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VAA Chapters

What keeps us all inspired to stay engaged in the Vintage Aircraft Asso­ ciation (VAA) chapter network? The social interaction among its mem ­ bership is a strong factor for many of us, and this has been a real plus in our local VAA Chapter 37. We have such a diverse group of mem­ bers, and it continuously amazes the leadership at our chapter. We have members who range in age from 12 years old to some who are well into their golden years. The most amazing part of our member­ ship is the diversity of talent and ex­ pertise they bring to our group. Some provide us with cash, and some offer us a lot of their time and sweat, both of which are vital elements to our success. We have members who rou­ tinely assist us with computer exper­ tise and construction management. We have cabinet builders, wood­ workers, metalworkers, certificated airframe and powerplant mechanics and aircraft maintenance instruc­ tors, flight instructors, plumbers, electricians, an HVAC technician, a banker, a judge, a doctor (aviation medical examiner), teachers, a state trooper, a couple of corporate pilots,

a retired airline pilot, a truck driver,

a tool sa lesman, a sign maker, a con­ crete contractor, a machinist, an undertaker, an autoworker, a gov­ ernment contractor, and a fireman . I could go on here, but I think you see what I'm referring to when I use the word "diverse." We are rich with ta lent, as well as energy. That's not something you see a lot of, outside of an aviation association like ours. We could only

hope that you have an opportunity to engage yourself in an organiza­ tion such as ours. I cannot fully express the pride our VAA chap­ ter membership gets from their in­ teractions at the chapter level. We have been so fortunate to accom­ plish so much as a young chapter (we started this chapter in 2003),

The most amazing part of our membership is the diversity of talent and expertise they bring to our group.

and I can assure you these are the factors that continue to attract new members to our chapter. Inspiration is the primary drug for me. Just last weekend our chapter hosted another Young Eagles rally, and we flew a total of 65 young people, a lot of whom would potentially never be offered such an opportunity at any time in their youth. All you have to do is watch that excitement leading up to the flight, and immediately after, to know that we as a group have ac­ complished something very unique, as well as "special," in this small com­ munity. This is my drug of choice! I bring this subject up to you, pri­ marily because I want to challenge

each of our chapters to find your own "drug of choice." We as a chap­ ter (with the assistance of EAA Chap­ ter 2 in Fort Wayne, Indiana) have been fortunate enough to offer schol­ arships to send a number of young folks to the EAA Air Academy. Here's a link for more information: www.


Talk about inspiration. Talk about pride in our efforts to inspire. It doesn't get any better than this, folks. For example, I have had the pleasure to provide transportation home to a few of our Air Academy campers, and man, they just talk all the way home . When they're that fired up, you can't help but go along for the ride! Yet another critically important component of our success as a VAA chapter must be mentioned in this column, because it is absolutely vi­ tal. It is virtually the foundation of our success, and that is the local airport board, the airport manager, and his or her staff. Some airports still see the value of welcoming the public to their facilities, but unfor­ tunately, a lot of them just don't get it. The lea dership of the Dekalb County Airport (GW8) in Auburn, Indiana, truly stands out as a won­ derful example of the need to keep these "public facilities" public! They entrusted our chapter members to meet our pledge to them that we would provide local events to attract the locals to visit "their airport." Consider also that we are not the first aviation group to set up shop at this airport. That is proof in the

continued on page 37

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J U E VOL. 37, co NO . 6 2 0 0 9 TENTS IFe Straight


VOL. 37,


NO . 6


J U E VOL. 37, co NO . 6 2 0 0 9 TENTS IFe Straight



Straight & Level

VAA Chapters by Geoff Robison




Breaking Out of Winter's Cocoon and Celebrating Sun 'n Fun's 'Spring Break For Pilots'

from Wacos to Aeroncas! by Sparky Barnes Sargent

14 A Bonanza Tradition:

The Fortiers' Beechcraft Dynasty

by Budd Davisson

19 Light Plane Heritage

A look at liquid cooling by Bob Whittier

25 The Vintage Mechanic

Adhesives and bondings-Part 1 by Rob ert G. Lock

Mechanic Adhesives and bondings-Part 1 by Rob ert G. Lock 3 0 The Shawano, Wisconsin, Fly-Out


The Shawano, Wisconsin, Fly-Out

A great way to spend a Saturday during EAA AirVenture Oshkosh by Joe Gmitter


How Long Is That Airstrip?

by Irven F. Palmer Jr.


Mystery Plane

by H.G. Frautschy

by H.G. Frautschy


Mystery Plane Extra

The Bahl Lark by Bill Hare


Classified Ads


FRONT COVER: The Fortier family's 1950 B35 Bonanza was bought by the fami ly patri­ arch , Stanley, when Rick Fortier was still a toddler. His ear ly interest in aviation and in this particular B model prompted the elder Fortier to keep the Bonanza even after he had purchased a newer model. EAA photo by Bonnie Kratz BACK COVER: This past March 26th was the 70th anniversary of the maiden flight of the Cessna T-50. As shown on our back cover, the twin-engined trainer and utility airplane was piloted that Sunday morning by Cessna 's Dwayne Wal l ace. We look forward to over a dozen Bobcats expected to attend EAA AirVenture Oshkosh 2009 . See VAA News for more information. Certificate courtesy Jon Larson, Cessna T-50 "The Flying Bobcats" club.


EAA Publisher

Tom Poberezny

Director of EAA Publications

Mary Jones

Executive Director/Editor


Fraut schy

Production/Special Project

Ka t h leen Witman

Photography Jim Koepnick Bonnie Kratz

Adver tising Coordinator Class ified Ad Coord in ator

Copy Ed it or Co lleen Walsh

Directo r of Advertising

Display Advertising Representatives:

Specialized Publications Co.

U.S. Eastern Time Zone-Northeast: Ken Ross 609-822-3750 Fax: 609-957-5650

U.S. Eastern Time Zone-Southeast: Chester Baumgartner 727-532-4640 Fax: 727-532-4630

U.S. Central Time Zone: Gary Worden 800-444-9932 Fax: 816-741-6458

U.S. Mountain and Pacific Time Zones: John Gibson 916-784-9593 Fax: 510-21 7-3796

Europe: Willi Tacke Phone: +49(0)1716980871

Sue Anderson Les ley Poberezny

Katrina Bradshaw

Fax: +49(0)8841/496012


FAA Issues Rudder Stop AD on Cessna 150/152 Despite comments from the Cessna Pilots Associa­
FAA Issues Rudder Stop AD on Cessna 150/152 Despite comments from the Cessna Pilots Associa­

FAA Issues Rudder Stop AD on Cessna 150/152

Despite comments from the Cessna Pilots Associa­ tion (CPA) and other inter­ ested parties, the FAA has

issued Airworthiness Direc­ tive (AD) 2009-10-09, effec­ tive June 17, 2009, requiring the installation of a new rud­ der stop modification kit on all models of the slant-tail

versions of the Cessna 1 SO

and 152, or in lieu of the kit's installation, the aircraft must be placarded against intentional spins and other aero­ batic maneuvers. The AD must be complied with within 100 hours of time in service (TIS) after June 17, 2009, or within the first 12 months, whichever occurs first. Tom Carr of CPA, an experi­ enced airframe and powerplant mechanic with decades of experi­ ence concerning Cessna aircraft maintenance, commented that since the two aircraft involved in fata l spin-related accidents cited in the proposed AD issued

in 2007 were not in compliance with the aircraft's type design, the issues surrounding the proposed AD were better served by the is­ suance of a special airworthiness inspection b u llet in (SAIB) rather

t han an

AD . (One aircraft, which

crashed in 2005, had the rudder stop installed upside down, com­ promising the control system's fu n ctiona lity; on the other ac­ cident aircraft, which crashed in Canada in 1998, the rudder most likely was pushed over by outside forces acting during the accident sequence. On that air­ craft the rudder control system had known maintenance-related issu es that rendered the aircraft unairworthy, yet the aircraft was st ill fl own.)


While Cessna created a modi­ fication kit in 2001 to enhance the design of the rudder stop (a kit that has subsequently been redesigned and given a new part number), there have been no fail­ ures of the aircraft's rudder con­ trol system that would lead one to believe the aircraft's type de­ sign was at fault. On the contrary, as is true with many other sys­

tems on an aircraft, if the aircraft

is maintained in compliance with

the type design standards, the aircraft will continue to operate as intended. But if maintenance

fails to detect a failure or induces

a failure of the system, then the

aircraft is unairworthy. An SAIB, coupled with revised mainte­ nance/inspection procedures, is

a reasonable and prudent way to

address a maintenance-related is­ sue such as this.


For more information on t h e

suance of the AD, it can be viewed on the FAA's website at www.FAA. gov; click on the Regulations & Policies tab, and then click on the link for Airworthiness Directives. Enter the AD number, AD 2009 ­ 10-09, or just click on the New ADs link on the left side of the page to review the list of recently issued ADs.

2009 ia\\ /JIRVENTURE ~ O S HKOSH -~- NOTAM The World', Grutnt Avt.Uon CtltbrilionTlI
2009 ia\\
The World', Grutnt Avt.Uon CtltbrilionTlI

Required Equipment:

EAA AirVenture NOTAM

If you're plann ing to fly in to

it's impera­

t ive that you obtain a copy of the

FAA' s 2009 AirVenture Notice to Airmen (NOTAM ), which contains

arrival and departure procedures for the 57th annual fly-in conven ­

t ion . These procedures are in ef­

fect from Friday, July 24 , through Monday, August 3-one day earlier than previous years. (The event is July 27-August 2. ) Wh i le the ove r all procedures are similar to past years, there are

Oshkosh next month ,

some noteworthy changes-29 of the NOTAM 's 32 pages cont ain up­ dates. You ca n download a PDF ve r­ sion at www.AirVenture.orgj flyingj

ca l l EAA Mem­

bership Services at 800-564-6322 and a printed booklet will be mailed to you , free of charge . (Order a

booklet at https:jj Secure.EAA.orgj AirVenturej notam_request. html.) Add itional hints and tips for pilo t s ar ri ving at and depart­


fr om EAA AirVenture 2009

are also available online at www.

AirVenture.orgj atc.

notam2009 .pdf, or

Wonderiul Changes Await VAA Members in Oshkosh

W hen you receive

this issue of Vintage

Airplane, there will

hen you receive this issue of Vintage Airplane, there will be about 50 days left to

be about 50 days left to go until EAA AirVenture Osh­ kosh 2009. There's plenty of work to be done, with the VAA work parties complet­ ing the new Vintage Han­ gar, working on the Red Barn, and preparing the usual AirVenture items. We do have a wish list, and at the top of our "I wonder if anyone has list is this:

To accommodate the members who will be at­ tending presentations in front of the Vintage Hangar (in the space formerly occu­ pied by the ice cream stand), we're in need of a set of bleachers. A set of three or four tiered units, either aluminum or wood, would be very help­ ful. The type used around a ball diamond or smaller school track meet would be perfect. (Think of the bleachers next to the cornfield in the base­ ball movie Field ofDreams.) If you can help, please give us a call here at VAA Headquarters, 920-426-6110, and let us know what you have . For more on the ongoing construction of the Vintage Hangar and the changes in the VAA area, be sure to visit our website at


the Saturday evening show by come­ dian-ventriloquist Jeff Dunham, the awards ceremony for the VAA wiil take place in the Vintage Hangar, just south of the VAA Red Barn. The cer­ emony, which will take place starting at 6:30 p.m. on Saturday, after the daily air show, promises to be a great evening for winners and attendees alike. After the ceremony, we'll host a reception for all attendees and the winners in the Vintage Hangar with soft drinks and snacks. Plan on being there to cheer on your friends and enjoy some vintage camaraderie be­ fore we all head home the next day.

VAA Judging Categories

Each year we receive inquires re­ garding the effective years for VANs judging categories. Here they are:


An aircraft constructed by the original manufacturer, or its li­ censee, on or before August 31, 1945, with the exception of cer­ tain pre-World War II aircraft mod­ els that had only a small postwar production. Examp les: Beechcraft Staggerwing, Fairchild 24, and Monocoupe.

Type Clubs

of the Vintage Parking area is dedi ­

Classic An aircraft constru cted by the

We have a couple of type club additions and revisions for you:

cated to Type Club Parking, an area where a rolling list of type clubs can

original manufacturer, or its li­ censee, on or after September I,

park a select group of airplanes from their club so members and the pub­

1945, up to and including Decem­ ber 31, 1955.

