Sunteți pe pagina 1din 50

Acta Oecologica Carpatica

VII

HISTORICAL HUMAN IMPACT EFFECT


ON THE ALPINE CAPRA STREAM
MACROINVERTEBRATES AND FISH COMMUNITIES
(SOUTHERN ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS)
Angela CURTEAN-BNDUC 1, Doru BNDUC 2,
Luciana URSU and 3 and Rzvan RCHIT 4
KEYWORDS: Carpa ii Meridionali/Merridional Carpahians/Transylvanian Alps,
Fgra Mounains, alpine sream, human impac, macroinverebraes and fish communiies,
assessmen.
ABSTRACT
Waer
Framework
Direcive
(60/2000/CE) Naional Managemen Plan
approved by Governmen No. 80/2011.,
European insiuions of Applied Ecology,
Universiy of Environmenal Proecion,
environmenal movemens and foundaions,
European Union legislaion, ec., bring a
subsanial conribuion o he proecion of
loic ecosysems in Europe and no only.
Proposal and implemenaion of soluions o

resore he longiudinal conneciviy reduce


he effec of he hydromorphological
pressures (cross barring) on waercourses.
The soluion presened is relaively complex
bu robus wih non-corrosive componens.
Besides a safe ranspor of fish upsream of
he basin, his sysem, afer some resizing,
can be successfully used o anoher dam or
discharge sill locaed on he Someul Mic
River.

REZUMAT: Resabilirea coneciviii longiudinale a rului Someul Mic n apropierea


barajului din saul Mnsirea (Transilvania, Romnia).
Direciva Cadru Ap (60/2000/CE),
longiudinale au ca scop reducerea efecului
Planul Naional de Gesiune aproba prin
presiunilor
hidromorfologice
asupra
Horrea de Guvern nr. 80/2011, insiuiile
cursurilor de ap. Soluia prezena n
europene cu compeene n proecia
prezenul aricol ese relaiv complex dar
mediului, Universiaea de Ecologie, ONGrobus i nu conine componene corozive.
urile de mediu, legislaia european ec. i
Pe lng un sisem de ranspor n siguran
aduc o conribuie subsanial la proecia
a peelui n amone, aces sisem, dup
ecosisemelor loice din Europa i nu numai.
unele reajusri, poae fi uiliza cu succes i
Propunerea i implemenarea de soluii
n cazul alor baraje i svilare siuae pe
penru
resaurarea
coneciviii
rul Someul Mic.
RSUM: Rablissemen de la connecivi longiudinale de la rivire Somesul Mic
dans la proximi du barrage du village Mnsirea (Transylvanie, Roumanie).
La Direcive Cadre de lEau
proposiion e la mise en place des soluions
(60/2000/CE), Le Plan Naional de Gesion
pour le rablissemen de la connecivi
approuv par la Dcision Gouvernemenale
longiudinale se proposen de rduire leffe
no. 80/2011, les insiuions europennes
des pressions hydro morphologiques sur les
ayan des compences dans la proecion de
cours deau. La soluion prsene dans le
lenvironnemen, lUniversi Ecologique,
prsen aricle es relaivemen complexe
les ONGs de profil, la lgislaion
mais robuse e ne comprend pas des
europenne ec. conribuen dune manire
composans corrosifs. A par un sysme de
signifiane la proecion des cosysmes
ranspor sur du poisson en amon du bassin,
loiques dEurope e non seulemen. La
ce sysme, aprs cerains rajusemens,
Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

-1-

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

peu re uilis avec succs dans le cas


daures barrages
INTRODUCTION
The Carpahian Mounains are a par
of he Alps-Himalaya mounains sysem,
formed in he geological Alpine orogeny
period, a sysem which is exended from he
wes of Europe o he souh of Asia,
including: Alps, Alborz, Apennine, Alas,
Balkan, Baeic Cordillera, Carpahian,
Canabrian, Caucasus, Dinaric Alps,
Hellenides, Himalayas, Hindu Kush,
Karakoram, Pamir, Pyrenees, Taurus and
Zagros mounains. (Moores and Fairbridge,
1998; Schmid e al., 2004). The Romanian
Carpahians appeared due o he Alpine
orogeny in he acive edge of he Euroasian
geological plae (Muihac, 1990).
The Transylvanian Alps (de Maronne,
1907), are a mounain ranges which divide
he cenral and souhern naional erriory of
Romania. They cover a significan par of
he Romanian Carpahian Mounains, par
which is locaed beween he Prahova River
in he eas and he Timi and Cerna rivers in
he wes (Posea e al., 1974).
One of he mos emblemaic alpine
relief for he Carpahian Mounains can be
found in he Fgra Mounains which
srech beween he Ol River a wes and he
Rucr-Bran Passage and he Dmbovia
River a eas, and are characerised by
frequen aliudes over 2,000 m a.s.l (ex.
Moldoveanu Peak, 2,544 m, Negoiu Peak,
2,535 m, Viea Mare Peak, 2,527 m,
Lespezi Peak, 2,522 m, Vnoarea lui
Bueanu Peak, 2,506 m), accenuaed slopes,
massiveness and a large range of
geomorphosies which were formed by he
acion of he glaciers. (Badea, 1983; Rou,
1980; Posea, 1982; Florea 1998; Voiculescu,
2002; Niculescu e al., 1960; Vuia, 2011)
One of he mos imporan arges of
he European Union in he environmenal
field of ineres are he proecion,
conservaion and he improvemen of he
environmen qualiy, in he conex of he
inelligen use of he ecosysems resources
and services. In he las few decades he
biodiversiy conservaion was one of he
main objecives in his respec. The acion
-2-

frame a he EU level, o preserve he


biodiversiy was mainly esablished based
on he Habias Direcive (92/43/EEC) and
Birds Direcive (79/409/EEC). Romania is
he counry wih he highes biogeographic
diversiy, wih a oal of five biogeographic
regions: alpine, coninenal, pannonic,
ponic and sepic. (Curean-Bnduc and
Florescu, 2007)
There are few main ways hrough
which he Naura 2000 ne iniiaive in
Romania oo can improve is naure
proecion: exension of he naural areas
surface; he creaion and implemenaion of
correc managemen plans for hese
proeced areas; insiuional capaciy
building; raising awareness. This sudy was
realised o offer daa regarding one very
characerisic alpine sream in one of he
mos represenaive Naura 2000 sie in he
Romanian alpine biogeographic region, he
Fgra Mounains Naura 2000 sie
(adminisraed ogeher wih he Fgra
Piedmon Naura 2000 sie). These wo areas
of communiy ineres overlap over 27
localiies areas, including a oal surface area
of 243,627.7 ha, 20 naural proeced areas
(24,205.5 ha), 66 endemic plan species, 326
plan and animal imporan species of
proecive ineres, ec. (*)
Hisorically, he economic aciviies
have ofen had major desrucive impac on
aquaic species communiies from small
sreams o large rivers. The presen is no
differen, he main direc or/and indirec
effecs on fresh waer ecosysems are mainly
due o he habias physical and chemical
aleraions (Pes, 2001; Dudgeon, 1992,
1995; Iannuzzi and Ludwig, 2004; Das and
Chakrebary, 2007; Markovi e al., 2007;
Liogchii, 2008; Kuzenberger, 2008;
Yacoub, 2011; Tockner e al., 2009; Yildiz e
al., 2010, Curean-Bnduc e al., 2007).
The macroinverebraes and fish
communiies assessmen are commonly used
ools for he aquaic habias ecological
assessmen (Fausch e al., 1990; Edds, 1993;
Harrison and Whifield, 1995; Schiemer,

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

2000; Aparicio e al., 2000; Magalhaes e al.,


2002; Bnduc, 2005; Pon e al., 2007;
Vassilev and Boev, 2008; Kadye e al.,
2008; Cao e al., 1997; Clemens e al.,
1997; Couceiro e al., 2012; CureanBnduc, 2005, 2008; Hilsenhoff, 1981,
1987; Infane e al., 2009; Jiang e al., 2013;
Lcke and Johnson, 2009; Monaghan and
Soares, 2012; Park e al., 2007; Pru and
Doldec, 2010; Rosenberg and Resh, 1993;
Snchez-Monoya e al., 2010).
Assessing macroinverebraes and
fish communiies diversiy causes and
effecs requires an adapaive scale approach
(Friesel e al., 1986; Habersack, 2000;
Levin, 1992; Naiman e al., 1992; Ciesielka
and Bailey, 2007; Heino and Mykr, 2006;
Jiang e al., 2011; Keih e al., 2009; Roh e
al., 1996). The river/basin approach is one of
he mos appropriae one in his respec.
The need for his specific ype of
scienific sudies is coming from he serious
concerns regarding he rend of coninuous
and
pronounced
quaniaively
and
qualiaively deerioraion of he aquaic
ecosysems as complex and very valuable
resources worldwide (Kalinin and Bykov,
1970; Sokolov, 1977; Aldwell, 1977; Arnell,
2004; Lundqvis, 2009). In spie of he
relaively low/medium human access in he
mounainous zones, hese areas have
become laely a more and more aracive
arge for new socio-economic objecives
and he Carpahians Mounains is no an
excepion (Dank, 1993; Cosea, 2008;
Curean-Bnduc e al., 2008; Sandu e al.,
2008; Hajdu and Fleky, 2008; Reif e al.,
2009; Bnduc, 2010).
The Fgra Mounains alpine loic
ecosysems, especially he high aliude
secors, due o heir relaive isolaion and
difficul acces for field work were sudied
relaive rarely in comparison wih he lower
secors of hese rivers or more
lower/accessible
rivers
from
his
perspecive. In he presen energeic crisis,
he alernaive sources should o be quickly
adoped
and
exploied,
including
microhidropower plans which are fiing
well in alpine areas, bu wihou o

irresponsible
negaively
affec
he
environmen elemens.
Hydropower generaes arround 16%
of global elecriciy consumpion and from
generaed energy from renewable energy
sources, i is 86% (IPCC, 2011).
Afer Romania joins he EU in 1
January 2007, i was clear (European
Conference for Renewable Energy) ha ill
2020 i should produce 20% renewable
energy, microhidropowerplans being a
naural opion for a Carpahian counry like
Romania is.
On he oher hand he degradaion of
Carpahian sreams due o microhydropower
plans consrucion is one of he nine
significan problemaical cases of hus
consrucion in he world, (WWF, 2013).
In Romania aproximaively 411
hidropower plans are in various sages of
planing, permiing, consrucion or in
exploiaion and more han a quarer are
porpose o be siuaed inside or a he limi
of proeced areas. In his conex numerous
sreams and rivers are already or can be
affeced
in
he
fuure
by
microhidropowerplans
in
Fgra
Mounains Naura 2000 sie and Fgra
Piedmon Naura 2000 sies: Blea,
Crioara, Ru Mare, Viea, Smba,
Ucea, Dejani, Lupa, Viioara, Sebe,
Valea Saului, Boia Mic, Boia Mare,
Curpn, Capra, Buda-Oic, Modrogaz, Valea
Rea, Zrna, Vlsan, Valea Doamnei,
Topolog, Cuca, Brsa, Ol, Pojora,
Brescioara, ec. All of hese are/will be/can
be funded from UE funds and green
cerificaes acquired were allocaed under
he naional scheme are no based on
ecologycal crierion (WWF, 2013).
Capra Sream is one of he mos
represenaive case of negaive human
impac on a Carpahian loic sysem siuaed
in a Naura 2000 sie (Fig. 1), due o a series
of microhidropowerplans made wihou
adequae impac sudies. I is sill o be
found in his sudy if he acual sae of
Capra Sream is a consequence of hese
microhidropowerplans or oher human
impacs should be aken in consideraion.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

-3-

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

In spie of some allready exising


species red liss which include also he
Carpahians basin fish species (IUCN Red
Lis of Threaened Species; Kukua and
Sandor 2003; Voloscuk ed. 1996; Bnrescu
in: Bonariuc and Taole, 2005); and also of
publicaions which sugess managemen
elemens including for macroinverebaes
and fish species, and habias managemen
in he Carpahians area (Bnduc e al.,
2006; Curean-Bnduc, 2008, 2010,
Bnduc and Curean- Bnduc 2014).
One of he mos characerisic loic
ecosysem for his exquisie alpine area is
he Capra Sream (Fig. 1), and his specific
sudy inend o bring daa regarding he local
macroinverebrae and fish fauna, daa
needed for he creaion and implemenaion
of a correc managemen plan for he
Fgra Mounains Naura 2000 sie and for
raising awareness in an alpine environmen
which have become laely a arge for
human impac exension and inensificaion.

