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ASSIGNMENT REPORT

CES10 204 (B) PAVEMENT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


TOPIC:

4 TH MODULE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

SUBMITTED BY,

GROUP NO - 4
SOORAJ CHANDRA R.S ROLL NO -12
SOORIA RAJ ROLL NO - 13
SWATHI RATNA K ROLL NO -14
V.P ROSHAN AHAMED ROLL NO -15
M.TECH, STRUCTURAL
A.W.H ENGINEERING COLLEGE

ASSIGNMENT REPORT
CES10 204 (B) PAVEMENT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
TOPIC:

4 TH MODULE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

SUBMITTED BY,

GROUP NO - 4
SOORAJ CHANDRA R.S- ROLL NO -12
SOORIA RAJ- ROLL NO - 13
SWATHI RATNA K- ROLL NO -14
V.P ROSHAN AHAMED- ROLL NO -15
M.TECH, STRUCTURAL
A.W.H ENGINEERING COLLEGE

MODULE IV
PAVEMENT STRUCTURE AND ITS EVALUATION
QUESTIONS
1) What are the factors that affect the structural stability of flexible and rigid pavements?
Explain atleast 4 factors in detail.
2) What are the general causes of pavement failures? Discuss briefly the importance of
highway maintenance.
3) Explain briefly about the typical flexible pavement failures and their causes.
4) Explain the various types of failures in cement concrete pavements and their causes.
5) Discuss the various types of pavement evaluation techniques. What are the advantages
and disadvantages of NDT methods?
6) What is the importance of pavement evaluation? Discuss the methods involved in
pavement evaluation.
7) What is FWD? How FWD can be used for pavement evaluation?
8) Discuss in detail about Benkelman Beam Rebound Deflection for pavement
evaluation.
9) Explain plate load test with a suitable test set up figure.
10) How wave propagation method can be used for pavement evaluation? Explain with a
suitable figure.
11) What are the different destructive test methods for pavement evaluation? Discuss
atleast 2 of them in detail.
12) What is an overlay? Discuss the various types of overlays that are commonly used on
the pavement surface.
13) What are geosynthetics? How can they be used in pavement overlays?
14) Benkelman Beam Deflection studies were carried out on 15 selected points on a
stretch of flexible pavement during summer season using a dual wheel load of 4085
Kg, 5.6Kg/cm2 pressure. The deflection values obtained in mm after making the
necessary lag corrections are given below. If the present traffic consists of
750commercial vehicles/day, determine the thickness of bituminous overlay required,
if pavement temperature during the test was 30C and the correction factor for
subsequent increase in subgrade moisture content is 1.3. Assume annual rate of

growth of traffic as 7.5%. Adopt IRC guidances.1.40, 1.32, 1.25, 1.35, 1.48, 1.60,
1.65, 1.55, 1.45, 1.40, 1.36, 1.46, 1.50, 1.52, 1.45mm.
15) Existing black top pavement was tested using Benkelman Beam with a test vehicle of
8170 Kg rear axle load. Observations recorded at a pavement temperature of 43C are
given below. Length of test stretch = 300m. Compute the thickness of overlay of
bituminous concrete, taking allowable deflection as 1.25mm, if the factor for subgrade
moisture correction is 2.0.
Serial number subsection

Rebound deflection
(mm)

1.46

1.52

1.56

1.76

1.96

1.74

1.68

1.74

1.96

10

1.42

11

1.56

12

1.62

1) What are the factors that affect the structural stability of flexible and rigid
pavements? Explain atleast 5 factors in detail.
ANS: The factors that affect the structural stability of flexible and rigid pavements are:
a) Subgrade soil
b) Moisture
c) Pavement layers
d) Temperature
e) Environment
f) Traffic (wheel load)
(a) Effect of Subgrade soil on structural stability of flexible & rigid pavements
Subgrade soil is an integral part of pavement structure as it provides support to
pavement from beneath. Subgrade soil and its properties are important for the design
of pavement structure. The desirable properties of subgrade soil are stability,
incompressibility, permanency of strength, minimum volume changes, good drainage
and ease of compaction.
Properties of subgrade soil decide the thickness of pavement surface. A
subgrade soil with lower stability requires thicker pavements to withstand heavier
traffic loads. Poor subgrade soil causes waves, corrugations, rutting and shoving in
flexible pavements, pumping, blowing and cracking in rigid pavements.
(b) Effect of Moisture on structural stability of flexible & rigid pavements
Rainfall affects the moisture conditions in subgrade soil. The variations in
moisture condition of subgrade soil are due to climatic conditions, soil type, ground
water level, drainage conditions, type of pavement and shoulders. The moisture
movement in subgrade is caused by capillary action and vapour movement. Adverse
moisture conditions decreases the stability of subgrade soil.
The surface water during the rains may enter the subgrade either through
pavement edges or through pavement itself, if it is porous. Moisture content of
subgrade soil at centre is different from that at the edges as soil with high plasticity
causes differential rise or fall of pavement edges due to swelling and shrinkage of

subgrade soil. High moisture variations can be controlled by providing suitable


surface and sub-surface drainage system.

(c) Effect of Pavement layers on structural stability of flexible & rigid pavements
The stress distribution characteristics of the pavement component layers depend
on the characteristics of materials used. The fatigue behaviour of the pavement materials
and their durability under adverse weather affects the structural stability of both flexible
and rigid pavements. The different pavement materials like subgrade soil, stone
aggregates, bituminous materials and cement concrete should be of superior quality and
should have good structural properties.
(d) Effect of Temperature on structural stability of flexible & rigid pavements
The daily and seasonal variations in temperature have great significance on the
structural stability of both the pavements. During winter, frost action causes damaging
effects on subgrade soil.
Wide variation in temperature due to climatic changes causes damaging
effects in pavements. High magnitude temperature stresses are induced in cement
concrete pavements due to daily variations in temperature resulting in warping.
Bituminous pavements become soft in hot weather and brittle in very cold weather.
(e) Effect of Environment on structural stability of flexible & rigid pavements
The environmental factors such as height of embankment and its foundation
details, depth of cutting, depth of sub-surface water table etc. effects the performance
of pavements. The ground slope and flora also effects the structural stability of
pavements mainly in the hilly terrains.
(f) Effect of Traffic on structural stability of flexible & rigid pavements
The design thickness of the pavement depends on the design wheel load.
Higher wheel load requires thicker pavements. Structural stability also increases with
thickness of the pavement but thickness designed should be economical.
Static and repeated traffic loads have great effect on the structural stability of
pavements. The various wheel load factors such as maximum wheel load, contact
pressure, dual or multiple wheel loads, equivalent single wheel loads and repetition of
loads are to be considered while designing pavements.