P.O. Box 150 Waldron, MO 64092

lic can enjoy seeing their unique air­ planes. This year, there will be up



to 30 Short Wing Pipers, 15 Cessna

An aircraft constructed by the

Fax: 203-413-6360

T-50 Bobcats, 8 Cessna 175s, and 17

original manufacturer, or its li­


Cessna 180 airplanes. Also included

censee, on or after January I,

Dues: Donations, Min $25/year Publication: Online Discussion Forum

in this year's list is the Piper Coman­ che. Look for these airplanes just south of the Emergency Aircraft Re­

1956, up to and including Decem­ ber 31, 1970.


Owner 's Club (IRSOC)

pair area and the Hangar Cafe. Each of the aircraft in these groups is

Turn Your Old Parts Into New Money at Aeromart!

Steve Mestler P.O. Box 1546 Lexington, SC 29071

parked by special arrangement with their respective type club.

Did you know that AirVenture Oshkosh provides a fantastic oppor­ tunity to sell those aircraft parts clut­

Type Club Parking

VAA Awards Ceremony

tering up your hangar? Aeromart,

Lots of changes are in store for members who attend EAA AirVen­ ture Oshkosh 2009. This year, due to

the world's largest aircraft parts swap, allows you to turn old parts into cash, with the added satisfac­

As many of you know, a portion

the setup at Theater in the Woods for

tion that you have helped other EAA

members complete their projects. Aeromart is an all-volunteer op­ eration now run by EAA Chap ­ ter 252. It has a new location this year-right next to Camp Schol­ ler-making it easier for camp­ ers to transport their parts to the tent for consignment sale. Simply bring over the parts you wish to sell when you arrive and register. Aeromart receives $1 per item con­ signed, plus 12 percent of the sale price. All proceeds support EAA and Chapter 252. When you leave AirVenture, stop by to pick up any unsold items, and a check from your sale proceeds will be mailed to you. It's that easy! For more information about sell­

ing items, visit www.Aeromart.webs.

com. If you are interested in volun­ teering at Aeromart, e-mail Oshkosh

New and Improved: AirVenture Event Schedules

Online, on your phone

Improved: AirVenture Event Schedules Online, on your phone Each year EAA aims to provide the most

Each year EAA aims to provide the most accurate, up-to-date in­ formation about EAA AirVenture forums, workshops, presentations,

and other scheduled events

well in advance of the event to al­


low attendees to plan their week. This year we think we've created the most useful version yet.

Now available at www.AirVenture.

org/forums, you can see the com-

Cessna Bobcat Anniversary

This pa st March 26 was the 70th anniversa r y of the maide n flight of the Cessna T-50. As shown on our back cove r, the t win-engined

tra iner and utility airplane was piloted that Sunday na ' s Dwayne Wallace. The Bobcat, made famous as the first airplane

sic televis ion series Sky Ki ng , will be celebrated du ring

used in the clas ­

morn ing by Cess­


gathe ring

in the Type Club Park ing area . Jon Larson , the longtime leader of t he Cessna Bobcat Type Club , tells us that he has more than a doze n

c onfirmed Bobcats headed toward Oshkosh, with a coup le mo re on the hopeful list.

toward Oshkosh, with a coup le mo re on the hopeful list. plete presentations schedu le,

plete presentations schedu le, allowing you to peruse every scheduled event (there are more than 1,000), create and print your own personal AirVenture itiner­ ary, and stay abreast of schedule changes that can occur during the week. If you have a web-enabled mo­


will have access to the complete AirVenture schedule of events wherever you have phone service. "In response to member re­ quests and suggestions, we've been working hard on creating a new way to efficiently share and disseminate all the events infor­

mation t h at AirVe n ture has to offer/' said Mark Forss, the pre­ sentations coordinator who has shepherded the new system. "Our

new 'plan your schedule' fea ture,

coupled with the ability to look

up information on a web-enabled

mobile device, is what sets this new system apart from previous efforts. The new system also gath­ ers previously disconnected infor­ mation from numerous sources and puts it into one easy-to-find place on the Web and on your phone. We anticipate these new tools being very popular among the attendees!" Visit the AirVenture website and start planning your Oshkosh visit today!

New 406 ELY Rule in Canada Put on Hold

The upcoming transition to re­ quiring 406 MHz emergency loca­ tor transmitters (ELTs) in nearly all general-aviation aircraft op­ erating in Canada has been put on hold by John Baird, Canada's Minister of Transport, according to Kevin Psutka, president of the Canadian Owners and Pilots As­

sociation. Psutka met recently with Transport Canada officials arguing that the rule as written was not workable. liThe regulation as written was unachievable because the allowed alternatives do not exist," Psutka told EAA. liMy argument that this rule was immature was apparently

accepted, and the minister sent it back to CARAC (Canadian Avia­ tion Regulation Advisory Coun­ cil) for revision. 11 CARAC is a joint effort of gov­ ernment and the aviation com­ munity including participation from organizations representing operators, manufacturers, and

Aircraft Groups to Gather for Oshkosh Journey As aircraft from around the world make their
Aircraft Groups to Gather for Oshkosh Journey
As aircraft from around the world make their way to EAA AirVenture
Oshkosh this summer, hundreds of aviators gather together to arrive at
Wittman Regional Airport in flocks of kindred aircraft, creating their own
communities along the flightline.
Groups scheduled to arrive en masse at Oshkosh in 2009 include
Cessna 150s and 152s, in honor of the Cessna 150's 50th anniversary;
Beechcraft Bonanzas (Bonanzas to Oshkosh); Cessnas (Cessnas 2 Osh­
kosh); Mooneys (Mooney Caravan); Piper Comanches; and custom-built
Van's RV airp'lanes. In addition, warbirds such as the T-6, T-28, T-34 , and
Nanchang Red Stars will arrive as groups during the afternoon air show
on Monday, July 27.
Many people come to Oshkosh early just to see these mass arrivals,
scheduled July 24-26 and coordinated between EM, the FAA, and the indi­
vidual aircraft groups. Pilots in the mass arrivals receive thorough briefings
prior to arriving at Oshkosh, and scheduled arrivals could be altered due to
weather or other factors.
Here's the current schedule of EAA AirVenture mass arrivals:
• Friday, July 24, 10 a.m.-Cessna 150/152 (
Saturday, July 25, 1 p.m.-Beech Bonanzas (
Saturday, July 25, 2:30 p.m.-Cessnas (
-Saturday, July 25,4 p.m.-Mooneys (
- Sunday, July 26, 11:30 a.m.-Piper Comanches
- Sunday,
1:30 p.m.-Van ' s RVs
-Monday, July 27,3:30 p.m.-T-6, T-28, T-34, Nanchang Red Stars

professional associations. One of the alternatives Psutka is pushing for is approval of 406 MHz personal locator beacons (PLBs) or tracking devices instead of the significantly more expen­ sive installed ELTs. Psutka was quick to say that this development does not eliminate the new rule. "Where it stands, the CARAC will reconvene, and my un­ derstanding is that the earliest this will happen is the third week of June," he said. If everything went as swiftly as pOSSible, a new final rule addressing the minister's concerns would be announced no earlier than the end of August, he added. Meanwhile, pilots who have yet to upgrade to the 406 MHz ELTs can continue operating legally with the older 121.5 MHz units, although Psutka cautioned that search-and­ rescue satellites no longer monitor the older frequency. Denis Browne, chairman of the EAA Canadian Council, was glad to learn that the public would have more input on the rule through the CARAC. "We would like to see the end-users given more opportunity for feedback on potential alternative compli­ ance, such as PLBs, and other ways of dealing with the new technology," he said. "There also has not been full consideration of the effect of this new rule on international traffic and how to accommodate air tourism. The CARAC usually considers such recommendations. 11 Because the FAA does not plan to adopt the 406 MHz ICAO stan­ dard in the United States , EAA feels most American aircraft own­ ers will likely choose not to spend the estimated $1,000 (plus in­ stallation) to equip their aircraft, resulting in a sharp decline in tourism and business flights by U.S .-registered aircraft into Can­ ada. From May 2007 to May 2008, the Canada Border Services Agency processed more than 63,000 for­ eign private aircraft, roughly 90 percent






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Rrl!ilking Out of Wintl!r's [o[oon ilnd [l!ll!brilting Sun 'n Fun's

'Spring Break For Pilots'

from Wacos to Aeroncas!


I esilient white blos­ soms burst forth in a scattered array amidst emerald green grass under the sunny Florida sky, and colorful wings adorned the fields in cele­ bration of the long-awaited rite of spring for aviators­ the annual Sun 'n Fun Fly­ in at Lakeland, Florida. The powerful prop blast of vintage airplanes whipped stray strands of hair and de­ posited a parched, powdery patina on everything from human heads to cylinder heads, as campers pitched their tents, heartily greeted old friends, and warmly met new ones. It was, once again, /I old home week," and the energizing start of the fly-in season.

Randy Van Surdam of Seneca, South Carolina, with NC14071, his Jacobs­ powered 1934 Waco YKC (ambulance version).

WiI[O VI([

The early-morning sunlight highlighted rivulets of condensa­ tion trickling down the noble 1934 Waco's fuselage, as owner Randy Van Surdam of Seneca, South Caro­ lina, prepared for the day's activi­ ties . "This is just the perfect time of year," says Van Surdam. "You've just gone through a winter up in South Carolina, and you're ready to fly somewhere and put your shorts on! We have the same group that comes down every year, and we also go to

the National Air Races in Reno­ so those are the two things that we take the time to make happen." NC14071 is a Jacobs-powered, 1934 ambulance version Waco YKC, and Van Surdam completed its res­ toration in 1998. He acquired the Waco, in numerous boxes, in 1995. "A customer had originally bought this, with the idea that he was going to restore it, and then he decided it was a little bit too big of a job. So he went out and bought a finished Waco and offered this up, and we


and Ph illip Robertson of Acworth, Georgia, with N9895A, their 1950 Cessna 195.

bought it. It had been disassembled sometime in the 1950s for restora­ tion and had gone through several owners, but nobody really did any­ thing with it . Then we got it and re­ stored it, and have brought it here probably three or four times now." Van Surdam says the biplane

"flies very nicely and is very sta­ ble, and has good ground-handling characteristics, as well. It is hot on the inside, though, with the big motor up front-it's got a Jacobs

275 upgrade. "

He's been fl ying since 1989 and first soloed in an Aeronca Sedan­ which he still has. "I restored it as

well; the Sedan is a neat airplane. Nowadays, though, I don't fly fixed-wing too much," he shares with a grin, " because I have the maintenance shop at Clemson­ Oconee airport, and I commute back and forth in a little helicop­ ter-just me and a dog!"


Tia Robertson of Acworth, Georgia, sidled up comfortably to the Cessna 195, her sky-blue eyes peering back at her from the polished fuselage as she

artfully applied her morning makeup. She and her hus­ band, Phillip, have owned N9895A for 15 years now and attend the fly-in as frequently as their schedules permit. "I've been coming here since the early '80s," she says, smiling. " I had a Luscombe that I flew down here when I was in my 20s, and I remember the corn roast being served on about five picnic tables be­ tween the buildings. I met

my husband in 1985, and I was flight instructing at the time. One of my students owned a Cub, and she and her husband were driv­ ing to the fly-in, so I sort of jokingly said, 'Would you like me to fly your airplane for you?' And they said, 'Yeah!' So Phillip and I came down in the Cub, and that was his first trip here. I've also got a Taylorcraft that I've brought down here several times, and it's just a lot of fun, see­ ing friends and checking out other people's airplanes!" Married now for nearly 21 years, Phillip says they share the piloting

Morning reflections: Pilot Tia Robertson ap­ plies her makeup with the help of her pol­ ished Cessna 195.

by swapping legs, and Tia explains that this method "works great! A lot of times one will work the radios and the other one flies-we're both professional pilots, too. I'm retired from United, and my husband flies for American, so we're used to the two-pilot crew system." Then, laughing softly, she elabo­ rates, "When we met, we were flying for a commuter, Eastern Metro Ex ­ press, and we flew together as crew. I was captain and he was my first officer, so we've been together and flown together for a long time ."