The Capra gill flows from Capra


glacial lake locaed a he aliude of 2,230
m, wih an area of 18,340 m2 and a deph of
8 m and from Cpria Lake wih an area of
2,190 m2 and a deph of 1.5 m. These wo
alpine lakes are posiioned beneah he edge
of he fifh highes peak of Fgra
Mounains (Vnoarea lui Bueanu, 2,506
m). (Ujvari, 1972; Badea, 1983; Rou, 1980)
The Capra and Buda gills form
ogeher he Arge hidrographical sysem
which has an area of 12.521 km2 and a
lengh of 339,6 km (Insiue of Meeorology
and Hydrology, 1971).
This sysem includes he highes
(166,6 m) concree dam (Vidraru Dam) in
Romania, buil in 1965 for he energy
prducion and supply. The Vidraru Lake has
a buil waer volume of 465 millions m3, a
poenial surface of 893 ha, a lengh of 12,3
km and a circumference of 28 km
(Consaninescu e al., 1990).

Figure 1: Capra River basin localisaion.


The mounain group which includes
he Capra Sream drainage area neighbours
wih Fgra depression a norh, Ol valley
-4-

a wes, Dmbovia valley a eas,


Cmpulung depression, Brdeu, Arefu and
Jiblea a souh (Badea e al, 1983).

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

The main edge where Capra gill


springs from is oriened wes-eas and Capra
The local relief has aliudes of over
2,000 m in he upper par of he basin which
are characerisic for Fgra Mounains.
The minimum aliude where is posiioned
Capra drainage area is a abou 800 m
downsream of Vidraru Lake. (Velcea and
Savu, 1982)
For he firs ime in Romania was
menioned glacial relief here in he Fgra
Mounains area (Lehmann, 1881). Capra
drainage area is characerised by glacial
relief, due o is orogeny and geological
evoluion as was highlighed above.
This area regisered he cuaernary
glaciaion mark, refleced by he presence of
he glacial cirques and valleys wih seep
flanks covered by debris and moraines.
The upper drainage area is mainly
characerized by river and rainfall processes
caused by high leakage and high slopes. The
high duraion of low emperaures upwards
of 1,850 m aliude deermine as domnians
he crionival and orrenial processes, while
a lower aliudes in he deciduos and
coniferous foress, biochemical, river and
rain erosion processes have he mainly role.
Processes ha affec Capra Basin
versans are solifucion, gullying, orrenial
erosion, erosion and ranspor in river beds,
disinegraions, dissoluions and landslides.
Climaic characerisics of he basin
due o is posiion in he relief uni, so ha i
is emperae - coninenal alpine climae,
wih shor and cool summers and long, cold,
snowy winers.
The average annual emperaure
varies in Capra basin area from - 2C in he
upper area a 8C a he boom of i.
Medium and absolue low emperaures of
January range from -10C in he upper basin

river basin is oriened norh-eas. (Ujvari,


1972; Badea, 1983; Rou, 1980).
a -3C a he boom of he basin, and
medium and absolue maxima of July was
6C o 8C.
In erms of rainfall here are mean
annual quaniies beween 1,000 and 1,400
mm. The average snow cover in he basin is
200 days, in winer, he average number of
days wih snow being over 80.
The area is affeced by movemens of
air masses coming from he N and NW.
(Posea e al., 1982)
Capra River has a lengh of 20 km and
he drainage area is 97 km2 (Ujvari, 1972).
Throughou is lengh, he receives several
ribuaries, boh lef and righ.
Major righ ribuaries of he Capra
River are Palinu Creek, Lespezi Creek,
Anghel Creek, Florea Creek, Cerbului
Creek, Modrugazu Creek, San Valley locaed downsream of Vidraru Lake.
Tribuaries of he lef are: Lipioarea
Ursului Creek (found in some maps as he
Piscul Negru Creek), Piscul Negru Creek,
Braila Creek, Ciocanului Creek (Fig. 2).
On he righ ribuary, Palinu Creek
here is a lake called Clun, wih an area of
7751 m2 and a deph of 11.8 m Goa River,
flows ino Vidraru lake and hen coninue
downsream o he righ ribuary - Valley of
San. (Ujvari, 1972)
Landforms ha resuled from he
evoluion in ime of he river basin, have
offered various opporuniies for various
human economic aciviies such as livesock
(especially sheep), logging (was praciced
rafing on he Capra river) ourism, ec...
Peneraion of human presence in his
relaively isolaed area wih difficul access
was faciliaed especially afer achieving
Transfgran road.

MATERIAL AND METHODS


Aquaic macroinverebraes and fish
are considered wo of he mos imporan
groups of organisms seleced in he frame of
Waer Framework Direcive (60/2000/EC) o
assess and monior he inegriy of aquaic
biological communiies in he process of

assessing he ecological saus of a river


(Mecalfe, 1989; Rosenberg and Resh, 1993;
Gabriels e al., 2010; Seinman e al., 2003).
The field campaign of his sudy was
realised
in
2012.
The
sudied
macroinverebraes and fish sampling

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

-5-

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

saions were chosen according o: he valley


morphology, he ype of river subsraum,
he confluences wih he main ribuaries and
he human impac presence bias (hydro
echnical works and poluion).
For he macroinverebraes sampling
he Surber Sampler (887 cm2 surface and
250 m mesh ne) was used, four
quaniaive and one qualiaive samples
were aken in each of he 17 sampled river
secors, from near springs area o he sream
flow in Vidraru Lake (Fig. 1). The samples
were preserved in 4% formaldehyde soluion
(NaHCO3 was added). Afer ha, he
samples were washed in a 0.2 mm mesh ne
and analised a KRSS OPTRONIC
binocular
and
Olympus
(150X)
sereomicroscope. Idenifying individuals

was made a level of sysemaical group.


Afer he sampled individuals were
idenified and couned, hey were kep in
polysyrene ube, preserved in 70% alcohol,
and included in he collecions of he
Aquaic Biology Laboraory, Faculy of
Sciences, Lucian Blaga Universiy of
Sibiu, Romania.
To procces he primary daa was
made he repor wih he number of
individuals per square meer. The relaive
abundance and frequency were used for he
macroinverebraes quaiaive descripion
and Hilsenhoff Bioic Index o quanify he
river ecological saus, reverse Simpson and
Margalef indexes o measure biodiversiy, as
a mehod of river homeosazy assessmen..

Figure 2: Surber Sampler benhic macroinverebraes sampling on Capra Sream.


The indexes used o describe benhic
macroinverebraes communiies and analyze
sream ecological saus relaive abundance,
frequency, ecologycal significance index,
Simpson Reversed Index, Margalef Index,
Hilsenhoff Index and EPT/C Index. The
relaive abundance and frequency are used
o describe quaniaively he srucure of
-6-

comuniies, Hilsenhoff Bioic Index o


quanify ecological saus of he river, and
Simpson Reversed Index and Margalef
Index o measure biodiversiy as a mehod
o evaluae he homeosasis of he river.
The Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera
orders and Chironomidae family abundace
show he balance beween benhic

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

inverebrae communiies; Ephemeropera,


Plecopera and Trichopera are more
sensiive o polluion han Chironomidae
(Plafkin and colab., 1989). Balanced
disribuion of hose groups reveal sream
secors wih good ecologycal saus.
This index reveal he raio beween
he sum of sampled individuals who belong
o Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera
orders groups and he sum of individuals
who belong o Chironomidae family group.
Fish are considered he mos
imporan groups of organisms seleced in
he frame of Waer Framework Direcive
(60/2000/EC) o assess and monior he
inegriy of aquaic biological communiies
in he process of assessing he ecological
saus of a river. Much more hey are used o
assess he ecological saus of rivers as hey
are composed of species ha consiue a
large range of rophic levels and polluion
olerances (Mecalfe, 1989; Rosenberg and
Resh, 1993).
The wo fish sampling mehods used
were: elecrofishing wih AquaTech IGT600
and AquaTech IG1300 devices (Fig. 3) on
100 m river secors unis.
One of he largely acceped
inegraed approach in he fish assessmen
and monioring respec is ha one based on
he bioic inegriy using fish communiies
(Karr, 1981; Leonard and Orh, 1986;
Fausch and Schrader, 1987; Lyons e al.,
1996; Hughes and Oberdorf, 1998;
Goldsein and Simon, 1998; Smahers e al.,
1998; Miller e al., 1988; Bramble and
Fausch, 1991; Oberdorff e al., 2002; Sosoa
e al., 2003; Bozzei and Schulz, 2004; Pon
e al., 2007; Peesse e al., 2007; Casai e
al., 2009). I is demonsrable he fac ha
paricular adapaions are necessary for each
sudied river in differen regions. Such a
specific adapaion of an inegriy bioic
index for he Carpahians area basins/rivers
was proposed by Bnduc and CureanBnduc (2002), is main elemens are
shorly presened below and were used in
his sudy.
The combinaion of merics for his
index was creaed o expose insighs of

assemblage, communiy, populaion, and


ecosysem perspecives, and o sui local
and/or regional paerns in fish ecology.
Every seleced meric value should
be compared wih he esimaed value from
similar/comparable
sies/secors
wih
smaller, minimal or no human impac.
In general i can be considered ha
as his adaped/flexible bioic inegriy index
values decrease, he habia and loic
ecosysems (as sources of services and
resources) qualiy decrease oo.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score represen a nine-merics
sum and can be inerpreed using he
following inervals for comparaion: (45-43
excellen) his maximum score aes an
excellen, comparable o prisine condiions,
excepional assemblage of species; (42-36
very good) his second score cerifies a
decreased species richness, inoleran
species in paricular, sensiive species
presen; (35-31 good) his score describes
fair inoleran and sensiive species absence,
skewed rophic srucure; (30-24 fair) a
score which reflecs some expeced species
absen or rare, while omnivores and oleran
species are dominaing; (23-17 fairly poor)
his score shows few species and individuals
presen, oleran species ; (16-10 poor) his
score reveals very few species and
individuals
presen,
oleran
species
dominaing; (9-1 very poor) his minimum
possible score reflecs exreme few species
and individuals presen, oleran species
dominaing, or no fish individuals presen.
The seleced fish assemblage merics
in his respec are he following: species
richness and species composiion (oal
number of fish species; proporion of
benhic fish species; proporion of waer
column species; proporion of individuals of
inoleran species; proporion of individuals
of ypically oleran species), rophic
composiion (proporion of individuals as
omnivores feeders; proporion of individuals
as insecivores feeders) and fish abundance
and condiion (number of individuals in
sample;
inroduced
species
on
zoogeographic basis). Raings of 5, 3 and 1

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

-7-

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

are assigned o each meric according o


weaher is assessed value approximaes,
deviaes from he value expeced a a
comparable sie ha is relaively undisurbed.
The Carpahian Fish - Index of Bioic
Inegriy (CF-IBI) scores resuls are
generally overlapping on oher much more
resources consuming assessmen mehods
(Bnduc and Curean-Bnduc, 2002). This
index significan merics respond o river
naural, seminaural and/or anhropogenic
variaions/disurbances in a predicable
manner, mach loic ecosysem qualiy
correcly revealing an imporan correlaion
wih he local habias and microhabias
degradaion, are generally spaially and
emporally sable, and showed significan
correlaion wih independen measures of
waer qualiy. Alhough he overall
classifying success of his index is similar o
ha of is merics, i is superior o hem,
becouse is a compromise measure, balancing
he endencies of he merics overesimae or
underesimae he habia qualiy.
The high qualiy of he Carpahian
Fish - Index of Bioic Inegriy, as an

-8-

indicaor of fish assemblage and habia


qualiy, rely on he: possibiliy o explain he
feaures of he fish assemblage in a
paricular Carpahian region; racked
medium-erm and long-erm modificaions,
is replicable across a wide suie of sampling
secions; is evidenly correlaed wih oher
indicaors of he river waer qualiy.
The Carpahian Fish Index of
Bioic Inegriy is very efficien in
discriminaing over a large gradien of
human negaive effecs: bioic assemblages
changing due o flow aleraion, dam
discharges,
oxic
chemicals;
habia
disurbance,
microhabia
disurbance,
unnaural runoff, banks vegeaion clearing,
islands vegeaion clearing, excess sedimens
or nuriens ranspor, channelizaion, desnagging; and seem consisen in medium
and long periods of ime in differeniaing
human aciviies negaive impacs.
The main qualiy of he assessmen made
wih his specific index is based on is
capaciy o inerpre he main feaures of he
fish assemblage in characerisic alpine
Carpahians area condiions.

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

Figure 3: Elecrofishing sampling.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

-9-

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figure ....................................................................
- 10 -

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Saion 1 (Fig. 4) is siuaed on he
closes poin near he river sreams from all
prelevaion poins. I is siuaed a 1,785 m
aliude and heir coordinaes are norh
laiude 4535.682 and eas longiude

2438.666. The maximum river widh is 3


m, medium widh 1,5 m and he minimum 1
m. The subsrae is made of rock, boulder
and gravel.

Figure 4: Sampling saion 1 on Capra Sream.