2) What are the general causes of pavement failures? Discuss briefly the
importance of highway maintenance.
ANS:The general causes of pavement failures are
a) Defects in the quality of materials used.
b) Defects in construction method & quality control during construction.
c) Inadequate surface or sub-surface drainage in locality resulting in stagnation
of water in subgrade or other pavement layers.
d) Increase in magnitude of wheel loads and number of load repetitions due to
increase in traffic volume.
e) Settlement of foundation/ embankment/ fill material itself.
f) Environmental factors including heavy rainfall, soil erosion, high water
table, snow fall, frost action etc.
Highway Maintenance
Road maintenance is one of the important components of entire road system.
Even if the highways are well designed and constructed, they may require
maintenance. The pavements are subjected to failures ranging from minor and
localised failure to major and general failures. The types of failures depends on types
of pavement, whether it is flexible or rigid. The maintenance operations involve the
following steps:
a) Assessment of present road condition
b) Diagnosis of problem
c) Adopting the most appropriate maintenance steps
The highway maintenance works may be classified as:
a) Routine Maintenance
b) Periodic Maintenance
c) Special Repairs
Routine maintenance include filling up of pot holes and patch repairs,
maintenance of shoulders and cross slope, up-keep of road side drains and clearing
choked culverts, maintenance of road signs etc. The maintenance may be carried out
at regular intervals like day to day or seasonal.
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Periodic maintenance includes renewal of wearing course, preventive maintenance


of various items.
Special repairs include strengthening of pavement structure or overlay
construction, reconstruction of pavement, widening of roads, repair of damages
caused by floods, providing additional safety measures like islands, signs etc.
The type and extend of maintenance requirement for a road depends on following
factors:
a) Serviceability standard laid down
b) Funds available
c) Priorities for maintenance operations
A systematic approach is required for road maintenance, which is known as
maintenance management system. The various factors included in maintenance
management system are:
a) Field surveys for evaluation of maintenance requirements.
b) Subgrade soil, drainage, climate, traffic, environmental conditions etc.
c) Estimation of rate of deterioration of pavement under prevailing set of
conditions.
d) Type and extend of maintenance requirements, possible alternatives and their
economic evaluation.
e) Availability of funds
f) Maintenance cost, availability of materials, man power and equipments.

3) Explain briefly about the typical flexible pavement failures and their causes.
ANS: A flexible pavement failure is defined by formation of pot holes, ruts, cracks,
localised depressions and settlements. The failure of any one or more components of
pavement structure leads to the development of waves, corrugations, longitudinal ruts,
shoving etc. When pavement unevenness is excessive, then it is also considered as a
failure. The main reasons for flexible pavement failures are
a) Aging & oxidation of bituminous films

b) Retaining of excess water in the voids which increases the detrimental action
in flexible pavements
Some of the typical flexible pavement failures are:

i.

i.

Alligator cracking (map cracking)

ii.

Consolidation of pavement layers

iii.

Shear failure& cracking

iv.

Longitudinal cracking

v.

Frost heaving

vi.

Lack of binding to lower course

vii.

Reflection cracking

viii.

Formation of waves & corrugation

Alligator cracking (map cracking)


Most common type of failure due to relative movement of pavement layer
materials. The main reasons for this failure are:

ii.

Repeated application of heavy wheel loads resulting in fatigue failure.

Moisture variations resulting in swelling & shrinkage of pavement layers.

Localised weakness of base course cause cracking of surface course.

Consolidation of pavement layers


Consolidation of one or more pavement layers results in the formation of ruts. The
main reasons for this failure are:

Cumulative deformation caused due to the repeated application of loads


along the same wheel path.

iii.

Wearing along the wheel path causes shallow ruts on the surfacing course.

Shear failure & cracking


Shear failure results in the formation of fracture or cracking which is due to
upheaval of pavement materials. Here upheaval is followed with a depression. The
main reasons for this failure are:

iv.

Inherent weakness of pavement mixtures.

Low shear resistance due to excessive loading.

Longitudinal cracking
Longitudinal cracks traverse through the full pavement thickness. The main
reasons for this failure are:
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v.

Frost action & differential volume changes.

Settlement of fill.

Sliding of side slopes.

Frost heaving
Localized up heaving occurs in pavement which depends on ground water and
climatic conditions.

vi.

Lack of binding with lower layers


Lack of binding with lower layers causes slipping, opening up and loss of
pavement materials thus forming patches or pot holes. The main reasons for this
failure are:

Providing bituminous surfacing over existing cement concrete base course


or soil-cement base course.

vii.

Lack of prime/tack coat in between two layers.

Reflection cracking
Reflection cracking occurs on the bituminous overlays provided on cement
concrete pavements. Cracks are formed on the surface course so it has little effect
on the structural stability of the flexible pavements. But reflection cracks allow
water to seep through them thus causing mud pumping.

The main causes for flexible pavement failures are:


I.
II.

Failures in Subgrade
Failures in Sub-base or Base Courses

III.

Failures in Wearing Course


I.

Failures in Subgrade
Excessive deformation in subgrade soil causes waves, corrugations and
depressions in flexible pavements. Shear failure of subgrade soil causes lateral
shoving near pavement edges. The main reasons for failures in subgrade are:

Inadequate stability due to inherent weakness of soil, excessive moisture


content, improper compaction, increased load repetitions.

II.

Excessive stress application due to wheel loads

Failures in Sub-base or Base Courses


The main reasons for failures in sub-base or base course are:

Inadequate stability due to poor mix proportioning, inadequate thickness,


use of soft stone aggregates, improper quality control during construction
etc.

