0 Voturi pozitive0 Voturi negative

108 (de) vizualizări89 paginiie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual

Jul 20, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

DOC, PDF, TXT sau citiți online pe Scribd

ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual

© All Rights Reserved

108 (de) vizualizări

ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual ie352l1_labmanual

© All Rights Reserved

- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Hidden Figures Young Readers' Edition
- The Law of Explosive Growth: Lesson 20 from The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership
- The E-Myth Revisited: Why Most Small Businesses Don't Work and
- The Wright Brothers
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The Kiss Quotient: A Novel
- State of Fear
- State of Fear
- The 10X Rule: The Only Difference Between Success and Failure
- Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error
- Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions
- The Black Swan
- Prince Caspian
- The Art of Thinking Clearly
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Last Battle
- The 6th Extinction
- HBR's 10 Must Reads on Strategy (including featured article "What Is Strategy?" by Michael E. Porter)

Sunteți pe pagina 1din 89

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce the z-test as another test under the parametric statistics that requires

normality of distribution using MiniTab.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 describe the use of z-test in comparing means, sample mean, and population mean,

2.2 solve for the z-value using MiniTab,

2.3 interpret and compare the result in the table of tabular value of the z-test.

3. Discussion:

Statistics is all about understanding the role of chance in our measurements and we often want to know

what the chances are of obtaining sample means given the population mean is a certain value. The

standard error of the mean identifies how much the sample mean varies from sample to sample (it is the

standard deviation of the population mean given a particular sample size). The empirical rule tells us that

95% of the time the sample mean will fall within two standard errors of the population mean. We can

extend the principle of the empirical rule and use the normal curve to find the probabilities for a given

sample mean using a statistical test called the 1-sample z-test.

Z-test is any statistical test for which the distribution of the test statistic under the null hypothesis can be

1

approximated by a normal distribution. Because of the central limit theorem, many test statistics are

approximately normally distributed for large samples. For each significance level, the Z-test has a single

critical value (for example, 1.96 for 5% two tailed) which makes it more convenient than the Student's ttest which has separate critical values for each sample size. Therefore, many statistical tests can be

conveniently performed as approximate Z-tests if the sample size is large or the population variance

known.

The Z-test is typically with standardized tests, checking whether the scores from a particular sample are

within or outside the standard test performance. The z value indicates the number of standard deviation

units of the sample from the population mean. Note that the z-test is not the same as the z-score,

although they are closely related.

The tabular value of the z test at 0.01 and 0.05 level of significance is shown below:

Test

Level of Significance

0.01

0.05

One-tailed

+2.33

+1.645

Two-tailed

+2.575

+1.96

Where:

x = sample mean

= hypothesized value of the population mean

= population standard deviation

n = sample size

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: A school principal claimed that the average score of their students in the reading

2

comprehension test should have an average of 75.00, with a standard deviation of 7.5. If 50 randomly

selected students have an average of 82.5, use z-test to test the null hypothesis that = 75.00 against the

alternative hypothesis of 75.00 at 0.05 level of significance.

Procedure:

1. Open a blank worksheet in the MiniTab.

2. Choose the Stat option from the menu bar of the Minitab window.

3. Select Basic Statistics > 1 Sample Z test

4. Input the following information given in the problem in the 1-Sample Z (Test and Confidence

Interval) dialog box

5. Click on the Graphs button to select the type of graphical representation needed. Click the OK

button to continue.

6. Click on the Options button to define the Confidence Level and the Alternative. Click OK to

continue.

7. Click the OK button on the main window to run the analyses. The output will be displayed in the

Session window.

6. Data and Results:

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Laboratory Skills

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

Members occasionally

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Members always

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Ability to do

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

Hypothesis Testing and Confidence Intervals

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce hypothesis testing and confidence intervals applied to 1-sample t-test.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1

compare the mean data of a sample to a known value using 1-sample T-test

2.2

use a hypothesis test to make inferences about one or more populations when sample data are

available.

2.3

2.4

interpret results and draw conclusions about the output provided by Minitab.

3. Discussion:

A hypothesis test uses a sample data to test a hypothesis about the population from which the sample was

taken. The 1-sample t-test is one of many procedures available for hypothesis testing in Minitab. For

example, to test whether the mean length, measure several rods and the use of mean length of these

samples to estimate mean length of the total rod population. Using the information from a sample to make

a conclusion about a population is known as statistical inference.

Use a 1-sample t-test to determine whether (the population mean) is equal to a hypothesized value (the

hypothesized mean). The test uses the standard deviation of the sample to estimate (the population

7

standard deviation). If the difference between the sample mean and the hypothesized mean is large

relatively to the variability of the sample mean, then is unlikely to be equal to the hypothesized mean.

Use a 1-sample t-test with continuous data from a single random sample. The test assumes the population

is normally distributed. However, the test is robust to violations of this assumption, provided the

observations are collected randomly and the data are continuous, unimodal, and reasonably symmetric.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Sets

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: A cereal manufacturer wants to determine whether the box-filling process is on target.

The target fill weight for cereal boxes is 365 grams. Engineers choose six boxes of cereal at random, weigh

them, and use the sample data to estimate the mean of the population (the process mean). The

manufacturer needs to determine whether the mean weight for the packaging process differs significantly

from the target weight of 365 grams. In statistical terms, the process mean is the population mean, or

(mu).

Part 1:

1. Open CEREALBX.MPJ

2. Choose Stat Basic Statistics 1-Sample t

8

4. Click OK.

5. Interpret the results.

6. Make a decision.

7. Draw conclusions.

Part 2: Testing the assumption of normality

1. Choose Stat Basic Statistics Normality Test

9

3. Click OK.

4. Interpret the result

5. Draw conclusions.

Part 3: Confidence Intervals

1. Choose Stat Basic Statistics 1-Sample t

2. Click Graphs.

3. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

10

5. Interpret the results

6. Draw conclusions.

6. Data and Results:

11

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Laboratory Skills

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

Members occasionally

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Members always

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Ability to do

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

12

Power and Sample Size

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce the basic information for sample size calculation and power analysis using

Minitab.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1

2.2

3. Discussion:

Power is the ability of a test to detect a difference when one exists. A hypothesis test has the following

possible outcomes:

Null hypothesis

Decision

Fail to reject

Reject

True

Correct Decision

p=1-

Type I error

p=

(power)

False

Type II error

p=

Correct Decision

p=1

The power of the test is the probability that you will correctly reject the null hypothesis, given that the null

hypothesis is false. Use a power analysis to determine how much power a test has or to design a new test

with adequate power.