Cox has been flying nearly 25 years now, having first soloed in a Cessna 152, and he was happy to share the story of how he came into the world of Luscombe flying. A friend gave him a ride in a Luscombe one day, and that did it. "I had admired his Luscombe before, but that was the first opportunity I'd had to ac­ tually get in it," explains Cox, smil­ ing enthusiastically. "He let me take over the controls, and I fell in love with the darn plane!" N1947B is powered by a 90-hp Continental, and Cox declares that he simply "likes everything about the Luscombe! It handles great, yet it has a reputation of being a ground loop waiting to happen. I was told that before I owned a Luscombe, so I was a little bit concerned­ but then talking to the older fel­ lows who have a lot of experience in Luscombes, I was informed that 'the plane doesn't ground loop, the pilot ground loops.' And now, I've got probably over 1,000 hours in Luscombes, and I've landed in some pretty adverse wind conditions and have never been close to a ground loop yet. So my feeling is that the Luscombe has a very undeserved reputation of ground looping." Cox has been coming to Sun 'n Fun for decades and recalls that his first time was "when they were just

Ron Spence of Germantown, Tennessee, with N1947P, his 160-hp Lycom­ ing-powered 1955 Piper PA-22j20.

I can't really judge. But it does seem to be livelier, and it climbs to altitude very nicely." Spence's wife, Diane, accompanied him from Germantown as far as jack­ sonville, Florida, where she stayed to visit with family while he completed the flight to Lakeland. "Theoreti­ cally, it's two three-hour legs down here from home," says Spence, "and about 600 nautical miles in total."


jerry Cox of Mattoon, Illinois, had a neatly painted 1948 Luscombe 8F tied down in the past-winners line on the field; he and jerry Sha­ fer are partners in the airplane.

Pip~r PiI(~r

Ron Spence of Germantown, Tennessee, was close by his hand­ some 1955 Piper PA-22/20 Pacer in the vintage camping area as the sun climbed high in the mid-morning sky. He's been coming to Sun 'n Fun for many years now and enjoys not only flying airplanes, but also working on them. "I used to come here in a PT-22 that I had," he remi­ nisces, "and then about 15-20 years ago I bought a 1953 true Pacer tail­ wheel up in Alberta, Canada. I liked it so much I decided to do a little more Pacer stuff. I was rebuilding the engine that's in this airplane for my other airplane. About the time I was ready to install it, a friend came up to me with a flier for this Pacer, for sale, up in Pennsylvania-it had nothing forward of the firewall. Other than that, it was in the con­ dition in which you see it." Spence says he journeyed up to Pennsylvania and purchased N1947P, which had been "refurbished liter­ ally from the tubes up. I trucked it home and [continued with] the en­ gine overhaul; you would've thought that would have been a two-week project, but that took me a couple of years. I did all new accessories, and I put a tuned exhaust on it-so theo­ retically the 160-hp Lycoming 0-320 now has 172 hp. I felt like it gave it considerably more performance, but I had only had about 20 hours on the

airplane before the tuned exhaust, so ered by a C-90.

Jerry Cox of Mattoon, Illinois, with N1947B, his 1948 Luscombe 8F, pow­

beginning to have ultralights. It's a nice trip, and everybody's so accom­ modating, though every year seems to be more of a challenge finan­ cially. But the people are friendly, and it's just a nice visit. I have been down here with my experimen­ tal plane and won an award with it, and N1947B won Outstanding Classic in 1997./1

Clobl! Swift

Jed Smith of Huntington Beach, California, was readying his pol­

Smith's solo flight from Riverside airport in California to Lakeland was his first visit to Sun 'n Fun. His Swift is powered by a Continental 0-300A, and his overall average groundspeed for the trip was 158 mph, with speeds of 180 to 210 mph observed while at a cruising altitude of 17,500 feet. He admits he probably "won't come back for a while-it's a long way! It was real easy getting here; it was only three easy days. But going back, I'm probably looking at three much harder days./1

Jed Smith of Huntington Beach, California, bases N3378K, his 1946 Globe Swift GC-1B, at Riverside airport.

ished 1946 Globe Swift for depar­ .~ .t~ ear l y Saturday morn i ng , after camping out for several days and enjoying the show. He and N3378K have been fl y ing tv gether since 1992, which, he says, is not a very long time, considering how long many Swift owners have hung on to their airplanes. Thoughtfully reflecting on what he likes best about his GC-IB, he smiles and shares this: "It's just a quirky, old, fun piece of machin­ ery, and certainly flies very nice! It's very pleasant and always gathers attention at the gas pumps when­

ever you 've been flying around and

landing for fuel. So that's sort of fun, and you always meet very in­


A bright yellow 1944 Beech D17S Staggerwing arrived by the end of the week and was an eye-catcher on the

flightline. Owner Charlie Maples of Culpeper, Virginia, has owned N27E for 10 years, and he and his buddy Tim Loehrke of Herndon, Virginia, averaged a 170-mph cruise on their flight to Lakeland. Maples has been coming to Sun 'n Fun off and on for about 20 years and enjoys it because "it's the beginning of the flying sea­ son, and it's just kind of fun to get out and take a trip./1 He's logged about 2,000 hours in lightplanes since he first soloed years ago in an ultralight. "I soloed a Phan­ tom-the best ultralight made-and that was fun! I miss that, actually,/1 shares Maples. "I flew ultralights for about four years, and then I got into Cessna 140s and kept going up af­ ter that. Now I'm rebuilding a Piper Cub, which I've been working on for about five years, and I haven 't even started putting it back together yet-I'm still taking it apart! Loehrke, who taught himself to fly in a Weedhopper ultralight, has also been coming to the fly-in for years, explaining, "It's always the first ad­ venture of the spring, and it's so cold up in Virginia that it's nice to come to sunny Florida to be warm. I have a Cub and about 700 hours' flight time. I just go up to look down, relax, and fly around a little bit. I'm waiting for Charlie to get his Cub finished , be­ cause we're going to fly down here, up to Oshkosh, and do cross-countries in the Cubs-that'll be a lot of fun./1

teresting people when you're flying

an old airplane around the coun­ Charlie Maples of Culpeper, Virginia, talks with his buddy, J-3 Cub pilot Tim try. And it makes a fine one-person Loehrke of Herndon, Virginia. The two flew down in Maples ' 1944 Pratt & camping machine./1 Whitney R-985-powered Staggerwing.

Ben Troemel and Tracy Smith of Cocoa Beach, Florida, with Troemel's 1946 Cessna 140.

something big for four passengers­

but really, 90 percent of your flying

is by yourself."

Pitts wanted his own affordable airplane, as opposed to flying rental aircraft, and found the Chief in north Georgia. lilt's just what I want," he proclaims with a broad smile. "I fly around recreationally and make small trips like coming down to Lakeland. Basically, I just fly locally and take a lot of people who've

never flown before-just take them for a ride. Everybody falls in love with the Chief, and that's just the


Ben Troemel and Tracy Smith of Cocoa Beach, Florida, were camp­ ing with Troemel's faithful 1946 Cessna 140-just as they do nearly every year, soaking up the ambi­ ence of the fly-in . Troemel, a retired Air Force pilot who flew cargo 747s for Atlas Air and is now a 757 first officer for Northwest Airlines, has owned N90174 for 15 years. "I bought it from a gentleman friend of mine, Reddoch Williams,

up in Fort Walton Beach," he says with an exuberant smile. li lt was my first taildragger airplane that I really got to fly! It 's fun, it 's STOL, and you can actually go places in it. We just love to come here and hang out with all the people and see the other airplanes and wander around." Troemel encouraged a stu­ dent-pilot friend to head on over to the fly-in. "He just got busy with work, so I called him up and said, 'You really need to come over here; this is really cool-you'd enjoy it! '" Although Smith doesn't fly, she comments with fun-loving laugh­ ter, "I provide the food and beverage service!" She sums up her attraction to the fly-in this way: "You have the little airplanes, you have the air

show, and

there's something for ev­

erybody, even shopping for both the guys and girls, plus being outside!"

nQron[iI [hiQf

Colie Pitts of Douglas, Georgia, enjoyed a bird's-eye view of the flightline as he relaxed beneath

Colie Pitts of Douglas, Georgia, loves flying N85857, his 1946 Aeronca l1AC Chief.

the wing of his loyal 1946 Aeronca llAC Chief, amiably visiting with those who stopped by. He's owned N85857 for about eight years now and generously shares that love with others-many of whom go up with Pitts for their first flight . It's his third flight to Sun 'n Fun and the first in his Chief. Sixty-six-year-old Pitts realized his lifelong desire to fly when he was in his mid-50s. "I didn't have the opportunity or the money be­ fore-but once I got older, I said, 'I'm going to take the time and find a way!' I soloed in a Cessna 152, and a friend of mine had a Champ. I liked the tailwheel aircraft and de­ cided that was the kind of flying I wanted to do. At one time, like ev­ erybody else, I thought I wanted

kind of flying I do. I've converted a lot of people, even some with bigger airplanes, and a lot of first-time fli­ ers and kids. I've taken Young Eagles and Boy Scouts in it, too." He thoroughly enjoys flying low and slow and says, liMy friend flew his Chief down to Georgia from Knoxville on Saturday, and then we flew down together on Sunday. We're just having a ball this week!" There was a nice variety of vintage airplanes in attendance this year, and we hope you've enjoyed vicariously meeting these folks and seeing their airplanes pictured on these pages.


a ball meeting each of these aviators

we had

we must confess

and learning more about their fly­ ing experiences during Sun 'n Fun's

"Spring Break For Pilots."

Jeanne and Pete Reed ' s

man won the Outstanding Customized Aircraft - Antique award. (Watch for an upcoming feature on this biplane.)

custom 300-hp 1943 Stear­

Randy Van Surdam's 1934 Waco YKC.

Ed and Barbara Moore relax in the shade of their How­ ard DGA-15P. They work as a team at the helm of the Howard Aircraft Foundation, an organization of individu­ als dedicated to the ownership, restoration, preserva­ tion , and flying of " Damn Good Airplanes. "

Randy Van Surdam and his 1934 Waco YKC are fre­ quent visitors to Sun 'n Fun.

At least four Republic Seabees were noted in the sea­ plane area. N6240K was manufactured in 1947 , pow­ ered by a Franklin engine.

This 1954 silver-painted Cessna 170B, registered to Dale Peterson of Fayetteville, Georgia, was sparkling in the Florida sunshine.

This 1966 Aero Commander (Meyers 200D ), owned by Wane A 1956 high -cabin Beech 18ES, registered to Jack

Feuerherm and Don Riggs, stopped in for a visit; a display

Shepard of Columbia, Mississippi , was one of several

plaque indicated that the airplane cruises at 210 mph . twin Beeches at the fly-in.

This Canadian-registered 1950 Bellanca Model 14-19 was last listed as belonging to Larry Quinton of Colling­ wood, Ontario, Canada.

Several Piper J-3 Cubs were on hand to celebrate this year's "Spring Break For Pilots. "

Richard Preiser of Delray Beach, Florida, carefully cleans N6364M ' s wheel pant. This Stinson received the Out­ standing Classic Aircraft award.

The radial-engined Stinson , Fairchild, and Howard boldly mark their territory.

A handsome 1944 Grumman G-44 Widgeon graced the

seaplane tie-down area. It' s registered to soulin of Pensacola , Florida.

Jerry Gon­

Classic elegance: Richard Preiser's award-winning 1948 Stinson 108-3 Flying Station Wagon. (Watch for an up­ coming feature on this airplane.)

Short-wing Pipers were popular on the flightline this year. This nicely restored PA-22 is registered to Marcus Waters of Warner Robins, Georgia.

This 1947 Republic Seabee (N6386K), owned by Bill Bardin of Brockport, New York, was awarded Best Am­ phibian - Metal.

Ron Shelton Cayce, SC _ Single engine instrument-rated pilot with a tail wheel endorsement _
Ron Shelton
Cayce, SC
Single engine instrument-rated pilot
with a tail wheel endorsement
Curator at South Carolina State
Museum for 20 years, with historic
aviation as part of responsibilities
20 years of plane ownership
Began taking flying lessons after
college and earnea pilots license
at age 45
/II have appreciated my business relationship with AUA for
several years. I have found them to be courteous as well as
prompt and responsive to requests and inquiries./I
- Ron Shelton

AUA is Vintage Aircraft Association approved. To become a member of VAA call 800·843 · 3612.