Macroinverebrae
communiy
presen in his river is formed by:
Oligochaea , Araneida, Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera,
Dipera, Turbellaria and Chironomidae (Tab.
11).
From he numerical poin of view
Chirinomidae
are
dominan
groups
(40,75%). From all sisemaical groups he
group wih bigges frequency are:
Oligochaea, Araneida, Ephemeropera,
Plecopera, Trichopera and Chiromidae.
The presen sysemaic groups wih bigges
frequency are: Oligochaea, Araneida,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Chironomidae. Dependen of calculaed

ecological semnificaion index we have:


eudominan
groups:
Chironomidae,
Plecopera and Ephemeropera; dominan
groups: Oligochaea; subdominan groups
:Trichopera, Araneida and oher Dipera,
above groups: Collembola and Turbellaria.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring
sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper
habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa)

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 11 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Saion S2 (Fig. 5) is siuaed a he


aliude of 1721 m, a 1 km downsream of
he prelevaion saion. The coordinaes are
4535.419 norh laiude and 2438.672

eas longiude. The maximum widh is 7,5


m and he minimum is 1,5 m. The medium
widh is 2,5 m.

Figure 5: Sampling saion 2 on Capra Sream.


The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river is formed by
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Dipera and
Turbellaria (Tab. 11). From he numerical
poin of view Chironomidae are dominan
groups. (69,22%). The sysemaic groups
wih
he
highes
frequency
are:
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera, and
Dipera. Acording o calculaed ecological
semnificaion index we have: eudominan
groups: Chironomidae, Plecopera, and
Ephemeropera; subdominan groups: oher

- 12 -

Dipera and Trichopera, receden groups:


Oligochaea and Turbellaria, subreceden
groups: Collembola.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring
sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper
habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa)

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

Prelevaion saion S3 (Fig. 6) is


siuaed a 1663 m, a 1 km downsream of
he Saion 2. The coordinaes are 4535.130
norh laiude and 2438.534
eas

longiude. The maximum widh of he river


is 4 m, minimum 1 m and medium widh 2,5
m. The maximum deph is 70 cm and he
minimum is 8 cm.

Figure 6: Sampling saion 3 on Capra Sream.


The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river is formed by
Olihochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera and Dipera.
(Tab. 11). From he numerical poin of view
he dominaing groups are: Chironomidae
(67,27%). The sysemaic groups wih he
highes
frequency
are:
Oigochaea,
Araneida, Ephemeropera, Plecopera, and
Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed
ecological semnificaion index we have:
eudominan
groups:
Chironomidae,

Plecopera, Ephemeropera; receden groups:


Oligochaea, Oher Dipera Araneida,
Collembola, Trichopera and Turbellaria.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring
sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper
habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa)

Saion S4 (Fig. 7) is siuaed a 1541


m aliude, a 1 km downsream from saion
nr. 3. The coordinaes are: norh laiude
4535.013, and eas longiude 2437.925.
The maximum widh of he river is 8 m ,
minimun widh 2 m and medium widh 3,5

m. The maximum deph of he river is abou


60 cm, and he minimum deph is 5 cm. A
200 m downosream from his saion is
siuaed he firs microhidropowerplan (Fig.
8).

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 13 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figure 7: Sampling saion 4 on Capra Sream.

Figure 8: Capra Sream microhidropowerplan Capra I.


The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera,
Dipera and Turbellaria. (Tab. 11). From he
numerical poin of view he dominan
groups are: Chironomidae (72,66%). The
groups wih he highes frequency are:
Ephemeropera, Plecopera and Dipera.
Acording
o
calculaed
ecological

semnificaion index we have: eudominan


groups : Chironomidae and Ephemeropera,
dominan groups: Plecopera; subdominan
groups: Oher Dipera, receden groups:
Trichopera,
Oligochaea,
Aranedia
richopere,
oligochee
i
araneide;
subreceden groups: Collembola and
Turbellaria.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score is 1 very poor.

Sampling saion nr. S5 (Fig. 9) is


siuaed a 1492 m aliude, a 0,9 km
downsream of saion nr.
S4. The
coordinaes are: 4534.809 norh laiude,

and 2437.447 eas longiude.


The
maximum widh of he river is 8,5 m , he
minimum 3 m and he medium 4 m. The

- 14 -

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

maximum deph of he river is 50 cm while


he minimum is 5 cm.

Figure 9: Sampling saion 5 on Capra Sream.


The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Osracoda,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera,
Dipera and Turbellaria (Tab. 11). From he
numerical poin of view he dominaing
groups are: Chironomidae (55,9%). The
groups wih he highes frequency are:
Oligochaea, Ephemeropera, Plecopera,
and Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed
ecological semnificaion index we have:
eudominan
groups:
Chironomidae,
Ephemeropera;
dominan
groups:

Trichopera and Oligochaea; subdominan


groups: Plecopera, oher Dipera and
Araneida; subreceden groups: Turbellaria
and Osracoda.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring
sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper
habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa)

The prelevaion saion nr. S6 (Fig.


10) is siuaed a1492 m aliude, a 1 km
donwsream of saion nr. S5. The
coordonaes are: 4534.809 norh laiude
and 2437.447 eas longiude. The

maximum widh of he river is 8,5 m,


minimum is 3 m and medium is 4 m The
maximum deph of he river is 50 cm and
minimum is 5 cm.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 15 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figure 10: Sampling saion 6 on Capra Sream.


The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Colembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera and dipera.
(Tab. 11). From he numerical poin of view
he dominaing groups are: Chironomidae
(91,87%). The groups wih he highes
frequency are: Oligochaea, Ephemeropera,
and Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed
ecological semnificaion index we have:
eudominan
groups:
Chironomidae;
subdominan
groups:
Ephemeropera,
Oligochaea and Plecopera; receden

groups: Araneida, Oher Dipera and


Trichopera and subreceden groups:
Collembola.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring
sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper
habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa)

Sampling saion S7 (Fig. 11) is


siuaed a 1249 m aliude, a 3 km
downsream of saion S6. The coordinaes
are: 4533.726 norh laiude,
and
2436.468 eas longiude. The maximum
widh of he river is 12 m, he minimum is 6

m and medium wih is 8 m. The maximum


deph of he river is 65 cm and he minimum
is 7 cm. In he downsream par of he
prelevaion saion he habia is very
affeced by he microhidropowerplan which
consrucion is in progress (Fig. 12).

- 16 -

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

Figure 11: Sampling saion 7 on Capra Sream, naural loic habia.

Figure 12: Sampling saion 7 on Capra Sream,


loic habia negaively affeced by works for microhidropowerplan Capra II.
The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera and Dipera.
From he numerical poin of view he
dominan groups are: Oligochaea (63,05%).
The groups wih he highes frequency are:
Oligochaea, Araneida, Collembola and
Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed

ecological semnificaion index we have:


eudominan groups: Oligochaea and
Chironomidae; dominan groups:Araneida;
subdominan groups: Collembola; receden
groups:
Ephemeropera
and
Oher;
subreceden groups: Plecopera.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor).

Prelevaion Saion S8 (Fig. 13) is


siuaed a 1 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S7 a 1242 m aliude.
The coordinaes are Norh laiude

4533.697 and eas longiude 2436.426.


The maximum widh is 9 m long, minimum
1,5 m. In his poin is siuaed Siesa coage
(Fig. 14). Here we can noice wased

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 17 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

waer evacuaion and he lack of a reamen


plan.

Figure 13: Sampling saion 8 on Capra Sream, naural habia.

Figure 14: Tourisic complex a sampling saion 8 on capra Sream.


The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Osracoda,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera (Tab. 11). From he numerical poin
of view he dominan groups are:
Chironomidae (76,46%). The groups wih
he highes frequency are: Plecopera,
- 18 -

Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed


ecological semnificaion index we have:
eudominan groups: Chironomidae and
Plecopera;
subdominan
groups:
Oligochaea, Ephemeropera, Araneida and
Trichopera; receden groups: Oher Dipera
and subreceden groups: Osracoda.

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

The Carpahian Fish Inegriy


Bioic Index score (1 very poor).
Prelevaion saion S9 (Fig. 15) is
siuaed a 2 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S8. The saion is
posiioned a 1158 m aliude.
The

coordinaes are: 4532.925 norh laiude


and 2435.920 eas loginude. The
maximum widh of he river course is 14 m
and he minimum 10m.

Figura 15: Sampling saion 9 on Capra Sream.

Figure 16: Sampling saion 9 on Capra Sream, pipe ready o be buried.


The benhonic macroinverebraes
communiy from his river secor is formed
by: Oligochaea, Araneida, Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera,
Dipera, Amfipoda and Turbellaria. (Tab.
11). From he numerical poin of view he
dominan groups are: Chironomidae
(78,89%). The groups wih he highes
frequency are: Oligochaea, Araneida,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and

Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed


ecological semnificaion index we have:
eudominan
groups:
Chironomidae;
eudominan
groups:
Plecopera;
subdominan
groups:
Ephemeropera,
Oligochaea, Araneida and Trichopera;
receden groups: oher Dipera, Amphipoda
and Turbellaria;
subreceden groups:
Collembola.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 19 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

The Carpahian Fish Inegriy Bioic Index


score (31 good), describes fair inoleran
and sensiive species absen, skewed rophic

srucure. Jus wo Salmo trutta fario


individuals were sampled in he fishing ime
uni.

Sampling saion S10 (Fig. 17) is


siuaed a 2.4 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S9. The saion is
posiioned a 1131 m aliude. The
coordinaes are: 4531.899 norh laiude
and 2435.284
eas loginude. The
maximum widh of he river course is 14 m
and he minimum 10m.

The maximum widh of he river


course is 13m and he minimum 7 m. The
maximum deph is 70 cm and he minimum
is 15 cm. In his prelevaion saion half of
he river course is ocupied by river rocks.
Downsream from his saion i is siuaed
he Microhidropowerplan nr. III (Fig. 18).

Figura 17: Sampling saion 10 on Capra Sream, burried pipe a microhidropowerplan no. III.

Figure 18: Sampling saion 10 on Capra Sream,


loic habia negaively affeced by works for microhidropowerplan Capra III.
The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera (Tab. 11). From he numerical poin
of view he dominan groups are:
- 20 -

Chironomidae (64,03%). The groups wih


he highes frequency are: Oligochaea,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera. Acording o calculaed ecological
semnificaion index we have: eudominan
groups: Chironomidae and Plecopera;

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

dominan
groups:
Ephemeropera;
subdominan
groups:
Trichopera,
Oligochaea and oher Dipera, receden
groups: Araneida;
subreceden groups:
Collembola.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor).

Sampling saion S11 (Fig. 20) is


siuaed a 2.4 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S10. The saion is
posiioned a 1046 m aliude. The
coordinaes are 4530.793 norh laiude
and 2435.028 eas longiude. The
maximum widh of he river course is 9 m
and he minimum 5 m.

Figure 19: Sampling saion 11 on Capra Sream.

Figure 20: Near he sampling saion 11, remaines of old rocks and loggs dam used for rafing.
The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera (Tab. 11). From he numerical poin
of view he dominan groups are:
Chironomidae (85,09%). The groups wih
he highes frequency are: Ephemeropera,

Plecopera, and Chironomidae. Acording o


calculaed ecological semnificaion index we
have: eudominan groups: Chironomidae;
subdominan
groups:
Ephemeropera,
Plecopera, Oligochaea and Araneida;
receden groups: Oher Dipera, Collembola
and Trichopera.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 21 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

The Carpahian Fish Inegriy


Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring

sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper


habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa)

Prelevaion saion S12 (Fig. 21) is


siuaed a 1.7 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S11. The saion is
posiioned a 966 m aliude. The
coordinaes are: 4530.124 norh laiude
and 2435.011 eas longiude. The
maximum widh of he river course is 8 m
and he minimum 1.3 m.The river bed is
formed by: sand and gravel.

The maximum widh of he river


course is 13 m and he minimum 7 m. The
maximum deph is 70 cm and he minimum
is 15 cm. The rock filling widh which cover
he pipe is half of he iniial river bed. The
prelevaion saions is siuaed downsream
of he Michrohidropowerplan nr. IV which
is under consrucion.

Figure 21: Sampling saion 12 on Capra Sream.


The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera (Tab. 11). From he numerical poin
of view he dominan groups are:
Chironomidae (88,98%). The groups wih
he highes frequency are: Plecopera and
Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed
- 22 -

ecological semnificaion index we have:


eudominan
groups:
Chironomidae;
subdominan groups: Ephemeropera and
Plecopera; receden groups: Araneida,
Oligochaea Trichopera and oher Dipera;
subreceden groups: Collembola.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy Bioic Index
score (1 very poor), a minimum possible
score of his index, reflecs no fish

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

individuals presen. In his area in similar


loic secors of neighbouring sreams (e.g.
Buda Sream) are proper habias for good

populaions of Salmo trutta fario and Cottus


gobio. (Bnduc unpublished daa)

Prelevaion saion S13 (Fig. 22) is


siuaed a 1.5 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S12 on he fuure
placemen of he Microhidropwerplan nr. V.
The saion is posiioned a 915 m aliude.
The coordinaes are: 4529.289 norh
laiude and 2434.998 eas loginude. The
maximum widh of he river course is 8 m
and he minimum 1.3 m. The river bed is
formed by: sand and gravel.