13

Values

To estimate power, you must specify values for any two of the following parameters of the test; Minitab

calculates the remaining parameter.

8. Sample sizes the number of observations in the sample

9. Differences a meaningful shift away from the target that you are interested in detecting with high

probability

10. Power values the power (probability of rejecting H0 when it is false) that you would like the test to

have.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: The engineers are concerned about the results of the fill weight analysis (Laboratory

Exercise 2) because of its small sample size. They decide to conduct a power analysis to determine

whether they collected enough sample data to detect a difference. They want to be sure the process mean

fill weight does not differ from the target weight of 365 grams by more than 2.5 grams. The engineers base

the power analysis on the result of t-test from Laboratory exercise 2.

1. Choose File New, select Minitab Project, and click OK.

2. Choose Stat Power and Sample Size 1-Sample t.

3. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

14

4. Click OK.

5. Interpret the results.

6. Draw conclusions.

Part 2: Determining power: With 6 observations, the power of the test was only 0.5377. To have a better

chance of detecting a difference, increase the power of the test to at least 0.80 by increasing the sample

size. Calculate the sample sizes required to achieve power levels of 0.80, 0.85, 0.90, and 0.95.

6. Choose Stat Power and Sample Size 1-Sample t

7. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

15

8. Click OK.

9. Interpret the result

10. Draw conclusions.

6. Data and Results:

16

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Laboratory Skills

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

Members occasionally

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Members always

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Ability to do

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

17

1-Sample t-Test

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce 1-sample t-test used for independent samples as a more powerful test

compared with other tests of difference of two independent groups.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 evaluate the difference between a process (population) mean and a target value using 1-sample ttest.

3. Discussion:

A one sample t-test measures whether a sample value significantly differs from a hypothesized value.

For example, a Movielens researcher might hypothesize it takes 50 seconds for a new user to add a

friend to their buddy list. The researcher conducts an experiment and measures how long it takes

several new users to perform the task. The one sample t-test measures whether the mean amount of

time it took the experimental group to complete the task varies significantly from the hypothesized 50

second value.

The one sample t-test requires that the dependent variable follow a normal distribution. When the

number of subjects in the experimental group is 30 or more, the central limit theorem shows a normal

distribution can be assumed. If the number of subjects is less than 30, the researcher should plot the

18

results and examine whether they appear to follow a normal distribution. If the distribution appears to

be non-normal, and/or if the number of test cases is significantly less than 30, then a one sample

median test, which does not require a normal distribution, should be used to test the hypothesis. Values

to report are the following: the mean of the test group, degrees of freedom for the t-test, t-value, and p

value.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Set

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: The result of the first power analysis suggest that a larger sample would be useful in

evaluating the process. Six observations did not have enough power to detect a 2.5-gram difference.

Engineers randomly select 12 boxes of cereal and weigh them. Analyze the new sample to determine

whether the process mean is different from 365 grams.

11. Open CEREALBX.MPJ

12. Choose Window Worksheet 2.

13. Choose Stat Basic Statistics 1-Sample t.

14. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

19

17. Click OK in each dialog box

18. Interpret the results

19. Draw conclusions.

Part 2: The 1-Sample t-test assumes the data are sampled from a normally distributed population. Use a

normality test to determine whether the assumption of normality is valid.

7. Choose Stat Basic Statistics Normality Test

8. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

9. Click OK.

10. Interpret the result

11. Draw conclusions.

6. Data and Results:

20

21

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Members always

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Members follow safety

precautions at all

times.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

Ability to do

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members have defined Members are on tasks

responsibilities most of and have

the time. Group

responsibilities at all

conflicts are

times. Group conflicts

cooperatively managed are cooperatively

most of the time.

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

Clean and orderly

workplace with

workplace at all times

occasional mess during during and after the

and after the

experiment.

experiment.

Members require

Members do not need

occasional supervision to be supervised by the

by the teacher.

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

22

Power and Sample Size for 2-Sample t-Test

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce basic ideas of power and sample size calculations for 2-sample t-Test.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1

test for a difference between two population means using a 2-sample t-tes

2.2

determine the sample size required to detect an effect of a given size with a given degree of

confidence.

3. Discussion:

In a 2-sample t-test, power is the probability that you will detect a difference between the two means

when they actually differ while the sample size is the number of samples per group that you need to

achieve a specified power. The analysis can be used either: before collecting the data, to determine the

sample size or after collecting the data, to evaluate the power to detect a difference between means.

Power and sample size can determine the following:

12. The sample size per group that you need to detect a difference between means with a specified

power

13. The power of a test to detect a difference between means based on a specified sample size

14. The size of a detectable difference with a specified power and sample size

Determining the sample size for 2-sample t-test:

23

Sample sizes do not enter sample size when you want to determine the sample size.

Values of difference and standard deviation the power of a test depends on the difference you want to

detect relative to the standard deviation. To detect a 1-standard deviation (or 1-sigma) difference, enter

a difference of 1 and -1, and a standard deviation of 1.

Power values enter the desired power value(s). Power values higher than 0.80 are typically

considered acceptable.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: A calculator manufacturer is selecting a plastic supplier. The quality team has a policy for

critical quality metrics that states: Assuming similar variability and costs, mean strengths more than one

standard deviation apart are an important difference. Determine the sample size needed to detect a

difference of one standard deviation between two suppliers with similar variability. (Minitab assumes equal

variability in the sample size calculation.) The power to detect this difference should be at least 80%.

