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ATOMS AND MOLECULES

IX-S-MI-71

In 430 B.C. Democritus postulated that matter is made up of very small particles called
Atoms which means "indivisible". Later, Antoine Lavoisier, from his experimental observations,
established laws of chemical combinations.

As mentioned above whenever reactants (elements) react together to form a compound


they do so according to certain laws. These laws are called laws of chemical combination. There
are two important laws of chemical combination. These are
(i)

Law of conservation of mass

(ii) Law of constant proportions

2.1

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS

In any chemical reaction the total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the
products
2.1.1 When matter undergoes a physical change mass does not change or in other words
mass is conserved during the physical change.
Ice

Heat
Water

After heating, the ice changes into water. When we weighed the flask the mass does not
change though a physical change has taken place
2.1.2
unchanged

When matter undergoes a chemical change, mass remains the same or

When barium chloride reacts with sodium sulphate barium sulphate and sodium chloride is
formed.
Barium chloride + Sodium sulphate Barium sulphate + sodium chloride
(solution)

(solution)

(white ppt)

(solution)

It was observed that the mass of the reactants (x) comes out to be same as that of the
products (y). This is in accordance with the law of conservation of mass.

2.2

LAW OF CONSTANT PROPORTIONS

A chemical compound is always made up of the same elements combined together in the
same fixed proportion by mass.
Example : In water, hydrogen and oxygen combined together in the same fixed proportion
of 1 : 8 by mass, irrespective of the source of water (like river, rain or tap water).
If we decompose 9 g of pure water by electrolysis i.e. passing electricity through it, then 1
gm of hydrogen and 8 gm of oxygen are obtained. Now, This experiment shows that water always
consists of hydrogen and oxygen combined together in the same constant proportion of 1 : 8 by
mass.
% of an element in the compound =

Mass of that element


Mass of the compound

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES

IX-S-MI-72

ATOM
atom is defined as the smallest particle of an element that can take part in a chemical
reaction and which may or may not be capable of free existence.

3.1

POSTULATES OF DALTONS ATOMIC THEORY


The main postulates of Daltons atomic theory are as follows :
(i) All matter is made up of very small particles called atoms.
(ii) Atoms are indivisible particles, which can not be created or destroyed in a chemical
reaction.
(iii) Atoms of a given element are identical in all respects i.e. size, shape, mass and
chemical properties.
(iv) Atoms of different elements have different size and masses and also posses different
properties.
(v) Atoms of the same or different elements combine in the ratio of small whole numbers to
form compounds.
(vi) The relative number and kinds of atoms are constant in a given compound.
(vii) Atoms of the same elements or two different elements may combine in different ratios
to form more than one compound.

3.3

LIMITATIONS OR DRAWBACKS OF DALTONS ATOMIC THEORY

With the advancement in scientific studies Daltons atomic theory suffered from the
following drawbacks :
(i) Atom is no longer considered as the smallest indivisible particle.
(ii) According to Daltons atomic theory says that all the atoms of an element have exactly
the same mass. Though it is now known that atoms of the same elements may have different
masses.
(iii) Daltons atomic theory atoms of different elements have different masses. However it is
now known that even atoms of different elements can have the same mass.
(iv) Substances made up of the same kind of atoms may have different properties. For
example charcoal, graphite and diamond are all made up of carbon atoms but have different
physical properties.

4.1

HOW BIG ARE THE ATOMS ?

Atoms are very-very small in size. They are so small that they can not be seen even under
a microscope. To imagine about their size, it is very much interesting to note that if millions of
atoms are stacked one above the other, the thickness produced may not be equal to the thickness
of the sheet of a paper.
The size of an atom is indicated by its radius which is called atomic radius. Atomic radius
is measured in nanometers. Which is represented by the symbol nm.
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ATOMS AND MOLECULES


1 nm = 109 m

IX-S-MI-73

1m = 109 nm

Relative size
Radii (in meter)

Example

1010

molecule of water

109

atom of hydrogen

108

molecule of Hemoglobin

10

4.2

Grain of sand

103

ant

10 1

Watermelon

WHAT ARE THE MODERN DAY SYMBOLS OF ATOMS OF DIFFERENT


ELEMENTS ?
Symbol is a short method of representing anything. In case of elements a short method of
representing the full name of an element is knows as symbols.

4.2.1

Daltons symbols of element

Dalton was the first scientist to suggest


the symbols for elements in a very specific way.
Daltons symbol for an element represent the
element as well as one atom of that element.
Thus we can say that the symbol used by him
also represent the quantity of the element. A
few of these symbols as proposed by Dalton
are as follows .