Loss of binding action due to repeated load application causes internal


movement of aggregates in base/sub-base course resulting in the formation
of alligator cracks.

Loss of base course materials due to wearing of surface course. Aggregates


get exposed & lost thus forming pot holes. The removal of materials is
called revelling.

Inadequate wearing course results in the exposure of pavements to rain,


frost, traffic etc.

III.

Use of inferior materials

Crushing of base course materials

Lack of lateral confinement for granular base course

Failures in Wearing Course


Failures in wearing course may be due to improper mix design, improper
gradation of aggregates, inadequate binder content, use of inferior binder, poor
quality control during construction.

4) Explain the various types of failures in cement concrete pavements and their
causes.
ANS:The cement concrete pavements develop cracks and deteriorate due to repeated loads
and fatigue effects. Rigid pavements are capable of withstanding slight variations in
underlying support due to inherent bending strength. Due to temperature effects, newly
constructed rigid pavements may crack even if no vehicles move on them. Failure of rigid
pavements starts from joints, corners and edges of slabs.
Some typical and basic types of failures in rigid pavements are:
i.

Scaling of cement concrete

ii.

Shrinkage cracks

iii.

Spalling of joints

iv.

Warping cracks

v.

Mud pumping

vi.

Structural cracks
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i.

Scaling of cement concrete


Scaling occurs mainly due to deficiency in mix, presence of chemical impurities,
excessive vibrations during mixing etc. Due to scaling, pavement surface becomes
rough and shabby in appearance.

ii.

Shrinkage cracks
Shrinkage cracks occur in longitudinal as well as transverse directions. Shrinkage
cracks develop immediately curing operation of rigid pavements.

iii.

Spalling of joints
Spalling of joints occurs when the filler materials are dislocated and concreting is
done without noticing this faulty alignment. This causes overhanging of concrete
layer on top side and the joint, later shows excessive cracking and subsidence.

iv.

Warping cracks
Due to excessive warping stresses, slabs develop cracking at edges in irregular
pattern. Hinge joints are provided for relieving the warping stresses. Providing
proper reinforcements in longitudinal as well as transverse joints reduce the
structural inadequacy due to warping cracks.

v.

Mud pumping
Mud pumping refers to the ejection of soil slurry through joints and cracks of
cement concrete pavements. Mud pumping occurs during downward movement of
cement concrete slab under heavy wheel loads. The factors which cause mud
pumping are:

vi.

Extent of slab deflection

Type of subgrade soil

Amount of free water

Structural cracks
Structural cracking occurs due to inadequate pavement thickness. Cracks at
corners, joints or edges are due to structural inadequacy. Cracking in the interior
regions are due to temperature stresses.

Failures in cement concrete pavements are mainly due to:


a) Deficiency of pavement materials
b) Structural inadequacy of pavement system

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Deficiency of pavement materials is due to

Use of soft aggregates

Poor workmanship in joint construction

Poor joint filler and sealer material

Poor surface finish

Improper and insufficient curing

Structural inadequacy of pavement system may be due to

Inadequate pavement thickness

Inadequate subgrade support and poor subgrade soil

Incorrect spacing of joints.

5) Discuss the various types of pavement evaluation techniques. What are their
advantages and disadvantages?
ANS:Pavement evaluations are conducted to determine functional and structural
conditions of a highway section which may be either for routine monitoring or planned
corrective action. Functional condition is concerned with the ride quality or surface texture
of a highway section. Structural condition is concerned with the structural capacity of the
pavement which is measured by deflection, layer thickness, and material properties.
At the network level, routine evaluations can be used to develop performance
models and to arrange maintenance or rehabilitation efforts and funding. At the project
level, evaluations are more focused on establishing the root causes of existing distress in
order to determine the best rehabilitation strategies.
The various types of pavement evaluation techniques are

i.

i.

Visual condition surveys

ii.

Non-destructive testing

iii.

Destructive testing

Visual Condition Surveys


Visual condition surveys cover aspects of both functional and structural

pavement condition, but generally serve as a qualitative indicator of overall condition.


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Specialized equipment is used to quantify both functional and structural properties of


the pavement structure.
For any given section of highway, two or more evaluators would arrive at the
same assessment of the sections current condition. For example, in visual condition
surveys, the percent of surface area affected by alligator cracking is highly dependent
upon the visual acuity of the evaluator.
ii.

Non-destructive Testing
In non-destructive testing, data collected in the field are generally objective in

nature, but often subjectivity appears in the data analysis and interpretation. Nondestructive testing is the collective term for evaluations conducted on an existing
pavement structure that do not require subsequent maintenance work to return the
pavement to its pre-testing state.
This is generally desirable to minimize disruption to traffic, and is essential as a
screening tool to determine locations where selective material sampling should be
conducted to evaluate other material properties in the laboratory. Non-destructive
testing methods can assess either functional or structural condition. Its focus is to
assess

In situ properties that can be used to evaluate the need for further
destructive testing (i.e., coring, boring, trenching)

Location of that destructive testing

The current structural capacity of the highway as related to layer


stiffness and strength.

iii.

Destructive Testing
Destructive testing provides more detailed data about the pavement which are

not possible to obtain through non-destructive testing. Such detailed data include:

laboratory mechanical, physical, and chemical properties (obtained through coring,


Shelby tubes, and trenching), and

visual inspection of pavement layers through coring and trenching.