Aviation insurance with the fAA Vintage Program GHars:

lower premiums with payment options - Additional coverages - Flexibility on the use of your aircraft - Experienced agents On-line quote request available - AUA is licensed in all states

on the use of your aircraft - Experienced agents On-line quote request available - AUA is
THE FOR IT 'S a well-known airplanes have f~ct that certain a near narcotic effect
THE FOR IT 'S a well-known airplanes have f~ct that certain a near narcotic effect


IT 'S a well-known

airplanes have

f~ct that certain

a near narcotic

effect on given groups of people, and this is what has given rise to so many type clubs. Some of the airplanes, however, Beechcraft Bo­ nanzas being one of them, seem to work their way into a person's DNA and take up permanent residence in that person's soul. And it must be a DNA-level attraction for the Fortier family of Chico, California, whose Bonanza history started in 1947, the first year the breed was produced, and family members have continued to be involved un­ til today. They represent three gen­ erations of Bonanza ownership, with two generations owning the

same airplane, a B35, for more than 38 years. In keeping with the tra­ dition, N5256C is slowly working its way to Rick Fortier and his wife, Leslie, as the family heirloom . If we were to present the torrid tale of a raggedy old 1950 airplane being stripped down to its under­ wear and brought back to life one bolt at a time, it wouldn't be the first time we've done so on these pages. Within the vintage airplane community the stories of heroic airplane restorations are becoming cliches. This is why the Fortier Bo­ nanza is unique among vintage air­ planes: It has never been restored! Nor has it ever stopped flying. For an amazing 58 years it has been do­ ing what it was designed to do: pro­ vide transportation.

The Fortier family business is producing almonds and walnuts. The family immigrated west late in the 1800s and took up residence on what is still the family ranch in Northern California. With a cen­ tury on the same land behind them, Rick, Leslie, and Rick's brother, Rus­ sell, are the fourth generation to work their family ranch and the third to raise almonds and wal­ nuts. And for well more than a half­ century, there has been a Bonanza (or two) sitting on the runway. Rick 's grandfather, Herman For­ tier, owned a number of brand new Bonanzas. Starting in 1947, Rick's father, Stanley, grew up with his fa­ ther's Bonanzas and purchased his own, N5256C, in 1970, when the airplane was already 20 years old.

"The airplane had been well cared for," Rick says. "I was a toddler at the

"The airplane had been well cared for," Rick says. "I was a toddler at the time; I only remember being buckled in and going somewhere." You could say Rick and his younger brother grew up in this 1950 B35 Bonanza. 1950 Bonanzas originally came out of the factory with a 185­ hp E-185-8 Continental and an electric controllable-pitch pro­ peller. Considering that those original Bonanzas weren't that much smaller than the last V-tail Beech birds, it's almost comical to think of them with only 185 hp. Apparently one of N5256C's own­ ers previous to the Fortiers didn't think it was so funny. "Sometim e during the late 1950s," Rick says, "the airplane was

upgraded to a 225-hp E-225-8 Con­ tinental engine, which is common in the straight 35 through the F35. It still retained the Beechcraft 215 electric propeller. I have never had the opportunity to fly an older Bo­ nanza with the 185-hp engine, but I am sure more horsepower made a difference. The 225-hp engine and the 215 propeller are still power­ ing this airplane, and with routine maintenance, both should last for quite a while." Although his parents bought another Bonanza, an A36TC in 1980, they kept the B model knowing it would eventually be handed down to Rick, who, at the time, was 12 years old . Rick says, "The B35 has always been Dad's baby, and since I showed

interest in flying, he not only sup­ ported that interest, but made me an increasing part of his aviation life as I got older." "Sometime during the 1980s Dad and a friend decided the airplane needed painting. It was getting a little shabby, so they did some re­ search and decided to change it from its G model paint scheme back to its original scheme. So, they used the B35 handbook cover as a guide and repainted it just like it came out of the factory. With this scheme it offers the opportunity to polish most of the fuselage and wings. I now enjoy polishing Five-Six Char­ lie because of all the compliments we receive. There is nothing like a polished Bonanza." After Rick's father purchased

With its bank of original "piano key" switches across the lower portion of the instrument

With its bank of original "piano key" switches across the lower portion of the instrument panel and the metal trim around the central axis of the throw-over control yoke, the interior of the Fortiers' Bonanza is nearly original. The addition of a set of modern radios and a Garmin GPS 396 increases the utility of this family airplane.

GPS 396 increases the utility of this family airplane. 5256C, he joined the then newly formed

5256C, he joined the then newly formed American Bonanza Soci­

ety ( ). Rick fol­

lowed suit, after obtaining his pilot certificate. This was a natu­ ral thing to do, considering the birds-of-a-feather aspect of air­ plane ownership. When Rick started flying, it


didn't take him long before he was Bonanza-qualified. "I received my PPL in 1990 in a

was 22 years old . Af­

ter that I immediately got my com­ plex airplane endorsement to fly both of our Bonanzas. My father could see the aviation bug had grabbed me pretty hard, and he of-

Cessna 172. I

bug had grabbed me pretty hard, and he of- Cessna 172. I Rick Fortier isn't deterred

Rick Fortier isn't deterred by all the aluminum surfaces that need to be

kept bright and shiny. "

1now enjoy

polishing Five-Six Charlie because of all the compliments we receive.

There is nothing like a polished Bonanza," he says.







The four Fortiers, Leslie and Rick with their two daughters, Hannah and Holly. Their Bonanza has been part of the family since Rick's father bought it in 1970.

HANDED DOWN TO fered me half ownership in the B35. Who could turn something like RICK, WHO, AT that down! I knew how much the airplane meant to him. Aviation, in THE TIME, WAS 12 so many ways, has drawn us close together, and this was just the icing

on the cake." Any airplane of that age at some point needs to be upgraded for utility and ease of maintenance, if nothing else. "The panel is still the original style with the original 'piano key'


switches , which all work. The avi­ onics are Narco, which my father had installed in the mid-'70s. A


Narco automatic direction finder system and the Lear autopilot, which was installed in the late

1950s. Removing them took a tre­ mendous amount of weight out of the airplane."

years ago, I removed the old

retractable-gear airplanes at

some time need the landing gear repainted and checked over, and


Rick's grandfather, Herman Fortier, is leaning on the leading edge of an early Bonanza. The

Rick's grandfather, Herman Fortier, is leaning on the leading edge of an early Bonanza. The fellow on the left in the photo is an associate of the Schmizer Farm Equipment manufacturing company. The photograph was taken in Stockton, California around 1948 or 1949.

was taken in Stockton, California around 1948 or 1949. Rick Fortier and his brother Russell stand

Rick Fortier and his brother Russell stand alongside their father, Stanley, after the elder Fortier had purchased what would become a family heirloom, Bonanza N5256C.

so it was with Rick's old bird. "We pulled all three gear legs out and had them powder coated, checked the bolts and bushings, and installed new seals," he recalls. Like we said, this is most definitely not your average tale of restoration derring-do. We're so used to hearing about re-skinning and having to replace half the ribs and track down illusive interior parts, but the nearly 60-year-old Fort­ ier Bonanza's history reads more like the main­ tenance history of a much younger airplane. But the Fortiers aren't done. "We have a list of things we're going to do in time," says Rick. "Someday we will have to tend to things like replacing the windows, when needed, reupholstering the interior, and updating the avionics. Recently, the control surfaces were removed, stripped, checked for corrosion, and repainted. They are all­ magneSium, so [they] have to be watched carefully. But restore S6C? We don't see any reason to. Besides, if we changed it too much, it wouldn't be perfect." We like their attitude. The patina on this airplane comes not from age, but from being touched and loved by a family that truly cares for it. This airplane is a member of the Fortier family. Rick and Leslie are both young, and their daughters love to take turns sitting in the front seat with Dad, so there's yet another gen­ eration coming along that will layer their own brand of patina on top of that generated by their ancestors.

eration coming along that will layer their own brand of patina on top of that generated

Light Plane Heritage


ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN EAA Experimenter O CTOBER 1994 Introduction of ethylene glycol antifreeze in late 1920s

Introduction of ethylene glycol antifreeze in late 1920s made possible a significant reduction in the size, weight, and air drag of aircraft radiators. Curtiss Falcon at left is water-cooled; one at right is Prestone-cooled. Radiators were mounted at an angle to minimize their frontal area and facilitate cleaner nose shapes.

A look at liquid cooling


EAA 1235

Some time ago we came upon a reader letter in an aviation maga­ zine not published by EAA. Its writer expressed strong opposition to the increasing use of liquid cool­ ing in small aircraft engines. Said he: "We've been using air-cooled engines with good results for over

now, so it's ridiculous to go

back to liquid cooling!" That made us think. The only ex­ perience most of today 's pilots have had with liquid-cooling systems is with those in their cars. They know that antifreeze should be replaced at recommended intervals, and that sometimes radiators, pumps, and hoses require attention. In the early days of aviation, wa-

60 yea rs

ter cooling was more common than air cooling. Pioneer aircraft engine builders did not have the metal­ working knowledge necessary to cast successful air-cooled aluminum cylinder heads. To achieve lightness, they tediously machined air-cooled cylinders having integral heads out of solid billets of steel. The resulting cylinders had very skimpy finning on their heads, and overheating was a common problem. On the other hand, water cooling was in common use in auto engines. DeSigners knew the calculations in­ volved in water-cooling systems, and foundry men had become adept at casting engine blocks having integral water jackets.

Once a set of air-cooled cylinders was made and installed on a new en­ gine, all one could do to cope with unanticipated overheating or over­ cooling problems was to tinker with cowlings, fans, and baffles. But if a new water-cooled engine had cool­ ing problems, it was usually simple enough to tinker with radiator shut­ ters, modify the fan, or install a dif­ ferent radiator. In a 1925 book we came upon a photo of a de Havilland Dh.4 flying over Baghdad. Clearly visible below the engine cowling is a large auxil­ iary radiator installed to cope with desert heat. During World War II, Spitfires operating in North Africa had to be fitted with oversize radia­

Designers tried many ways to reduce the air drag of the radiators necessary for liquid-cooled
Designers tried many ways to reduce the air drag of the radiators necessary for liquid-cooled

Designers tried many ways to reduce the air drag of the radiators necessary for liquid-cooled engines. World War I Albatros, top left, had radiator mounted flat in wing center section. Pulitzer and Schneider trophy racers such as the Curtiss Navy Racer, top right, used surface radiators. Developed in Europe, the Lamblin radiator, as on the DeWoitine at left, looked like a watermelon with fins attached to it; it had good aerodynamic shape for a radiator.

tors for the same reason .


had sh ortcomings for air­

t imes weird. To cooling-system wa ter

Ear ly airp lanes h ad their seats

craft use.

When plan es eqUipped with

they added suc h thi n gs as sa lt, ca l­

quite out in the ope n , so fl ying was

water-cooled engines landed, pilots

cium chloride, honey, and molasses.


in mild weat h e r. W h en World

closed the radia tor shutters and cool­

Some eve n replaced t he wa ter with

War I started, military expediency required that flying be done in cold

ing system s were drained of water while th e e n gines were sti ll idling.

kerosene. We don't have to explain what such things did to the various

weather. Nacelles and then cockpits appeared on the scen e, as did con­

This procedure minimized the chance of wa ter p ocket s in the coo li ng sys­

parts of an engine. More widely used were alcohol

trollable radiator shu tters. By 1918

tems freezing. In very cold weather,

and common glycerin. The lat­

combat flying was being titudes as high as 20, 000

don e at al­ feet. Imag­

crankcase oil was also drained because there were no multi-viscosity oils in

ter often clogged radiator passage­ ways with a gummy deposit. Later,

ine yourself in an open cockpit at that altitude in February of that year! Pilots bund led th em se lves up in whatever official or unofficial winter clothing they could scrounge. Mechanics had winter problems too. For reasons we'll explain later, alcohol and other substa n ces used to keep car and tru ck ra diat ors from

those days. To start drained engines, heated water and oil were poured in to encourage cylinder firing and ad­ eq uate init ial oil pressure. Things were that rough during the air mail days of the 1920s. Barnstorm­ ers either flew south or quit flying for the winter. Ea rly motorists tried ways of preventing freezing that were some­

both wood and grain alcohols were used. During t he Prohibition years between 1920 and 1933, highly distasteful and even poisonous ad­ dit ives were put in to discourage people from drinking this denatured alcohol bought at service stations. Where water at sea level boils at 212°F, alcohol boils at 180°F. Also, the

Left, water jackets can be cast into engine blocks. This keeps cost down in mass

Left, water jackets can be cast into engine blocks. This keeps cost down in mass production but adds weight, and it's why auto engines can make poor aircraft powerplants. Center, aero engines saved weight by using thin sheet metal jackets. Copper, pressed steel, and Monel were used and attached with screws, welding, or brazing. Early radiators of "honeycomb" type were made of many swaged copper tubes soldered together. Modern radiators are of tube type and made of aluminum with plastic end tanks.

many swaged copper tubes soldered together. Modern radiators are of tube type and made of aluminum
Header Tank Left, probably following automotive practice, early planes had nose radiators that led to