4.2.2

Berzelius suggestion for symbols of elements

J.J. Berzelius a Swedish chemist, suggested a more scientific method for representing an
element, He suggested that the first one or two letter of the name of an element can be used as its
symbols. This idea led to the development of modern symbols of elements.
4.2.3

Modern symbols of elements

In all cases the symbol of an element is the first letter or the first letter and another letter of the
English or Latin name of the element. For example :
The symbol of Hydrogen is H
The symbol of oxygen is O
So, in the case of hydrogen and oxygen the first letter of their English names are taken as
their symbols.

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IX-S-MI-74
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
It should be noted that in a two letter symbol, the first letter is the capital letter but the
second letter is the small letter. The necessity of adding another letter arises only in case of
elements whose names start with the same letter. For example the name of the elements viz.
carbon, chlorine calcium and copper starts with the common letter C.

Hence,
chlorine is represented by the symbol Cl
calcium is represented by the symbol Ca
copper is represented by the symbol Cu

4.3

ATOMIC MASS

The atomic mass can be defined as :


One atomic mass unit is a mass unit equal to exactly one twelfth (1/12th) the mass of
one atom of carbon-12. The relative atomic masses of all elements have been found with
respect to an atom of carbon -12.
This is called one atomic mass unit (amu). Now it is represented simply by u which stands
for unified mass.
Atomic mass of an element may therefore also be defined as the number of times an
atom of that element is heavier than 1/12th of the mass of an atom of C-12 isotope.
For example an atom of magnesium is found to be two times heavier than an atom of C-12
i.e. 24 times heavier than 1/12th of the mass of C-12 atom. Hence, atomic mass of magnesium =
24 amu.
Atomic masses of some common elements
Element

Symbol

Atomic mass

1. Hydrogen

2. Helium

He

3. Lithium

Element

Symbol

Atomic mass

14. Sulphur

32

15. Chlorine

Cl

35.5

Li

16. Argon

Ar

40

4. Boron

11

17. Potassium

39

5. Carbon

12

18. Calcium

Ca

40

Atoms usually exist in two ways :


(i)

In the form of molecules

(ii) In the form of ions.


Through we can not see individual atoms or molecule or ions but we can see the matter.
For example we cannot see the Na+ and Cl ions but we can see the sodium chloride compound

A molecule is the smallest particle of an element or a compound which can exist freely and
possesses all the properties of that substance.
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IX-S-MI-75
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
Atoms of the same element or of different elements can join together to form molecules.

6.1

MOLECULE OF AN ELEMENT

The molecules of an element contain two (or more) similar atoms chemically combined
together. Molecules of many elements such as argon (Ar), Helium (He) etc. are made up of only
one atom of that element. But this is not the case with most of the elements. Depending upon
whether the molecule contains one, two, three or four atoms they are called monoatomic, diatomic
triatomic, tetra atomic or polyatomic. A few examples of molecules of different types are as follows:
(i)

Monoatomic molecules : Noble gases like Helium Neon etc. exist as single atoms
i.e. He, Ne etc. Hence they are called monoatomic.

(ii) Diatomic molecules : Molecules of Hydrogen, Oxygen Nitrogen contain two atoms of
each element respectively and are represented by H2, O2, N2 etc.
(iii) Triatomic molecules : Molecules containing 3 atoms are called triatomic molecules.
For example, ozone contains 3 atoms of oxygen element combined together.
(iv) Tetratomic molecules : Molecules containing 4 atoms of an element are called
tetratomic molecules. Most common example is that of phosphorus represented by P4.
(v) Polyatomic molecules : Molecules containing more than four atoms of particular
element are called polyatomic molecules. For example a molecule of sulphur contains
8 atoms of sulphur and is represented by S8.
6.1.1

Atomicity
The number of atoms present in one molecule of a substance is known as its atomicity.

6.2

Molecules of compounds

The molecules of a compound consists of two or more atoms of different elements


combined together in a definite proportion by mass to form a compound that can exist freely.
For example carbon dioxide contain, atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen combined
together in a fixed ratio of 3 : 8 by mass.
Molecules of some compounds
Compound
Water
Ammonia
Carbon dioxide

Combining Elements

Ratio by Mass

Hydrogen, Oxygen
Nitrogen, Hydrogen
Carbon, Oxygen

1:8
14:3
3:8

The atomic masses of different elements are H = 1.0u, O = 16.0u, N = 14.0u, C = 12.0u. By
comparing the data we can find out the ratio by number of atoms of elements in the molecule of
the particular compound as follows :
S.No.

1.

2.

Compound

Element

ratio by
mass

Atomic
mass(u)

Mass ratio/
atomic mass

simplest
ratio

1
1
1

16

8
1

16 2

14

14

H2O

NH3

14
1
14

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES


H

IX-S-MI-76

3
3
1

Thus ratio by number of atoms for water is H:O = 2:1, for ammonia is N:H = 1:3 and Thus
we can say that in a compound, the element are combined together in a simple whole number
atomic ratio.