13

Advantages of NDT methods are:


a) No Hazardous Radiation
b) Cost Effective
c) Real time positioning
d) Reduced Interruption to Traffic or Access to Facilities
e) Capable of Detecting Metallic and Non-metallic Objects
f) High Resolution with High Speed Data Acquisition
g) Super Fast Data Acquisition with Wide Coverage
h) Simple Instrumentation Setup and Portability
i) No Limitations because of Ambient Conditions
j) Structural Profiling across Depth
k) Capable of non-destructive testing (NDT) on Wide Range of Materials
l) Non-Destructive and Non-intrusive
m) High Resolution 3D Imaging
Disadvantages of NDT methods are:
a) Can only detect defects open to the surface
b) Preparation, before testing, can be time consuming and costly
c) The method takes time and can rarely be completed in less than 30 minutes
d) The method cannot normally be applied to painted objects
e) It is messy
f) Interpretation of results is sometimes difficult
g) There may be a problem disposing of contaminated cleaning and penetrant fluids
h) Dry, clean, conditions are essential, as is careful cleaning of the surfaces to be
examined
i) The method is often abused and skimped, or not fully understood
j) There can be a fume exposure problem, particularly in confined spaces

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6) What is the importance of pavement evaluation? Discuss the methods involved in


pavement evaluation.
ANS: Pavement evaluation refers to the study of various factors such as subgrade
support, pavement composition and its thickness, traffic loading and environmental
conditions. The main objective of pavement evaluation is to assess whether and to what
extent the pavement fulfils the intended requirements so that the maintenance and
strengthening jobs could be planned in time. Pavement evaluation investigates the
structural adequacy of pavements and requirements for providing safe and comfortable
traffic operations.
Pavement evaluations are conducted to determine functional and structural conditions
of a highway section which may be either for routine monitoring or planned corrective
action. Functional condition is concerned with the ride quality or surface texture of a
highway section. Structural condition is concerned with the structural capacity of the
pavement which is measured by deflection, layer thickness, and material properties.
At the network level, routine evaluations can be used to develop performance
models and to arrange maintenance or rehabilitation efforts and funding. At the project
level, evaluations are more focused on establishing the root causes of existing distress in
order to determine the best rehabilitation strategies.
The methods of pavement evaluation are:

i.

i.

Structural evaluation of pavements

ii.

Function Evaluation of pavements (Evaluation of pavement surface condition)

Structural evaluation of pavements


Structural capacity refers to the ability to withstand the various loads acting on the
pavements without causing any damage to its surface. It is done by plate bearing
test. It can be either destructive or non-destructive evaluation.
Performance of flexible pavement is related to elastic deflection under loads or
rebound deflection. Transient deflection measurements are also carried out to
determine the structural ability of pavements. Benkelman beam deflection is the
most commonly used method.

ii.

Function Evaluation of pavements (Evaluation of pavement surface condition)

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The pavement unevenness is measured by unevenness indicator, profilograph,


profilometer or roughmeter. Equipment capable of integrating the unevenness of
pavement surface to cumulative scale thus giving unevenness index of
surface(cm/km) is called Bump Integrator or Unevenness Integrator.
The pavement serviceability concept was introduced to compare the relative
performance of various test sections during different periods. The present
serviceability rating (PSR) is the mean opinion of the members of the rating panel
and this is related with physical measurements such as longitudinal and transverse
profile of pavement, degree of cracking, patching etc. Mathematical models and
two equations are formulated to get present serviceability index (PSI) values for
flexible and rigid pavements.
7) What is FWD? How FWD can be used for pavement evaluation?
ANS: FWD refers to Falling Weight Deflectometer. This device is essential in establishing
the in situ stiffness properties of the pavement layers through analysis of the deflection
data by back calculation. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a trailer mounted
device that places an 11.8 in. (300 mm) diameter load plate in contact with the highway at
each test location. The testing interval is set at 0.1 mi. (maximum) or 30 locations per
project. A load column above the load plate carries a stack of weights that are dropped to
impart a load to the pavement similar to that imparted by a passing dual truck tire set. A
series of seven geophones spaced away from the load plate at 12 in. increments measure
the surface deflection, generating a deflection bowl. Measurements are generally
acquired in the right wheel path of the outside lane.
Where a divided roadbed exists, surveys should be taken in both directions if the
project will include improvements in both directions. Some care in the placement of the
load plate and sensors is required by the survey crew, especially where the highway
surface is rutted or cracked. The load plate should lay on a flat surface; the load plate and
all geophones should lie on the same side of any visible cracks. A human spotter should be
used to ensure placement in these case.
Temperature data collected at the time of testing is necessary for all flexible
pavements since the modulus of bituminous materials is temperature-dependent. The FWD
has a built-in thermocouple to measure ambient air temperature and records this
temperature at each drop location. In addition, for pavements with bituminous surfaces at
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least 3.0 in. thick, in-pavement temperature measurements should be made at the beginning
and end of each survey, at a minimum. Longer surveys or surveys made on days where
rapid temperature changes occur will require temperature checks at additional intermediate
locations. A portable drill with masonry bit is provided to accomplish this; holes are drilled
to mid-depth or 3.0 in. maximum. Alternatively, surface temperatures measured by
infrared devices can be made with correlations available for mid-depth temperature
estimation.
Liberal use of comments placed in the FWD data file at the time of data collection
is encouraged. Comments pertaining to proximity to reference markers, bridge abutments,
patches, cracks, etc., are all important documentation for the individual evaluating the data.
Back calculation of Deflection Data
TxDOT currently uses version 6.0 of the MODULUS software for backcalculation of
deflection data collected by the FWD. Version 6.0 is a Windows compatible program with
many added analyses and graphing features compared to the previous version. The
software and users manual in PDF document format is available from the TTI on-line
pavement design training site. Also, basic operation and discussion of inputs, cautions, and
example

problems

is

presented

in

the Rehabilitation

Strategies

for

Flexible

Pavements(CD/ROM). Contact the Research & Technology Implementation Office (RTI)


at (512) 465-7555 to request a copy of this CD.
The raw deflection file, pavement layer thicknesses, layer Poisson ratios, probable layer
moduli ranges, and asphalt temperatures at the time of testing are all required inputs to
perform back calculation. The back calculation process works on the assumption that the
pavement structure can be modelled as a linear-elastic layered system. If the parameters of
layer thickness, deflection, and Poisson ratio are known, the modulus can be approximated.
A likely range of probable layer moduli provided by the program user facilitates the
process by forming the basis of a small internal database against which mathematically
generated deflection bowls are compared to the actual measured deflection bowl by the
software. Once a reasonable match is made, the moduli that allow this match are reported
as the individual layer moduli. In addition, the program reports a depth to stiff layer or
bedrock.

