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# Session 9 & 10

## Case Study 2 : Commercial Airliner

Session delivered by:
Dr. H. K. Narahari

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology

## Case Study 2 : Commercial Airliner

Session Speaker
Dr. H.K. Narahari

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology

## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Requirement
Number of Passenger: 80
Range: 3000 nm = 5556 km
This is small transport jet plane category

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## Preliminary Weight Estimation

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## Empty Vs Takeoff Weight

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Typical Missions

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Mission Profile

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

MP2

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

MP3

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

MP4

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

MP5

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## Structure Weight Fraction

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## Empty Weight Correlation (Airlines)

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## Empty Weight Fraction (Airlines)

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## Fuel Weight for MP1

1-2 Warm up and Takeoff >> (W1/W0) = 0.97
2-3 Climb >> (W2/W1) = 0.985
3-4 Cruise >>
therefore

Considered high bypass turbo jet engine cruising at 0.85 M with L/D =
0.866 (L/D) max
So, (W3/W2) = e-0.2154 = 0.8062

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## Fuel Weight for MP1

4-5 Loiter and descent >>
According to FAA regulation an additional fuel for loitering at least for
30 min has to be provided. In this case the additional time for
endurance is taken as 45 min which includes both loiter and descent.
Fuel ratio calculation for endurance is as follows
Therefore
So (W4/W3) = e-0.01874 = 0.9814
5-6 Landing phase >> (W5/W4) = 0.995
Therefore,
W5/W0 = (W1/WO) * (W2/W1) * (W3/W2) * (W4/W3) * (W5/W4) = 0.7521

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Weight Estimation
(Wf / Wo) = 1.06 * (1- W5/W0) =
0.2626
W payload = No of Passenger * (Wt
of passenger + permissible
baggage) = 80 * (80+40) = 9600 kg
W crew = 2 Pilot + 3 Cabin Crew = 5
* (80+40) = 600 kg
For W empty
We/Wo = A* WoC * Kvs
(We/Wo) = 1.0608 Wo-0.06
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Faculty of Engineering & Technology

## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Weight Estimation
So Total All up weight,
Wo = 22486.35/(0.7374-1.0608*Wo^-0.06)
After solving this by numerical method; Wo = 48957 kg

## OR Approximately we can find from

graph
or table 600*80 = 48000 kg

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Wing Design
W/S required = 5000 N/m^2
Therefore for estimated W = 48957 kg
S = 96.053 m^2
Assume AR = 8.5
Therefore , b = 28.57 m
LE Sweep angle = 30 deg
Taper ratio = 0.2-0.3
AR =
and
Cr = 5.17 m and Ct = 1.55 m
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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Wing Design
Aerofoil Selection:
Find Cruise Cl ;
L = Wavg = 0.5*(Wi+Wf) = 0.5**Cl*V^2*S
Therefore Cl = 0.465
But
The contribution of fuselage, tail and other components on overall
lift has negative effect, So, Cl = Cl/0.95 = 0.489
3D wing error over 2D aerofoil = Cl = Cl/.9 = 0.54
NACA 6 series with10-12% t/C, required cruise Cl was not found so
entire problem was worked out again with S = 120 m^2
With Cl = 0.41
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## NACA 63-412 with Cl =

0.41 at 1.5deg
Clmax = 1.7
Cdmin = 0.0048
and stall is moderate

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Wing Design
NACA 63-412

Computational Domain

## 3 D wing CAD model

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Powerplant Selection
T/W = 0.35
For calculated AUW, Thrust required = 168 kN
Therefore two engines required with 85 kN thrust each

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Fuselage Layout
Optimal aerodynamics, reducing aerodynamic drag
Suppression of aerodynamic instability
Comfortable and attractive seat design, placement, and
storage Space
Safety features to deal with emergencies such as fires,
cabin
depressurization, etc.; proper placement of emergency
exits, oxygen systems, etc.
robust cargo hatches and doors
Structural support for wing and tail forces acting in flight,
as well as for landing and ground operation forces
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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Fuselage Layout
Structurally optimized, saving weight while incorporating
protection against corrosion and fatigue
Optimized flight deck, reducing pilot workload and protecting
against crew fatigue and intrusion by passengers
Convenient size and placement of galleys, lavatories, and coat
racks
Suppressed noise and vibration, providing a comfortable,
secure environment
Control of cabin climate including air conditioning, heating,
and ventilation
Providing housing for different sub-systems, including auxiliary
power units, hydraulic system, air conditioning, etc.