The charged species are known as ions. Depending upon the charge they carry ions can
be of two types :
(i) Cation : A positively charged ion is known as the cation. For example Sodium ion
(Na+). Magnesium ion (Mg++) etc. A cation is formed by the loss of one or more electrons by an
atoms. This can be represented as follows :
1 electron
Na

Na

(sodium ion cation)


(ii) Anion : A negatively charged ion is known as anion. For example chloride ion (Cl),
oxide ion (O ) are anions as they are negatively charged.
An anion is formed by the gain of one or more electrons.
Cl

1 electron
Cl

Chlorine atom

chloride ion (anion)

7.1

SIMPLE IONS AND COMPOUND IONS (POLYATOMIC IONS)

7.1.1

Simple ions
Those ions which are formed from single atoms are called simple ions.
For example Na , Mg2 , Al 3 , etc.

7.1.2

Polyatomic ion

Ions formed from a group of atoms carrying a charge (either negative or positive) is known
as a polyatomic ion or compound ion.
For example NH 4 , CO 32 , SO 24 .

CHEMICAL FORMULA
A chemical formula of a molecular compound represents the actual number of
atoms present in one molecule of the compound.
For example: H2O is the chemical formula of water, NH 3 is the chemical formula of
ammonia.
Chemical formula of an ionic compound represents the cations and anions present
in the structure of the compound.
For example: Na+Cl represents that sodium chloride contains Na+ and Cl ions in the ratio
of 1:1

CONCEPT OF VALENCY
Valency can be defined as the combining capacity of that particular element.

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IX-S-MI-77
ATOMS AND MOLECULES
For example valency of oxygen is 2, this means that one atom of oxygen can combine
with 2 atoms of hydrogen or in other words we can say that valency of hydrogen is one so 2 atoms
of hydrogen can combine with one atom of oxygen to form water molecule.

Valencies of some common non-metal elements


Element

Symbol

Valency

Hydrogen

Fluorine

Chlorine
Bromine
Iodine

Element

Symbol

Valency

Oxygen

Sulphur

2, 4, 6

Cl

Nitrogen

3, 5

Br

Phosphorus

3, 5

Carbon

For writing the chemical formula of an ionic compound valency of an ion can be defined as
the units of positive or negative change present on the ion.
For example: Na+ ion has one unit positive charge
2

SO 4

ion has two unit negative charge

Depending upon whether the ions has 1, 2, 3 or 4 unit charge (positive or negative) they
are called monovalent, divalent, trivalent and tetravalent ions respectively.

8.2

RULES FOR WRITING THE CHEMICAL FORMULAE

While writing a chemical formulae of molecular or ionic compounds the following steps are
to be followed:
(i) In case of simple molecular compounds (compounds made up of only two elements).
The symbols of the two elements are written side by side and their respective valencies are written
below their symbols.
(ii) In case of simple ionic compounds, the symbol of the cation or metal atom is written
first followed by the symbol of the anion or non-metal atom and their respective valencies are
written below their symbols. For example in CaO, symbol of calcium (Ca, a metal) must be written
first followed by symbol of oxygen (which is a non-metal).
(iii) The valencies or charges on the ion must be balanced.
(iv) In case of compounds containing polyatomic ions. The formula of the polyatomic ion is
written in brackets and the valencies are written below.
(v) In any of the above cases, if there is a common factor between the valencies of the
cation and anion, the valencies are divided by the common factor.
(vi) Finally we apply cross-over of the valencies so that they appear on the lower right
hand side of the symbols. However, 1 appearing on the lower right hand side of the symbol is
omitted. Similarly we also omit the + and signs of the charges of the ions.
Formulae of Simple Compounds
The simplest compounds, which are made up of two different elements are called binary
compounds.
Example 1: Steps for writing the formula of Hydrogen chloride:
(i)

Elements present are:

hydrogen and chlorine

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES


(ii) Symbols of the elements:
H
Cl
(iii) Valency of the elements:

IX-S-MI-78

(iv) Cross-over of the valency:

(v) We staled that one appearing on the lower right hand side of the symbol is omitted. So
the formula of the compound would be HCl.
Chemical formulae of some simple ionic compound
Example 1: Steps for writing the chemical formula of Sodium chloride
(i)

Elements present in the compound:

Sodium

Chlorine

(ii) Symbols of the elements:

Na

Cl

(iii) Charge on the ions

+1

(iv) Valency of the elements:

(v) Cross-over of the valency:

(vi) So the chemical formula of sodium chloride can be written as NaCl (As we omit 1
appearing on the lower right hand side of Na and Cl atoms and + and sign. of the
charges of ions).

8.2.3

Chemical formulae of compounds containing polyatomic ions


White writing the chemical formulae compounds containing polyatomic ions, same rules
will apply except that the formula of polyatomic ion is written in brackets.
Example 1: Steps for writing the formula of potassium nitrate
(i)

Symbols of the ions:

(NO3)

(ii) Charge on the ions:

1+

(iii) Valency of the ions:

(iv) Cross-over of the valency:

(v) So the chemical formula of Potassium nitrate can be written as KNO 3 (As we omit one
appearing on the right hand side of the irons).