The maximum widh of he river


course is 7 m and he minimum 4 m. The
maximum deph is 130 cm. To be able o
bury he pipe here have been developed a
road hrough he river bed (800 m disance)
(Fig. 23).
In his prelevaion saion he
building ground necessary o bury he pipes
is wider han remaining river bed widh. The
riverbed work is done wih heavy
consrucion equipmen wih no measures o
minimize he impac. (Fig. 24).

Figure 22: Sampling saion 13 on Capra Sream, loic habia negaively affeced by works for
microhidropowerplan Capra V underground pipes.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 23 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figure 23: Pipe which akes waer for generaing hidro-energy.

Figure 24: Heavy consrucion equipmen work near he prelevaion saion nr. 13 loic habia
negaively affeced by works for microhidropowerplan Capra V.
Ne of he laeral connecion of
Capra River wih one of his ribuary is

- 24 -

blocked by he consrucion of a dam (Fig.


23).

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

Figura 23: Dam on a ribuary in he proximiy of sampling saion 13.


The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Osracoda,
Collembola, Ephemeropera, Plecopera,
Trichopera and Dipera (Tab. 11). From he
numerical poin of view he dominan
groups are: Chironomidae (71,91%). The
groups wih he highes frequency are:
Ephemeropera,
Plecopera
and
Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed
ecological semnificaion index we have:
eudominan groups: Chironomidae and
Ephemeropera;
subdominan
groups:
Collembola,
Plecopera,
Araneida,
Oligochaea, and Oher Dipera; receden
groups :Trichopera; subreceden groups:
Osracoda.

The Carpahian Fish Inegriy


Bioic Index score (1 very poor).
Prelevaion saion S14 (Fig. 24) is
siuaed a 1.7 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S13 on he fuure
placemen of he Microhidropwerplan nr.
VI. The saion is posiioned a 890 m
aliude. The coordinaes are: 4528.649
norh laiude and 2435.826 eas loginude.
The maximum widh of he river course is
11 m and he minimum 9 m. The river bed is
formed by clifs, big boulders, gravel and
sand. The maximum deph of he waer si
abou 1 m and he minimum 30 cm. The
flanks are covered by deciduous foress and
coniferous foress.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 25 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figura 24: Sampling saion 14 on Capra Sream,


loic habia negaively affeced by works for microhidropowerplan Capra VI.
In his prelevaion saion he laeral
connecion of Capra river wih a ribuary is
sopped by an ani-boom sedimens dam.
The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera. From he numerical poin of view
he dominan groups are: Chironomidae
(88,89%). The groups wih he highes
frequency are: Oligochaea, Plecopera,
Trichopera and Dipera. Acording o
calculaed ecological semnificaion index we
have: eudominan groups: Chironomidae;
subdominan
groups:
Plecopera,
Trichopera, Oligochaea and oher Dipera;
receden groups: Ephemeropera, Araneida
and Collembola.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy Bioic Index
score (1 very poor), a minimum possible

- 26 -

score of his index, reflecs no fish


individuals presen. In his area in similar
loic secors of neighbouring sreams (e.g.
Buda Sream) are proper habias for good
populaions of Salmo trutta fario and Cottus
gobio. (Bnduc unpublished daa).
Prelevaion saion S15 (Fig. 25) is
siuaed a 1.5 km downsream from
prelevaion saion S14 a 845 m aliude.
The coordinaes are: 4528.644 norh
laiude and 2436.058 eas loginude. The
maximum widh of he river course is 11 m
and he minimum 9 m. The subsrae is
formed by large boulders, gravel and sand.
In he river bed we noiced clifs oo. The
maximum deph is 90 cm while he
minimum is 20 cm. The The flanks are
covered by deciduous foress and coniferous
foress.

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

Figure 25: Sampling saion 15 on Capra Sream.


The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Osracoda,
Collembola, Ephemeropera, Plecopera,
Trichopera and Dipera (Tab. 11). From he
numerical poin of view he dominan
groups are: Chironomidae (82,73%). The
groups wih he highes frequency are:
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera. Acording o calculaed ecological
semnificaion index we have: eudominan
groups: Chironomidae; subdominan groups:
Trichopera, Oligochaea, Oher Dipera

Plecopera and Ephemeropera; receden


groups:
Collembola
and
Araneida,
subreceden groups: Osracoda.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring
sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper
habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa).

Nex o las prelevaion saion nr. 16


(Fig. 26) is siuaed a 500 m downsream
he saion
S15. The coordinaes are:
4527.751 norh laiude and 2436.172 eas
longiude. The maximum widh of he river
course is 18 m, he minimum 13 m and he

medium 15 m. The subsrae is formed by


large boulders, gravel and sand. The
maximum deph is 95 cm while he
minimum is 20 cm. The flanks are covered
by deciduous foress and coniferous foress.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 27 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figure 26: Sampling saion 16 on Capra Sream.


The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Epemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera and
Dipera (Tab. 11). From he numerical poin
of view he dominan groups are:
Chironomidae (89,77%). The groups wih
he highes frequency are: Ephemeropera,
Plecopera, Trichopera and Dipera.
Acording
o
calculaed
ecological
semnificaion index we have: eudominan
groups: Chironomidae; subdominan groups:
Plecopera, Trichopera, Oher Dipera and
The las Capra Sream prelevaion
saion, S17 is siuaed upsream he Vidraru
Lake a he edge of he lake, upsream he
ani-boom sedimens dam (Fig. 27). The
coordinaes are: 4527.543' norh laiude
and 2436.202' eas longiude. S17 is
siuaed a 843 m aliude. The subsrae is
- 28 -

Oligochaea;
receden
groups:
Ephemeropera and Aranieda; subreceden
groups: Collembola.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor), a
minimum possible score of his index,
reflecs no fish individuals presen. In his
area in similar loic secors of neighbouring
sreams (e.g. Buda Sream) are proper
habias for good populaions of Salmo
trutta fario and Cottus gobio. (Bnduc
unpublished daa).
formed by gravel and sand. The maximum
widh of he river course is 29 m and he
minimum 9 m. Here we can see small
sedimen paricles cumulaion (sand and
mud)
and gravel which generae he
semnificaive change of he habias and
microhabias agains heir naural sae. The

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

maxumum deph of he river course is 1 m


and he minimum 10 cm. The flanks are

covered by deciduous foress and coniferous


foress.

Figure 27: Sampling saion 16 on Capra Sream.

Figure 28: Logs blocks he dam near he Vidraru Lake during high flows period in S17.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 29 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figure 28: Sampling saion 16 on Capra Sream, view from downsream of he concree aniboom sedimens dam on he Capra River Course a he edge of Lake Vidraru.
The macroinverebraes communiy
from his river secor is formed by:
Oligochaea,
Araneida,
Collembola,
Ephemeropera, Plecopera, Trichopera,
Dipera (Tab. 11). From he numerical poin
of view he dominan groups are:
Chironomidae (86,01%). The groups wih
he highes frequency are: Plecopera and
Chironomidae. Acording o calculaed

ecological semnificaion index we have:


eudominan
groups:
Chironimidae;
subdominan
groups:
Plecopera,
Ephemeropera, Oligochaea, Trichopera
and oher Dipera; receden groups: Araneida
and Collembola.
The Carpahian Fish Inegriy
Bioic Index score (1 very poor).

Analising he similariies beween


he
benhonic
macroinverebraes
communiies from he Capra Sream based
on he relaive abundance of he presen
axonomic groups we found ou ha hey
can be grouped in 8 classes (Fig. 30, Tab.
11). I The communies dominaing from he
numerical poin of view are Chironomidae.
These communiies are presen a 1.6 km
downsream
from
he
firs
microhidropowerplan (prelevaion saion
nr. 6) a 2.4 km downsream of he
Microhidropowerplan nr. III which was
under consrucion (S11) downsream of he
Microhidropowerplan nr. IV in consrucion
during he prelevaion period (S12), in he
fuure
emplacemen
of
Microhidropowerplan nr. VI where during
prelevaion period he invesor was
preparing
for
he
consrucion
of
Microhidropowerplan nr. VI. (S14),
downsream of he fuure emplacemen of
he Microhidropowerplan VI (S16) and
upsream of he Vidraru Filling Lake (S17).
II Communiies where dominan (numerical)
are sill Chironomidae bu wih a lower
relaive abundance han he above case.
These communiies are siuaed a 1500 m
downsream of he fuure emplacemen of
he Microhidropowerplan nr. VI and a 1500
m downsream of he ani-boom
sendimens dam which blocks he
connecion of Caprea sream wih a ribuary
of his. III Communiies wih numerical

dominan groups Chironomidae and


Plecopera. These are presen near he
ourisic area Piscul Negru (S8) and a 2 km
downsream of he ourisic complex (S9).
IV Communiies wih he highes relaive
abundance (beween 64,03% and 72,66%)
beside hem apearing also Ephemeropera
(6,76-15,33%) and Plecopera (8,4-15,79%).
These communiies are presen in he firs 3
km of he river, downsream he firs
prelevaion saion (S2, 3 and 4) in he place
where began he Microhidropwerplan nr. III
consrucion during he prelevaion period
(S10) and a 3 km downsream of
Microhidrpowerplan nr. IV also in
consrucion (S13). V Communiies wih he
highes relaive abundance: Chironomidae
(40,75%),
Plecopera
(26,67%),
Efemeropera (17,61%) and Oligochaea
(7,2%). These communiies are siuaed in
he firs prelevaion saion, a he closes
poin from he headspring (S1). VI
Communiies wih numerical dominan
groups Chironomidae (55,9%), Trichopera
(15,31%) and Ephemeropera (12,36%).
These are presen a aprox. 4 km
downsream from he firs prelevaion
saion (S5). VII Communiies wih
numerical dominan groups Oligochaea
(63,05%) and Chironimidae (24,05%).
These are presen donwsream from he
Michrohidropowerplan nr. II in consrucion
during he prevelaion period (S7).

- 30 -

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica

Cluster Tree

VII

S6
S16
S14
S12
S17
S11
S15
S9
S8
S13
S4
S2
S3
S10
S5
S1
S7

10
15
20
Distances
Figura 30: Similariy analysis of benhonic
macroinverebraes from Capra Sream
based on relaive aboundance values of hese groups
(grouped a euclidean disance S1-S17 prelevaion saions)
Tabel 11: Benhonic macroinverebraes communiies srucure from he
Basin (Disribuion ind/square m, A Relaive abundance, F-frequency and W
index).
Sampling
Sistematic
A
F
sation
group
1
Cls. Oligochaea
6,29
100
Cls. Araneida
1,64
100
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
1,26
75
Ord. Ephemeropera
17,61
100
Ord. Plecopera
26,67
100
Ord. Trichopera
2,52
100
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
40,75
100
Ale dipere
2,01
75
Cls. Turbellaria
1,26
50
2
Cls. Oligochaea
1,04
75
Cls. Araneida
0,54
75
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
0,1
50
Ord. Ephemeropera
12,52
100
Ord. Plecopera
12,86
100
Ord. Trichopera
1,29
100
Fam. Hydropsychidae
0,2
75
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
69,22
100

Capra River
ecological
W
6,29
1,64
0,94
17,61
26,67
2,52
40,75
1,51
0,63
0,78
0,41
0,05
12,52
12,86
1,29
0,15
100

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 31 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

- 32 -

Ale dipere
Cls. Turbellaria
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Turbellaria
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Turbellaria
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Osracoda
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Turbellaria
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca

1,83
0,4
1,03
0,67

100
75
100
100

100
75
1,03
0,67

0,42
12,58
15,79
0,48
0,12

75
100
100
75
50

0,32
12,58
15,79
0,36
0,06

67,27
1,03
0,6
0,71
0,77

100
75
75
75
50

67,27
0,77
0,45
0,53
0,38

0,06
15,33
8,4
0,77

25
100
100
75

0,01
15,33
8,4
0,58

72,66
1,12
0,06
7,2
1,48
0,18

100
100
25
100
75
25

72,66
1,12
0,01
7,2
1,11
0,05

12,36
4,98
15,31

100
100
50

12,36
4,98
7,66

55,9
2,21
0,37
2
0,71

100
75
25
100
75

55,9
1,66
0,09
2
0,53

0,14
2,14
2
0,29

25
100
75
50

0,04
2,14
1,5
0,14

91,87
0,86
63,05
6,74

100
50
100
100

91,87
0,43
63,05
6,74

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

10

11

Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Osracoda
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Turbellaria
Ord. Amphipoda
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera

