Sunteți pe pagina 1din 7

CHEM 101A Review Problems Topics A-G

Problems: Be sure to show your work. Give clear explanations wherever requested.
1) A 1.461 g sample of table sugar is combusted in a constant volume (bomb) calorimeter
that has a heat capacity of 1.560 kJ/C. The temperature of the calorimeter increases by
15.38C.
a) Assuming that the table sugar is pure sucrose, C12H22O11(s), write the balanced
equation for the combustion reaction. Write all substances in their physical states at
25C.
b) Calculate E for the reaction as written in the balanced equation.
c) Calculate H at 25C for the reaction as written in the balanced equation.
2) A sample of Br2 (g) takes 18.0 minutes to effuse through a membrane. How long would it
take for the same number of moles of Ar (g) to effuse through the same membrane?
3) Table salt, NaCl (s), and sugar, C12H22O11(s), are accidentally mixed. A 4.50-g sample is
burned, and 3.30g of CO2(g) is produced. What is the mass percentage of the table salt in
the mixture?
4) The following two transitions appear in the line spectrum of potassium:
[Ar]4p1 [Ar]4s1 = 769.9 nm
[Ar]4p1 [Ar]3d1 = 1169 nm
Also, the first ionization energy of potassium is 419 kJ/mol. Given this information,
calculate the energy required to ionize a potassium atom from its [Ar]3d1 state. (Hint: it
may be helpful to construct an energy diagram showing the energies of the 3d, 4p, 4s,
and ionized state.)
5) A 1.3876 gram sample of a compound with the formula XC4H10 is combusted, yielding
1.978 g of CO2 and 1.012 g of H2O, along with a white power. With this information,
determine what element X is.
6) An unidentified transition metal M and an unidentified halogen X react to form a
compound MX2. When heated, the compound decomposes by the reaction:
2 MX2(s) 2 MX(s) + X2(g)
When 1.12 g of MX2 is heated, 0.720 g of MX is obtained, along with 62.38 mL of gas at
741.2 torr at 25C. What is the identity of the halogen X and of the metal M?
7) A student has two unlabeled bottles, both containing a while crystalline solid. She knows
that one bottle contains tartaric acid (H2C4H4O6) and the other bottle contains oxalic acid
(H2C2O4), but she is not sure which is which. The student performs a titration using one
of the compounds and determines the following:
A 2.738 g sample of acid dissolved in water to make 20.00 mL of solution requires 43.24
mL of 0.844 M NaOH for complete neutralization. Which acid has she titrated? (Note
that both of these acids are diprotic each has two acidic hydrogens per molecule.)

CHEM 101A Review Problems Topics A-G


8) A 5.000 gram sample of an unknown compound is combusted producing 9.553 g of CO2
and 5.864 g of H2O. The unknown compound contains carbon, hydrogen, and might
contain oxygen. Determine the empirical formula of this compound.
9) Add electrons to the energy diagrams below to show the requested electron
configurations. Use arrows to represent the electrons. (There may be more than one
correct answer.)
The ground state of oxygen

An excited state of oxygen

3p ____ ____ _____

3p ____ ____ _____

3s ____

3s ____

2p ____ ____ _____

2p ____ ____ _____

2s ____

2s ____

1s ____

1s ____

10) An element in period 2 has the following successive ionization energies (in kJ/mol).
Identify the element.
IE1 = 801

IE2 = 2427

IE3 = 3659

IE4 = 25,022 IE5 = 32,822

11) An equilibrium mixture consists of 0.25 M NO2 (g) and 0.45 M N2O4 (g) in a 0.75 L
container. A chemist wishes to add some NO2 to this mixture in order to increase the
equilibrium amount of NO2(g) to 0.50 moles. Assume the temperature and volume are
constant. How many moles of NO2(g) must be added to the container?
12) You have two identical flasks, labeled A and B. Flask A contains helium gas and flask B
contains oxygen gas. The gases exert equal pressures. However, the temperature in flask
A is higher than the temperature in flask B. Answer the following questions and explain
your answers.

a) Which flask contains the larger number of molecules?


b) In which flask is the average velocity higher?
c) Which flask contains a larger fraction of molecules with kinetic energies less than 5000
J/mol?