20. Choose File New, select Minitab Project , and click OK

21. Choose Stat Power and Sample Size 2-Sample t.

22. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

24

23. Click OK

24. Interpret the results

25. Draw conclusions.

6. Data and Results:

25

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative

Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Messy workplace during

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Neatness and

Orderliness

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

26

2-Sample t-Test

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce basic ideas of power and sample size calculations for 2-sample t-Test.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1

test for a difference between two population means using a 2-sample t-test

2.2

determine the sample size required to detect an effect of a given size with a given degree of

confidence.

3. Discussion:

An independent 2-sample t-test helps determine whether two population means are different. The test

uses the sample standard deviations to estimate for each population. If the difference between the

sample means is large relative to the estimated variability of the sample means, then the population

means are unlikely to be the same. Independent 2-sample t-test can also be used to evaluate whether

the means of two populations are different by a specific amount.

When to use an independent 2-sample t-test?

Use an independent 2-sample t-test with continuous data from two independent random samples.

Samples are independent if observations from one sample are not related to the observations from the

other sample. The test also assumes that the data come from normally distributed populations.

27

However, the test is robust to violations of this assumption, provided the observations are collected

randomly and the data are continuous, unimodel, and reasonably symmetric.

Why use an independent 2-sample t-test?

An independent 2-sample t-test answers questions such as:

3 Are the means of a product characteristic between two suppliers comparable?

4 Is one formulation of a product better on average than other?

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Set, Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: A calculator manufacturer is selecting a plastic supplier. Using a sample size of 20 plastic

pellets from each supplier, the manufacturer must compare samples from the two suppliers for strength.

26. Open PLASTIC.MPJ

27. Choose Stat Basic Statistics 2-Sample t.

28. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

30. Check Individual value plot and Boxplots of data

28

32. Interpret the results

33. Draw conclusions.

Part 2: Testing the normality assumption: The 2-sample t-test assumes the data are sampled from normally

distributed populations.

2

Click OK.

Click OK.

Draw conclusions.

Part 3: Comparing variances: The 2-sample t-test compares the means of two populations. Often it is of

interest to know whether the variances (or standard deviations) of two groups are different.

1. Choose Stat Basic Statistics 2 Variances

2. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

29

3. Click OK.

4. Interpret the results.

5. Draw conclusions.

6.

6. Data and Results:

30

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Members always

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Members follow safety

precautions at all

times.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

Ability to do

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members have defined Members are on tasks

responsibilities most of and have

the time. Group

responsibilities at all

conflicts are

times. Group conflicts

cooperatively managed are cooperatively

most of the time.

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

Clean and orderly

workplace with

workplace at all times

occasional mess during during and after the

and after the

experiment.

experiment.

Members require

Members do not need

occasional supervision to be supervised by the

by the teacher.

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

31

Paired t-Test

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce basic ideas of power and sample size calculations for 2-sample t-Test.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1

test for a difference between two population means using a 2-sample t-test

2.2

determine the sample size required to detect an effect of a given size with a given degree of

confidence.

3. Discussion:

A paired t-Test helps determine whether the mean differences between paired observations is significant.

Statistically, the paired t-test is equivalent to performing a 1-sample t-test on the differences. A paired ttest also helps you to evaluate whether the mean difference is equal to a specific value.

Paired observations are related. Examples include:

1. Weights recorded for individuals before and after an exercise program

2. Measurements of the same part taken with two different measuring devices.

Paired t-test with a random sample of paired observations. The test also assumes that the paired

differences come from a normally distributed population. However, the test is robust to violations of this

32

assumption, provided the observations are collected randomly and the data are continuous, unimodal,

and reasonably symmetric.

Why use a paired t-test?

A paired t-test answers questions such as:

1. Does a new treatment result in a difference in the product?

2. Do two different instruments provide similar measurements for the same sample?

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Set

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: A consumer group wants to determine whether drivers can park one car more quickly

than the other. Because the data are paired (each individual parked both cars), use a paired t-test to teatv

the following hypothesis:

H0: The mean difference between paired observations in the population is zero.

H1: The mean difference between paired observations in the population is not zero.

Use the default confidence level of 95%. Display individual value plots and boxplots to help visualize the

data.

1. Open CARCTL.MPJ

2. Choose Stat Basic Statistics Paired t.

3. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

33

4. Click Graphs

5. Check Individual value plot and Boxplots of differences.

6. Click OK in each dialog box

7. Interpret the results

8. Draw conclusions.

1. Choose Stat Basic Statistics Normality Test

2. In Variable, enter SupplrA

3. Click OK.

4. Choose Stat Basic Statistics Normality Test

5. In Variable, enter SupplrB

7. Click OK.

8. Interpret the results

9. Draw conclusions.

Part 3: Checking for Normality: the paired t-test is actually a 1-sample t-test on the pair wise difference.

Therefore, the pair wise differences must satisfy the 1-sample t-test assumptions, including normality.

34

Before checking for normality, store the pair wise differences in the worksheet.

1. Choose Stat Basic Statistics 2 Variances

2. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

3. Click OK.

4. Interpret the results.

5. Draw conclusions.

6. Data and Results:

35

36

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

37

Correlation

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

The students shall be able to:

2.1 Evaluate the linear relationship between two variables using scatterplot, correlation, and fitted line

plot.

2.2 Analyze and interpret results and draw conclusions about the output provided by Minitab.

3. Discussion:

The sample correlation coefficient , r, measures the degree of linear association between two variables

(the degree to which one variable changes with another). A positive correlation indicates that both

variables tend to increase or decrease together. A negative correlation indicates that, as one variable

increases, the other tends to decrease.

Use correlation when you have data for two continuous variables and wish to determine whether a linear

relationship exists between them. The correlation does not tell you whether the variables are related in a

non linear fashion.

Some statisticians argue that correlation should not be used if one variable is a dependent response of the

other.

Correlation can help answer questions such as

38

2. What is the strength of the relationship?

Example

A. Is there a linear relationship between dollars spent on training and customer satisfaction ratings?

B. What is the relationship between revenue and the number of sales calls made?

Additional Considerations

Correlation quantifies the degree of linear association between two variables.

A strong correlation does not imply a cause-and-effect relationship. For example, a strong correlation

between two variables may be due to the influence of a third variable not under consideration.

A correlation coefficient close to zero does not necessarily mean no association. The variables may have a

nonlinear association. Always plot the data so that you can identify nonlinear relationships when they are

present.