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES

IX-S-MI-79

Molecular mass of a substance (element or compound) is the average relative mass


of its molecule as compared with that of an atom of C-12 isotope taken as 12.
For example the molecular mass of hydrogen is 2, which means that a molecule of
hydrogen is two times heavier than the 1/12th of the mass of an atom of C-12 isotope.

9.1

CALCULATION OF MOLECULAR MASS


(a) A molecule of water has the formula H2O. Hence molecular mass of
H2O = (2 x atomic mass of hydrogen) + (1 x atomic mass of oxygen)
= (2 x 1.0 u + 1 x 16.04) = 18 u
(b) A molecule of sulphuric acid has the formula H2SO4. Hence molecular mass of
H2SO4 = (2 x atomic mass of hydrogen) + (1 x atomic mass of sulphur)
+ (4 x atomic mass of oxygen)
= (2 x 1.0 u) + (1 x 32.0 u) + (4 x 16.0 u)
= (2.0 u + 32.0 u + 64.0 u)
= 98.0 u

9.2

FORMULA UNIT MASS

Before describing the formula unit mass, we should be aware of the meaning of Formula
Unit of an ionic compound.
The formula unit mass or formula mass of an ionic compound is the sum of the
atomic masses of all the atoms present in one formula unit of the compound.

9.3

Example:

Calculate the formula unit mass of Na 2SO4.10H2O Atomic masses Na =


23.0u, S = 32.0u, O = 16.0u, H = 1.0u.

Solution:

Formula unit mass = (2 x atomic mass of Na) + (2 x atomic mass of S) + (4


x atomic mass of oxygen) + 10 (2 x atomic mass of H + atomic mass of
oxygen)
= [2 x 23.0u] + [32.0u] + [4 x 16.0u] + 10 [ 2 x 1.0u + 16.0u]
= [46.0u + 32.0u + 64.0u] + 10 [2.0u + 16.0u]
= [142.0u] + 10 [18.0u]
= 142.0u + 180.0u]
= [322.0u]
Thus the formula mass of Na2SO4.10H2O is 322.0u

GRAM ATOMIC MASS AND GRAM MOLECULAR MASS


Gram Atomic Mass
Atomic mass expressed in grams is called gram atomic mass of that element.
For example:
(a)

Atomic mass of Na = 23.0u

Gram atomic mass of Na = 23.0g


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(a)

ATOMS AND MOLECULES


Atomic mass of Cl = 35.5u

IX-S-MI-80

Gram atomic mass of Cl = 35.5g.


9.3.2

Gram Molecular Mass


Like gram atomic mass, gram molecular mass can also be defined as follows:
Molecular mass expressed in grams is called gram molecular mass of that element
For example:
(a)

Molecular mass of H2O = 18.0u


Gram molecular mass of H2O = 18.0g.

9.3.3

Gram Formula Unit Mass


Similarly we can define the gram formula unit mass as follow:
Formula unit mass expressed in grams is called as gram formula unit mass.
For example:
Formula unit mass of NaCl = 23.0u + 35.5u
= 58.5u
Gram formula unit mass of Nacl = 58.5u

9.4

MOLE CONCEPT
A mole of atoms is equal to one gram atom of that particular element.
For example:
1 mole of Hydrogen (H) atom

= 1g atom of H = 1.0g

1 mole of Oxygen (O) atom

= 1g atom of O = 16.0g

1 mole of Nitrogen (N) atom

= 1g atom of N = 14.0g

A mole of molecule is defined as that amount of the substance which has mass
equal to gram molecular mass.
For example
1 mole of Hydrogen (H2) molecule

= 1 g molecule of H2

= 2.0g

1 mole of Oxygen (O2) molecule

= 1 g molecule of O2 = 32.0g

1 mole of Ammonia (NH3) molecule = 1 g molecule of NH3 = 17.0g


9.4.2

Mole in Terms of Number

A mole of particles (atoms, molecules or ions) is defined as that amount of the


substance which contains the same number of particles as there are C-12 atoms in 12g of
carbon.
Experimentally, it has been found that 12g of C-12 isotope contain 6.022 x 12 23 atoms. This
number is called Avogadros number or Avogadros constant and is represented by the symbol
N0. Thus
Avogadros number (N0) = 6.022 x 1023.
Thus a mole of particles can also be defined as follows:
A mole of particles (atoms, molecules or ions) is that amount of the substance
which contain 6.022 x 1023 particles.
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For example:

ATOMS AND MOLECULES

1 mole of C atoms

= 6.022 x 1023 C atoms

1 mole of H2O molecules

= 6.022 x 1023 H2O molecules

1 mole of Na+ ions

= 6.022 x 1023 Na+ ions

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A mole represents the following:

9.4.5

(i)

It represents 6.022 x 1023 particles of the substance

(ii)

The mass of one mole of an element is equal to the mass of 6.022 x 1023 atoms of
that element.