CHEM 101A Review Problems Topics A-G


13) Containers A and B are joined by a valve. Container A has a volume of 647 mL. With the
valve closed, container A holds nitrogen gas at a pressure of 0.574 atm and a container B
holds argon gas at a pressure of 0.873 atm. Both gases are held at the same temperature.
When the valve is opened, the gases mix and the total pressure is 0.621 atm. What is the
volume of container B? (Assume that the temperature does not change and that no
chemical reaction takes place).
14) A 1.39 g sample of an unknown binary compound reacts with excess oxygen gas to
produce nitrogen gas (not collected) and 1.21 g of water vapor. The compound is known
to have a molar mass of 62.09 g/mol. Determine the molecular formula of this compound.
(Note: a binary compound is a compound that contains only two elements.)
15) A 0.652 g sample of a pure strontium halide reacts with excess sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and
the solid strontium sulfate formed is separated, dried, and found to weigh 0.755 g. What
is the formula of the original halide?
16) David and Torrey are designing a calorimetry experiment for a Chemistry101A class.
They take an insulated coffee mug and place 66.0 grams of ice, with a temperature of 5.0C, in it. They then heat an aluminum block over a bunsen burner until it reaches a
temperature of 188. C. After placing the hot block in the coffee mug, the system comes
to an equilibrium temperature of 21.0 C. What was the mass of the aluminum block that
David and Torrey used? You may assume that the coffee mug does not absorb any heat.
Specific heat of water: 4.18 J/gC
Specific heat of ice: 2.03 J/gC
Specific heat for aluminum: 0.890 J/gC
Heat of fusion for water: 6.02 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization for water: 40.7 kJ/mol
17)
a) An unknown compound is subjected to combustion analysis. Combustion of a
0.4377g sample of this compound produces 0.9224 g of carbon dioxide and 0.3776 g
of water. No other products are formed in the combustion. Determine the empirical
formula of this compound.
b) The molar mass of this unknown compound is found to be between 250 and 350
g/mol. Determine the molecular formula of the compound.
18) When 2.585 g of C2H7N burns in excess oxygen, 11.299 g of products form. Use this
information to determine whether the nitrogen-containing product is N2, NO, NO2, or
N2O.
19) A mineral sample contains calcium carbonate, along with several other compounds.
When this mineral is mixed with concentrated hydrochloric acid, the calcium carbonate
reacts as follows:
CaCO3(s) + 2 HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l) A 6.235 g
sample of the mineral produces 1.788 g of carbon dioxide. Calculate the percentage of
calcium carbonate in the mineral.

CHEM 101A Review Problems Topics A-G


20) Lithium metal reacts with N2 (g) according to the equation:
6 Li (s) + N2 (g) 2 Li3N (s)
A sample of Li (s) was placed in a sealed 1.00L flask containing N2 (g) at a pressure of
1.23 atm and a temperature of 20.0C. After complete reaction of lithium, the pressure
inside the flask had decreased to 0.92 atm and the temperature remained unchanged.
Calculate the mass of Li (s) originally present.
21) A solution contains only one of the following anions: CO32-, Cl-, or OH-. Based on the
observations below, which ion must be present? Briefly explain your choice. You must
use words in your explanation!
Observations:
1. When 1 M HNO3 is added to a sample of the solution, there is no visible change.
2. When 0.1 M Pb(NO3)2 is added to a fresh portion of the original solution, some solid
forms.
3. When excess 1 M HNO3 is added to a fresh portion of the solution and then 0.1 M
Pb(NO3)2 is added to the solution, no solid forms.
22) Estimate the change in enthalpy for the combustion of one mole or acetone. The structure
of acetone is shown below, and its molecular formula is C3H6O. Average bond
dissociation energies are given in the table below.

Bond
CO
C=O
OO
O=O
OH
HH
CH
CC
C=C

BDE (kJ/mol)
360
736
146
498
464
436
414
347
611

23) The Ka of hydrocyanic acid, HCN, is 6.2 x 10-10. Determine the pH of a 0.25 M solution
of hydrocyanic acid. Use the approximation method to solve the equation. Clearly show
your work and indicate what approximation you made.

CHEM 101A Review Problems Topics A-G


24) Consider the following oxygenation reaction of hemoglobin (Hb) to answer the following
questions:
Hb(aq) + O2(aq) HbO2(aq)
Hemoglobin (Hb) is dark red in color, while oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) is bright red
in color.
a) Using Le Chateliers Principle, explain what color of blood you would expect to see
in an oxygen rich environment, such as the lungs. Explain your answer clearly.
b) Using Le Chateliers Principle, which direction does the equilibrium shift in an
oxygen deificient environment? Explain your answer clearly.
c) Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs because carbon monoxide, CO, also binds to Hb
and does so more strongly than O2 (the reaction with CO has a larger K value than the
reaction with O2). If CO were introduced, what would happen to the equilibrium
reaction given above? Use Le Chateliers Principle to explain.
25) A sealed container holds a mixture of ammonia, nitrogen, and hydrogen gas at
equilibrium: 2 NH3(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g)
When the temperature of the mixture decreased from 500C to 300C, equilibrium is
reestablished at a new position. Using the bond dissociation energies from the table,
determine if the new equilibrium partial pressure of NH3 will be higher or lower compared to
that of the original equilibrium mixture. Explain your reasoning.
Bond
NN
N=N
NN
NH
HH

BDE
(kJ/mol)
167
418
942
386
432

26) A 5.00 L rigid flask contains an equilibrium mixture of 0.500 M NOCl(g), 0.020 M NO
and 0.010 M Cl2.
2 NOCl(g) 2 NO(g) + Cl2(g)
A chemist injects an unknown amount of chlorine gas intro the mixture. After
equilibrium is reestablished, she determines that the concentration of the NO(g) is now
0.015 M. How many moles of chlorine gas must have been injected?
27) When 0.100 mol of gaseous N2 and 0.100 mol of gaseous H2 are put into a 5.00 L
container at 250 C, the following reaction occurs and reaches equilibrium.
N2(g) + 3 H2 (g) 2 NH3(g)
The total pressure in the flask at equilibrium is 1.52 atm. Calculate KP and Kc for this
reaction.