3,52
1,17
0,29

100
50
25

3,52
0,59
0,07

24,05
1,17
5,5
1,55
0,17

100
50
50
75
25

24,05
0,59
2,75
1,16
0,04

3,44
10,82
1,55
0,17

75
100
75
25

2,58
10,82
1,16
0,04

76,46
0,34
4,22
2,88

100
50
100
100

76,46
0,17
4,22
2,88

0,19
4,8
5,37
1,73
0,77

25
100
100
100
50

0,05
4,8
5,37
1,73
0,38

78,89
0,38
0,38
0,38
2,18
0,8

100
50
25
25
100
50

78,89
0,19
0,1
0,1
2,18
0,4

0,11
6,76
21,19
2,63
0,11

25
100
100
100
25

0,03
6,76
21,19
2,63
0,03

64,03
2,18
2,64
2,08

100
75
75
75

64,03
1,63
1,98
1,56

0,75
4,91
3,4
0,38

50
100
100
50

0,38
4,91
3,4
0,19

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 33 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

12

13

14

15

- 34 -

Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Osracoda
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Osracoda
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere

85,09
0,75
1,38
1,38

100
75
50
75

85,09
0,57
0,69
1,03

0,2
4,33
1,97
0,79
0,39

25
75
100
75
25

0,05
3,25
1,97
0,59
0,1

88,98
0,59
2,81
3,37
0,28

100
75
75
75
25

88,98
0,44
2,11
2,53
0,07

4,49
10,96
3,37
0,84
0,28

75
100
100
755
25

3,37
10,96
3,37
0,63
0,07

71,91
1,69
1,77
1,06

100
75
100
75

71,91
1,26
1,77
0,8

0,47
1,77
2,48
1,89
0,47

50
50
100
100
25

0,24
0,89
2,48
1,89
0,12

88,89
1,18
4,18
0,55
0,18

100
100
75
50
25

88,89
1,18
3,14
0,27
0,05

0,73
1,45
2
4,91
0,36

50
100
100
100
50

0,36
1,45
2
4,91
0,18

82,73
2,91

100
100

82,73
2,91

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

16

Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere
Cls. Oligochaea
Cls. Araneida
Cls. Inseca
Ord. Collembola
Ord. Ephemeropera
Ord. Plecopera
Ord. Trichopera
Fam. Hydropsychidae
Ord. Dipera
Fam. Chironomidae
Ale dipere

17

1,52
0,58

75
75

1,14
0,44

0,07
0,51
3,12
2,25
0,87

25
100
100
100
100

0,02
0,51
3,12
2,25
0,87

89,77
1,31
2,51
0,42

100
100
75
25

89,77
1,31
1,88
0,1

0,42
3,76
3,34
1,67
0,42

50
75
100
75
25

0,21
2,82
3,34
1,25
0,1

86,01
1,46

100
75

86,01
1,1

0.8

0.6

0.4
f ( x)
0.2

0.2

10

15

20

25

x
Figure 31: Simpson Index variaion for Inseca Class.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 35 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

1.8

1.6

f ( x)

1.4

1.2

10

15

20

25

x
Figure 32: Margalef Index variaion for Inseca Class.
Acording o reversed Simpson and
Margalef Index values Inseca Class we
recorded ha alhough he diversiy is high

(Fig. 32) he axonomic groups disribuion


in he loic sysem is homogenous (Fig. 31).

Capra River ecological state based on benthonic macroinvertebrates communities


structure
The bioic Hilsenhoff index shows
on he oher prelevaion saions is
organic charge of he waer and according o
semnificaive
for
he
benhonic
regisered values he waer qualiy is good in
macroinverebraes communiies from he
he prelevaion saions of he Capra River
river.
(Tab. 12). This poin shows ha he
The presened srucure of benhonic
unreaed waer resuling from ourisic areas
macroinverebraes communiies in he
along he river doesn have a nevaive
previous subchaper and he bioic inegriy
impac on he benhonic macroinverebraes
values of he Hilsenhoff and EPT/C indexes
communiies. The EPT/C index reveals he
(Tab. 12, Fig. 33), shows he exisance of 3
communiies axonomic groups srucure
ecological zones on he river
: I The
sensiive o differn ypes of impac.
superior secor of he river characerised by
Sysemaic
groups
Ephemeropera,
a very good sae. Here he anhropic impac
Plecopera and Trichopera beside he fac
is insignifican, he aquaic habias being
ha hey are sensiive o Oxigen
close from he naural sae of he river. II
concenraion hey direcly depend on he
The middle secor of he river reveals a
lihologic subsrae srucure and ype of
unsaisfacory
because
of
he
flow. The regisered value of EPT/C higher
Microhidropowerplan nr. II consrucion
han 1, only in he firs Prelevaion saion
work and because of he unreaed wase
(Tab. 12) shows ha he impac of
waer resuling from he Conacul Ursului
microhidropowerplans preparaory works
chale.
Because
of
he
- 36 -

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

Microhidropowerplan nr. II developmen


work here have been observed hidrological
and morphological changes in he river bed.
The river banks have been also modified
because of he pipe burial. III The lower
secor of he river (downsream from S8)
shows a beer ecological sae han he
preveious secor. The good waer qualiy is
due o ribuaries waers which flow direcly
in he Capra river course. This river secor

is also exposed o anhropic pressures: he


developmen of four microhidropowerplans,
buried pipes in he river banks, hasy se up
roads for buring he pipes in he river bed,
he building sie wih heavy equipmen in
he river bed wihou any measures o reduce
he impac, he side connecion block of he
river and he unreaed wase waer ejecion
from he ourisic zone siuaed near by.

Tabel 12: The Hilsenhoff index values (wih he adequae qualiy classes), Margalef and
reversed Simpson (based on he resuled values for Inseca Class).
IBH
EPT/C
Margalef
Reversed Simpson
S1
3,54
Excellent
1,14
1,37
2,89
S2
4,16
Very good
0,38
1,19
1,79
S3
4,09
Very good
0,43
1,23
1,94
S4
4,32
Good
0,33
1,22
1,74
S5
4,15
Very good
0,58
1,09
2,33
S6
4,85
Good
0,04
1,39
1,12
S7
6,29
unsatisfactory
0,06
1,45
1,54
S8
4,52
Good
0,2
1,08
1,44
S9
4,6
Good
0,16
1,46
1,35
S10
3,87
Very good
0,47
1,34
2,05
S11
4,67
Good
0,1
1,45
1,25
S12
4,75
Good
0,08
1,46
1,19
S13
4,26
Good
0,21
1,55
1,65
S14
4,72
Good
0,07
1,35
1,19
S15
4,64
Good
0,1
1,44
1,31
S16
4,73
Good
0,07
1,26
1,19
S17
4,71
Good
0,1
1,47
1,27

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 37 -

Acta Oecol. Carpat. V

Figura 33: Capra River secors enframe in qualiy caegories, depend on Hilsenhoff
bioic index values (IBH).
CONCLUSIONS
Afer he analysis of ecological sae
of he roaional flow having he same effec
of Capra River based on bioic inegriy
on he communiies. We propose he nex
indexes (IBH i EPT/C) we noiced he
managemen measures for his river secor
presen impac of he microhidropowerplans
o reduce/ban he causes which generaes
developmen
on
he
benhonic
hidrological changes, so he analysed loic
macroinverebraes communiies. These are
communiies can benefi by he ecological
direcly affeced by he lihological subsrae
flow regime ( meanioned in waers law nr.
change (in condiions of which hey depend
107/1996
necessary for he aquaic
on he subsrae) and by he flow regime
communiies srucure mainainance and
change.
ecological sysem well funcion in naural
Along he Capra sream we managed
condiions or apropiae condiions o naural.
o disinquish 3 ecological zones.
Then we propose re-esablishing measures
The first ecological zone is
for he modified river banks and reducion
characerised by a good ecological sae he
of he river bed erosion by creaing some
anhropic impac beeing insignifican.
semi-naural dams which lower he speed
Because he loic habias are in an apropiae
flow. The third ecological zone is beer
sae of he naural one, we recomend
han he previous one from he ecological
apropiae managemen of loic communiies
poin of view because of he lef and righ
conservaion for his river secor. The
ribuaries conribuion of he Capra river. In
second ecological zone is characerised by
his secor he anhropic impac is sill
an unsaisfacaory ecological sae mainly
seminificaive because of he developmen
because of he Microhidropowerplan nr. III
of he four Microhidropowerplans, he
developemen and because of he unreaed
ribuaries connecion block and he
wasewaers discharges in he river. In his
unreaed wasewaer discharge. The
river secor have been hidrological and
agressive building works simulanous wih
morphological changes which
generae
he semnificaive river bed damage
sress for he benhonic communiies fac
deerminaed a criical rare siuaion in he
which deerminae changes in heir srucure.
Romanian Charpaians he Cottus gobio
The river banks configuraion change also
exincion and he drasic reducion (The
may deerminae river bed deepen because
presence of Salmo truta fario in jus one
- 38 -

G. Clo

Acta Oecologica Carpatica


VII

river secor from 17 prelevaion saions) of


Salmo truta fario idividuals.
Afer
finishing
he
Microhidropowerplans chain consrucion
on his river is compulsory o repopulae
wih rou and bullhead species which before
he anhropic impac had sable populaions
daa. (Bnduc, unpublished daa). These
repopulaions are recomended o be done
wih biologic maerial prelevaed from Buda
sream which have similar ecological
characerisics wih Capra, and also been in
connecion wih Capra river. The exicion
of every fish species in all prelevaion
saions excep saion 9, area wih low
abundance hough is due o major
inadequae inervenions (as emporal aspec
aswell
as
arial
aspec)
of
he
microhidropowerplans consrucion eam
upsream.
This siuaion resuled because of
some facors along he ime: rafing in

inerbelic period,
fracioning of he
ichiofauna conneciviy because of he aniboom sedimens dams wihou fish ladder
buil on he ribuaries and especially he one
buil on Capra in he nearness of he edge of
Vidraru Lake (during he comunism period)
and because of agressive damage of he river
bed
for
pipe
burial
for
he
microhidropowerplans chain in differen
saes of developmen and he secondary
impac of he unreaed wasewaer
discharges of Piscul Negru chale (in he las
2 decades).
The proposed managemen measures for
his river secor are prevenion measures
from developening of new roads hrough
river bed and re-esablishing measures
where hey are need i, re-esablishing he
ribuaries connecions and re-esablising of
pas waer courses, he adequae reamen of
waserwaers.

Different baits compensate short term samplings of bugs and ants?; 137/144 pp.

- 39 -

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The auhors hank he Faculy of
Science of he Lucian Blaga Universiy of
REFERENCES
Bnduc D, Fishs associations habitats
quality relation in the Trnave rivers
ecological assessment, Transylvanian
Review
of
Sysemaical
and
Ecological Research, 2, Ediura
Universiii "Lucian Blaga" din
Sibiu, ISSN 1841-7051, ISBN 973739-141-1, pp. 123 136, 2005
Cao Y., Bark A. W., Williams W. P., 1997,
Analysing benhic macroinverebrae
communiy change along a polluion
gradien: A framework for he
developmen of bioic indices, Water
Research, 31 (4): 884-892.
Clemens W. H., Farris J. L., Cherry D. S.,
Cairns Jr. J., 1989, The influence of
waer qualiy on macroinverebrae
communiiey responses o copper in
oudoor
experimenal
sreams,
Aquatic Tixicology, 14 (3): 249 262.
Couceiro S. R .M., Hamada N., Forsberg B.
R., Pimenel T. P., Luz S. L. B., 2012,
A macroinverabrae mulimeric
index o evaluae he biological
condiion of sreams in he Cenral
Amazon region of Brazil, Ecological
Indicators, 18: 118 125.
Curean-Bnduc A., 2008, Vieu River and
some
tributaries
ecological
assessment
based
on
macroinvertebrate
communities
(Maramure, Romania), Transylv.
Rev. Sys. Ecol. Res., Vol. 5 The
Maramure Mounains Naure Park,
pp. 165-182.
Bnduc D., Curean-Bnduc Angela, A
biotic integrity index adaptation for
a Carpathian (first - second order)
river assesment, Aca oecologica, Vol
IX, Nr. 1-2, Ediura Universiii
"Lucian Blaga" din Sibiu, ISSN
1221-5015, pp. 81 99, 2002
Curean-Bnduc A., 2005, Trnava Mare
River
(Transylvania,
Romania)
ecological assessment, based on the
benthic
macroinvertebrate

Sibiu and NGO Ecour Sibiu for he suppor


during he field campaign.

communities, Transylv. Rev. Sys.


