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s i

a lt e
,

gramatic
lecturi
de exerciii
si teste

K m m r o s fM

'&

f \ - m

e w n ^ s + in fe l

%
,
un J ^ 3 9 s^9 *on'c ? aerisit prin labirintul anglo-saxon

un '1,'*1 ideal pentru toi cei care au nvat


engleza cndva i... au uitat-o

Ecaterina Comisei
/
Doina Milos9

Proiect editorial i realizare: C o m p a n i a


Ilustraia copertei: planul m etroului londonez (detaliu) i vedere cu Brooklyn Bridge din N ew York
Redactarea: C arm en erbnescu
Corectura: N icoleta Dasclu, Adina Kenere, M aria M uuroiu
Procesare computerizat: Bogdan C onstantinescu
Procesare film e: Z O O M -S oft
Tiprit la : ARTA GRAFIC

Autoarele volumului
Ecaterina Comiel profesoar de lim ba englez, gradul 1, a u to are de m anuale i cu rsu ri
Doina Milos p rofesoar de lim ba englez, g radul I, a u to are a u n o r culegeri de teste

ISBN: 973-99223-4-1

com pania, 2000 (ediie conform program ei M EN)

Str. Prof. Ion Bogdan Nr. 16, Sector 1, 7 1 1 4 9 B ucureti


T el: 211 59 6 4 Fax: 2 11 59 48
e - m a il: com pania@ fx.ro

http://freew eb.fx.ro/com pania

COPIM NS
I R I A F M n j_F.7............... .... ... ............. _..............
LR_A_M-A XJjCLA........... ............... .................... ....................... 1 0
S u b s ta n tiv u l 10 ' 1 Pluralul substantivelor 10
Exprim area posesiei 13 i A r tic o lu l 15 A rticolul h o trt the 1S
A rticolul n eh o trt a / an 16 A rticolul zero 18 l i A d je c tiv u l 20 Adjective sim ple 20 Adjective com puse
24 P r o n u m e le 26 P ronum ele personal subiect 26
P ronum ele personal co m plem ent (direct sau indirect)
27 81 Adjectivele i p ro nu m ele posesive 27
Pronum ele reflexiv i de n trire 27 P ronum ele dem onstrativ 28
Pronum ele neho trte 29 P ronum ele reciproce each other i one another 29 It / There 31 It p ro n u m e
personal 31 It im personal 31 There 33 V e rb u l 35 T im purile verbale 35 M odaliti de exprim are
a viitorului 44
D iateza 51 Subjonctivul 53
Verbele m odale 56
Can i could 57
May i might 58 Must 59
Shall i should 60 Will i would 61 ; Neednt have i didnt need to 62 ; Tem porala i condiionala 66 11 Vorbirea
indirect 7 0 & Schim barea tim p u rilo r verbale 71

77

I F Ir

Cuvinte care dau btaie de cap 77 u Prieteni fali 82 Verbe dificile 83 * Verbe cu particul adverbial 85
Verbe neregulate 92
T E I S , . : ^ J D J l :JE,A,sXSJZ}, M^LMMSQ,.^^ S,Jo.
l

A C l i M r J-FS_T F J~A_.t .A _F X--A.fi/LF-- !------- -..

Advanced (profilul bilingv, 5-7 o re p e sptm n) Proba oral 106 Advanced Proba scris 113 Upper-intermediate
(profilul intensiv, lim bi strine i filologie) Proba oral 121
Upper-intermediate Proba scris 128 Intermediate
(p en tru celelalte profiluri, 1-2 ore pe sptmn) Proba oral 137 Intermediate Proba scris 145
Pre-intermediate
(p en tru m in o riti i lim ba a IlI-a ) Proba oral 151 i Pre-intermediate Proba scris 153

SXLLJLXXLt
*
Soluiile exerciiilor de gram atic 157 ! Soluiile testelor Textsfo r reading comprehension 165 Soluiile testelor
ca la exam en 166 H Advanced Proba oral 166 Upper-intermediate Proba oral 167 Upper-intermediate Proba
scris 168 Intermediate Proba oral 171 Intermediate Proba scris 173
Pre-intermediate Proba oral 176
Pre-intermediate Proba scris 176

..... ..............................................1 7

T e m e le de s+wdiw
C artea este stru ctu rat n p a tru p r i :
1 o prezentare succint a p ro b lem elo r eseniale ale gram aticii lim bii engleze, cu suficiente exem ple p e n tru a le
face nelese. Fiecare tem gram atical este nsoit de exerciii care te ajut s-i lm ureti acele construcii
care prezint dificulti.
~ 1 o selecie de stru c tu ri gram aticale m en it s corecteze greeli frecvente
1 texte de citit i de com entat, n so ite i ele de exerciii care te pregtesc p e n tru diferitele teste i exam ene
: exem ple de subiecte posibile la exam enul de bacalaureat
P entru c O K ! BAC la englez este co n cep u t ca u n m aterial p e n tru studiu individual, am inclus i o list cu verbe
neregulate, p recu m i soluiile exerciiilor.