(iii)

One mole of a substance represents one gram, formula mass of that

Formulae for calculation


Mass of the element in grams

(a)

Number of moles = Gram atomic mass of the element

(b)

Number of moles =

Given number of atom or molecules


Avogadro' s number

Activity
(i) Comb dry hair. Does the comb then attract small pieces of paper?
(ii) Rub the glass rod with a silk cloth and bring the rod near the an inflated balloon.
Observe what happens?
Discussion
(i) When we comb our dry hair, and put the comb near the small pieces of paper. We
observe that the small pieces of paper got attracted towards the comb.
(ii) When the glass rod rubbed by a silk cloth was brought near the inflated balloon. The
inflated balloon got attracted towards the rod.
Conclusion:
From the above observation, we conclude that on rubbing two objects together. They
become electrically charged. The charged produced shown that atom consists of charged particles
also known as sub-atomic particles.

1.1

DISCOVERY OF ELECTRON

The existence of electrons in an atom was shown by J.J. Thomson in 1897. He passed
electricity at high voltage through a gas at very low pressure taken in a discharge tube.
A discharge tube is a long glass tube and closed at both ends. Two circular metal plates A
and B are sealed at the two ends of the tube as shown in figure. These circular plates are called
electrodes. A side tube S is fused to the tube which can be connected to a vacuum pump (to such
out the air or gas present inside the tube to reduce the pressure inside the tube).
. The plate A connected to the negative terminal is cathode. Whereas, the plate B
connected to the positive terminal is called anode.

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES

1.1.2

IX-S-MI-82

Properties of cathode rays

At normal pressure air or any other gas is a non-conductor of electricity, but at low
pressures the gases become conductors of electricity. When sufficiently high voltage is applied
across the electrodes, current starts flowing thorough a stream of particles, moving in the tube
from the cathode to the anode. These were called cathode rays or cathode ray particles.
The cathode rays have been found to possess the following properties:
(i) Cathode rays travel in straight lines: This is shown by the fact that if a metal object is
placed in the path of the cathode rays. They cast a sharp shadow of the object at the back.
(ii)
Cathode rays are made up of material particle: If a large paddle wheel (e.g. that of
mica) is placed in their path, the wheel starts rotating. This shows that cathode rays are made up
material particles.
(iii)
Cathode rays carry negative charge: When an electric field is applied on the cathode
rays, they get deflected towards the positive plate of the electric field. This shows that they carry
negative charge.
(iv)
When cathode rays strike a metal foil, the foil becomes hot. This indicates that cathode
rays produce heating effect.
(v) They causes ionization of the gas through which they pass.
(vii) They produce green fluorescence on the glass walls of the discharge tube as well as
on certain other substance such as zinc sulphide (ZnS).
(viii) They produces penetrating effect i.e. they can easily pass through thin foils of metal.
From the study of above properties it was concluded that:
(a) cathode rays are made up of material particles.
(b) cathode rays carry negative charge.
These negatively charged material particles constituting the cathode rays are called
electrons.
Determination of charge and mass of electrons
Further experiments were carried out to determine the exact charge and mass of electrons.
(i) Charge to mass ratio of electron: J.J. Thomson studied the extent of deflection of
cathode rays of cathode rays under influence of electric fields and magnetic fields of different
strengths. He placed different gases in the tube. He found that every time the ratio of charge to
mass of the electron was the same. This is usually represented by e/m, where e represents the
charge on the electron and m represents the mass of the electrons. The value was found to be:

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES

Charge e

= 1.76 108 C/g


Mass
m

IX-S-MI-83

(Coulombs/kg)

(ii) Charge on the electron: Charge on the electron was found by R.A. Milliken. He
devised a method known as oil drop experiment to determine the charge on the electrons. He
found that the charge on the electron was equal to 1.60 1019 C (1 unit).
This is the smallest quantity of charge that could be measured. Hence, it is also called one
unit charge
By using the vale of e/m and e, the mass of an electron can also be calculated.
m

e
1.60 10 19 C

= 9.1 1031 kg
e/m 1.76 10 8 C/g

As charge on electron is 1 unit and mass is negligible


1.1.4

Electrons are constituent of all atoms

We studies in the discharge tube experiment conducted by J.J. Thomson, that we may take
electrodes of any material and we may take any gas inside the discharge tube at low pressure.
The cathode ray particles have the same e/m ratio as well as the charge (e) i.e. they carry the
same charge and mass. This shows that electrons are constituents of all atoms.