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There are precautions and limitations to the back calculation procedure that the user must
consider. In the end, engineering judgment will be needed to decide on the viability of
solutions generated. The following are some pointers when using MODULUS 6.0:

The modulus for layers thinner than 3.0 in. cannot be back calculated. This situation
arises most often for thin-surfaced flexible pavements. The user must assign a
reasonable modulus to this layer (minimum and maximum are input as the same value in
the program) based on thickness, level of distress, temperature, etc.

The surface layer is always the layer that the load plate is in contact with, so a thickness
must be entered. Where the surface is a bituminous surface treatment, it is allowable to
use a nominal thickness such as 0.5 in. and assign a nominal modulus such as 250 ksi.
Alternatively, the surface treatment can be combined with the underlying layer as the
surface reducing the total number of layers by one.

The maximum number of layers for which the modulus can be back calculated is four
(one of which is always the natural subgrade) in MODULUS 6.0. For circumstances
where more layers are known to exist, the user must either consolidate or ignore layers.
Consolidation is recommended for materials that are more likely to have a similar
modulus and shear strength properties (i.e., different types of HMAC or flex base).
Ignoring layers may be reasonable in certain cases where the materials contribution to
the overall stiffness of the structure is minimal (i.e., foundation course, or lime treated
subgrade constructed as a working platform).

There are times when a more reasonable solution is obtained modeling your pavement
structure as a 3-layer system even if you know there are four layers present. This
situation may develop for a number of reasons, such as variable stabilization (leaching),
variable depth to bedrock, etc.
Reasonableness is related to the in-place stiffness characteristics of the layers being
modeled and not necessarily to the size of the average errors reported by the software
in comparing the mathematically generated bowls to the measured bowls. While the
4-layer solution will generally give lower overall errors, the backcalculated material
moduli may be unrealistic with respect to the in-place material. When there is doubt
of reasonableness, the user should perform backcalculation runs using both 3- and 4layer solutions (employing guidelines given in bullet 3). Additional field testing such

18

as with the dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) along with engineering judgment is
necessary to ensure a valid, reliable solution.

A check of the MODULUS summary table should be made to detect outliers that skew
the average value reported. Outliers may be the result of full-depth patches (different
pavement structure) or very weak areas.
For the purpose of using MODULUS-reported values as input to FPS-19, adjustment
of the average modulus should be considered; otherwise the performance of any
pavement design solution based on these inputs could be jeopardized. As a rule-ofthumb, consider removing values that exceed one standard deviation from the
unadjusted average, and then re-average. This should always be done for modulus
values that are much higher than values that are more typical for the section.
Consideration can be given to eliminating very low values only if the intention is to
include a bid item for repair of weak areas (i.e., Item 351 Flexible Pavement
Structure Repair) as part of the job.

Shallow bedrock (typically less than 60 in. deep) will almost always result in
underestimation of the subgrade modulus and over-estimation of the flexible base
modulus. The recommended workaround is to fix the depth to bedrock at 120 in. or
alternatively 240 in. if the solution using the program-generated depth to bedrock
produces suspect subgrade/base moduli. Another clue that the default solution is suspect
would be if the ratio of the flexible base modulus (unstablized layers only) to the
subgrade modulus is very high (>5).
MODULUS can perceive a shallow depth to bedrock in high water table situations
(water is incompressible) as can be the case in east Texas. It may be beneficial to
override the program-generated depth-to bedrock value, by using a fixed value of 120
in.
Soft upper subgrade can also lead to high errors in the back calculation process. In these

cases, the use of a 4-layer solution where the soft portion of the subgrade is modelled as the
sub base layer (fix depth at 12 in.) may provide better fit and more realistic back calculated
values for the base and deep subgrade. Verification with a dynamic cone penetrometer
(DCP) may be warranted.

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8) Discuss in detail about Benkelman Beam Rebound Deflection for pavement


evaluation.
ANS:Standard test procedure for benkelman beam deflectionmeasurements are given by IRC
81:1997. This test procedure covers the determination of the rebound deflection of apavement
under a standard wheel load and tyre pressure, with or withouttemperature measurements.
Basic equipment shall consist of:
(a) A Benkelman beam to the Ministry of Works and Development patternhaving the
dimensions shown on Figure 1. The beam must be fittedwith a satisfactory locking device
designed to secure the beam whenmoving to a new site and a suitable vibrator mounted at the
pivot point.In sunny weather the beam may pass from shade into sunshine as the
vehicle moves away. Therefore a shield similar to that described inRoad Research Unit
Newsletter No 49 should be used.
(b) A truck or trailer with an axle load of 8.20 0.15 tonnes equallydistributed on two dual
tyred wheels operating at the inflation pressurenecessary to give a tyre contact area of 0.048
0.0002 m2.* The tyresshall preferably be 10.00 x 20, 12 ply with tubes and rib treads.
(c) A tyre pressure gauge graduated in 20 Kpa divisions or smaller.
(d) A thermometer with a range of 0-6C in 1C divisions.
(e) A mandrel suitable for making a 100mm deep hole in the pavement for inserting the
thermometer. The diameter of the hole should be 13mm.
(f) A can containing either glycerol or oil for filling the thermometer hole.
Deflections shall be measured as follows:
(a)The test point shall be preselected and marked.
(b) The tyre pressure should be checked before the first test and then at intervals not
exceeding three hours.
(c) The truck shall initially be positioned with the test wheel between 100 and 150mm to the
rear of the test spot, ie position A.
(d) The probe of the beam shall be inserted between the dual tyres.
(e) The locking device shall be released and the rear of the beam adjusted so that the plunger
is in contact with the dial gauge.
(f) The dial gauge shall be set to read between 9 and 11mm (the actual reading need not be
recorded) and the vibrator set in operation.
(g) The truck shall be moved forward at creep speed so that the test wheel passes over the test
spot and continues advancing to position 8 which is 2.7 0.1 metres beyond the test spot.

20

(h) The START READING, S, is the maximum dial gauge reading occurring during this
movement of the truck from position A to position B, and will normally occur as the wheel
passes over the test spot. This reading shall be recorded.
(I) The INTERMEDIATE READING, I, is that figure indicated by the dial gauge at the
moment the truck stops with the test wheel in position B. This reading shall be recorded.
(j) The truck shall be moved forward until the test wheel is in position V which is not less
than 10 metres from position B.
(k) The FINAL READING, F, is that figure indicated by the dial gauge when the truck has
stopped in position C. This figure shall be recorded.