Some statisticians argue that correlation should not be used if one variable is a dependent response of

the other.

Correlation assumes that the values of both variables are free to vary. Correlation is not appropriate if you

fix the values of one variable to study changes in another.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Sets

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: The sales department for a software company wants to determine whether a relationship

exists between the number of sales calls made and the revenue earned. Analysts record the number of

sales calls and the revenue earned each day for a period of 420 days.

Variable

Description

39

Revenue

Part 1:

1. Open SoftRev1.MPJ

2. Choose Graph Scatterplot

3. Choose Simple, then click OK

4. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

5. Click OK.

6. Interpret the results

Part 2: Calculating the correlation

11. Choose Stat Basic Statistics Correlation

40

13. Click OK

14. Interpret the results

15. Draw conclusions.

6. Data and Results:

41

42

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Messy workplace during

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Neatness and

Orderliness

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

43

Simple Linear Regression

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to measure the degree of linear association between two variables using graphs and

correlation

Model the relationship between a continuous response variable and one or more predictor variables.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 Evaluate the linear relationship between two variables using scatterplot, correlation, and fitted line plot.

2.2 Analyze and interpret results and draw conclusions about the output provided by Minitab.

3. Discussion:

Simple Linear Regression examines the relationship between a continuos response variable (y) and one

predictor variable (x) . The general equation for a simple linear regression model is:

Y O 1

Where Y is the response, X is the predictor, O is the intercept (the value of Y when X equals zero), 1 is

the slope and is random error.

Use simple linear regression when you have a continuos y and one predictor , x. The following conditions

44

1. X can be ordinal or continuos

2. In theory, x should be fixed by the investigator. In practice, however, it is often allowed to vary.

3. Any random variation in the measurement of x is assumed to be negligible compared to the range

in which x is measured.

The y-values obtained in your sample differ from those predicted by the regression model (unless all points

happen to fall on a perfectly straight ine). These differences are called residuals.

To confirm that the analysis is valid, verify all assumptions about the model error term. Use residual plots to

check that the errors have the following characteristics:

1. Normally distributed

2. Constant variance for all fitted values

3. Random over time

Simple Linear Regression can help answer the following questions such as

1. How important is x in predicting y?

2. What value can you expect for y when x is 5?

3. How much does y change if x increases by one unit?

For example,

Is the number of mistakes made in processing loans related to cycle time?

What salary can you expect to make with five years experience in a particular field?

How much does salary increase for every additional year of experience?

S is an estimate of the average variability about the regression line. S is the positive square root of the

mean square error (MSE). For a given problem, the better the equation predicts the response, the lower S

is.

2

R (R Sq )

R 2 is the proportion of variability in the response that is explained by the equation. Acceptable values for

R

vary depending on the study. For example for engineers studying chemical reactions may require an

R 2 of 90% or more. However, someone studying human behavior ( which is more variable) may be

satisfied with much lower R 2 values.

45

R adjusted (R q (adj))

S

2

R adjusted is sensitive to the number of terms in the model and is important when comparing models

with different number of terms.

The Least Squares regression line

The coefficients for the regression equation are chosen to minimize the sum of the squared differences

between the response values observed in the sample and those predicted by the equation.

In other words the squared vertical distances between the points and line are minimized. The result is

called the Least squares regression line.

Confidence and prediction bands

Confidence bands provide the estimated range in which the mean response for a given value of the

predictor is expected to fall.

Prediction bands provide the estimated range in which a single new observation for a given value of the

predictor is expected to fall.

Analysts want to be confident that the mean and the individual points of the y-variable, Revenue, fall within

certain limits of variability.

Use the default confidence level of 95%

Confidence Interval

The 95% confidence interval defines a likely range of values for the population mean of y. For any given

value of x, you can be % confident that the population mean for y is between the indicated lines.

Prediction interval

The 95% prediction interval defines a likely range of y values for future individual observations. For any

given value of x, you can be 95% confident that the corresponding value of y for a single future observation

is between the indicated lines.

Note : The prediction interval is always wider than the confidence interval because of the added uncertainty

46

Residuals

The residuals for each observation is the difference between the observed value of the response and the

value predicted by the model ( the fitted value). For example, if the observed response value is 12 and the

model predicts 10, the residual is 2.

Assumptions

1. To confirm that the analysis is valid. Verify all assumptions about the model error term. Use residual

plots to check that the errors have the following characteristics.

2. Normally distributed

3. Constant variance for all fitted values

4. Random over time

Normal Probability Plot

The normal probability plot should roughly follow a straight line. Use this plot to verify that the residuals do

not deviate substantially from a normal distribution.

Histogram

Use the normal probability plot to make decisions about the normality of the residuals. With a reasonably

large sample size, The histogram displays compatible information with the normal probability plot

The histogram of the residuals should appear approximately bell-shaped with no unusual values or outliers.

Use the histogram as an exploratory tool to learn about the following characteristics of the data.

-Typical values, spread or variation, and shape

-Unusual values in the data

Residual versus fits

Use the plot of the residuals versus fits to verify that the residuals are scattered randomly about zero.

This pattern.

Indicates

..

47

Curvilinear

Of residuals across the different fitted values

Data points

Outliers exist

The plot of the residuals versus order displays the residuals in the order of data collection (provided the

data were entered in the same order in which they were collected.)

If the data collection order affects the results, residuals near each other may be correlated , and thus , not

independent.

This pattern.

Residuals are not randomly scattered around zero

Residuals are randomly scattered around zer

Points far away from zero

Indicates

..

Residuals are independet

Outliers exist

Additional Considerations

1. Be careful when using regression analysis to assert that changes in the predictor values were fixed

at predetermined levels in a controlled experiment. If the values of the predictors are allowed to

vary randomly, other factors may influence both the predictors and the response.

2. Do not apply regression results to values of x that are outside the sample range. The relationship

between Sales calls and Revenue may be very different for sales calls above 168.

3. Be alert for outliers when using regression procedures. Some outliers (called high leverage points)

have a large effect on the calculation of the least squares regression line. In such cases, the line

may no longer represent the rest of the data very well.