Header Tank

Header Tank Left, probably following automotive practice, early planes had nose radiators that led to aerodynamically

Left, probably following automotive practice, early planes had nose radiators that led to aerodynamically poor fuselage noses. Right, relocating radiators below engines made more pointed nose cowls possible. Pumps were usually outside engine blocks to keep water from mixing with lube oil. Pumps pushed water into engine blocks so light pressurization would help minimize formation of steam pockets. A cooling-system "water pump" is really just an impeller to keep liquid circulating in a cooling system, so the simple, reliable centrifugal type is used.

boiling point drops 2 degrees for each 1,000 feet of altitude. Recommended coolant temperatures for the widely used OX-5 engine was at least 140°F for takeoff, 160°F in flight, and 180°F maximum. So, if alcohol was being used, a pilot had to keep close watch of the temperature gauge on his ship's instrument panel. He used the radia­ tor shutters often to try to keep the temperature in the 160°F to 170°F range. Shutter controls had to be de­ pendable, and smooth and positive in action. Thermostats did not begin to appear on cars until around 1930. The tendency of alcohol to boil out did not matter too much to pi­ lots of planes that never flew high, but it became a major problem in the early 1920s as new military planes climbed ever higher. Flying out of the Army's McCook Field in Ohio in 1920, the new Packard-LePere two­ seat fighter reached an altitude of 31,000 feet. Boil-off was also a prob­ lem for planes flying early north-to­ south routes. Cooling systems for planes intended for long-distance flights had to have header tanks able to hold enough coolant to handle boil-off and evaporation. Part of the preflight for all OX-5, Hispano, and Liberty engine fliers was to check the radiator water supply. Everyone realized that better an­ tifreeze was urgently needed by op­ erators of all kinds of engines. In 1923 the research facility at McCook Field

experimented with a mixture of wa­ ter and ethylene glycol. Researchers found it possible to run a Curtiss D-12 engine with coolant temperatures ap­ proaching 300°F. Ethylene is a gas widely used in the chemical industry, glycol is an organic compound related to the alcohols, and ethylene glycol made from them is a thick and initially colorless fluid having a comparatively high boiling point. We looked into several books and found it quoted as being 325°F, 345°F, and 385°F. Moral: Don't take everything you read in a textbook as being the gospel truth! After undergOing a development period, this new antifreeze was put on the market in 1927 under the trade name Prestone. Other permanent­ type antifreezes now on the market are also ethylene glycol. Users initially had problems with it. Something about its chemistry made it tend to weep out past water pump packings, hose connections, and gasketed part­ ing surfaces that had served satisfac­ torily with water and alcohol. Manufacturers and mechanics had to pay more attention to the smoothness of mating surfaces, the torquing of nuts and bolts, and the tightening of hose clamps. Some­ times two clamps had to be used to stop weeping, and as time went on better clamps appeared. Before Pre­ stone appeared, water pumps used packing consisting of several turns

of graphite-impregnated asbestos cord, compressed just enough with

a packing nut to stop leaks. The very durable water pump shaft seals we have today are the result of years of research. Today's ethylene glycol an­ tifreezes are compounded to lubri­ cate the lips of these seals, and this is one reason why it pays to heed engine manufacturers' recommen­ dations about water-to-antifreeze proportions and replacement peri­

ods for used coolant. Fresh coolant also contains additives to control foaming and protect cooling-system metal surfaces from corrosion. We take this antifreeze so much for granted that we seldom give it a thought. But anyone using or plan­ ning to use it in a liquid-cooled aviation engine should learn some­ thing about its quirks. As it comes from the shipping container, it has

a freezing point of O°F. But, instead of turning into a solid at this point, it becomes slushy. The different books in front of us as we write this give the freezing-solid point as be­ ing 48°F, 60°F, and 70°F below zero F. If you're doing serious work with engines, go by the latest and most authoritative literature you can find. When it freezes, unlike water, ethyl­ ene glycol contracts and so will not burst a cooling system's passageways. When it's used in a cooling system, it expands more than does water, and this is why modern cooling systems have overflow tanks. Also, when a hot engine is shut down, coolant cir­ culation ceases and heat remaining in the cylinders' metal soaks into the coolant. This can raise its tempera­ ture as much as 20 degrees, and what

is called "afterboiling" occurs.

The 50-50 mixture commonly used provides freezing protection to minus 34°F, while a mixture containing 68 percent ethylene glycol lowers the freezing point to minus 92°F. As we said, this stuff has quirks! Areason why mixtures in the 50-50 range are widely used has to do with the corrosion inhibition properties compounded into commercial anti­ freezes. Much or too little antifreeze in the coolant mixture upsets things

Airplane designers had their own ideas about radiator location. Top, American Eagle had radiator under

Airplane designers had their own ideas about radiator location. Top, American Eagle had radiator under fuselage. Center, Waco 10 had it slung under center section. Bottom, Curtiss Robin had it in the nose above the propeller shaft. Text explains pros and cons of each.

in this respect. Using antifreeze un­ diluted could lead to corrosion in the radiator or cylinder head department. Yet, we have here a good illustration of how complicated the antifreeze subject is. The Rotax 912 operator's manual approves of using from 70 to 100 percent ethylene glycol to cope with whatever steam pocket problems might be encountered. In such cases, adding more corrosion inhibitor is re­ quired. One reason why draining old antifreeze is done at recommended intervals is because the anticorrosion additive in new antifreeze does not last indefinitely. If you're really inter­ ested in this subject, get the addresses of antifreeze manufacturers from con­ tainers or your local auto supply store and write for technical literature. Look in encyclopedias at public librar­ ies and read up on alcohol, antifreeze, ethylene, glycol, and ethylene glycol. While in the library, see if it has the

Reader's Digest Complete Car Care Man­

ual. It has a good coverage of modern auto cooling systems. Textbooks on motorcycle and sports car engineer­ ing cover both air and liquid cooling.

History of Aircraft Piston Engine, by


Herschel Smith, Sunflower University Press, ISBN 0 -89745-079-5, goes into detail on the design and construction of liqUid-cooled engines. Designers of early aircraft, seeing that radiators were mounted verti­ cally on automobiles, mounted theirs likewise. To them it made sense to have the water descend vertically. It's fascinating to leaf through pic­ ture books of early aviation and see the many pOSitions and locations they chose for installing radiators. The 1909 Demoiselle of France had "radiators" mounted under its wing roots. Multiple small-diameter cop­ per tubes ran from the leading to the training edges. With few exceptions, the verti­ cal positioning of radiators was used up through World War I. The British SE-5a fighters had squarish radiators that gave them boxy-looking noses. The reasoning was that since the 90­ degree dispOSition of the right and left cylinder banks of its V-8 engine made it a rather wide object, there was little point in putting a radiator of more aerodynamic shape in front of it. Designers of that time were, how­ ever, aware of such things as fron­ tal area. Two-seater observation/ bombing planes had their cockpits in tandem and therefore had fairly narrow fuselages . So the right and left banks of cylinders of the 400-hp Liberty engine were set at an angle of 45 degrees to one another. This made for a fairly narrow engine that suited narrow fuselages. The Germans made much use of the Six-cylinder, in-line Mercedes and similar engines. This encouraged them to favor quite well-streamlined nose cowlings. To improve on this, Albatros fighters had their radiators mounted flat in the center section of the top wing. While this reduced frontal area, it led to some loss of lift by reason of air flowing up through these radiators to the wing's top side.

During and after that war, large twin-engined planes often had no en­ gine cowling at all. The reason was that since they were basically big, slow biplanes, fancy streamlining of the engine installations would result in insignificant gain in speed. But at the same time, leaving engines, radia­ tors, and piping completely exposed greatly facilitated quick and thorough checks by mechanics between flights. This made good sense in a time when powerplant reliability was a matter of pressing concern. Before we criticize the deSigners of those old clunkers, we should remember that today we run ultralight engines uncowled! After that war, aero engineers had time to do research work under less pressure. Although air flowing through a vertically mounted radia­ tor did not cause as much drag as a flat plate of the same size, it was realized that the quite sharp edges of radiator shells such as that on the Jenny were aerodynamically bad. They plowed air aside quite roughly and sent turbulence flowing back along fuselage surfaces. As engine power began to leave the 400-hp figure behind, deSigners be­ came concerned that ever-larger verti­ cal radiators directly behind propellers created an increasingly objectionable "The airplane is pushing back against itself" situation. So radiators were moved down un­ der engines and set at an angle. This got much of their bulk usefully back from the propeller. It also allowed large radiators to be fitted in such a way as not to increase fuselage frontal area. Nose cowlings assumed better aerody­ namic shapes. This process continued until we arrived at the World War II fighters having very long, lean noses and radiators under their wings or well back in fuselage bellies. Of course, the advent of Prestone was welcomed enthusiastically be­ cause it allowed radiator size to be significantly reduced. Mixtures of Pre­ stone and water allowed coolant to be run at temperatures 30 to 35 degrees above that of plain water. In 1929 the Curtiss company took a stock Mail Falcon fitted with a 600-hp Curtiss

Conqueror engine and converted it to use Prestone. This modified plane weighed 125 pounds less, had signifi­ cantly less frontal area, and had ap­ preciably brisker performance than its water-cooled brothers. Because so many thousands of them were made, we often see examples of Curtiss OX-5 engines in museums and on the noses of beautifully restored antique planes. We can learn much from them. The IN-4 training plane made to use it had the radiator mounted at

the forward-most part of the fuse ­

lage, and the OX-5 was given a long "snout" on the front end of its crank­ case. This was to carry t h e prope ll er shaft through a rou nd hole in the ra­ diator and forward to mate with the propeller. Making this hole added to the time and cost involved in making Jenny radiators. However, as the 1920s moved along, designers of planes intended as replacements for the Jenny realized the long snout of the OX-5 made it quite easy to fashion and install nose cowlings that were both aerodynami­ cally and aesthetically superior. They also got away from the expensive hole in the Jenny's radiator by locat­ ing simpler rectangular radiators at various places.

Some ships, such as the Curtiss Robin, Command-Aire, Pheasant, and Pitcairn Speedwing, carried their radia­ tors in their noses, ahead of the OX-5 and above its propeller shaft snout. In this position the radiators did not add to the frontal area of these planes. Their considerable weight so far for­ ward had to be taken into account during center of gravity calculations. You'd think that this location would be good for cooling by reason of the fact that the radiators were di­ rectly behind the propellers. How­ ever, the inner portions of propeller blades don't throw back very much air. Air passing through nose radia­ tors picked up a lot of heat and fed it back into the engine compartments. Next time you see an OX -5 Curtiss Robin, notice how many louvers the cowling has! One has but to ride in the front cockpit of a Model A Ford powered Pietenpol to realize what a great amount of quite hot air pours out of a radiator. Other OX-5 ships such as the Travel Air, American Eagle, and biplanes car­ ried their radiators under their fuse­ lages and approximately below the firewa lls. In this location they prob­ ably got a better blast of air coming back from portions of the propeller blades farther out from the hub. Wa­

ter that dripped from them fell to the ground. But pilots could not see them while in flight so as to notice begin­ ning leaks. Oil dripping from an en­ gine got into and deteriorated radia­ tor hoses made of the natural rubber then in use. The popular Waco 10 biplane car­ ried its radiator slung under its up­ per wing's center section. This put it in clear view of the pilot, and in this location it got plenty of prop wash. The shutters were located at the back side of this plane's radiator. We can only guess that this was done to put them in clear view of the pilot, and to assure that at least some air pressed into the radiator should a pilot forget himself and fly along with the shut­ ters closed. If an OX-5 Waco's radiator sprung a leak, front-seat passengers got an unexpected and unwelcome shower. The Curtiss IN-4 trainer had no radiator shutters because it was built to be used at military training fields in warm southern states. When radiators were located any appreciable distance above or below a plane's thrust line, deSigners had to consider the effect of their drag on the plane's trim while in flight. The advent of ethylene glycol an­ tifreeze made possible great advances in power and speed during the 1930s.

great advances in power and speed during the 1930s. Left, Model A Ford in Pietenpol. Water

Left, Model A Ford in Pietenpol. Water jacket covers only areas of cylinder walls exposed to flame. Air flowing past lower portions cools surfaces not so exposed. In a car, the front (water pump) end of engine sat higher than rear. In a Pietenpol, rear of engine faces forward and so is higher when plane is taxiing or climbing. In this car-to-plane conversion, pump pulls water out of engine; the resuHing slight suction could lower boiling point and encourage formation of a steam pocket in top front part of cylinder head. Long, diagonal hose conducted steam to radiator. Later auto engines had full-length water jackets to stiffen cylinder blocks and muffle mechanical noise. Right, modem liquid-cooled Continentals like this four-cylinder 0-200 used on the Voyager incorporate sophisticated engineering. Liquid cooling allows them to burn lean mixture at high compression for fuel economy and power.