9) Explain plate load test with a suitable test set up figure.

ANS: The plate load test is a semi-direct method to measure the allowable pressure of soil
to induce a given amount of settlement. Plates, round or square, varying in sizes, from 30 to
60 cm and thickness of about 2.5 cm are employed for the test.
The load on the plate is applied by making use of a hydraulic jack. The reaction of the jack
load is taken by a cross beam or a steel truss anchored suitably at both the ends. The
settlement of the plate is measured by a set of three dial gauges of sensitivity 0.02mm
placed at 120 apart. The dial gauges are fixed to independent supports which do not get
disturbed during the test. Fig shows the arrangement for the plate load test.
21

Procedure:
The method of performing the test is essentially as follows:
Excavate a pit of size not less than 5 times the size of the plate. The bottom of the pit
coincides with level of the foundation.
If water table is above the level of foundation, pump out the water carefully and it should be
kept just at the level of the foundation.
A suitable size of the plate is selected for the test. Normally a plate of size 30cm is used in
sandy soils and bigger size in clay soils. The ground should be leveled and the plate is
seated over the ground.
A seating load of about

is first placed and released after sometime. A higher

load is next placed on the plate and settlements are recorded by means of the dial gauges.
Observations on every load increment shall be taken until the rate of settlement is less than
0.25mm per hour. Load increments shall be approximately one-fifth of the estimated safe
bearing capacity of the soil. The average of the settlements recorded by 2 or 3 dial gauges
taken as the settlements of the plate for each of the load increment.
The test should continue until a total settlement of 2.5cm or the settlement at which the soil
fails, whichever is earlier, is obtained. After the load is increased, the elastic rebound of the
soil should be recorded.

Limitations
Since a plate load test is of short duration, consolidation settlements cannot be predicted. The
test gives the value of immediate settlements only. If the underlying soil is sandy innature
immediate settlement can be taken as total settlement. If the soil is of clayey type, the
immediate settlement is only a part of the total settlement. Load tests, therefore do not have
much significance in clayey soils to determine allowable pressure on the basis of settlement
criterion.
Plate load test results should be used with caution and the present practice is not to rely too
much on this test. If the soil is not homogenous to a great depth, plate load tests give very
misleading results.
Plate load tests is not at all recommended in soils which are not homogenous at least to a depth

22

equal to 1.5 to 2 times the width of the prototype foundation.


Plate load tests should not be relied on to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of sandy
soils as the scale effects give misleading results. However, when the tests are carried on clay
soils, the ultimate bearing capacity as determined by the test may be taken as equal to that of
the foundation since the bearing capacity of clay is essentially independent of the footing size.
The plate load test is possibly the only way of determining the allowable bearing pressures in
gravelly soil deposits. For tests on such soil deposits the size of the plate should be bigger to
eliminate the effect of grain size.

Plate Load Test setup

10) How wave propagation method can be used for pavement evaluation? Explain
with a suitable figure.
ANS: A seismic method for the in-situ measurement of elastic modulus profiles of
pavement has been developed at the Center for Transportation Research at the University
of Texas at Austin TX. This method is called the Spectral-Analysisof SurfaceWaves
(SASW) method. The method is based on generation and detection of elastic stress
waves, known as surface waves. There are three different kinds of waves that can be
generated. The types of waves are; Surface - or Raleigh waves, shear waves and pressure
waves. The key points in SASW testing are generation and measurement of surface
waves, which makes up more than 67% of the response. Surface waves have a unique
23

characteristic that, if the wavelength is varied, the velocity of propagation of the surface
waves also varies. This phenomenon is called dispersion. The dispersion characteristic of
surface waves can be utilized to determine the layering and modulus profiles of pavement
systems quite accurately.

The method is non-destructive. Measurements are made at strains below .001 % where the
elastic properties of the materials are independent of the strain amplitude.
The method is such that both the source and the receivers are located on the ground
surface, see figure. The source is simply a transient vertical impact, which generates a group
of surface waves of various frequencies that the medium transmits. Two vertical receivers,
located on the surface, monitor the propagation of surface wave energy past them. By
analysis of the phase information of the cross power spectrum for each frequency determined
between the two receivers, phase velocity, shear wave velocity and finally elastic moduli are
determined.
The methodology used was to measure a number of spacing distances between
receivers, starting at 50mm apart up to 600mm apart. The equipment used could only
measure from 50 mm upwards. For the very close distances a small ball bearing was used as
source and at the greater distances a small hammer was used. The temperature of the asphalt
in the HVS section was about 250 Celsius, due to the shade from the HVS machine. The
testing was done according to the mid-point concept. At each site a central line was
established as the mid-point. The receivers were placed equidistant from the mid-point at a
24

spacing of 50mm increasing in steps of 50mm up to 600mm. Per spacing a total of five
impulses were generated.
11) What are the different destructive test methods for pavement evaluation?
Discuss atleast 2 of them in detail.
ANS: Destructive Evaluation of Pavement Structural Properties includes the following test
methods:
Trenching and Coring
Trenching and coring have been used in forensic and routine evaluation to determine the
source of the problematic layer or layers. For example, there was severe rutting on US 281
and the district expressed a need to determine the source of the rutting. Although FWD and
GPR tests were performed, evaluation of the data could not differentiate from which
layer(s) the rutting came. Trenching provides a viable option. For example, Figure 4-17
illustrates the pavement section profiles on US 281. Chalk and stringiness were used to
differentiate different pavement layers, the rutting was found to be from the surface AC
layer.
Trenching Procedure
A trenching procedure has been developed to run tests and collect samples while
minimizing disturbance to the base material. The saw cut pattern is shown in Figure 4-19.
The size of each trench is 3 ft. 12 ft. Each saw cut is deep enough to penetrate all the way
through the AC layer(s). A strip about 6 in. wide is cut and removed by hand from one end
of the trench, as shown in Figure 4-20. This creates a slot for the backhoe to reach into and
lift the AC block without major disturbance to the base layer as shown in Figure 4-21. A
saw cut is also made across the center of the trench so the AC blocks can be removed
without breaking.After the asphalt layer is removed and samples are collected, tests can be
run, and samples collected on the base layer.
The backhoe then digs out the base layer and a few inches of subgrade. One of the
transverse trench walls (at base and subgrade levels) is then smoothed using shovels,
chisels, and brooms. Once a clean trench wall is achieved, the asphalt layers are
highlighted with chalk and the base/subgrade layers are highlighted with string lines held
with small nails. The thickness of each layer is then measured at regular intervals to
determine its contribution to rutting.
25