M an u alele p e care le ai la d isp o ziie p en tru a p regti exam en u l d e b acalaureat sunt u r m to a r e le :


~ 1 p e n tru clasele cu program bilingv i cele cu program intensiv (la acestea din u rm sunt valabile num ai
prim ele trei m anuale)
-> English My Love (clasa a IX-a) a u to r i: R. Blan, . Colibaba, C. Coer, V Foceneanu,
V Stan, R. Vulcnescu, EDFJ ediia 1994 i urm toarele (far ediia 1999 revizuit)
-> Perspectives on English (clasa a X-a) a u to r i: R. Blan, M. C arianopol, . Colibaba,
C. Coer, V Foceneanu, V Stan, R. Vulcnescu, OUP, 1997
-> News and Views (clasele a -a i a X II-) a u to r i: . Colibaba, C. Coer, V Foceneanu,
V Stan, R. Vulcnescu, OUFJ ediia 1998
Crossing Cultures a u to r i: R. M arinescu, T. M inculescu, Cavallioti, 1998
-i Real Views a u to r i: Traci Parks, Patti M cLaughlin, 1996
1 p e n tru clasele cu 1-2 sau 3-4 o re p e sptm n, lim ba I
- English My Love (clasele a IX-a i a X-a)
m anual p e n tru clasa a X I-a a u to r i: . Cojan, R. Surdulescu, A. Tnsescu, EDFJ
ediia 1991 i urm to arele
- 1 m anual p e n tru clasa a X II- a u to r i: S. D orr, R. Surdulescu, M. Tatos, ED f
ediia 1993 i urm to arele

~ 1 p e n tru clasele cu 1-2 sau 3 -4 o re pe sptm n, lim ba a Il-a


English My Love (clasele a IX-a i a X-a)
m anual p e n tru clasa a X I-a a u to r i: . Cojan, R. Surdulescu, A. Tnsescu, HDFJ
ediia
> 1991 si

> urm toarele


1 p e n tru m in o riti i lim ba a IlI-a
-> m anual p e n tru clasa a V III-a, EDJ ediia 1991 i urm toarele

T em atica p en tru ex a m en u l d e b acalaureat este urm toarea :


>Teme generale de com unicare :
Travelling
- Hobbies
- Music
>Food
-I Cinema
-< Fashion
Books
Sports
1 Teme de cultur i civilizaie din spaiul anglo-saxon :
- p e n tru clasele bilingve : tem ele incluse n seciunea Culture and Civilisation
din m anualele indicate i tem ele studiate din m anualele Crossing Cultures i Real Views
-> p e n tru clasele intensive : tem ele incluse n seciunea Culture and Civilisation
din m anualele indicate
- p e n tru celelalte tip u ri de clase : tem ele cuprinse n Stream A ale m anualelor indicate
La exam enul de bacalaureat se evalueaz capacitatea candidailor de a folosi co rect i adecvat stru ctu rile lexicale,
m orfologice, sintactice i sem antice studiate n m anualele indicate p e n tru fiecare profil n parte.

Ce tre b u ie

sa

s fii

Exist trei tip u ri de subiecte, n funcie de n u m ru l de ore de lim b englez studiate la clas i de num rul
de ani n care s-a studiat lim ba englez :
~_l p e n tru profilul bilingv (5-7 ore pe sptm n)
~ 1 p e n tru profilul intensiv, lim bi strine i filologie (3 -4 ore pe sptm n)
~ 1 p e n tru celelalte profiluri, p e n tru m in o riti i lim ba a IlI-a (1-2 ore pe sptm n)

E xam enul d e b acalaureat d in an ul 2 0 0 0 va avea u rm toarea structur :


~ 1 pro b a oral (prob obligatorie) cu u rm to arele tip u ri de cerine :
I. Read the text and comment on it (textul oferit va fi necunoscut)
II. E xerciiu de tran sfo rm are sau de com pletare a propoziiilor
III. E xerciiu care i cere candidatului s povesteasc, s descrie, s analizeze i s susin
u n p u n c t de vedere p o rn in d de la u n su p o rt scris
~1 p roba scris p e n tru prim ele dou profiluri, cu u rm toarele subiecte :
I. a) Text n ecunoscut pe care candidaii trebuie s-l rezum e n tr-u n nu m r dat de cuvinte
b) C om entariu asupra textului pe o tem dat
II. E xerciiu de retroversiune, literar sau neliterar
III. Eseu argumentativ, narativ sau descriptiv (aproxim ativ 250 cuvinte)
~ 1 p roba scris p e n tru celelalte profiluri, p e n tru m in o riti i lim ba a IlI-a
I. U n te x t cu spaii lacunare (cloze)
II. E xerciiu de retroversiune
III. Eseu (aproxim ativ 2 50 cuvinte)