Ecol. Res., 2, pp. 109-122.
Hilsenhoff W.L., 1981 - Use of arhropods o
evaluae waer qualiy of sreams,
Tech. Bulletin, No. 100, Deparmen
of Naural Resources, Madison, WI.
Hilsenhoff W. L., 1987 - An improved bioic
index of organic sream polluion,
Great Lakes Entomologist, 20:3139.
Kukua and Sandor, 2003 n: Wikowski e
al., Europress, Krakw, Poland,
Infane D. M., Allan D. J., Linke S. and
Norris R. H., 2009 Relaionship of
fish
and
macroinverebrae
assemblages
o
environmenal
facors: implicaions for communiy
concordance, Hydrobiologia, 623:
87-103.
Jiang X., Xie Z., Chen Y., 2013,
Longiudinal
paerns
of
macroinverebrae communiies in
relaion o environmenal facors in a
Tibean-Plaeau
river
sysem,
Quaternary International, 304: 107
-114.
Lcke J. D., Johnson R. K., 2009, Deecion
of ecological change in sream
macroinverebrae assemblages using
single
meric,
mulimeric
or
mulivariae approaches, Ecological
Indicators, 9 (4): 659 669.
Monaghan K. A., Soares A. M. V. M., 2012,
Bringing new knowledge o an old
problem: Building a bioic index from
loic
macroinverebrae
rais,
Ecological Indicators, 20: 213 220.
Park Y., Song M., Park Y., Oh K., 2007,
Communiy paerns of benhic
macroinverebraes colleced on he
naional scale in Korea, Ecological
modelling, 203: 26 33.
Pru N., Doldec S., 2010, From
composiional
o
funcional
biodiversiy merics in bioassessmen:
A case sudy using sream
macroinverebrae
communiies,

Ecological Indicators, 10 (5): 1025


1036.
Rosenberg D. M., Resh V. H. (Eds.), 1993,
Freshwater
Biomonitoring
and
Benthic
Macroinvertebrates,
Chapman and Hall, New York.
Snchez-Monoya M. M.,. Vidal-Abarca M.
R, Surez M. L., 2010, Comparing
he
sensiiviy
of
diverse
macroinverebrae merics o a
muliple
sressor
gradien
in
Medierranean sreams and is
influence on he assessmen of
ecological
saus,
Ecological
Indicators, 10 (4): 896 904.
Habersack H. M., 2000 The riverscaling concep (RSC): a basis for ecological
assessmens, Hydrobiologia, 422/423: 4960.
Ciesielka I. K., Bailey R. C., 2007
Hierarchical srucure of sream ecosysems:
consequences
for
bioassessmen,
Hydrobiologia, 586: 57-67.
Heino J. and Mykr J., 2006
Assessing
physical
surrogaes
for
biodiversiy: Do ribuary and sream ype
classificaions reflec macroinverebrae
assemblage diversiy in running waers?,
Biological Conservation, 129: 418-426.
Jiang X., Xiong J., Xie Z. and Chen
Y., 2011 Longiudinal paerns of
macroinverebrae funcional feeding groups
in a Chinese river sysem: A es for river
coninuum concep (RCC), Quaternary
International, Vol. 244, 2: 289-295.
Keih D. A., Orscheg C., Simpson C.
C., Clarke P. J., Hughes L., Kennelly S. J.,
Major R. E., Soderquis T. R., Wilson A. L.
and Bedward M., 2009 A new approach
and case sudy for esimaing exen and
raes of habia loss for ecological
communiies, Biological Conservation, 142:
1469-1479.
Roh N. E., Allen J. D., and
Errickson, D. E., 1996 Landscape
influences on sream bioic inegriy
assessed a muliple spaial scales.
Landscape Ecology, 11, 141-156.
Transylvanian
Review
of
Sysemaical and Ecological Research, 3,
Reeza Naional Park 2006 DB eds 1-204,

Transylvanian
Review
of
Sysemaical and Ecological Research, 5,
The Maramuresului Mounains Naure Park
2008 AC-B eds., 1-222
Transylvanian
Review
of
Sysemaical and Ecological Research, 9,
The Rodna Mounains Naional Park 2010,
A. C-B eds. 1-210
The Iron Gaes Naural Park 2014 A
and D16.), in fac each sream
basin should have is special designaed
sudy o can obain a more accurae specific
assessmen, monioring and managemen
daa.
Muihac V., 1990 - Srucura
geologica a erioriului Romaniei, Ediura
Tehnica, Bucuresi, ISBN 973-31-0193-8,
418.
CureanBnduc A., Bnduc D.,
Buca
C.,
Watershed
Management
(Transylvania, Romania) implications,
risks, solutions, Sraegies o Enhance
Environmenal Securiy in Transiion
Counries, NATO Securiy rough Science
Series C: Environmenal Securiy,
Springer, pp. 225 - 238, ISBN 978-1-40205995-7, 2007.
Consaninescu M. and Pslaru M.,
1990, Consrucii hidroenergeice n
Romania 1950-1990, 322.
Muihac V., 1990. Srucura geologica
a erioriului Romaniei Tehnica, Buchares,
419 p.
Moores E. M. And Fairbridge R. W.
1998. Encyclopedia of European and Asian
Regional Geology. Encyclopedia of Earh
Sciences Series, London, 825 pp.
Schmid A. M., Fgenschuh B.,
Kissling E. and Schuser R., Teconic map
and overall archiecure of he Alpine
orogen, Ecologae geol. Helv. 97 (2004)93117, Birkhuser Verlag, Basel.
Badea L., (coord.) 1983, Geografia
Romaniei vol. 1, Geografia Fizica, Ediura
Academiei Romane.
Maronne E. De, 1907, Recherches sur
lvoluion morphologicue des Alpes de
Transylvanie (Karpaes mridionales), Rev.
de gogr. Annuelle, . I (1906-1907), Paris,
286, p., (in French).

2007, Curean-Banaduc and Florenina


Florescu (eds.) ED. Alma Maer Sibiu, ISBN
978-973-632-402-4.
Posea G., (coord.) 1982Enciclopedia
Geografica a Romaniei, Ed. Didacica si
Pedagogica, Bucuresi (in Romanian)
Rosu A., 1980, Geografia Fizica a
Romaniei, Ed. Didacica si Pedagogica,
Bucuresi.
Florea M., 1998, Munii Fagarasului
Edi. Foon Brasov, p. 189.
Voiculescu
M.,
2002,
Sudiul
poenialului geoecologic al Masivului
Fagaras si proecia mediului inconjuraor,
Edi. Miron Timisoara, p. 375.
Niculescu G., Nedelcu E. and Iancu S.,
1960, Nouvelle conribuion a l'ude de la
morphologie
glaciaire
des
Carpaes
roumaines, Recueil'udes gographiques
concernan le errioire de la Rpublique
Roumanie, Edi. Academiei, Bucuresi, pp.
29-43.
Bonariuc N., Carea rosie a
verebraelor din Romania, 180 p., Academia
romana
Posea G., Popescu N. and Ielenicz
M., 1974. Relieful Romaniei, Ediura
Siinifica, Bucuresi, 483.
Banaduc D., Oprean L., Bogdan A.
and Curean-Banaduc A., The assessmen,
monioring and managemen of he
Carpahian
rivers
fish
diversiy,
Managemen of Susainable Developmen,
Sibiu Romania,
Voloscuk I., (ed.) 1996, Red daa
book, Liss of hreaened plans and animals
of he Carpahian Naional Parks and
reserves. ACNAP, Taranska Lomnica,
Slovak Republik.
The
Inernaional
Union
for
Conservaion of Naure and Naural
Resources.Inernaional
Union
for
Conservaion of Naure Resources (IUCN)
Red
Lis
of
Threaened
Species
hp://www.iucnredlis.org/
Kukua K. and Sandor J., Fishes and
Lampreys in: Wikowski Z. J., Krl W. and
Solarz W. (eds.), Carpahian Lis of
Endangered Species, WWF and Insiue of
Naure Conservaion, Polish Academy of
Sciences, Vienna-Krakow, ISBN 83-9189140-2, 84 p., 2003.

Consaninescu
e
al.,
1990,
Consrucii hidroenergeice in Romania
1950-1990, Edi. Ara Grafica, 322.

Bnduc D., 2001 Specii de pei dulcicoli


i migraori n mediul dulcicol, de
ineres comuniar, prezene n
Romnia, n Naura 2000 n
Romnia, Conservarea speciilor i
habiaelor acvaice, coordonaor
Curean-Bnduc Angela, Edi. Alma
Maer Sibiu, ISBN 973-632-243-2,
72 - 81. (in Romanian)
Bnduc D., 2008 Umbra krameri
Walbaum, 1792 a Naura 2000
proeced fish species, in Romania,
Acta Ichtiologica Romanica III,
Bnduc D. (ed.), 33-44.
Bnrescu M. P. and Bnduc D., 2007
Habias Direcive (92/43/EEC) fish
species (Oseichhyes) on he
Romanian
erriory,
Acta
Ichtiologica Romanica II, Bnduc
D. (ed.), 43-78.
Sundseh K. and Creed P., 2008 Naura
2000
Proecing
Europe's
biodiversiy, European Commission,
Direcorae
General
for
he
Enviromen, ISBN 9789279083082,
296.

Muihac V., 1990 - Srucura geologica a


erioriului
Romaniei,
Ediura
Tehnica, Bucuresi, ISBN 973-310193-8, 418.
CureanBnduc A., Bnduc D., Buca
C.,
Watershed
Management
(Transylvania,
Romania)

implications,
risks,
solutions,
Sraegies o Enhance Environmenal
Securiy in Transiion Counries,
NATO Securiy rough Science
Series C: Environmenal Securiy,

Springer, pp. 225 - 238, ISBN 978-14020-5995-7, 2007.


Consaninescu M. and Pslaru M., 1990,
Consrucii
hidroenergeice
n
Romania 1950-1990, 322.
* hp://infonaura2000.cndd.ro/documens/
sesiuni_de_insruire/Managemenul_i
negra_al_siurilor_aspece_ehnice.
pdf

1.

Iannuzzi T. J. and Ludwig D. F., Hisorical and


Curren Ecology of he Lower Passaic River,
Urban Habitats. Vol. 2. No. 1. pp. 147-173,
(2004).

2.

Das S. K. and Chakrabary D, The use of fish


communiy srucure as a measure of ecological
degradaion: A case sudy in wo ropical rivers
of India, Biosystems, Vol 90, Issue 1, pp. 188
196, (2007).

3.

Dudgeon D., Endangered ecosysems - a review


of he conservaion saus of ropical Asian
rivers, Hydrobiologia, Vol 248, Iss 3, pp. 167191, (1992).

4.

Dudgeon D., River regulaion in souhern China


- ecological implicaions, conservaion and
environmenal-managemen, Regulaed RiversResearch & Managemen, Vol 11, Iss 1, pp. 3554, (1995).

5.

Pes G., Susaining our rivers in crisis: seing


he inernaional agenda for acion, Water
Science and Technology, Vol. 43, Iss. 9, pp. 3-16,
(2001).

6.

Tockner K., Robinson T. R. and Uehlinger U.,


River of Europe, pp. 700, (2009).

7.

Yacoub H., Human impacs on nuriive value of


Najas spp. in Wadi Allaqi (Nasser Lake, Egyp),
Romanian Journal of Aquatic Ecology, Vol. 1,
pp. 63 82, (2011).

8.

9.

Kuzenberger H., Threas for Danube Region


Biodiversiy - Global rends and local impacs
and changes in biogeographical paerns,
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and
Ecological Research, Vol. 6, The Welands
Diversiy, pp. 149 154, (2008).
Yildiz F. E., nsal N. and Grer I., Waer
polluion a Sulansazligi Weland and Develi
closed basin (Turkey); Transylvanian Review of
Systematical and Ecological Research, Vol. 10,
The Welands Diversiy, pp. 169 - 184, (2010)

10. Liogchii N., Consideraions on he human impac


on some aquaic ecosysems (Moldavia), Acta
Oecologica Carpatica I, pp. 139 144, (2008).

11. Markovi G., Lenhard M. and Gai Z.,


Successions of he ichhyofauna in an europhic
Serbian Reservoir, Acta Ichtiologica Romanica,
Vol. 5, The Maramure Mounains Naure Park,
pp. 151 - 160, (2007).
12. Anipa G., Fauna Ihiologic a Romniei,
Buchares, pp. 288 +, (1909).
13. Bnrescu P. M., Fauna R. P. R., PiscesOseichhyes (Pei ganoizi i osoi), vol. XIII,
pp. 959, (1964).
14. Bnrescu P. M., 1969, Fauna R.S.R.,
Cyclosomaa i Chondrichhzes, vol. XII, fasc.
1, Ediura Academiei R. S. R., p. 1-125,
Bucurei, Romnia.
15. Bnduc D., Fish associaions - habias qualiy
relaion in he Trnave rivers (Transylvania,
Romania) ecological assessmen, Transylvanian
Review of Systematical and Ecological
Research, Vol. 2, The Trnava River Basin,
pp. 123 136, (2005).
16. Bnduc D., The Rul Mare River (Reeza
Mounains, Romania) fish fauna, Transylvanian
Review of Systematical and Ecological
Research, Vol. 3, The Reeza Naional Park,
pp. 117 124, (2006).
17. Bnduc D., The Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758),
(Salmoniformes,
Salmonidae),
species
monioring in he Vieu River (Maramure,
Romania), Transylvanian Review of Systematical
and Ecological Research, Vol. 5, The
Maramure Mounains Naure Park, pp. 183
188, (2008).
18. Bnduc D., Hydroechnical works impac on
Cyclosomaa and Coidae species in he Rodna
Mounains and Maramure Mounains Naura
2000 sies (Easern Carpahians, Romania),
Repede River a sudy case, Transylvanian
Review of Systematical and Ecological
Research, Vol. 9, The Rodna Mounains
Naional Park, pp. 175 184, (2010).
19. Sokolov A. A., World waer resources:
Perspecives and problems, World Development,
Vol. 5, Iss. 5-7, pp. 519-523, (1977).
20. Arnell N. W., Climae change and global waer
resources: SRES emissions and socio-economic
scenarios, Global Environmental Change, Vol.
14, Iss. 1, pp. 31-52, (2004).
21. Lundqvis J., Waer as a human Resource,
Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, pp. 31-42,
(2009).
22. Aldwell C. R., Waer resources of he world Seleced saisics: Fris van der Leeden, Journal
of Hydrology, Vol. 32, Iss. 3-4, pp. 401-402
(1977).
23. Kalinin G. P. and Bykov V. D., The world's waer
resources, pas, presen and fuure, Journal of
Hydrology, Vol. 10, Iss. 3, pp. 308, (1970).