Coring Procedure
To extract a core sample, the coring rig is placed at the desired location and the barrelcooling water is turned on. Note that dry ice can be used to cool the core barrel if samples
at in situ moisture content are desired.The barrel is spun at about 500 rpm and gradually
lowered through the asphalt layer. If the base is stabilized, the operator may want to cut
through it as well to obtain an intact sample.
After the barrel has cut to the desired depth, it is retracted while still spinning. Then the
core barrel is stopped and the location of the core is observed. If the core has twisted off
and is now lodged in the barrel, the barrel is struck lightly with a mallet to loosen the core.
If the core is still in its original position, thin pieces of metal (or screwdrivers) are used to
rock the core back and forth until it breaks free from the base or subgrade. Then the core
can be lifted out with bent welding rods or loops of thin wire.Normally, the core diameter
is either 4 in. or 6 in.
Shelby Tube
Shelby tube samples have been used to determine the in situ density, moisture content,
plasticity index (PI), potential vertical rise (PVR), sulfate content, optimum soil stabilizer,
and modulus of the subgrade soil.
The Shelby tube is a sharpened pipe that is pushed into soil by a hydraulic ram on a truckmounted boom. An auger can be used to remove the HMAC and base layers and collect
Shelby tube samples without introducing water in the process. After the HMAC and base
layers are removed, the Shelby tube is positioned on the subgrade and pushed roughly 2 ft.
(0.6 m) into the soil, as shown in Figure 4-24. The pipe is then pulled out and placed on a
rack. A hydraulic ram then pushes the soil out of the pipe in (hopefully) one cylindrical
piece. Aluminium foil and cardboard tubes are used to protect the Shelby tube samples.
The tube is labelled with information including the location, orientation and depth of the
sample.
If deeper samples are desired, the Shelby tube can be extended and pushed into the bottom
of the same hole. That sample is then labelled as coming from a lower depth at the same
location as the first. In this way, several samples can be collected at any location, then
pieced together later for a complete soil profile.

26

12) What is an overlay? Discuss the various types of overlays that are commonly
used on the pavement surface.
ANS: Strengthening of existing pavements may be done by providing additional
thickness of pavement of one or more layers over existing pavement which is called
overlay. In partially damaged pavement sections, patch repair works are carried out
before constructing the overlay.
The overlay combinations are divided into 4 categories based on the type of existing
pavement and overlay as:
a) Flexible overlay over flexible pavement
b) Flexible overlay over rigid pavement
c) Rigid overlay over flexible pavement
d) Rigid overlay over rigid pavement
13) What are geosynthetics? How can they be used in pavement overlays?
ANS: A geosynthetic, according to ASTM (1994) is a planar product manufactured from a
polymeric material used with soil, rock, earth, or other geotechnical-related material as an
integral part of a civil engineering project, structure, or system. Since ASTM provides this
definition, the department has had a number of applications in materials other than the
traditional geo- applications.
For the purposes of this manual, we will define a geosynthetic as A manmade material
that consists of one or more products used to provide added benefit to the infrastructure.
In this manual, we intend to address only those roadway applications. Applications of
geosynthetics

for

use

in

other

structures

are

addressed

in

the

Bridge

DivisionsGeotechnical Manual.
There have been relatively few studies that have offered concrete evidence regarding
geosynthetic material performance in the roadway. Although the department has conducted
or is a participant in a number of studies, there is plenty of room for improvement in
characterizing

all

geosynthetic

materials

to

quantify their benefit top

pavement

performance.
Although improper usage or installation has contributed to early failure in some cases,
department geosynthetic usage has increased in recent years with good success.
Applications have been in asphalt concrete overlays of existing asphalt concrete and
hydraulic (Portland) cement concrete surfaces, unbound (flexible) base, soft subgrade,
27

drainage,

and

encapsulation. Shared terminology exists between

these

applications;

clarification of the terminology will hopefully alleviate the confusion.


This section begins with a description of materials for applications that are most frequently
used in the department. Following this, a discussion of the materials frequently used in
each application and the expected behavior of the material is presented.
Description of Materials and Applications
Several materials are available for incorporation into pavement structures. The two
geosynthetics primarily used are geotextiles and geogrids. Recently, manufacturers have
combined the two materials creating a type of geocomposite (combination of a
geosynthetic and another product).
Applications
Applications of geosynthetics are typically used by the department within pavement
structures. Primarily, there are four applications:
Materials
The term geosynthetic is broad and encompasses numerous materials. A geotextile is a
permeable geosynthetic made of textile materials; this material has uses in all applications.
Numerous other materials may be used in combination with geotextiles to create a
geocompositeincluding grids, nets, meshes, and webs; these are most frequently used in
HMAC but do have applications with soil moisture barriers and even soil erosion blankets.
Geogrids are primarily used for reinforcement and are formed from integrally connected
and attached elements creating apertures in which adjoining material embed and are of
sufficient size to interlock with it. The reference to geogrid is primarily reserved for the
application in unbound bases and subgrades; although, reinforcing grids are available for
use in HMAC. Geomembranes are low-permeability geosynthetics used as moisture
barriers.
Geosynthetics for Surface Layer Reinforcement
Geosynthetics used for HMAC applications have been used by the department since the
mid-1980s. Since then, there have been numerous products manufactured for various
purposes to incorporate in the pavement surfaces. These products are used to:
28

reduce reflective cracking from:


o

existing layers of HMAC or

cracks and joints in rigid pavements and

resist moisture intrusion into lower pavement layers. Fabric underseal has worked well
in some parts of the state when placed on CRCP and overlaid with HMAC.