4. Time order trends in the data can violate the assumption of independence,. A run chart or individual

chart is a useful tool for detecting such efforts.

4. Resources:

48

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Sets

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: The sales department for a software company wants to determine whether a relationship

exists between the number of sales calls made and the revenue earned. Analysts record the number of

sales calls and the revenue earned each day for a period of 420 days.Determine the effect of Sales calls on

Revenue. Use fitted line plot to calculate and plot the regression equation.

Variable

Description

Revenue

Part 1: Fitted Line Plot

1. Open SoftRev1.MPJ

2. Choose Stat Regression Fitted Line Plot

3. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

4. Click OK.

49

6. Evaluate the results using the ANOVA results to evaluate whether the simple regression model is

useful for predicting revenue. State Hypothesis

7. Interpret the p-value (P) .

8. Make a conclusion.

Part 2: Adding confidence and prediction bands

1. Choose Stat Regression Fitted Line Plot or Press (Ctrl)+(E)

2. Click Options

3. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

4. Click OK

5. Click Graphs

6. Complete the dialog box shown below

50

8. Interpret Results

5. Normal Probability Plot

6. Histogram

7. Residual versus fits

8. Residual versus order

9. Make conclusions

6. Data and Results:

51

52

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Messy workplace during

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Neatness and

Orderliness

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

53

Multiple Linear Regression

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to measure the degree of linear association between two variables using graphs and

correlation

Model the relationship between a continuous response variable and one or more predictor variables.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 Evaluate the linear relationship between two variables using scatterplot, correlation, and fitted

line plot.

2.2 Analyze and interpret results and draw conclusions about the output provided by Minitab.

3. Discussion:

Multiple Linear regression examines the relationship between a continuous response variable (Y) and

more than one predictor variable (X) . The general equation for a multiple regression model

is: Y 0 1 X 1 2 X 2 3 X 3 .......

Where y is the response, 0 is the intercept, each xi is a predictor variable with a slope of i and

is random error.

Use multiple linear regression when you have a continuous y and more than one x.

54

2. Any random variation in the measurement of x is assured to be neglible compared to the range

within which x is measured.

Before accepting the results of a regression analysis, verify that the following assumptions about the errors

are valid:

1. They must be independent

2. They must be normally distributed

3. They must have a constant variance across all values of x.

4. They are not correlated with a predictor.

Multiple Linear regression can help answer the following question such as:

1. How important are the x variables in predicting y?

2. What value is expected for y when x1 is 20 and x2 is 3?

3. How much will y change if X3 increases by one unit (when x1 and x2 are fixed)?

For example,

1. How do flight- delay length and the number of empty seats relate to customer satisfaction rating?

2. How is the satisfaction affected by a flight delays and lost luggage?

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Sets

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: You are selling your house, and want to establish a fair sale price.

Data Collection

The following data were collected for a random sample of houses sold in 1991:

1. Sale Price

2. Size of the House

3. Number of Bedrooms

4. Age of the house

55

6. Real estate agent

Variabl

e

Price

Bedroo

ms

Size

Age

Are

a

Agen

cy

Description

Sale price of the house in thousands of dollars

Number of bedrooms in the house

Age of the house in years

Area in which the house was built (Dallas, Fort Worth,

or

Suburbs)

Selling agent (ClientFirst or Other)

Part 1:Using of matrix plot to examine potential relationships between sales price, size of house, number of

bedrooms, and age of house.

1. Open HouseSale.MPJ

2. Choose Graph Matrix Plot

56

6. Under Matrix Options, choose Lower left.

57

8. Interpret the results

1. Choose Stat Basic StatisticsCorrelation

58

2.

Part 3: Use General Regression to identify an appropriate model for the data

59

3. In Model, enter Bedrooms, Size , Age, Area, Agency.

4. In Categorical predictors, enter Area , Agency.

5. Click OK

60

1. Choose Stat Regression General Regression

2. In Model, remove Age

3. Click OK

4. Interpret the results

Part 5: Refit the model excluding the variable Agency.

1. Choose Stat Regression General Regression

2. In Model, remove Agency

3. In Categorical Predictors, remove Agency

4. Click OK

5. Interpret the results

Part 6: Refit the model excluding the variable Bedroom

1. Choose Stat Regression General Regression

2. In Model, remove Bedrooms

3. Click Graphs

4. Under Residual Plots, choose Four in one

5. Click OK in each dialog box.

6. Interpret the results

6. Data and Results:

61

62

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Messy workplace during

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Neatness and

Orderliness

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

63

One way Analysis of Variance

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

`

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce one way analysis of variance by comparing means of samples collected at

different levels using a one-way model and Interpret the main effects plot and multiple comparisons

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 Evaluate differences between group means for a single factor using one-way ANOVA

2.2 Interpret results and draw conclusions about the output provided by Minitab.

3. Discussion:

Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Tests the hypothesis that the means of two or more populations are equal. ANOVAs evaluate the

importance of one or more factors by comparing the response variable means at the different factor levels.

The null hypothesis states that all population means (factor level means) are equal while the alternative

hypothesis states that at least one is different.

To run an ANOVA, you must have a continuous response variable and at least one categorical factor with

two or more levels. ANOVAs require data from normally distributed populations with roughly equal

variances between factor levels.

64

For example, you design an experiment to assess the durability of four experimental carpet products. You

place a sample of each carpet type in ten homes and you measure durability after 60 days. Because you

are examining one factor (carpet type) you use a one-way ANOVA.

If the p-value is less than your alpha, then you conclude that at least one durability mean is different. To

further explore the differences between specific means, use a multiple comparison method such as

Tukey's.

The name "analysis of variance" is based on the manner in which the procedure uses variances to

determine whether the means are different. The procedure works by comparing the variance between

group means versus the variance within groups as a method of determining whether the groups are all part

of one larger population or separate populations with different characteristics.

Minitab has different types of ANOVAs to allow for additional factors, types of factors, and different designs

to suit your specific needs.

ANOVA type

One-way

One fixed factor (levels set by investigator) which can have either an unequal

(unbalanced) or equal (balanced) number of observations per treatment

combination.