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## Fuselage Layout : Major Dimensions

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## Fuselage Layout : Why Circular

A circle has the greatest cross-sectional area per unit
perimeter. The drag of a typical fuselage, which has a rather
large fineness ratio (l/d), is dominated by skin friction
A circle is strongest under internal pressure. At stratospheric
cruising altitudes the outside pressure is 0.2 to 0.3 bar, while
the internal pressure is maintained at that about 0.7 bar.
Pressure difference across the thin skin of the cabin ranges
from 0.4 to 0.5 atmospheres (40 to 50 kPa)
A circle more easily accommodates growth in Np in terms of
manufacturing since cylindrical sections, called plugs, can be
reasonably easily added to so-called stretched versions of a
given aircraft.
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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Fuselage Layout
Limited space outside the passenger compartment for
auxiliary systems and cargo. The passenger compartment
must be located around a diameter of the circle for the
greatest width for seats and aisles.
Awkward circular sectors above and below the passenger
compartment to house other items.
Modern designs have expanded the lower portion of the
circular cabin into a more rectangular cross-section in the
vicinity of the wing root chord to accommodate more internal
carriage.
Cabin forward and aft of the wing root is maintained as a
circular cross-section, and stretching will require plugs to be

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## Fuselage Typical Layout

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## Fuselage Example Floor Plan

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## Fuselage Drag Break down

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## Fuselage Drag : Equation

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Fuselage Design
FAR rules have specified the
minimum
dimensions
for
different class of passenger
seats
The seat width considered for
the design is 500mm the seat
pitch is 800mm and the aisle
width as 500mm.

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Fuselage Design

Fuselage Interior

## FAR rules state that during

emergency the plane needs to be
evacuated within 90 second
Pilot Vision

## Fuselage Seat Layout

Faculty of Engineering & Technology

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Empennage Design
The main function is to stabilize the aircraft in Pitch &Yaw and
provide control moments needed for maneuver and trim
In case of an engine failure the vertical tail must provide
enough yaw moment to sustain the aircraft stable
About 70% of the aircrafts use a conventional tail
Symmetric Airfoil selected for the tail is NACA0012

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Tail Sizing
Pitching moment depends on wing chord and yawing moment
on its span, Tail Volume Coefficients,
and

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Tail Sizing
For twin engine general aviation
Ch = 0.80 and Cv = 0.07
Tail arm L is taken to 50% of the
fuselage length = 18 m
Therefore Sh = 24.58 m^2 and Sv =
15.33 m^2

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Empennage Design
The deflection of the control surface is at 25% of chord from trailing
edge and deflected to an angle of 35

## NACA 0012 airfoil coordinates with deflected

control surface

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

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Assembly

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Conclusions
A conceptual design of a commercial Jet liner to meet the
requirements to carry 80 passengers for range of 3000 nm is
presented
Selections of various aircraft systems and sub systems have been
done from available data, plots and thumb rules at conceptual
design stage
There has been a focus on external aerodynamics (in this seminar)
and practically nothing on structures
More design iterations have to be carried out after structural
design.
CFD analysis has to be carried out to find actual performance of
systems and verify the required parameters
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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Session Objectives
At the end of this session the students would have
understood basic requirements of :
Level Flight : Governing equations, Maximum and
Minimum Velocities
Range and Endurance : Maximum range with and
without a specified airspeed. Maximum endurance

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## M. S. Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences

Thank you !

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