Department

research

project

0-1777

investigated

the

use

of

several

geosynthetics inHMAC. Researchers developed a guidance document, Geosynthetic


Guidelines, available on TxDOT's Construction and Materials Tips webpage. This
document discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using geosynthetics in HMA
applications, guidance on the selection of materials, cost considerations, pavement design,
as well as construction considerations.
Geosynthetics for Geotechnical Reinforcement
Several research projects have been conducted in an attempt to quantify the benefits of
geosynthetics in unbound pavement layers. Applications range from a passive use of
materials creating a separation between pavement layers to an active role when relying on
geosynthetics to take on some of the structures load.
Materials most often used in this application are geogrids and geotextiles. Many
geosynthetics have multiple uses and can serve more than one function. For instance,
geogrids are often used in a way to restrain base material during compaction or loading,
but they also serve as a separation layer to prevent excessive migration and intermingling
of pavement layers at interfaces.
Ongoing departmental research will attempt to better describe the interaction between
pavement layers and geosynthetics used in pavement layers. Additional research on the
contribution of geogrid to pavement performance is being conducted in a pooled fund
study. As the findings are made available, this section will be updated.
Current usage in Texas has been for both restraint of pavement materials and for separation
of materials. The department acknowledges the benefit of geosynthetics in pavement
layers; however, there has been insufficient conclusive research to develop guidance with
regard to reinforcement of unbound materials in pavement structures at this time. As

29

aresult, usage of geosynthetics is limited to separation and restraint and cannot be


accounted for in FPS-19W design.
Separation
Separation of layers is intuitive. This mechanism places a physical barrier between two
materials to prevent them from intermixing. Mixing of fine-grained soil particles into the
overlying flexible base can create a significantly finer gradation over time, increasing the
base suction properties and greatly decreasing its strength. The result of this placement is
to maintain a viable structure for a longer period of time.
Another more recent application, and possibly the most quantifiable, is grid used as both a
separator layer and a restraint to base movement. It has been used to prevent or reduce
reflective cracking due to differential relative movement between pavement layers. An
example of this use is between subgrades (or stabilized materials) with high plasticity
index(PIs) that exhibit large volumetric shrinkage when moisture is drawn out due to
weather, drainage, or vegetation demands and unbound flexible base. The grid holds the
unbound material in a tight matrix allowing the shrinking subgrade (or stabilized material)
to move and prevent subgrade cracking from propagating to the pavement surface.
Restraint
Restraint is the mechanism of preventing or reducing the lateral movement of materials.
This application is useful when soft subgrades are present and a platform for subsequent
construction is required. Both grid and geotextiles have been used in this application. Grid
is more likely to be used and can be very effective. When textiles are used, note that
textiles must extend much more than geogrids to provide the same level of support.
A grid may be used for:

mitigation of reflective cracking (see mechanism in separation)

creation of a working platform on soft subgrades, sacrificial layer to obtain compaction


of subsequent layers or

a substitute in lieu of lime, e.g., sulfate laden soils, where lime is detrimental, or urban
areas, where lime may not be tolerated or combinations of these and soft soils.
14) Benkelman Beam Deflection studies were carried out on 15 selected points on a
stretch of flexible pavement during summer season using a dual wheel load of
30

4085 Kg, 5.6Kg/cm2 pressure. The deflection values obtained in mm after


making the necessary lag corrections are given below. If the present traffic
consists of 750commercial vehicles/day, determine the thickness of bituminous
overlay required, if pavement temperature during the test was 39C and the
correction factor for subsequent increase in subgrade moisture content is 1.3.
Assume annual rate of growth of traffic as 7.5%. Adopt IRC guidances. 1.40,
1.32, 1.25, 1.35, 1.48, 1.60, 1.65, 1.55, 1.45, 1.40, 1.36, 1.46, 1.50, 1.52, 1.45mm.
ANS: Mean deflection, D = (D / n) = (21.74/ 15) = 1.45mm
Standard deviation = 0.1072 mm
Characteristic deflection, Dc = 1.45+0.1072 = 1.5572mm
Deflection after temperature correction = 1.5572- (39-35)0.0065= 1.531mm
Corrected deflection for subgrade moisture= 1.531 x 1.3 = 1.9903mm
Assuming the number of years after last traffic count before the construction of overlay
as n= 2, design traffic A is
A = P(1+r)(n+10)
=750(1+0.075)12
=1787 commercial vehicles/day.
As per IRC Da = 1mm
Overlay thickness of granular material,
Ho = 55o log(Dc/Da)
= 550 log(1.9903/1)
= 164.41mm= 16.5cm
Assuming an equivalent factor of 2 for bituminous concrete overlay, the design thickness
of bituminous concrete overlay = 0.5 x 16.5 = 8.25 cm.

15) Existing black top pavement was tested using Benkelman Beam with a test
vehicle of 8170 Kg rear axle load. Observations recorded at a pavement
temperature of 43C are given below. Length of test stretch = 300m. Compute

31

the thickness of overlay of bituminous concrete, taking allowable deflection as


1.25mm, if the factor for subgrade moisture correction is 2.0.
Serial number subsection Rebound deflection
(mm)
1

1.46

1.52

1.56

1.76

1.96

1.74

1.68

1.74

1.96

10

1.42

11

1.56

12

1.62

ANS: Mean deflection, D = (D / n) = (19.98/ 12) = 1.665mm


Standard deviation = 0.1762 mm
Characteristic deflection, Dc = 1.665+0.1762 = 1.8412mm
Deflection after temperature correction = 1.8412- (43-35)0.0065= 1.7892mm
Corrected deflection for subgrade moisture= 1.7892 x2 = 3.5784mm
As per IRC Da = 1.25mm
Overlay thickness of granular material,
Ho = 55o log(Dc/Da)
= 550 log(3.5784/1.25)
= 251.24mm= 25.124cm
Assuming an equivalent factor of 2 for bituminous concrete overlay, the design thickness
of bituminous concrete overlay = 0.5 x 25.124 = 12.562 cm.

32