Two-way

Balanced

Model may contain any number of fixed and random factors (levels are

randomly selected), and crossed and nested factors, but requires a balanced

design.

General

Linear Model

(continuous variables).

The one way ANOVA (analysis of variance) procedure is a generalization of the independent samples of

T- test. Unlike the T-test. However, You can use one way ANOVA to analyze the means of more than two

65

Use one way ANOVA ( also called single-factor ANOVA) when you have continuous response data for

two or more fixed levels of single factor.

Before accepting the results of an ANOVA, you must verify that the following assumptions about the errors

are valid for your data. They must be:

1. Be independent (and thus random)

2. Not deviate substantially from a normal distribution

3. Have constant variance across all factor levels

One way ANOVA can help answer questions such as:

1. Are all branches of your company achieving comparable customer satisfaction ratings?

2. Do treatment group means differ?

For example:

1. Do mean customer satisfaction ratings differ between a companys branches in New Hamphshire,

Maine, and Vermont?

2. Which of the three training courses is the most successful in decreasing mean application

processing errors?

Dot plot

A dot plot gives a first look at the data to graphically compare the central tendencies and spreads for the 3

commission types. This graph can also reveal whether outlying data points are present and need to be

investigated.

Degrees of Freedom

The degrees of freedom (DF) Statistic measures how much independent information is available to

calculate each sum of squares (SS):

1. DF factor k 1, where k is the number of factor levels

2. DFerror n k , where n is the total number of observations

3. DFTotal n 1,

66

Sum of Squares

The sum of squares (SS) measures the amount of variability each source contributes to the data. Notice

that,

SS Total SS between SS error

Mean Square

The mean square (MS) for each source is equal to the SS divided by the DF.

F statistic

F is the ratio of the variability contributed by the factor to the variability contributed by error.

MS factor

F

MS error

1. If between- group variability is similar to within group variability , F is close to 1, indicating that the

factor does not affect the responsible variable

2. If between group variability is larger than within group variability, F is greater than 1.

P value

A large F suggests that the factor level means are more different than expected by chance, thus the Pvalue is small.

Individual Confidence Interval

When the p-value in the analysis of variance table indicates a difference among the factor level means, the

table individual confidence intervals is sometimes used to assess the differences.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Sets

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: Sales representatives at a software company are offered one of three types of salaries:

commission, fixed, and a combination of fixed and commission (mixed). The manager of the sales

department wants to compare the revenue earned for different salary types.

67

Data Collection

The manager records the salary type and revenue earned by each sales representative in a four-month

period.

Variable

Revenue

Salary Type

Description

Revenue earned in dollars by each sales representative

Type of salary received by each sales representative

(Commission , Fixed , Mixed)

1. Open Commission.MPJ

2. Choose Graph Dotplot

68

5. Click OK

6. Interpret the results.

Part 2 : Perform the one-way ANOVA

1. Choose Stat ANOVA One-Way

2. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

3. Click Graphs.

4. Under Residual Plots, choose Four in one.

5. Click OK in each dialog box

6. Interpret the results. Ensure that the results are valid, determine whether all the assumptions about

the residuals have been met.

69

70

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

71

Analysis of Variance ( General Linear Model using Tukey-Kramer Method)

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce one way analysis of variance by comparing means of samples collected at

different levels using a one-way model and Interpret the main effects plot and multiple comparisons

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 Evaluate differences between group means for a single factor using one-way ANOVA and General

Linear Model

2.2 Interpret results and draw conclusions about the output provided by Minitab.

3. Discussion:

Tukey's method

Used in ANOVA to create confidence intervals for all pairwise differences between factor level means while

controlling the family error rate to a level you specify. It is important to consider the family error rate when

making multiple comparisons because your chances of making a type I error for a series of comparisons is

greater than the error rate for any one comparison alone. To counter this higher error rate, Tukey's method

adjusts the confidence level for each individual interval so that the resulting simultaneous confidence level

is equal to the value you specify.

For example, you are measuring the response times for memory chips. You sampled 25 chips from five

different manufacturers. The ANOVA resulted in a p-value of 0.01, leading you to conclude that at least one

of the manufacturer means is different from the others.

72

You decide to look at all 10 comparisons between the five plants to determine specifically which means are

different. Using Tukey's method, you specify that the entire set of comparisons should have a family error

rate of 0.05 (equivalent to a 95% joint confidence level). Minitab calculates that the 10 individual

confidence levels need to be 99.35% in order to obtain the 95% joint confidence level. These wider Tukey

confidence intervals provide less precise estimates of the population parameter but limit the probability that

one or more of the confidence intervals does not contain the true difference to a maximum of 5%.

Understanding this context, you can then look at the confidence intervals to see if any do not include zero,

suggesting a significant difference.

Confidence intervals with

95% individual confidence levels

confidence levels to obtain a 95% joint confidence

level using Tukey's

Comparison of 95% confidence intervals (left) to the wider 99.35% confidence intervals used by

Tukey's in the above example (right). The reference line at 0 illustrates how the wider Tukey

confidence intervals can change your conclusions. onfidence intervals that contain zero suggest

no difference. (Only 5 of the 10 comparisons are sh own due to space considerations.)

Additional Considerations

1. Comparing multiple factor levels with a single ANOVA is preferable to comparing two levels at a

time with separate two-sample t-tests. Extra tests would increase the chances of Type I error

(rejecting Ho when Ho is actually true.)

2. The assumption of independence for ANOVA is critical. If observations are symmetrically affected

by factors other than the one you are studying (including tinme order effects), the results of one

way ANOVA may be meaningless.

3. The assumption of normality for ANOVA is generally not crucial, especially if the sample sizes are

large.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Sets

Textbooks

73

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: Sales representatives at a software company are offered one of three types of salaries:

commission, fixed, and a combination of fixed and commission (mixed). The manager of the sales

department wants to compare the revenue earned for different salary types.

Data Collection

The manager records the salary type and revenue earned by each sales representative in a four-month

period.