1.2

DISCOVERY OF PROTON

The existence of positive charged particles in an atom was shown by Goldstein. Electric
discharge carried out in the modified cathode ray tube led to the discovery of particles carrying
charge. He took a discharge tube with a perforated cathode and a gas at low pressure was taken
inside the discharge tube.

On applying high voltage between the anode and the cathode, it is observed that like
cathode rays produces a fluorescence on the glass wall on the tube at E, a fluorescence is also
observed on the glass wall of the tube F. This shows that some rays are also coming from the
anode which passed through the holes in the cathode and strike, the wall of the tube F. These rays
are called Anode rays, as they are coming from the side of anode. They are also known as canal
rays. Their deflection in an electric field indicate that they carry positive charge.
1.2.1

Properties of anode rays / canal rays

The characteristics or properties of the positively charged rays or anode rays or canal rays
are listed below
(i) They travel in straight line
(ii) They are made up of material particle
(iii) They carry positive charge

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES
(iv) Determination charge / mass ratio of the positively charged particles present in
anode rays: Unlike cathode rays, the ratio of e/m is found to be different for different gases or we
can say that e/m is not constant but depends upon the nature of the gas taken in the discharge
tube.

(v) The value of charge on the particles constituting the anode rays is also dependent on
the nature of the gas taken inside the discharge tube.
(vi) Mass of the particle constituting the anode rays is also found to be different for the
different gases taken in the discharge tube.
Determination of charge and mass of proton
The chare and mass of protons are also determined experimentally like that of electrons.
The charge on these particles is found to be same as that of on the electrons, i.e.
e = +1.60 1019 C
The ratio of charge / mass (i.e. e/m) = 9.58 108 C/kg
The mass of proton m

e
1.60 10 19 C

= 1.67 1027 kg
e/m 9.58 10 8 C/ kg

That sub-atomic particle carrying one unit positive charge and has mass nearly equal to
that of hydrogen atom
1.2.3

Protons are constituent of all atoms:

If any other gas (other than hydrogen) is taken in the discharge tube, it is observed that the
mass of positively charged particle is nearly a whole number multiple of the mass of proton.
Hence, it can be concluded that protons are the fundamental particle present in all atoms.

1.3

DISCOVERY OF NEUTRON

In 1932, Chadwick discovered another sub-atomic particle called neutron, by bomarding a


their sheet of beryllium by -particles. Neutrons are electrically neutral particle i.e. they has no
charge and have mass equal to or slightly greater than that of like protons. Neutrons are present in
the nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen. In general x neutron is represented by the symbol n.
A newton can be defined as the fundamental particle of an atom which has n charge but
has a mass nearly equal to that of hydrogen atom
Composition of the characteristics of electrons protons and neutrons.

According to Daltons atomic theory atom was indivisible and indestructible. But after the
discovery of subatomic particles (electrons, protons and neutrons). Various atomic models were
proposed by many scientists to explain their arrangement in the atom.
THOMSONS MODEL OF AN ATOM
After the discovery of electrons and protons J.J. Thomson (1898) tried to explain the arrangement
of electrons and protons within the tom. He proposed that an atom consists of a sphere of
positive electricity in which electrons are embedded like plum in pudding or seeds evenly
distributed in red spongy mass in watermelon. The radius of the sphere is of the other 10 -8 cm
which is equal to the size of the atom. Although Thmosons model could explain the electrical
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neutrality of an atom but this model could not satisfy experimental facts proposed by Rutherford and
hence was discarded.

Limitations: Though it could explain the overall neutrality of the atom, it failed to explain the
results of experiments carried out by other scientist.

2.2

RUTHERFORDS MODEL OF ATOM

Earnest Rutherford was interested in knowing how the electrons are arranged within the
atom. For this purpose, he performed some experiments also known as Rutherfords scattering
experiment.
Experiment: In this experiment, he bombarded a thin foil e.g. gold foil (thickness: 100
nm) with a beam of fast moving -particles: Alpha particles are high energy, positively charged
helium ions (emitted during radioactive decay of unstable elements such as uranium) having 2
units of positive charge and 4 units of mass. He observed the scattering of the -rays after hitting
the foil by placing a circular zinc sulphide screen around the metal foil. The results of scattering
experiment were quite unexpected. Rutherfords famous alpha particle-scattering experiment is
represented in the given figure:

Observations: After the bombardment of -particles on the thick gold foil, Rutherford
observed that
(i)

Most of the fast moving -particles passed through the gold foil.

(ii) Some of the -particles were deflected by small angles.


(iii) A very few particles (1 in 20,000) bounded back i.e. were deflected by nearly 180.
Conclusion: On the basis of these observations, Rutherford draw the following
conclusions regarding the structure of atom.
(i) Most of the space in the atom is empty as most of the -particles passed through the
foil undeflected.