CHEM 101A Review Problems Topics A-G


28) A ground state hydrogen atom absorbs a photon with an energy of 1599.022 kJ/mol. It
then emits a photon with an energy of 338.542 kJ/mol. What is the final state of the
hydrogen atom? Show all your work and reasoning.
29) The bond energy of the Cl-Cl bond in chlorine gas is 239 kJ/mol and the bond length is
199 pm.
a) If a Cl-Cl bond is broken, is energy released or absorbed? _____________________
b) Draw a bond energy diagram (a graph of potential energy versus the distance
between the nuclei) for the bond in Cl2. Be certain to include labels and units and to
clearly indicate where the potential energy of the system equals zero.
30) For a 0.015 M solution of an unknown monoprotic acid, the pH is 3.24. Determine the pH
of a 0.10 M solution of the same acid.
31) An element from the 3rd period can combine with chlorine to form two different
compounds XCl2 and XCl4. Both compounds are non-polar. Based on this information,
what is the identity of element X? Explain your reasoning clearly. Include a clear sketch
of the structure for each molecule.
32) The following gaseous compounds of nitrogen and oxygen are known to exist: N2O, NO,
NO2, and N2O4. The reaction of metallic copper with dilute nitric acid produces only one
of these gases, with the possible reactions being:
4 Cu(s) + 10 HNO3(aq) N2O(g) + 4 Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 5 H2O(l)
3 Cu(s) + 8 HNO3(aq) 2 NO(g) + 3 Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 4 H2O(l)
Cu(s) + 4 HNO3(aq) 2 NO2(g) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
Cu(s) + 4 HNO3(aq) N2O4(g) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l)
The reaction of 0.492 g of copper with excess 1M HNO3 produces 130 mL of gaseous
product at 18C and 721 torr. Identify the gaseous product of this reaction.
33) Gaseous ammonia and gaseous nitrogen chloride react to give ammonium chloride in a
reversible reaction. An equilibrium mixture is found to contain 0.038 atm of ammonia,
0.0071 atm of hydrogen chloride, and 2.16 g of ammonium chloride in a 5.17 L container
at 165C. Calculate the K and Kp for this reaction at 165C.
NH4Cl(s) NH3(g) + HCl(g)
34) Using the following Ka values, determine which solution has the highest pH. Briefly
explain your choice.
Ka values:
HNO2 = 4.0 x 10-4
HClO = 3.5 x 10-8
HCN = 6.2 x 10-10
Choices: 0.010M HNO2, 0.010M HClO, 0.010M HCN

CHEM 101A Review Problems Topics A-G


35) Zinc metal reacts with hydrochloric acid according to the following net ionic equation:
Zn (s) + 2 H+ (aq) Zn2+ (aq) + H2 (g)
The hydrogen gas is collected over water. The gas sample has a volume of 240.0 mL at 1.032
atm and 30.0C. What mass of Zn must have reacted? The vapor pressure of water is 0.042 atm
at 30.0C.
36) An unknown metal M forms an oxide containing 25.9% oxygen by mass. Identify the
metal if the formula of this oxide is M2O.
37) When a 0.105 g sample of propylene (molar mass: 42.08 g/mol) is burned in a bomb
calorimeter, the temperature of the calorimeter increases from 25.00C to 27.14C. The
equation and H at 25.00C are given below:
2 C3H6(g) + 9 O2(g) 6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O(l)
H = -4249 kJ
Use this information to determine the heat capacity of this bomb calorimeter.
38) For the reaction HCl (aq) + NaHCO3(aq) NaCl (aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l), E = 13 kJ.
Based on this information, which of the following statements MUST be true under all
conditions? (PE = potential energy, KE = kinetic energy)
A) The PE of the reactants is greater than the PE of the products.
B) The PE of the reactants equals the PE of the products.
C) The PE of the reactants is less than the PE of the products.
D) The KE of the reactants is greater than the KE of the products.
E) The KE of the reactants equals the KE of the products.
F) The KE of the reactants is less than the KE of the products.
39) Consider the two samples of gas described below:
Sample A: 3.00 L of H2(g) at 0.0C, 2.00 atm
Sample B: 3.00 L of Cl2(g) at 300.0C, 4.50 atm
Which of these gas samples has the higher fraction of molecules with kinetic energies greater
than 10,000 J/mol? Explain your answer clearly.
40) A boron compound reacts with water, converting all the boron in the compound to boric acid
(H3BO3). The boric acid solution is titrated with NaOH solution. (NaOH reacts with boric acid in
a 1:1 mole ratio.) A 0.2341 g sample of boron compound reacts with water and the resulting
boric acid solution is titrated to an endpoint with 27.7 mL of NaOH solution. If the boron
compound contains 27.4% by mass boron, what is the molarity of the NaOH solution?