Variabl

e

Revenue

Salary

Type

Description

Revenue earned in dollars by each sales representative

Type of salary received by each sales representative (Commission , Fixed , Mixed)

1. Open Commission.MPJ

2. Choose Stat ANOVA General Linear Model

4. Click Factor Plots

74

6. Click OK

7. Click Comparisons

8. Complete the dialog box as shown below.

75

10. Interpret the results.

11. Make a decision.

12. Draw conclusions.

6. Data and Results:

76

77

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Neatness and Messy workplace during

Orderliness

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

78

Analysis of Variance

( General Linear Model application to conduct a one-way ANOVA)

Course Code:

Program:

Course Title:

Date Performed:

Section:

Date Submitted:

Members:

Instructor:

1. Objective(s):

The activity aims to introduce one way analysis of variance by comparing means of samples collected at

different levels using a one-way model and Interpret the main effects plot and multiple comparisons

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):

The students shall be able to:

2.1 Evaluate differences between group means for a single factor using General Linear Model to

conduct a one-way ANOVA

2.2 Interpret results and draw conclusions about the output provided by Minitab.

3. Discussion:

.

Use General Linear Model (GLM) to perform univariate analysis of variance with balanced and unbalanced

designs, analysis of covariance, and regression, for each response variable.

Calculations are done using a regression approach. A "full rank " design matrix is formed from the factors

and covariates and each response variable is regressed on the columns of the design matrix.

You must specify a hierarchical model. In a hierarchical model, if an interaction term is included, all lower

order interactions and main effects that comprise the interaction term must appear in the model.

Factors may be crossed or nested, fixed or random Covariates may be crossed with each other or with

factors, or nested within factors. You can analyze up to 50 response variables with up to 31 factors and 50

79

Balanced ANOVA and general linear model (GLM) are ANOVA procedures for analyzing data collected with

many different experimental designs. Your choice between these procedures depends upon the

experimental design and the available options. The experimental design refers to the selection of units or

subjects to measure, the assignment of treatments to these units or subjects, and the sequence of

measurements taken on the units or subjects. Both procedures can fit univariate models to balanced data

with up to 31 factors. Here are some of the other options:

Can specify factors as random and obtain

expected means squares

Fits covariates

Performs multiple comparisons

Fits restricted/unrestricted forms of mixed

model

Balanced GLM

ANOVA

no

yes

yes

yes

no

no

yes

yes

yes

unrestricted only

You can use balanced ANOVA to analyze data from balanced designs

Your design must be balanced to use balanced ANOVA, with the exception of a one-way design. A

balanced design is one with equal numbers of observations at each combination of your treatment levels. A

quick test to see whether or not you have a balanced design is to use Stat > Tables > Cross Tabulation and

Chi-Square. Enter your classification variables and see if you have equal numbers of observations in each

cell, indicating balanced data.

4. Resources:

MiniTab Software/Manual

Training Data Sets

Textbooks

5. Procedure:

Practice Problem: The manager of a call center for a software firm wants to know whether the center needs

the same number of people answering the phones each day of the week.

80

Data Collection

The number of customer calls to the technical support department is recorded for 205 business days (MonFri)

Varia

ble

Date

Week

Calls

Description

Business date on which data were recorded

Day of the week (Mon-Fri)

Number of calls to technical support

Part 1: Creating Dotplot to show the distribution for the five days.

1. Open SupCalls.MPJ

2. Choose GraphDotplot Under One Y, choose With groups, then click OK.

4. In Categorical variables for grouping, enter Weekday

5. Click OK.

81

7. Draw Conclusions.

Part 2: Fit a general linear model to the data

1. Choose Stat ANOVA General Linear Model

2. In Response, enter Calls. In Model, enter Weekday

82

5. Interpret the results

Part 3: Create time series plots for each business day

4. Choose Graph Time Series Plot

5. Choose Simple , then click OK

83

7. Click Multiple Graphs, then choose the By Variables tab.

8. In By Variables with groups in separate panels, enter Weekday.

10. Interpret the results

Part 4. Create main effects plot for the days of the week and conduct Tukeys pairwise comparison to

determine which weekdays have significantly different means from each other.

6. Choose Stat ANOVA General Linear Model

84

8. Under Main Effects Plot, enter Weekday, then click OK.

9. Click Comparisons.

10. In Terms, enter Weekday, Check Test

85

12. Interpret the results (Examine Tukey comparisons.)

13. Draw Conclusions

Part 5: Conduct a test for equal variances to determine if week to week variability is different for different

weekdays.

3. Choose Stat ANOVA Test for Equal Variances

86

5.

7. Interpret the results

6. Data and Results:

87

88

TIP-VPAA054D

Revision Status/Date:0/2009 September 09

CRITERIA

RUBRIC FOR LABORATORY PERFORMANCE

BEGINNER

ACCEPTABLE

PROFICIENT

1

2

3

Manipulative Members do not

Skills

demonstrate needed

skills.

Experimental Members are unable to

Set-up

set-up the materials.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the materials

with supervision.

Members occasionally

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

demonstrate needed

skills.

Members are able to

set-up the material with

minimum supervision.

Members always

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Process

Skills

Members do not

demonstrate targeted

process skills.

Safety

Precautions

safety precautions.

precautions most of the

time.

precautions at all

times.

on time with incomplete

data.

with incomplete data.

their tasks and have no

defined responsibilities.

Group conflicts have to

be settled by the

teacher.

Messy workplace during

and after the

experiment.

responsibilities most of

the time. Group

conflicts are

cooperatively managed

most of the time.

Clean and orderly

workplace with

occasional mess during

and after the

experiment.

Members require

occasional supervision

by the teacher.

of time with complete

data and time to revise

data.

Members are on tasks

and have

responsibilities at all

times. Group conflicts

are cooperatively

managed at all times.

Clean and orderly

workplace at all times

during and after the

experiment.

Work Habits

Time

Management/

Conduct of

Experiment

Cooperative

and

Teamwork

Neatness and

Orderliness

Members require

independent

supervision by the

work

teacher.

Other Comments/Observations:

SCORE

to be supervised by the

teacher.