While air-cooled engines had their staunch supporters, we should re­ member that many famous World War II warplanes used liquid-cooled engines. A vast amount of research work went into improving radiators and installing them in ducts to re­ duce their drag. People cling to stories about water-cooled engine troubles of the early days, and it really seems that this is why many of today's pi­ lots take a dim view of liquid cooling. Well, how often do you hear stories about misadventures with Mustang or Spitfire cooling systems? There is as much difference between a 1918 water-cooled en­ gine and a 1990s liquid-cooled one as there is between a Jenny and a Questair. We have assembled some interest­ ing figures from a variety of publica­ tions. The radiator of the 1918 de Havilland Dh.4 warplane was 4 feet high and 2 feet wide. Try carrying a 2-foot by 4-foot panel of plywood in a 90-mph gale! This ship's cooling system carried 100 pounds of water. The Curtiss IN-4 radiator, plumb­ ing, and water added up to 96 pounds. The bare radiator of the late-1920s OX-5 Eaglerock biplane weighed 37 pounds. Powered by a 160-hp V-8 engine, the Curtiss America flying boat of 1914 had a 70-pound radiator, and the cooling system carried 80 pounds of water. A V-12 engine built by Curtiss during World War I needed a radiator weighing 120 pounds of water. Cooling systems of 180-hp Mer­ cedes engines of 1918 carried 55 pounds of water. Including the mount brackets, the radiator of one Pietenpol weighed 20 pounds dry. In contrast, the modern CAM­ 100 light aircraft engine based on a Honda block uses a radiator weigh­ ing 12 pounds, and a gallon of coolant weighing approximately 9 pounds fills its cooling system. An 8-by-ll-inch aluminum radiator used with the two-cycle Rotax ultra­ light engine weighs a mere 2 pounds 8 ounces. Radiators used with these modern engines are so small that

they can be neatly tucked away in­ side cowlings that have air open­ ings similar in size to those used for air-cooled engines. Sometimes they are mounted flat under fuselages to have minimal frontal area. Some of today's liqUid-cooling systems have less drag than air-cooled engines of equivalent power. Around 20 years ago the Conti­ nental firm installed carefully de­ signed liquid-cooled cylinders on a standard 0-200 flat-four crankcase. The resulting engine developed 10 percent more power and had sev­ eral other attributes. It was possible to use an l1.4-to-1 compression ra­ tio and run this engine on a leaner mixture for better fuel economy. (You may recall this engine was used as the powerplants for the re­ cord-setting, globe-girdling Rutan Voyager.-Editor) A difficult cooling problem exists at the bridge of metal between in­ take and exhaust ports. Liquid cool­ ing can often deal with such hot spots better than can air cooling. Some liquid-cooled auto engines contain metal tubes that direct jets of coolant directly at hot spots. To achieve uniform cooling of each of the six cylinders in each bank of the V-112 Allison warplane engine, different-sized metering orifices were installed where coolant lines fed into cooling jackets. One reason why Volkswagen dropped air cooling in favor of liq­ uid cooling is that it realized the greater piston-to-cycle clearances required in hot-running air-cooled engines would give it problems in meeting new emissions standards. Liquid cooling allowed it and also Continental to use closer fits. In the liquid-cooled Continen­ tal Voyager engines, liquid cooling also allowed the use of a new high­ turbulence combustion chamber design. This is what permitted the use of leaner fuel mixtures for better economy. Claims made for its Voyager liq­ uid-cooled engines include more uniform cylinder cooling, reduced combustion chamber metal surface

temperatures, avoidance of dif­ ficult airflow problems, better cyl­ inder wear characteristics, greater time between overhauls, reduced fuel consumption, increased power, better detonation control, reduc­ tion in cooling drag, better control of cooling in various climates, less rapid cooling of very hot parts upon throttling down, and greater toler­ ance to abuse by operators. The Voyager plane's 1986 nonstop round-the-world flight would not have been possible without the use of liqUid-cooled Continental power, due to this engine's lower fuel con­ sumption. The plane took off with 1,226 gallons of fuel aboard, and upon landing 216 hours later there were only 18.3 gallons of fuel left in the tanks. Persons having a serious inter­ est in liquid-cooled engine design can write to the public relations department of Teledyne Continen­ tal Motors, P.O. Box 90, Mobile, AL 33601 about obtaining a copy of R.E. Wilkinson's paper, "Design and Development of the Voyager 200/300 Liquid Cooled Aircraft En­ gine," 1987, ISBN 0148-719. For reasons explained in that paper, the cooling jackets of these engines do not extend all the way down the cylinder walls. Lower ar­ eas of these walls are cooled by oil sprayed at the undersides of pistons. The flat-four model 912 Rotax light aircraft engine follows mod­ ern automotive practice by running at high speed (80 hp at 5500 rpm) to achieve power with light weight. Its cylinder heads are liquid-cooled to cope with combustion heat, but the lower portions of the cylinder barrels not exposed to combustion flame are adequately cooled by con­ ventional air-cooling fins. It's worth noting that designers of many motorcycles have seen good reason to use liquid cooling. The small engines we have today are the result of a vast amount of development work. The bottom line, therefore, is that liquid cooling is going to play an increasingly important role in the field of light aircraft


Adhesives and bondings

Part 1

T his article will concentrate on the art of

bonding non-metallic and metallic materials.

We will explore bond ing hard and soft wood

and briefly describe some techniques used in


not that widely used in antique aircraft restoration.

I hope you ' ll find

to raise awareness about the importance of surface preparation, proper mixing and application of the adhesive, and correct use of clamps to apply pressure during cure. First, what is bonding? Bonding is the fabrication of parts where attachment of sub-members is by the use of adhesives. Assuming the adhesive is mixed and applied properly, the strength and integrity of a bond depends entirely on the person making it. The actual bond cannot be inspected or tested without breaking the part . Therefore, it is necessary to make test samples to check bond strength. The integrity will depend on preparation of the surface, quality of the adhesive, cor­ rect mixing of adhesive, and proper cure techniques. So, we'll begin the discussion with wood structures and take a quick review of wood. The shape of the leaf of the tree determines whether a wood is classified as soft or hard. Softwoods come from conifer trees with sharp-pointed leaves, while hardwoods come from broad-leaf trees. Therefore spruce and Douglas fir are softwoods, while birch, mahogany, and oak are hardwoods. Softwood is used for the majority of the primary structure because it is lighter in weight. The most common of these soft­ woods for aircraft structure is Sitka spruce (which is considered the standard) or Douglas fir. Spruce is the easiest to work because it doesn't splin­ ter; it's also the best to bond. Douglas fir is slightly denser and more easily splinters when planed. It may also be a little more difficult to obtain a good bonded joint with Douglas fir. Plywood (created using woods that are members of

the hardwood family) is a veneer and is bonded into

aluminum , although aluminum bonding is

it interesting, for my purpose is

sheets using an odd number of plies. Mahogany is the most common, followed by birch. The core material in plywood is most likely basswood or poplar. Aircraft­ grade plywood will meet MIL-P-6070. A note here should be made that, generally, soft­ woods are less dense and lighter than hardwoods. When bonding plywood plates to wing spars it will be necessary to lightly sand the surface to be bonded. This will put some sand scratches in the dense surface and will aid in strengthening the bonded joint. Soft­ wood surfaces, particularly spar splices, should not be sanded because sanding dust will enter into the softwood's more open wood-grain structure and may cause a weak bond. There are two types of adhesive resins currently in use. One is approved by the FAA, and the other is not.

(At Least not yet. We continue to work on this issue with

the FAA .-Editor)

Synthetic resin adhesive has been

around for many years. The newly revised FAA Advi­ sory Circular AC 43.13-1B only approves a Resorcinol resin glue; plastic resin glue is no longer approved for

application on FAA type certificated aircraft. The AC

is very vague about the use of the second type of ad­

hesive-epoxy. There are several epoxy adhesives that

I have used for wood-structure fabrication and re­

pair. I've used Forest Products Lab FPL-16A; it's white and leaves white stains all over the wood. T-88 Struc­ tural Adhesive is a clear adhesive, but it's quite vis­ cous, making it difficult to spread over large areas. 3M Scotch-Weld EC-2216 BIA, another good adhesive, is gray in color. But it, too, is very viscous, making it difficult to apply a thin, even coat to the parts to be bonded. And most recently I've used the West System

epoxy adhesive. The Classic Waco factory uses this ad­ hesive for its wing fabrication, but it refuses to release the data related to its FAA approval, obviously be­ cause it cost the company time and money to get that approval. So where are we on FAA approval of epoxy adhesives? Just try to find a new epoxy adhesive with

a military specification (MIL SPEC), aerospace mate-


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rial specification CAMS), or technical standards order CTSO) approval for use in a wood structure. Wood is

a material of the past. The above approvals will be for bonding metallic or composite structures only, not wood. Something in the near future will have to "break loose" from the FAA regarding approval for ep­ oxy adhesive use in type certificated aircraft. Having covered all that, let's look at surface prepa­ ration of wood structure. First, the most strength of any bonded jOint is one that is placed in a shear load. That's why spar, rib, and plywood splices are made with such long scarf joints (10-to-1 to 12-to-1). This places the bond line in shear. For spar splices, spruce or Douglas fir should be planed only. For Resorcinol ad­ hesive, because this type of adhesive doesn't like thick bond lines, the joint should fit together very closely. The thicker the bond line the weaker the bond. Also, heavy clamping pressure should be used during the cure. Parallel clamps used with caul blocks are best for spar splices. The final fit for rib cap strip splices is usually achieved by sanding. Again, make the fit between the surfaces close. Pressure on the bond line is achieved by nailing through plywood gussets. The same thing is true for plywood surfaces; sanding is a must to achieve

a close fit. Clamping is by the use of nailing strips and, in some cases, by the use of sand bags. Epoxy adhesives are somewhat different than Re­ sorcinol adhesive. Epoxies can withstand a thicker bond line and not lose strength. However, epoxy


that is a problem when using epoxy resins for spar splices. I still use Resorcinol adhesive for making spar splices because I know how it works and what kind of pressure it likes. If you clamp epoxy adhe­ sive with parallel clamps, this is what will happen. The clamp pressure will drive out excess resin, but

because epoxy resin is so viscous, the clamping

pressure will eventually be lost or diminished. And

if you apply too much pressure, much of the epoxy

resin will be driven out of the joint, resulting in a

weak bond . I urge anyone who uses epoxy adhe­ sive to make some test samples; prepare the surface, spread the resin, clamp using the same method you will use on the actual part, allow it to cure, then

don 't like heavy clamping pressure. And








test the sample to destruction. Adjust pressure on the bonded joint so you will know in advance ex­ actly how to use the adhesive. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show how to make such test samples. It should be noted here that cure temperature is im­

portant. Do not allow the temperature to drop below 70 °F

during the curing stage, especially for Resorcinol adhe­ sive. Some epoxy adhesives will cure at temperatures as low as 50°F, but I'm always concerned about low temperature cures. We call the cure of these types of adhesives "cold setting" or "low temperature" cure. Cold-setting or low-temperature cures generally are from 150°F and below. Cure times can be speeded up by increasing the temperature, but I've never gone above 125°F. If you are using an elevated temperature, be sure to monitor temperature with a thermometer and don't allow any "spikes" in temperature. Epoxy adhesives are "thermosetting" plastiCS. The adhesive is composed of a resin with a catalyst or hardener. Once mixed, the material cures by chemi­ cal cross-linking of the molecules of the resin. A by­ product of the curing process is "exothermic heat."