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES
(ii) A few -particle were deflected from there path. The deflection must be due to
enormous repulsive force showing that the positive charge of the atom is not spread throughout
the atom, as Thomson had thought. According to Rutherford, the positive charge of the atom
occupies very little space. This very small portion of the atom was called Nucleus.

(iii) A very small fraction of the -particles were deflected by 180. Showing that all the
positive charge and mass of the gold atom were concentrated in a very small volume within the
atom. (Radius of the atom is about 1010 m while that of nucleus is 1015 m)
2.2.1

Rutherfords Model

On the basis of above observations. Rutherford proposed the nuclear model of atom. Rutherford
proposed the nuclear model of atom. According to this model.
(i) An atom consists of a positively charged centre called nucleus.
(ii) The positive charge of the nucleus is due to the protons. On the other hand, the mass
of the nucleus is due to the protons and some other neutral particles called neutrons which were
discovered later on by Chadwick in 1932.
(iii) The electrons revolve around the nucleus in well, defined orbits. Thus, Rutherfords
model of atom resembles the solar system in which the nucleus plays the role of sun and the
electrons that of revolving planets.
(iv) The atom is electrically neutral because total number of protons in it is exactly equal to
the total number of electrons.
(v) The size of the nucleus is very small as compared to that of atom.
(vi) Electrons and the nucleus are held together by electrostatic force of attraction.
To explain that the electrons do not fall into the nucleus as a result of attraction, Rutherford
suggested that electrons were not stationary but were moving around the nucleus in certain
circular orbits.
2.2.2

Drawbacks of Rutherfords Model of an atom


(i) Rutherfords model could not explain the stability of
an atom. This is because when a particle is moving in a circular
orbit, it undergoes acceleration. During acceleration charged
particles would radiate energy. Thus, the orbit of the revolving
electrons will keep on shrinking or becoming smaller and
smaller, following a spiral path and will ultimately fall into the
nucleus. However, this actually does not happen and we know
that atoms are quite stable.

2.3

BOHRS MODEL OF AN ATOM

In order to overcome the objections raised against Rutherfords model of the atom. Neils
Bohr, a proposed a new model of atom. To explain the stability of the atom, he introduced the
concept of the stationary orbitals.
2.3.1

Postulates of Bohrs model


The main points of this Bohrs model of an atom are as follows:

(i) An atom consists of positively charged nucleus responsible for almost the entire mass
of the atom.
(ii) Electrons revolve around the nucleus in certain permitted circular orbits of definite
radius and while revolving they do not radiate energy.

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ATOMS AND MOLECULES
(iii) In a particular atom, the orbits in which electrons revolve have fixed radii and energy.
These orbits are, therefore called shells or energy levels. These shells are also called stationary
states as they have fixed energy. In this manner, Bohr overcame Rutherfords difficulty to account
for the stability of the atom.

(iv) The different energy levels were numbered as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc and called as K, L, M, N
etc. respectively. Greater the distance of energy level from the nucleus, none is the energy
associated with it.

However, the gaps decreases between the successive energy shells as we move outwards
from the nucleus.
(v) When electrons move in permitted discrete orbits they do not radiate or lose energy, or
gain energy. This stable state of atom is called ground state.
(vi) When energy is given to the electron, it jumps to any higher energy level and said to be
in the excited stale. In the excited stable, the atom is not stable. I tends to lose or emit energy and
jumps back to some inner energy level. In other words, when an electron absorbs energy it jumps
from inner shell to outer shell whereas when an electron emits energy it jumps from outer shell to
inner shell as shown in figure.

2.3.2

Advantage of Bohrs model

Bohrs model of an atom explains the stability of an atom by putting the concept of
stationary stale or energy levels and thus explains the drawback of Rutherfords model of an atom.
The distribution (arrangement) of the electrons in the different energy shells of the
atom is known as the electronic configuration of that element.

3.1

BOHR-BURY SCHEME OF DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRONS

The following rules are given by Bohr and Bury for writing the number of electrons in
different energy levels or shells.
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ATOMS AND MOLECULES
(i) The maximum number of electrons that can be present in a given shell is equal to 2n 2,
where n = number of shell.

Hence, the maximum number of electrons in different shells can be given as follows:
Shell

Maximum No. of electrons present

(a)

1st shell or K-shell (n = 1)

2 (1)2 = 2

(b)

2nd shell or L-shell (n = 2)

2 (2)2 = 8

(c)

3rd shell or M-shell (n = 3)

2 (3)2 = 18

(d)

4th shell or N-shell (n = 4)

2 (4)2 = 32

(iii) The maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in the outermost orbit is 8.
(iv) Electrons do not enter into a new shell until unless the inner shells are completely filled
or we can easy that shells are filled in a step-wise manner.

