and adv.)


false, untrue (adj. and adv.); lie (noun)
holy; saint (adj. and noun.)
coffee
wonderful, splendid
black
to run
fear, dread
to be afraid; of (+ abl.); to fear; for (+ gen. +
famar)
early (adj. and adv.)
tomorrow (adv.)
long ago
for a long time now
for a long time (adv. and noun)
long since, long ago
to sell (+ acc.); to (dat.)
second (denoting time)
to earn (+ acc.)
bad(ly) (adj. and adv.)
to get used to (+ dat.)
hairdresser, barber
to act,behave;handle,treat(+ gen. + f;t)
novel

w;r=anal
w;r=ap;s
w;r=azn;l
w;r=, -i
w;r=oum
w;r=;rs
w;r=in
w;r(8)
w;radar], -i
w;rsks;l
w;rzn;l
w;z
wjar, -i
wjari ;njarkw;l
wiyak, -i
wirawor;l

to come to an end
finally, at last
to bring to an end, complete (+ acc.)
end, ending
in the end (of (+gen.))
lately
last, final
above; up(wards) (adv. and postpos. + abl.)
return (noun)
to resume, begin again (+ acc.)
to take; lift, pick up (+ acc.); from (+ abl.)
six
traffic accident
to have (suffer) an accident
state, condition; lot
to hurt; wound (+ acc.)

wyar;l
wstaf
wstaf;l
wstafouj\oun, -\an
wtangawor
wra
tabat (colloq. ,alwar), -i
tagr, -o=
tal
tak
tan;l
ta5ap;l
tas
tat(ik)
tara6;l
tarb;r
tar;dar]
tar;kan
Qani2 tar;kan ;s!
tari
tariq, -i
taq
t;[, -i
t;[awor;l
t;[;kazn;l
t;[;kouj\oun, -\an
t;[i oun;nal
t;sak, -i
t;saran, -i
t;sn;l
t;r, tiro=
t;r8, -i
tikin
t.rouj\oun, -\an
t.our
t[a
toms(ak), -i
ton, -i

to pay (+ acc.); to (+ dat.)


sure; certain
to count on (+ dat.); trust; smth. (+ acc.); to
smb. (+ dat.)
trust, confidence
dangerous
on, above (postpos. + gen.)
(pair of) trousers
husbands brother (brother-in-law)
to give
under, beneath (postpos. + gen.)
to take, carry, bear (+ acc.)
to suffer; from (+ abl.)
ten
grandmother
to spread; expand (+ acc.)
different
anniversary, birthday
yearly; year old
How old are you?
year
age (years old)
warm; hot
place, location; site; seat
to place, locate (+ acc.)
to inform, notify (+ acc.); about (+gen. +
masin)
information
to take place
kind, type, sort
view; scenery
to see
master, lord; owner; Mr.(only in conjunction
with tikin Mrs.)
leaf
lady, Mrs.; wife
sadness
sad (adj. and adv.)
boy; son (colloq.)
ticket; card
festivity; feast; holiday (colloq., also in pl.)

336
tp;l (tpagr;l)
tramwa\, -i
toun
tou'
t8;l
za6r
zankanal
zankouj\oun,-\an
zaw, -i
(see gl.azaw)
zaw;l
z;r;k, -wa
zt;souj\oun
zou\z, -i
zou\z tal
zouzarar, -i
ou
oux;l
ouj
ouv, -i
ouv;[
ou[ark;l
ou[;kz;l
ou[i[
oun;nal
ou,
ou,adrouj\oun, -\an
ou,adrouj\oun dar]n;l
ou,anal
ousano[
ousoum, -an
ousouzic
ousouzcoufi
out;l
out;liq, -i
oura.
oura.ouj\oun, -\an
ouranal
ourbaj

to print (+ acc.)
tram (by tram - tramwa\ow)
house; home
box; can (of conserves); pack (of cigarettes)
to last, continue
low (adj. and adv.); soft(ly), not loud(ly)
to desire, want, wish (+ acc.); to (+ dat.)
wish; desire
pain
to be sorry; for (gen. + famar)
daytime; afternoon
good-bye; au revoir
demonstration
to indicate, show, point smth. (+ acc.); to
smb. (+ dat.)
demonstrator
and
to want (colloq.)
eight
force, strength, power
strong
to send; smth (+ acc.); to smb (+ dat.)
to accompany; see off (+ acc.)
right, straight ahead (adj. and adv.)
to have (+ acc.)
late, tardy (adj. and adv.)
attention
to pay attention; be careful; to (+ gen. +
wra)
to be late; for (+ abl.)
student
study
teacher (m.)
teacher (f.)
to eat
food
glad, happy
joy, gladness
to deny, renounce (+ acc.)
Friday

our;mn
ouri,
m;k ouri,(e)
o2ur
'a.zn;l

so; well then


other
another (one)
where to? where?(colloq.)
to snatch (+ acc.); from (+ abl.); miss (train,
chance, etc.-rare)
'ak
closed, shut
'ak;l
to close, shut
'a\loun
bright; shining
'a\t, -i
wood
'a\t;
wooden (see point 2 above)
'ntr;l
to look for, search (+ acc.)
'o.anak
instead of (prepos.,+ gen.)
'o.;l
to change; alter (+ acc.)
'o[
money (colloq.)
'o[oz
street
'ost, -i (also 'ostatoun) post office; mail, post
'ostow
by mail
'or];l
to try, attempt
little, small;
'oqr (ik)
'oqrik
little child, baby
'rk;l
to save; rescue (+ acc.)
qafana
priest (married)
qa[aq
city, town
qa[aqakan
political
qa[aqawarouj\oun, -\an
politeness; civility
qa\l, -i
step, footstep
qa\l;l
to walk
qa[;l
to pick (+ acc.)
qa[za6
hungry
qan
than
qani2
how many?
mi qani
some, a few
mi qanise
some (out) of
qani (d;5)
as long as
qani or
since
qa,;l
to pull, draw (+ acc.)
qa=ouj\oun, -\an
courage
qa5ord, -i
quarter; a fourth (fraction)
qar, -i
stone
q;5i, -ou (literary mor;[ba\r,-o-)
uncle (maternal)

338
qic

little, somewhat (both with uncountable and


countable nouns)
mi qic
a little
qn;l
to sleep; fall asleep
qnnouj\oun, -\an
examination
qnnouj\oun fan]n;l/tal (coll.) to take an exam
q,;l
to expel; drive, ride (colloq.) (+ acc.)
qou\r
sister
8
and
7gn;l
to help, assist (+ dat.) (with (+ instr.))
7gnouj\oun, -\an
help, aid (noun)
7gtagor6;l
to use (+ acc.)
7d
air
7da(nawa)ka\an, -i
airport (cf. ka\an parking above)
7tar
foreign
7r
day
a\s7r
today
7raj;rj (colloq. j;rj)
(daily) newspaper
7rakan
daily, a day
7r;nq, -i
law
7rinak, -i
example; a copy (of (+ abl.))
7rinak(i famar)
for example (parenthesis)
7riord, -i
young lady, Miss