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To gain the best advantage of epoxy resins, accurate mixing of resin and catalyst is reqUired. Some ad­ hesives have simple reSin/catalyst ratios, like one part resin to one part catalyst. Other materials can have ratios like 100 to 42, 10 to I, or 3 to 2. The ra­ tios are given by either part or weight. The most ac­ curate method of mixing is by weight using a scale. Accurate measuring and complete mixing of resin and catalyst is reqUired, so stir slowly for a minute or more to assure the mixture is properly prepared. Don't stir too fast or you will whip air into the adhe­ sive. We don't want porosity in the bond line caused by air bubbles. Some adhesives have different catalyzing agents based on working temperatures. There will be slow

setting for hot temperatures and fast setting for cold temperatures. Never adjust catalyst ratio to gain an advantage in curing time. In other words, don't add more cat­ alyst to make the material cure faster. If temperature control is available, adjust the temperature. Adding heat will cure an epoxy adhesive faster, and cooling will make it cure slower. When constructing the test sam­ ples, the bonded surfaces must be clean. Mix the adhesive and ap­ ply it to both surfaces; allow it to set for approximately one minute. Then check for any dry areas where adhesive may have soaked into the wood. Recoat if necessary, as­ semble, and clamp using the same method as will be used in the repair or fabrication, that is C-clamps, parallel clamps, screws, nails, etc. Allow samples to cure, monitor­ ing curing temperature and time. When cured, place the sample in a vise, attach a small parallel clamp, and begin to twist, push, and pull until the sample breaks. Closely

examine the broken samples. If the bond line holds, the splice is good. If the sample breaks down the bond line and there is no evidence of wood fibers holding to the bond line, then the sample fails. Figure out what happened, modify the procedure, and try again. Let me just say a couple of things about the bond­ ing of aluminum because it is not widely used in the restoration area. Again, the outcome of the bonded joint depends on surface preparation and the skill of the person making the bond. I have bonded alu­ minum using low-temperature and high-tempera­ ture cure adhesives. I have experimented on surface preparation from just light sanding (scratching the surface) to chemical treatment, including anodizing. The results confirm that the best surface treatment


Edge faces
Edge faces



confirm that the best surface treatment Incorrect Edge faces Correct Edges Edges F I G U
confirm that the best surface treatment Incorrect Edge faces Correct Edges Edges F I G U




BEND 180 0

EPOXY ADHESIVE FILLET BEND 180 0 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5 , _ , ~ is anodizing,




_ ,


is anodizing, followed by chemical treatment, fol­ lowed by scratching and wiping, followed by no sur­ face preparation at aIL As is with all types of bonding, cleanliness is very important. Don't bond anything that has surface contamination. Figure 3 shows a method, the "wa­ ter break test," to determine surface cleanliness on aluminum. A fine mist of distilled water is sprayed on the surface, enough to wet the entire area. If the water breaks or beads up, there is surface contami­ nation . Do more cleaning and repeat the process until a fine layer of water covers the entire surface. Of course all the water must be completely removed before bonding. Again, the bonding surfaces must be scrupulously clean. This includes wood surfaces, although a water break test is not recommended. Latex or butyl gloves should always be worn when handling aluminum surfaces to be bonded, thus avoiding" finger fat." Finger fat is the oils that are transferred from the hands to the clean surface to be bonded. Figure 4 shows a method of handling that will keep the bonding surfaces clean. For low-temperature bonding of aluminum I have used 3M EC-2216 BfA Structural Adhesive. Results were quite good, again witl) prior surface prepara­ tion. I have cured the 3M adhesive to 125°F in an oven with controlled temperature. Again, I recom­ mend making test samples before proceeding on with the repair. Here is one way I have tested bonded aluminum joints using room-temperature curing ep­ oxy resin (See Figure 5.). Figure 6 shows what are typical lap bonds of alumi­ num substrates. The properly cured example shows "squeeze-out" of the epoxy adhesive during the cure process. One should always look for -s9ueeze-out for a visual inspection of the joint. The only other low­ tech method to test the joint would be to tap test it using a coin or tap-testing tool and listen for a "me­ tallic ring" sound indicating a sound bond. Coin tap testing, normally done with a "coin" made of heavy metal such as brass, is best done by someone who has experience in this type of testing. High-temperature bonding is accomplished with an epoxy phenolic adhesive film that is in the "B stage" of cure (catalyzed epoxy rolled into a thin,



uniform film, then frozen and kept frozen until used). This type of process cures beginning with room temperature (usually 70°F), a temperature

ramp to 250°F or 350°F at 3 to 5 degrees per minute,

a hold for about one to one and a half hours, then a

cool down at S° per minute to 140 °F, then final cool­

ing back to room temp. As you can see this process

is not something you can do in your shop or hangar,

so it isn't in use except for large repair stations. But

it is an interesting process anyway!

I hope this theory of bonding will help mechan­ ics and restorers master the art of creating airworthy bonded joints, particularly on the primary structure of the aircraft. Remember, given that all instruc­ tions are closely followed, the final outcome of the strength and airworthiness of the bonded joint will depend on the person who does the job. ~

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T he Shawano Fly-Out is a cher­

ished tradition among the

time-tested vintage airplane

lovers who attend EAA AirVen­

ture Oshkosh each year. I wish more people would take advantage of this opportunity for a portion of a day away from the convention that pro­ motes the goals of the Vintage Aircraft Association and the spirit of aviation. As I arrive at AirVenture, after trav­ eling into a ferocious head wind and drinking an inestimable number of cups of coffee, my first mission is clear. I must visit one of the strategi­ cally placed rows of portable toilets. After this important mission is taken care of, I go back and tie down the airplane. I arrived before 9 a.m. so I am able to attend the early flightline volunteer training. Once that's done, I go to register my airplane and turn in the locator card. Next is a trip to visit Sue and Lo­ raine in the Vintage Volunteer Cen­ ter. No arrival is complete without the first volunteer kitchen sandwich of the week. With my lunch in hand, I wander into the information side of the Vintage Red Barn to find the Sha­ wano Fly-Out signup list. As always, I find it on the info desk, across from the popcorn and lemonade. Putting your name on that list guarantees you some good memories. I remember one time I was at the fly-out, and I had taken a couple of planeloads of kids for Young Eagles rides. The grandmother of the chil­ dren asked me why I would do that. My short answer was because it's fun. Just seeing the kids with excitement

in their eyes, seeing that they just can't wait to tell their friends what they did, and seeing that now they want to share the wonder of aviation with someone. It's great to know that

you are sharing the joy of aviation with others. My longer answer was that it gets young people interested in aviation, we make friends for avi­ ation and for the local airport, and we are educating people about flying and flying safety. At AirVenture, you know a life might change because of aviation, but at Shawano, you get to watch it happen. We all know how easy it is to meet people at AirVenture. All you have to do is sit by your plane, and people will wander over and strike up a con­ versation. I'm always willing to take passengers along to Shawano. Over the years I have met some fascinating

individuals . At

meet friendly people, plus as a pilot, you get breakfast. Who doesn't want free good food? Sometimes there are even other nice freebies for the pilots. But really, the feeling you experience as the town comes out to greet you is indescribable. The whole town gets excited about this, and it's always great to be a part of it-it's apprecia­ tion at a whole new level. To round

out the experience for the people, there are model airplane demonstra­ tions, and in 2008 there was a small car show. They really go all out. At AirVenture, you are one of 2,000-plus showplanes. Unless you happen to be chosen for the "airplane interior update demonstration," your airplane probably won't be sitting in front of

Shawano, you get to

the Red Barn. The likelihood of win­ ning a prize is decreased significantly simply by the number of planes par­ ticipating in the show. In Oshkosh you may feel a bit lost among all your fellow vintage airplane enthusiasts. At Shawano, with around 40 planes, you are an important part of the show. Af­ ter breakfast, many pilots open their airplanes and invite people to look around and ask questions. Some kid usually wants to get in the airplane, put on the headset, and have his or her picture taken. This is different from AirVenture in that during the annual EAA fly-in most people are there because they have some knowledge of aviation and enjoy it. At Shawano many of the people haven't been up in a small plane but are willing and eager to ex­ perience it, usually for the first time! You can just see the excitement on their faces as you ask if they would like a ride. And when you get back, they all have smiles on their faces and are ready to spread the joy that they just experienced from aviation. I go to Shawano to share that joy with peo­ ple who haven't had an opportunity like this before. When you arrive for the convention, come sign up in the Vintage Red Barn and prepare your­ self for a great day! Join us this year for the annual fly-out to Shawano, early Saturday, August 1, 2009; you'll be glad you did-gleaning your own new batch of memories. Photos courtesy Patti Peterson, Shawano Country Tourism Council.

-y: ~ ~

This year is too big to miss. Literally_


year is too big to miss. Literally_ THE MASSIVE AI~ KN IGHTTWO ~I H RYOF AIR
























OF POWERED FLIGH 'ORlD'S BEST AEROBATIC PERFORMERS And that's just for starters . You just gotla

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The World's Greatest Aviation Celebration I July 27 - August 2 I






How Long Is That Airstrip?

Editor's Note: Irven Palmer's ar­ ticle deals with exploiting the great capabilities of vintage aircraft as they are flown in remote areas. If it's of a concern, you may wish to confirm you have insurance cover­ age for your proposed operations, and make a solid assessment of your skills when it comes to this fun but challenging type of flying.-HGF

If you fly from airport to airport, a quick glance at the FAA Airport/

Facility Directory or your sectional

chart will tell you the length of the airport you are about to land on. However, if you use your air­ plane like I do for hunting, fish­ ing, and camping and are used to landing out in the boondocks at a suitable off-airport location, then the question "How long is that air­ strip?" becomes very important. I know that most of us just fly from airport to airport, but have you ever looked down when fly­ ing past some beautiful meadow with a lake or stream and won­ dered how great it would be to land down there and camp out or fish or hunt or just enjoy being by yourself in the boondocks? With spring and summer fast approaching and the itch to get out there and do some flying, per­ haps you just might want to try an off-airport adventure.


Your Judgment

In more than 35 years of fly­ ing in the Alaskan bush, I learned early on that just guessing or try­ ing to judge how long a potential off-airport airstrip is from the air at 100 miles an hour will get you in big trouble. Your judgment is affected by the terrain. Steep terrain with ravines and valleys surrounded by hills and mountains tend to make airstrips seem smaller. Flat­ top mountain ridges, wide river valleys or flood plains with their gravel and sand bars, and ocean beaches tend to make an airstrip appear larger. Vegetation cover and early­ morning and late-afternoon shad­ ows also tend to alter your judg­ ment. If you make the wrong judg­ ment and guess about how long an airstrip is and then land there only to find out that once on the ground the place you picked was too short to take off again-you are in a world of hurt.

The Solution

Remember when you learned to fly? The instructor told you to always adjust your seat in the same position and to try to as­ sume the same posture each time you fly. This was so when you looked outside for landing, your sight picture would always be the

same. You would have the same reference of the engine cowling as you picked your spot looking out through the windshield. Us­ ing a reference point like a door post or a pOint on the lift strut is a key factor in making good esti­ mates of the length of off-airport landing sites while using a time/ distance chart.

The Time/Distance (hart

If by now you are interested in attempting to use your airplane for an off-airport camping expe­ rience, then you need to make yourself a time/distance chart. Or use the one I have included here. In my years of flying in Alaska I mainly flew a Piper PA-12 or a Cessna 170B, both using 8.50-6 tires. Both of these airplanes are good slow-flight airplanes, and the larger tires will handle a va­ riety of surfaces. I made my time/ distance chart for both 60 mph and 80 mph. Determining the length of your intended off-airport landing strip is only half the battle. You must also closely examine the surface on which you will be landing. Let's say you have decided to go on a camping trip. You search an interesting area and spot what you think might be a good place to land. Now you must go to slow flight (you are current in that

technique, right?). Slow the plane to exactly 60 mph and fly along the strip low

technique, right?). Slow the plane to exactly 60 mph and fly along the strip low enough to be able to examine the surface for rocks, stumps, logs, ditches, or other ob­ structions.

If the surface looks good, fly par­ allel to the strip and use your stop­ watch. Pick a reference point on the door post or lift strut. When that point passes the end of the strip, start the watch and fly the length of the strip. When your reference pOint reaches the end of the strip,

time you

stop the watch . All this

must keep your head in the same position and the airspeed at exactly 60 mph. Now turn around and fly the strip in the other direction, tim­

ing your passage during that pass as well. Use the average of these two multiple-second readings and con­ sult your time/distance chart to de­ termine the length of your airstrip. If there was no wind, then both passes should indicate the same reading in seconds.

Rule No . 1: Never guess the length of an airstrip. Us e your stopwatch and tim e/distance chart to calculate the length .

Aircraft Performance Charts

Now that you know how to calculate the length of your off­ airport landing strip, you should be aware that the landing and takeoff distances in your aircraft performance chart were deter­ mined using a new engine and taking off and landing from a hard runway surface. For sand or grassy surfaces or for gravel

runway surface. For sand or grassy surfaces or for gravel or bumpy surfaces it is better

or bumpy surfaces it is better to add at least 10 or 15 percent to your airplane performance val­ ues. Your experience may help you adjust those values.