24. Hajdu Z. and Fleky G., Niraes polluion in


Niraj River basin assessmen (Transylvania,
Romania), Acta Oecologica Carpatica I, pp.
115-126 (2008).
25. Cosea M., Using he Impac Marix and he
Sorensen Nework for he evaluaion of land-use
impac upon versans. Case sudy: Sebe River
basin (Mure Basin, Transylvania, Romania),
Acta Oecologica Carpatica I, pp. 127-138
(2008).
26. Curean-Bnduc A., Cosea M. and Bnduc D.,
Sebe River monainous secor (Ol River
waershed) ecological assessmen (Transylvania,
Romania), Acta Oecologica Carpatica I, pp.
145-156 (2008).
27. Reif A., Rudea E., Brinkmann K., Harh B.,
Pcurar F. and Roar I, Vegeaion paerns and
land use sysems in a radiional culural
landscape a case sudy from he village of
Gheari
(Transylvania,
Romania),
Acta
Oecologica Carpatica II, pp. 79-140 (2009).
28. Bnduc D., Hydroechnical works impac on
Cyclosomaa and Coidae species in he Rodna
Mouains and Maramure Mounains Naura
2000 sies (Easern Carpahians, Romania),
Repede River a sudy case, Transylvanian
Review of Systematical and Ecological Research,
Vol. 9, The Rodna Mounains Naional Park, pp.
175 - 184, (2010)
29. Sandu C., Bloesch J. and Coman A., Waer
polluion in he Mure Cachmen and is impac
on he aquaic communiies (Romania)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and
Ecological Research, Vol. 6, The Welands
Diversiy, pp. 97 - 108, (2008)
30. Dank L., Inernaional economic co-operaion
in he Carpahian region, International Business
Reviev, Vol. 2, Iss. 3, pp. 269-279 (1993).
31. Vasilev M. and Boev I., Assessmen of he
ecological saus of some Bulga
32. Minca E. and Pez K. Ecosysem services and
heir mapping in he Tisza/Tisa River basin iniial seps in Hungary and Romania,
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and
Ecological Research, Vol. 6, The Welands
Diversiy, pp. 87 96, (2008).
33. Radu G. A., Biodiversiy - he foundaion of
ecosysem services, Acta Oecologica Carpatica
II, pp. 183 190, (2009).
34. Aparicio E., Vargas M. J., Olmo J. M. and Sosoa
A., Decline of naive freshwaer fishes in a
Medierranean waershed of he Iberian
Peninsula:
a
quaniaive
assessmen.
Environmental Biology of Fishes, 59, pp. 11
19, (2000).
35. Fausch K., Lyons J., Karr J. and Angermeier P.
L., Fish communiies as indicaors of

environmenal degradaion. American Fisheries


Society Symposium, 8, pp. 123- 144, (1990).
36. Pon D., Hugueny B., Beier U., Goffaux D.,
Melcher A., Noble R., Rogers C., Rose N. and
Schmuz S., Assessing river bioic condiion a a
coninenal scale: a European approach using
funcional merics and fish assemblages. Journal
of Applied Ecology, 43, pp. 70 80 (2006).
37. Schiemer F., Fish as indicaors for he
assessmen of he ecological inegriy of large
rivers. Hidrobiologia 422/423, pp. 271 278,
(2000).
38. Harrison T. D. and Whifield A. K., Fish
communiy srucure in hree emporarily
open/closed esuaries on he naal cos.
Ichthyological Bulletin of he J. B. Smih
Insiue of Ichhyology, Grahamsown, Souh
Africa 64: pp. 1 80 (1995).
39. Edds D. R., 1993, Fish assemblage srucure and
environmenal correlaes in Nepal's Gandaki
river. Copeia, pp. 48 60 (1993).
40. Kadye W. T., Magadza C. H. D., Moyo N. A. G.
and Kaivu S., Sream fish assemblages in
relaion o environmenal facor on a monane
plaeau (Nyika Plaeau Malawi). Environmental
Biology of Fishes, 83, pp. 417 428 (2008).
41. Magalhaes M. F., Baalha D. C. and CollaresPereira M. J., Gradiens in sream fish
assemblages across a Medierranean landscape:
conribuions of environmenal facors and
spaial srucure. Freshwater Biologi, 47, pp.
1015 1031 (2002).
42. Bramble R. G. and Fausch K. D., Variable fish
communiies and he Index of Bioic Inegriy in
a wesern Grea Plains river. Transactions of the
American Fisheries Society, 120, pp. 752-769
(1991).
43. Goldsein R. M. and Simon T. P., Toward a
unied definiion of guild srucure for feeding
ecology of Norh American freshwaer fishes. In:
Assessing the Sustainability and Biological
Integrity of Water Resources Using Fish
Communities (Eds. T. P. Simon), pp. 123 202
(1998).
44. Lyons J., Wang L. and Simonson T. D.,
Developmen and validaion of an index of bioic
inegriy for coldwaer sreams in Wisconsin.
North American Journal of Fisheries
Management, 16, pp. 241 256 (1996).
45. Oberdorff T., Pon D., Hugueny B. and Porcher
J. P., Developmen and validaion of a fish-based
index for he assessmen of "river healh" in
France. Freshwater Biology, 47, 1720-1734
(2002).
46. Pon D., Hugueny B. and Rogers C.,
Developmen of a fish-based index for he
assessmen of river healh in Europe: he

European Fish Index. Fisheries Management


and Ecology, 14, pp. 427 439 (2007).

15., Vasile Goldi Universiy Press ISSN 15842363, 16 pg., 2005.

47. Sosoa A., Casals F., Caiola N. M., Vinyoles D.,


Snchez S. and Franch C., Development of a
Biotic Integrity Index (IBICAT) Based on the
Use of Fish as Indicators of the Environmental
Quality of the Rivers of Catalonia. Caalan Waer
Agency, Barcelona, hp//aca-web.genca.ca/aca/
(2003).

58. Oprean L., Curean-Bnduc A., Bnduc D.,


Vieu River Waershed (Maramure, Romania)
ecological managemen proposal, Management
of Sustainable Development, Sibiu, Romania,
2009.

48. Bozzei M. and Schulz U. H., An index of biotic


integrity based on fish assemblage for
subtropical streams in southern Brazil.
Hydrobiologia 529, pp. 133 144 (2004).

59. Bnduc D. and Curean-Bnduc Angela, A


biotic integrity index adaptation for a
Carpathian (first - second order) river
assesment, Aca oecologica, Vol IX, Nr. 1-2,
Ediura Universiii "Lucian Blaga" din Sibiu,
ISSN 1221-5015, pp. 81 99, 2002

49. Casai L., Ferreira C. P. and Langeani F., A fishbased bioic inegriy index for assessmen of
lowland sreams in souheasern Brazil.
Hydrobiologia, 623, pp. 173 189 (2009).

60. Frisell C. A., Liss W. J., Waren C. E. and Hurley


M. D., A hierarchical framework for sream
classificaion: viewing sreams in a waershed
conex, Envir. Mgm. 10: 199-214. 1986

50. Peesse M. L., Perere M. and Spigolon R. J.,


Adapaion of he Reservoir fish assemblage
index (RFAI) for assessing he Barra Bonia
Reservoir (So Paulo, Brazil). River Research
and Applications, 23, pp. 1 18 (2007).

61. Habersack H., 1998 Numerical sedimen


ranspor models - heoreical and pracical
aspecs, IAHS Publ. 249: 299-308. 1998

51. Hughes R. M. and Oberdorff T., Aplicaion of


IBI conceps and merics o waer ouside he
Unied Saes. In Simon T. P., (ed.). Assessmen
Approaches for Esimaing Biological Inegriy
ising Fish Assemblages. Lewis Press, Boca
Raon, FL: PP. 79-83 (1998).
52. Noss R. F., Indicaors for monioring
biodiversiy:
a
hierarchical
approach.
Conservation Biology, 4, pp, 355 364 (1990).
53. Angradi, T. R., Environmenal Monioring and
Assessmen Program: Grea River Ecosysems,
Field Operaions Manual. EPA/620/R-06/002,
E.S.
Environmenal
Proecion
Agency,
Washingon D.C. (2006).
54. Gureuer S., The need for sraified spaially
randomized sampling fishes in he Long Term
Resource Monioring Program. Repor o he
LTRM Analysis Team. U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, Environmenal Managemen Technical
Cener, Onalaska, Wiskonsin (1993).
55. Wes P., Brown A. and Hall K., Review of alien
fish monioring echniques, indicaors and
proocols: implicaions for naional monioring
of Ausralia's inland river sysems. Repor o he
Naional Land and Waer Resources Audi, pp.
98 (2008).

62. Levin S. A., 1992 The problem of paern and


scale in ecology. Ecology 73: 1943-1967.
63. Naiman A. J., Lonzarich D. J., Beechie T. J. and
Ralph S. C., 1992 General principles of
classificaion and he assessmen of conservaion
poenial in rivers, In Boon, Calow, Pes, G. E.
(eds.) River Conservaion and Managemen.
Willey and sons, Chicheser, Sussex: 93-123.
64. Fausch K. D. and Schrader L. H., 1987, Use of
he index of bioic inegriy o evaluae he
effecs of habia, flow, and waer qualiy on fish
assemblages in hree Colorado Frin Range
sreams Colorado Division and he Ciies of
For Collins, Loveland, Greeley, Longmon, and
Windsor: Deparmen of Fisheries and Wildlife
Biology, Colorado Sae Universiy, For Colins,
Colorado.
65. Karr J. R., 1981, Assessmen of bioic inegriy
using fish assemblages: Fisheries, vol. 6, pp. 2127.
66. Leonard P. M. and Orh D., 1986, Applicaion
and esing of an index of bioic inegriy in
small, coolwaer sreams: Transacions of he
American Fisheries Sociey, vol. 115, pp. 401415.

56. Bnduc D., Ichhyofaunisic crieria for Cibin


River human impac assesmen, Travaux du
Museum National d Histoire naturelle Grogore
Antipa, Bucurei, p. 365-372, vol. XLII. 2000.

67. Miller D. L., Leonard P. M., Hughes R. M., Karr


J. R., Moyle P. B., Schrader L. H., Thomson B.
A., Daniels R. A., Fausch K. D., Fizhugh G. A.,
Gammon J. R., Halliwell D. B., Angermeier P. L.
and Orh D. J., 1988, Regional applicaions of an
index of bioic inegriy for use in waer resource
managemen. Fisheries, vol. 13, pp. 12-30.

57. Curean-Bnduc Angela, Bnduc D., Trnave


rivers (Transylvania, Romania) ecological
management proposal, Sudia Universiais
Vasile Goldi Arad, seria iinele Vieii, Vol.

68. Smahers K. L., Mills M. R., Houp R. E. and


Brumley I. F., 1998, IBI (Index of Bioic
Inegriy) developmen for he inerior plaeau
and wesern allegheny ecoregions of Kenucky.

Kenucky Waer Resources Annual Symposium


Proceedings.

of Sustainable Development, Volume 3, no


1/2011, Aquatic habitats in proposed integrated
urban water management elements in Sibiu
(Transylvania, Romania), pp. 35-44.

69. Bnduc D. and Curean-Bnduc A., A biotic


integrity index adaptation for a Carpathian (first
- second order) river assesment, Aca oecologica,
Vol IX, Nr. 1-2, Ediura Universiii "Lucian
Blaga" din Sibiu, ISSN 1221-5015, pp. 77 95,
2002.

75. Curean-Bnduc A. and Bnduc D., Cibin


River (Transylvania, Romania) managemen,
scienific foundaion proposal, Acta oecologica,
Vol. VIII, Nr. 1-2, pp. 85 100, (2001).

70. Niedermayer P., 1979, Siebenbrgische Sde.


Forshungen
zur
Sdebaulichen
und
archiekonischen
Enwicklung
von
Handwerksoren zwischen dem 12 und 16
Jahrhunder, Bukares, Krierion Verlag, p. 320.