TOTAL SCORE

RATING=

x 100%

89

- 06 02 Regression Analysis 2Încărcat deJohn Bofarull Guix
- ie352l1_labmanual (1)Încărcat deanthony
- Everett Fire Department Response Time Report 2006Încărcat dePhil Engel
- reseacrh on food apps.docxÎncărcat deDeepanshu Arora
- Notes Part 2Încărcat deAXA2000
- Effect OfCRM on Private & Public Sector Banks InIndiaÎncărcat deNicolai Aquino
- SolutionsÎncărcat deerinedeleeuw
- Abstract Gap CopyÎncărcat deIftikhar Ahmad
- ANOVA PresentationÎncărcat deHusban Khan
- MT 201314 FeedecbackÎncărcat deChris Davies
- ppt sigma.pptÎncărcat dekim theresa gonzales
- past3manual.pdfÎncărcat deJuan Diego Roman Ayosa
- past3manual.pdfÎncărcat deGonzalo Rosado
- Attitude towards Information and Communication Technology among Rural and Urban Primary and Secondary School Teachers of PunjabÎncărcat deEditor IJTSRD
- Us Environmental Protection Agency-Acute Toxicity Lc50Încărcat deApoteker Dina Yuspita Sari
- AKHMAD SODIKINÎncărcat deVinnie
- SequencialÎncărcat deNabil Belkasem
- 299a21f95235908b1488f3ca5bda96c0cd28Încărcat deVeena Panjwani
- Effect of Human Resource Planning on Organizational Performance of Telcom SectorÎncărcat deCelline Evato
- 2 sample t test for means hypermediaÎncărcat deapi-242213383
- RegressionÎncărcat dePradeep Joshi
- Probability Predict StataÎncărcat deAgung Setiawan
- Age Estimation From the Auricular SurfaceÎncărcat deDragana Vulović
- 20161221 - Final Exam - SolÎncărcat deCátia Fernandes Vaz
- HT_13Încărcat deECON1717
- Body of Proposal AWÎncărcat deOga Prayoga
- CF 10e Chapter 12 Excel Master StudentÎncărcat deWalter Costa
- ExamsÎncărcat deSuraj Singh
- BRM Project FinalÎncărcat deestate guruji1
- Data Mining in Excel Using Xl MinerÎncărcat dechintan18

- Comprehensive Design Example for Prestressed Concrete (Psc) Girder Superstructure BridgeÎncărcat dealeitaosilva
- EstimateÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Material ScheduleÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Student Curriculum Evaluation AshdhaskdsahkdsaÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Tao WifiÎncărcat denguyen2hoang_4
- NoticeÎncărcat deAdam Hill
- Ranking ComputationÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- CHAPTER 5Încărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- whatsnewÎncărcat deapi-3853306
- Appendix WaterÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- 3fÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- sample of 2fÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- EXCEL Remove Password SheetÎncărcat deWan Noorhishamudin Wan Mohd
- 250x400Încărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Letter DPWHÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Matrix Analysis of Structures Elective 3Încărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Bd2 Plumbisajdisajdlkasng EstimateÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- 10- Page Final Paper Organizational Behavior (1)Încărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Voucher 3Încărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- 1Încărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- IMG_0006.pdfÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- student_curriculum_evaluation_1011973_2014-05-08_17-53-07Încărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- AssignmentsÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- Schedule Ng Pinaka Gwapong TAO Sa Mundo Na Si Arbin Canyizo Nopreh Ang Gwapo Gwapo Gwapo Gwapo Gwapo Gwapo Niyaaaa... Nakakainlove Talaga Dbest Ang Kagwapuhan Ni Arbin Canyizo NoprehÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.
- A Darn AÎncărcat deAlbe Cañizo Nopre Jr.

- S_001_049.docÎncărcat dejefry
- Lecture Notes Research Chaper 1-9Încărcat deAnonymous sewU7e6
- 200500 Instruction Manual for Ticker Tape TimerÎncărcat deMaridjan Wiwaha
- Little Inference BookÎncărcat deDeepesh
- Towards a Cognitive–Scientific Research Program for Improvisation: Theory and an ExperimentÎncărcat deLonnie
- Contra‐rotating propeller for fixed wing MAV 2Încărcat denascosannascosan
- Science Fair Treasure HuntÎncărcat deSandra_Lovinth_1240
- STA630MegaQuizfilecovering1to45lectures.pdfÎncărcat deAnonymous s3yCVss
- research protocol.pdfÎncărcat dethornapple25
- Heat Transfer Studies in Packed-Bed Catalytic Reactors of Low Tube Particle Diameter RatioÎncărcat dejoseferrehigieneuru
- Livingstone, Data AnalysisÎncărcat dechemistj
- Shanto Iyengar and Adam F SimonÎncărcat deYami Horus Drako Angelus
- Managerial EconomicsÎncărcat deNicolaGala
- lab report molarityÎncărcat deapi-263544524
- Teaching Manual - Columbia UÎncărcat deEmerson Souto
- Contextual and Procedural Determinants of Partner Selection - On Asymmetric Dominance and ProminenceÎncărcat deDon Quixote
- Learning From Others and Reviewing the LiteratureÎncărcat deReyna Rodelas
- Ken Black QA 5th chapter 11 SolutionÎncărcat deRushabh Vora
- Study Guide 2009 2010 PsihologieÎncărcat deeva_85
- Knorr Cetina - Epistemic Cultures (Parte 2)Încărcat deDaniel Ortiz Gallego
- science teksÎncărcat deapi-25564329
- OMNI August 1980Încărcat deterrythecensor
- Abet Paper (Jee)Încărcat deMohsenMahroos
- Experiment No. 1 newÎncărcat deAamna Khalid
- Test Bank for Marketing Research 3rd Australian Edition by ZikmundÎncărcat dea201889258
- Specific GravityÎncărcat deNicole Cruz
- Thinking Out of the Box -- Comparing Metaphors for Variables in Programming EducationÎncărcat deleandrosgalvao
- Chemistry PAG 11.1 Student v0.1Încărcat deRyan Postlethwaite
- Free Energy ReviewÎncărcat desituations
- Effects of Technology on Second Lge Learning CompositionÎncărcat deRoxana Orrego

## Mult mai mult decât documente.

Descoperiți tot ce are Scribd de oferit, inclusiv cărți și cărți audio de la editori majori.

Anulați oricând.