Equipment and Preparation

You have found a good place to go camping with your airplane,

you have now flown the intended airstrip, which looks like it has a good surface, and you have deter­ mined the length of your intended strip using your time/distance chart. But before you take off from your home airport, there are some things you must take with you .

continued on page 35








60 MPH


80 MPH














50 = 73










70= 102


80= 118






















Fly airstrip






in both





directions and divide by









use average










EXAMPLE USING THE TIME/DISTANCE CHART-Say you fly your airstrip in one direction and it takes 11 seconds at 60 mph. Then you fly it in the opposite direction and find that it only takes 8 seconds. That means there is little wind blowing. So using the chart, you find that the approximate length of the strip is 836 feet long. Now land into the wind and use enough controls to stop any side drift. Techniques vary for short-field approaches, but I carry a little power and full flaps at minimum airspeed.








Send your answer to

EAA, Vintage Airplane, P.O.

Box 3086, Oshkosh, WI 54903-3086. Your answer needs to be in no later than July 15 for inclusion in the September 2009

issue of Vintage Airplane.

You can also send your response via e-mail. Send your answer to mystery Be sure to

include your name plus your city and state in the body of your note and put "(Month) Mystery Plane" in the subject line.




Plane" in the subject line. MARCH'S MYSTERY ANSWER March's Mystery Plane came to us from a

March's Mystery Plane came to us from a collection of photos from the late George Ishkanian of Helio­ polis, Egypt. George and his family donated the collection to the EAA archives, and we spotted the beau­ tiful low-wing monoplane among

the images. Here's our first letter:

"The March 2009 Mystery Plane appears to be the third Percival Q.6 (construction number Q22?) which was bought by King Ghazi of Iraq and given the registration YI-ROH

in 1938. Part of the registration can be seen below the wing. "The fuselage, fin, and rudder of

the aircraft were painted red and the rest of it, yellow. The aircraft's


on the photo, was inscribed in cop­ perplate letters just above the yel­ low flash running from nose to tail. One of the red crowns painted on the engine cowlings is quite visible on the photo. ''It looks as if YI-ROH was taken over by the Royal Air Force (RAF)

at some point during the Second World War and given the registra­ tion HK913. One source mentions early 1943, another 1941-presum­ ably after the unsuccessful coup/ rebellion/war launched against the British by Iraqi nationalists. The aircraft, operated by an Iraq-based

Bird of Eden, barely visible

RAF conversion or communica­ tion flight (?), was struck off charge on February 28, 1943. It may have been damaged beyond repair or de­ stroyed earlier in the month." Renald Fortier Curator, Aviation History Canada Aviation Museum Ottawa, Canada Jack Erickson, of State College, Pennsylvania, wrote, in part:

"The March 2009 Mystery Plane is a Percival P.16 series aircraft that was also known as the Percival Q.6, and in its RAF version as the Per­ cival Petrel. The photo seems to have been taken at Almaza Airport in Heliopolis, Egypt, where Mr. Ish­ kanian lived. Misr was a National Transport Company authorized by and reporting to the Egyptian Min­ ister of National Defence. Misr was formed in association with the Brit­ ish aviation company Airwork Ltd., as indicated on the hangar sign ." And from Wes Smith in Spring­ field , Illinois, we received a longer note, extracts of which follow:

"The March 2009 Mystery Plane is one of two Percival Q.6s (P.16As) that were sold to King Ghazi I of Iraq in 1939. The aircraft depicted in the Vintage Airplane photo was registered as YI-ROH, aka the Bird of Eden (the other was registered as YI-ROJ). The Q.4 was Percival's design for a twin-engine aircraft. It was not built, but a six-seven place twin , known as the Q.6, was. Built to specification Q.20-24, the pro­ totype Q.6, was first flown on 14 September 1937. The prototype (G-AEYE) was soon followed by the first production Q .6, registered as G-AFFD, and sold to Sir Philip Sas­ soon on 2 March 1938. Sassoon's Q.6 was painted metallic blue and silver, with a gold-plate model of a cobra mounted in front of the cock­ pit windscreen. "In addition to the two Q.6s that were sold to King Ghazi I of Iraq , one aircraft (LY-SOA) was sold to the Lithuanian Ministry of Communications (one source states that that two were sold to

contin ued on page 36

How Long Is That Airstrip?

continued from page 33

The photo in Figure 3 shows those items. The bare essentials include a machete for cutting brush, an axe or hatchet and a small saw for cut­ ting small trees, and a small shovel for filling in ruts or for digging out rocks, etc., in the airstrip. These items are necessary be­ cause once you are on the ground at your off-airport landing strip, you may have to enlarge or lengthen the strip for taking off. Most air­ planes we fly require a longer take­ off run than a landing run. Large flaps allow us to get in on a steep approach for a short field. But for taking off, you must consider ob­ stacle clearance and the longer takeoff run . Therefore you have to be prepared to remove brush and small trees if necessary in order to take off safely. I have had to do that many times in Alaska. Another consideration is that when you pick your off-airport landing site, your initial airborne inspection may have missed a few small bushes or trees. Once you are down you can clean up your airstrip so that those small shrubs or trees won't be banging on parts of your airplane during your takeoff. Off-airport camping can be fun, but you must be prepared.

Rule No.2: Always carry equip­ ment to lengthen your airstrip.

Flight Plans

You are probably used to flying from airport to airport using an OMNI radio or nowadays the GPS to fly direct. You use airport iden­ tifiers for en route checkpoints and final destinations on your flight plan. That makes it easy for any search-and-rescue operation

if needed.

But when you go to your off­ airport camping site, there is no

final-destination identifier. So you must include on the flight plan

a key geographic feature for your

destination. If there is no key geo­ graphic feature nearby, then you should include a distance and a magnetic bearing from some key geographic feature to your land­ ing site. If you know it, a latitude/ longitude fix would be ideal. You must also include how long you will be at your off-airport site. And most important of all, tell someone where you are going.


Sometimes even the most care­ ful observations of an off-airport landing site may miss some ob­ stacle, or your airplane battery goes dead, or there is some other reason like you have misjudged the airstrip length and you just cannot take off after you are on the ground. That is when you will

kit . So be sure

need your survival

to pack a good survival kit when­ ever you venture out into the off­ airport world.

No . 3: Always file a flight

plan and carry a survival kit and tell


someone where you are going.

Final Thoughts

If you decide to venture out there on an off-airport adventure, there are a couple of things you need to do. First make sure your airplane is suitable. Boondocks airstrips are better suited to tail­ wheel aircraft for better prop clear­ ance. Also small tires really can­ not handle soft sand, gravel, or bumpy surfaces. Tri-geared aircraft can be used if the surface is fairly hard and not too bumpy. Finally, practice at a local airport using the known length of the strip or runway. Or measure a section of a country road that you can practice on. Practice timing the length by picking a reference point on your plane, like a spot on the lift strut or door post or window frame. This will give you confidence that you really can estimate the length of a remote boondocks airstrip. Be careful and have fun out there!



continued from page 35

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the Lithuanian airline Lietuvos Linijos), and two were sold to the Egyptian government, delivered in camouflage. King Ghazi I's Bird of Eden was painted in a strik­ ing red and yellow color scheme, with yellow fuselage trim, wings, horizontal stabilizers, and eleva­

tors . The words Bird of Eden were inscribed as copperplate under the cockpit window. "King Ghazi I (actually Ghazi Bin Faisal) was as interesting as the aircraft he flew in. Born on 12 March 1912, Ghazi was the only son of Faisall. He was raised by his grandfather Hussein Bin Ali, the Grand Sharif of Mecca. He left the Hijaz from Jordan in 1924 and was appointed the Crown Prince of Iraq. When his father died in 1933, Ghazi succeeded him to the throne and also became the head of the Iraqi navy, army, and Royal Iraqi

Air Force . He was reputed

Nazi sympathizer and was against British interests in Iraq. The first coup d'etat in the Arab world was

led by Iraqi Gen. Bakr Sidqi and was supported by Ghazi. This replaced the Iraqi civilian government

with a military dictatorship

Ghazi I died in a mysterious acci­ dent that involved the sports car he

was driving on 9 April 1939. Ghazi left behind a son, Faisal II, King of Iraq, who was born on 2 May 1935, and died on 14 July 1958. It is unclear if King Ghazi I lived long enough to fly in either of his Percival Q.6s."

to be a


Other correct answers were re­ ceived from:

Brian Baker, Sun City, Arizona; Lars Gleitsmann, Anchorage, Alaska (who notes that one unairworthy example survives on the Isle of Man); Toby Gursanscky, Sydney, Australia; John B. Schricker, Hay­ ward, Wisconsin; and Tom Lym­ bum, Princeton,

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concept that these programs can flourish, and the local tax-paying citizens will forever have a warm spot in their hearts for their local airport and its leadership. With­ out the county airport leadership's work, it's unlikely we'd be on this airport. All of us in VAA 37 clearly understand their efforts, and they are all sincerely appreciated by the entire membership of this chapter. The EAA chapter network is an awe­ some opportunity to create some­ thing special, and my sincere hope is that in some small way I have in­ spired you today to invest some en­ ergy to inspire somebody tomorrow with the awesome opportunities of aviation the EAA way.

Stay tuned to this channel, as I will talk next month about some new­ member benefits that I believe you will find useful, as well as exciting. As always, please do us all the fa­ vor of inviting a friend to join the VAA, and help keep us the strong association we have all enjoyed for so many years. VAA is about participation: Be a member! Be a volunteer! Be there! Let's all pull in the same direc­ tion for the good of aviation. Re­ member, we are better together. Join us and have it all.

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Dear H.G., Your article in the February Vin­ tage Airplane magazine identifies November's Mystery Plane as the Sikorsky and Gluhareff UN-4 as de­ signed in late 1926/early 1927. The picture of this machine reminded me of a similar photo in Aviation

History in Greater Kansas City pub­

lished by the editors of the former

Historic Aviation magazine.

Although this publication must be over 4S years old, I was able to contact the listed associate editor, Mr. Nat Cassingham, who gave me permission to copy and send you a partial version of the original ar­ ticle about the Jenny modification. Our conversation revealed that al­ most all of the listed contributors and other principals who published this book are deceased. Enclosed you'll find a copy of a picture on page 17 of an airplane that very closely resembles the UN­ 4. You will also note a copy of the historical notes on the conception of this aircraft and the culmination of this idea with the Inland Sport, also manufactured in Kansas City. If the Kansas City construction dates of 1924 and 1926 are correct, would the UN-4, designed in late 1926/early 1927, have influenced the Sikorsky and Gluhareff? Many thanks for your Mystery Plane articles. Bill Hare, Mission, Kansas

Edited version of the original article about the Jenny modifi­ cation, originally published in

Aviation History in Greater Kan­

sas City.

Between 1924 and 1926, a Kan­

sas Citian named Bahl put together

a homebuilt "one-only" aircraft from

two Curtiss IN-4 Jennys, a Thomas­ Morse, and some odds and ends from various other wrecked airplanes. He called his creation the Lark, but it

flew more like a chicken, putting its builder no higher than the middle wires of a fence at Richards Field. In 1927, he disgustedly sold the patched-up remains to Blaine Tux­ horn, who made several modifications on the parasol monoplane, but with no more success than Bahl. He finally got expert opinion from Dewey Bone­ brake, an engineer, who advised him to forget the Lark; he would build a better plane. Inspired by the mistake-ridden Lark, Bonebrake set up shop in the fall of 1927 at 71st and Holmes Road and proceeded to design and build the Bonebrake Parasol, powered with

a 40-hp Wright-Anzani. In June 1928, the plane was test-flown by Gene


Gebhart. The rest of the summer, the plane underwent modifications at Tuxhorn's shop, and in the fall, Geb­ hart took it to the National Air Races in Los Angeles. There the plane caught the attention of Art Hardgrave, a part­ ner in the City Ice Company. Hardgrave had been looking for a plane to manufacture, and at the end of a few weeks he came to terms with Bonebrake, who sold his interest in the Bonebrake Parasol and moved to California. Thus, the Inland Avia­ tion Company was born. Bonebrake's parasol monoplane became the In­ land Sport. Milton Bauman came over from Butler Aviation to become project en­ gineer. Wilfred Moore, barnstormer and auto racer, was hired as test pilot. The first factory was at 14th and Minnesota. Two welders, a motor­ cycle mechanic, and an ex-cabinet­ maker were hired, and the new firm produced four copies of the first air­ plane. Then they took three of the planes on the racing circuit to test and demonstrate their

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