76. Tnsescu C., The new echnological paradigm


and he long cycle in he conex of susainable
developmen, Cibin River, Management of
Sustainable Development, Volume 3, no 1/2011,
pp. 25-29.

71. Beliu P. M., 1998, Arheologia Palaului


Brukenhal, Revisa Monumenelor Isorice,
Anul LXVII, nr. 1-2, Bucurei.

77. Spnu S., Drough and flood risk assessmen in


Sibiu area, Management of Sustainable
Development, Volume 3, no 1/2011, pp. 85-88.

72. Beliu P. M., 2001, Biserici disprue, biserici


regsie. Ediura Universiii Lucian Blaga
din Sibiu.

Oprean L. and Popa D.-M. Popa,


Monitoring Trnava Mare river
Sibiu
county
territory,
Management
of Sustainable
Development, Volume 2, no
1/2010, pp. 33-40.

73. Bnduc-Curean A., 2002, Tez Docora


Caracerizare Ecologic a rului Cibin.
74. Curean-Bnduc A., Oprean L., SchneiderBinder E. and Bnduc D., 2011, Management

AUTHORS:
1

Doru BNDUC
Angela CURTEAN-BNDUC
ad.banaduc@yahoo.com
Lucian Blaga Universiy of Sibiu, Faculy of Sciences, Deparmen of Ecology and Environmen
Proecion, 5-7, Dr. Ioan. Raiu Sree, Sibiu, Sibiu Couny, Romania, RO-550012.
1

Andrs Attila NAGY


andasaila.nagy@milvus.ro
Milvus NGO, Milvus Group Bird and Naure Proecion Associaion, Crinului Sree 22, Trgu
Mure, Mure Couny, Romania, RO-540343.
Fisheries and Aquaic Sciences, 38
1. Bnduc D., 2006 The Rul Mare
(1981), pp.1444-1448.
River (Reeza Mounains, Romania)
5. Bo T., Fenoglio S., Malacarne G.,
fish
fauna,
Transylvanian
Pessino M. i Sgariboldi F., 2007
Transylvanian
Review
of
Effecs of clogging on sream
Sysemaical
and
Ecological
macroinverebraes: An experimenal
Research, vol. 3, The Reeza
approach, Limnologica, 37 (2007),
Naional Park, pp. 117-124.
pp. 186-192.
2. Bnduc D., 2008 The Hucho
6. Covich A.P., Palmer M.A and Crowl
hucho
(Linnaeus,
1758),
T.A, 1999 The role of benhic
(Salmoniformes,
Salmonidae)
inverebrae species in freshwaer
species, monioring in he Vieu
ecosysems, BioScience, No. 2, vol.
River
(Mramure,
Romania),
49, 119-127.
7. Curean-Bnduc A., Ciubuc F. i
Transylvanian
Review
of
Ciubuc C., 2006 Cadysfly (Inseca,
Sysemaical
and
Ecological
Trichopera) larvae communiies of
Research, vol. 5, The Maramure
Brba
River
basin
(Reeza
Mounains Naure Park, pp. 183-188.
3. Bnduc D., 2010 Hydroechnical
Mounains, Romania), Transylvanian
works impac on he Cyclosomaa
Review
of
Sysemaical
and
and Coidae species in he Rodna
Ecological Research, vol. 3, The
Mounains
and
Maramure
Reeza Naional Park, pp. 89-100.
8. Curean-Bnduc A., 2008 Vieu
Mounains Naura 2000 sies
River and some ribuaries ecological
(Easern Carpahians, Romania),
assessmen
based
on
Repede River a sudy case,
macroinverebrae
communiies
Transylvanian
Review
of
(Maramure,
Romania),
Sysemaical
and
Ecological
Transylvanian
Review
of
Research, vol. 9, The Rodna
Sysemaical
and
Ecological
Mounains Naional Park, pp. 175Research, vol. 5, The Maramure
184.
4. Brusven M.A i Rose S.T, 1981
Mounains Naure Park, pp. 165-182.
9.
Curean Bnduc A., 2009 The
Influence of subsrae composiion
Maramure Mounains Naure Park
and suspended sedimen on insec
(Romania)
Mayfly
(Inseca,
predaion by he orren sculpin,
Ephemeropera)
communiies
Cottus rhoteus, Canadian Journal of
diversiy analyse, Transylvanian

Review
of
Sysemaical
and
Ecological Research, vol. 8, The
Welands Diversiy, pp. 95-104.
10. Curean-Bnduc A. i Radu G.,
2010

Caddisfly
(Inseca,
Trichopera) assemblages in he
Vieu River basin (Romania),
Transylvanian
Review
of
Sysemaical
and
Ecological
Research, vol. 10, The Welands
Diversiy, pp. 83-92.
11. Florea, M., 1998 Munii
Fgraului studiu geomorfologic,
Ediura Foon, Braov.
12. Frau, I., Beleaua, A., Frau, O., 1991
Pe custurile fgrene, Ediura
penru Turism, Bucurei.
13. Frde A. i Masara C., 2007
Communiy-based
ecological
monioring, Manual for praciioners,
Ed. Safire, Zimbabwe.
14. Gabriels W., Lock K., De Pauw N.
and Goehals P.L.M, 2010
Mulimeric macroinverebrae index
Flanders (MMIF) for biological
assessmen of rivers and lakes in
Flanders (Belgium), Limnologica, 40
(2010), pp. 199-207.
15. Gayraud S., Philippe M. i Maride
L., 2000 The reponse of benhic
macroinverebraes
o
arificial
disurbances: Drif or verical
movemens in he gravel bed of wo
sub-alpine sreams, Hydrobiologie,
47 (2000), pp.431-446.
16. Giurgiu I., Silvan G., 2006
Lacurile din masiv, Revisa Inviaie
n Carpai, 59-61, serie nou, Munii
Fgra, vol. 1, p. 33-38, Bucurei.
17. Godeanu, S., - Elemente de
monitoring ecologic/integrat, Ediura
Bucura Mond, Bucurei, 1997;
18. Godeanu S.P. (coord.), 2002
Diversiaea
lumii
vii.
Deerminaorul ilusra al florei i
faunei Romniei, Vol. II Apele
coninenale, Parea 1, Bucurei.

19. Godeanu S.P. (coord.), 2002 Diversiaea


lumii
vii.
Deerminaorul ilusra al florei i
faunei Romniei, Vol. II Apele
coninenale, Parea 2, Bucurei.
20. IPCC, 2011 IPCC Special Repor
on Renewable Energy Sources and
Climae
Change
Miigaion.
Prepared by Working Group III of
he Inergouvernamenal Panel in
Climae
Change,
Cambridge
Universiy Press, Cambridge, Unied
Kindom and New York, USA.
21. Lehmann,
P.W.,
1881,
Beobachtungen ber Tektonik und
Gletscherspuren im Fogaraschen
Gebirge,
Zeischr.
d.
Geol.
Gesellschaf Berlin, . XXXIII
(Traducere n lb.rom. de Palade F.).
22. Lcke J.D. i Johnson R.K., 2009
Deecion of ecological change in
sream
macroinverebrae
assemblages using single meric,
mulimeric
or
mulivariae
approach, Ecological Indicaors, 9
(2009), pp.659-669.
23. Mandaville S. M., 2002 Benhic
Macroinverebraes in Freshwaers
Taxa Tolerance Values, Merics and
Proocols, Projec H-1, Soil & Waer
Conservaion Sociey of Mero
Halifax.
24. Mecalfe L., 1989 Biological waer
qualiy assessmen of running waers
based
on
macroinverebrae
communiies: hisory and presen
saus in Europe Environmenal
polluion, Environmenal Polluion
60, Issue 1-2, pp.101-139.
25. Minshall G.W., 1984 Aquaic
insec-subsraum relaionships, Resh
V.H, Rosenberg D.M. (eds.), The
ecology of aquaic insecs, Praeger
Publisher, New York, pp.358-400.
26. Momeu L., Baes K., Baes K.,
Soica I., Avram A., Cmpean M.,
Pricope F. i Ureche D., 2009
Algae, macroinverebrae and fish
communiies from he Arie River
cachmen
area
(Transylvania,
Romnia), Transylvanian Review of
Sysemaical
and
Ecological

Research, vol. 7, The Arie River


Basin, pp. 149-180.
27. Momeu L. i Perfi L., 2005 The
srucure of diaom communiies
inhabiing he Trnava Mic and
Trnava Mare rivers (Transylvania,
Romania), Transylvanian Review of
Sysemaical
and
Ecological
Research, vol. 2, The Trnava River
Basin, pp. 5-12.
28. Muihac, V., 1990, Structura
geologic a teritoriului Romniei,
Ed. Tehnic, Bucurei;
29. Naeem S., 1998 Species
redundancy
and
eco-sysem
reliabiliy. Conservaion Biology 12:
39-45.
30. Palmer M.A., e all., 1997
Biodiversiy
and
ecosysem
processes in freshwaer sedimens.
Ambio 26: 571-577.
31. Plafkin, J.L., Barbour, M.T., Gross,
S.K., Hughes, R.M., Porer, K.D.,
1989 Rapid bioassessmen
proocols for use in sreams and
rivers: Benhic macroinverebraes
and fish. Assessmen and Waershed
Proecion
Division,
U.S.
Environmenal Proecion Agency,
Washingon D.C., USA;
32. Posel S. i Carpener S., 1997
Freshwaer ecosysem services,
Daily GC, ed Naures Services:
Socieal Dependence on Naural
Ecosysems. Washingon (DC):
Island Press, 195-214.
33. Rosenberg, D.M. i Resh V.H., 1993

Inroducion
o
freshwaer
biomonioring
and
benhic
macroinverebraes.
Freshwaer
biomonioring
and
benhic
macroinverebraes. Chapman and
Hall, New York.
34. Saloom M.E. i Duncan R.S., 2005
Low dissolved oxygen levels reduce
ani-predaor behaviors of he
freshwaer clam Corbicula fluminea,
Freshwaer Biology, 50 (2005),
pp.1233-1238.
35. Simon T. D. i Lyons J., 1995
Applicaion of he index of bioic
inegriy o evaluae waer resource

inegriy in freshwaer ecosysems,


Biological assessmen and crieria:
ools for waer resource planning and
decision making, Lewes Publisher,
Chelsea, Mich, pp. 243-260.
36. Srbu I., 2011 Daa on he
freshwaer molluscs from Romanian
ribuaries of he upper Tisa River
basin, Transylvanian Review of
Sysemaical
and
Ecological
Research, vol. 11, The Upper Tisa
River Basin, pp. 127-136.
37. Srbu I. i Benedek A.M., 2004
Ecologie
pracic,
Ediura
Universiii Lucian Blaga, Sibiu.
38. Suherland M.T. i Sribling J.B.,
1995 Saus of biological crieria
developmen and implemenaion. In
Davis, W. and T. Simon, eds.
Biological Assessment and Criteria:
Tools for Water Resources Planning
and Decision Making. Lewis
Publishers, Inc, Chelsea, MI. pp. 7994;
39. Seinman A.D., Conklin P.J, Bohlen
P.J i Uzarski D.G., 2003 Influence
of cale grazing and pasure land use
on macroinverebrae communiies in
freshwaer welands, Welands, 23
(2003), pp.877-889.
40. Ujvari, I, 1972, Geografia apelor
Romniei,
Ediura
iinific,
Bucurei.
41. Vaughan H., Brydges T., Fenech A.
i Lumb A., 2001 Monioring longerm ecological changes hrough he
ecological
monioring
and
assessmen nework: science-based
and policy relevan, Environmenal
Monioring and Assessmen 67, pp.
3-28.
42. Vuia, F., 2011, Sudiul reliefului
glaciar i periglaciar din Romnia
Refera iinific.
43. Wallace J.B and Webser J.R., 1996
The role of macroinverebraes in
sream ecosysem funcion. Annual
Review of Enomology 41: 115-139.
44. Whiaker R. H., 1972 Evoluion
and
measuremen
of species
diversiy. Taxon 21: 213-251.

45. WWF, 2013 WWF Analysis, Seven


sins of dam building, WWF
Inernaional

Freshwaer
Programme & WWF-Germany.
Auori: Kraljevic A., Meng J.-H. i
Schelle P.
46. *** Enciclopedia Geografic a
Romniei, Ediura
Siinific i
Pedagogic, Bucurei, 1982.
47. *** (1987), Geografia Romniei,
volumul III Carpaii Romneti i
Depresiunea Transilvaniei, Ediura
Academiei Romne, Bucurei.
48. ***(1971),
Rurile
Romniei,
Monografie hidrologic, Insiuul de

Meeorologie
i
Hidrologie,
Bucurei.
Ale documene:
1. Biology Dicionary, 1996, Oxford,
Ediura
Univers
Enciclopedia,
Buchares.
2. Direciva
Parlamenului
i
a
Consiliului European 60/2000/EC
privind sabilirea unui cadru de
aciune comuniar n domeniul
poliicii apei.
Legea Apelor nr.107/1996 cu compleri
ulerioare.