Schematic atomic structure of the first eighteen elements


Diagrammatically, the nuclear structure and the distribution of electrons can be represented as
below:

4.1

VALENCY OF AN ATOM

The concept of valency arises from the study of inert elements. Inert elements are also
called noble gases. They have 8 valency electrons (acted) in their outermost orbit/shell or valency
shell except helium which has 2 electrons (double). Apart from these elements, all other elements
have less than 8 electrons in their valence shell. To attain stability, these atoms lose, gain or share
electrons with other atoms to complete their octet.
The number of electrons gained, lost or shared by atom of an element in order to
complete its octet (or dublet) or to attain stable configuration is known as the valency of
the element

4.2

CALCULATION OF VALENCY

To calculate the valency of an element, the electronic configuration of the element must be
written first and then the valency is calculated. The valency of an element can be calculated as
follows:
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ATOMS AND MOLECULES
(i) Elements having 1, 2, 3 and 4 electrons respectively in their valency shell: For
these elements valency is equal to the number of electrons present in their valency shell.

(ii) Elements having more than 4 electrons in their valency shell: For these elements
having more than 4 electrons in their valence shell, valency can be calculated as follows:
Valency = 8 Number of valency electrons

5.1

ATOMIC NUMBER

The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom is known as its atomic
number So
Atomic number of an element (Z) = Number of protons in one atom of the element.
Example:
(i) Nucleus of hydrogen atom contains one proton, its atomic number = 1.
(ii) Nucleus of carbon atom contains 6 protons, its atomic number Z = 6.
As we know that an atom is electrically neutral, i.e. the number of protons is equal to the
number of electrons. Hence, we can say that
Atomic number (Z) = No. of protons = No. of electrons in one neutral atom.

5.2

MASS NUMBER

Mass number of an element is the sum of protons and neutrons present in the
atom of the element. i.e.
Mass number of an element (A) = Number of protons + number of neutrons
For example, Nitrogen is written as =

14
7N

, Oxygen is written as =

19
8O

CALCULATION OF ELECTRONS, PROTONS AND NEUTRONS , ATOMIC NUMBER (Z)


AND MASS NUMBER (A)
Z = Number of protons (p) = No. of electrons (e) and
A = Number of protons (p) + number of neutrons (n)
But as we know that
p=Z
Thus,

Isotopes are the atoms of the same element, having the same atomic
number but different mass number
Atomic number (Z) = Number of protons = Number of electrons
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ATOMS AND MOLECULES


Mass number = Number of protons + Number of neutrons

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But as we know that number of protons in them are equal so we can conclude that isotopes
of an element differ only in the number of neutrons present the nucleus.
Example: Isotopes of Hydrogen: There are three isotopes of hydrogen, namely protium,
deuterium and friction.

6.1

Isotope

Atomic
No.

Mass
No.

No. of
protons

No. of
neutrons

No. of
electrons

1
1H

11=0

2
1H

21=0

3
1H

31=2

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ISOPES

(i) Same atomic number: The isotopes of an element have the same atomic number i.e.
they have same number of protons and same number of neutrons.
(ii) Different mass number: They have different mass number and hence differ in the
number of neutrons present in the nucleus.
(iii) Same chemical properties: They have same chemical properties as they have same
number of electrons and therefore same electronic configuration and valence electrons.
(iv) Different physical properties: Since they have different mass number hence they
differ in their physical properties such as melting point, boiling point, density etc.
(v) Different nuclear properties: Due to the difference in the number of neutrons in their
nucleus they show different nuclear properties e.g. C14 isotope of carbon is radioactive whereas
C12 isotope is non-radioactive. The radioactive isotope of an element is known as
radioisotope.

6.2

FRACTIONAL ATOMIC MASSES AND CALCULATION OF AVERAGE ATOM


MASSES

if an elements occurs in isotopic form, then we have to know the percentage of each
isotopic form to calculate its average atomic mass.
Example:In nature, the two isotopic forms of chlorine viz
ratio of 3:1. Hence,

35
17 Cl

and

37
17 Cl

are fond in the

75
25
37

Average atomic mass = 35


100
100

105 37
142

= 35.4 u .
4
4
4

6.3

APPLICATIONS OF ISOTOPES

Some isotopes have special properties which find them useful in various fields. Some
important and useful applications of the isotopes are given below:
(i) As nuclear fuel: An isotope of uranium (U-235) is used as a fuel in nuclear reactor.
(ii) In medial field:
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(a) An isotope of cobalt (Co-60) is used in the treatment of cancer.

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(b) Phosphorus(P-32) isotope is used in the treatment of leukemia (blood cancer).


(c) Iodine (I-131) isotope is used in the treatment of goitre.
(d) Some radio isotopes are used tracers detect the presence of tumours, blood clots etc.
(iii) In carbon dating.
(iv) In geological dating.

Atoms of different elements which have different atomic number but same mass number
are called isobars. They have different number of protons, electrons and neutron but the mass
number, i.e. the sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus is same
Example:

40
18

Ar ,

40
20 Ca

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