S - f a + u r i + r u t r a t a r e a s u b i e c t e l o r
Proba oral
P entru a realiza com entariul textului, i recom andm s respeci urm toarele etape :
-> gsete ideea principal a textului i sintetizeaz-o n tr-o fraz
rezum textul cu p ro p riile cuvinte
- scrie care este prerea ta despre tem a respectiv

~1 P en tru susinerea unui p u n c t d e vedere p o rn in d de la un su p o rt scris, i recom andm :


-> s analizezi m ai n ti afirm aia i s gseti cuvintele-cheie
-> s analizezi cuvintele-cheie, explicnd nelesul fiecruia
-> s gseti argum ente n favoarea i contra afirm aiei, prezentnd i exem ple

Proba scris
~11 P en tru realizarea unui rezum at su n t necesare u rm toarele etape :
dac textul este fo rm at d in tr-u n singur paragraf, gsete ideea principal
i reform uleaz-o n m o d original
-> dac textul con in e m ai m u lte paragrafe, gsete ideea principal a fiecruia,
selecteaz elem entele im p o rtan te i rezum textul cu propriile cuvinte,
evitnd folosirea stru c tu rilo r din text
~1 C om entariul scris p e care urm eaz s-l realizezi treb u ie s cuprind pro p ria ta prere asupra dom eniului
m en io n at n text. C hiar dac aceasta este asem ntoare cu cea a autorului, nu rep eta stru ctu rile i form ulrile
din fragm entul literar. Fii o rig in a l!
~ ' La retroversiune, elem entele care se noteaz s u n t :
- 1 stru ctu rile gram aticale
-> folosirea unui vocabular adecvat textului dat
ortografia
1 Eseul de aproxim ativ 250 de cuvinte p oate fi narativ, argum entativ sau descriptiv.
In cazul unei naraiuni, n u n cepe s povesteti n ain te de a-i fi schiat u n plan de idei.
A m intirile care p ar spontane su n t cele m ai elaborate. N u uita c ele im plic sentim ente, iar acestea
treb u ie redate n tr-u n limbaj literar. A tenie la folosirea tim p u rilo r ! O rice am intire nseam n
o aciune din trecut. D ac n u -i am inteti nim ic fascinant din copilria ta, inventeaz !
N u se puncteaz conform itatea cu realitatea, ci bogia vocabularului, claritatea organizrii
i corectitu d in ea exprim rii.
Eseul argum entativ se bazeaz pe o stru ctu rare foarte clar a poziiilor c e ru te : argum ente
n sprijinul i m potriva afirm aiei. S tructura unui astfel de eseu ar putea fi u rm toarea : in tro d u cere
prezentarea general a tem ei puse n d isc u ie i; cuprins prezentarea cu exem plificri a argum entelor

n favoarea i m potriva a firm a ie i; ncheiere o idee general care reia poziia predilect a autorulu i
eseului sau o alt idee care deschide noi perspective de abordare a afirm aiei.
-> Eseul descriptiv te oblig s foloseti u n vocabular adecvat, ct m ai bogat, i stru ctu ri literare
(com paraie i descriere) care s ajute la crearea atm osferei.
A te n ie ! N u se ad m it stru ctu rile contrase (don't, didn't, isn't, hasn't etc.) n nici u n tip de eseu.

O rtografia am erican este acceptat d o ar dac folosirea ei este consecvent.

C u m HVe+i s i n g u r
Exist o m are varietate a stilurilor de a nva. C te b ordeie, attea obiceie ! , spune o vorb din popor.
Tu te cunoti cel m ai bine ! Ii vom sugera d o ar o m odalitate care a dat rezultate bu n e de-a lungul anilor.
Citete cu atenie fiecare capitol de teorie, apoi rezolv exerciiile. N um ai dup ce i-ai dat toat osteneala,
verific-te cu aju to ru l soluiilor de la sfritul volum ului. D ac rspunsurile tale coincid, totul este O K !
Dac nu, recitete cu atenie capitolul respectiv, zbovete asupra exem plelor i apoi n to arce -te la exerciii.
Prim ul contact cu textul literar nu este suficient p e n tru a rezolva toate cerinele, de aceea trebuie s citeti
nc o dat textul cu m ult atenie. N u intra n panic dac nu ai neles vreun cuvnt. Sensul m u lto r cuvinte
se poate deduce din context, cu condiia s te strduieti s gseti elem entele ajuttoare (clues).
S u cces!

E caterina C om isei
D oin a M ilos>
si

compania

6 RsA-M A-TlCA
wish - wishes
watch - watches
box - boxes

S u b s t a n t i v u l
In lim ba englez, substantivele p o t fi num rabile
(countable) i nenum rabile (uncountable).
Substantivele num rabile p o t fi preced ate de a / an
i adm it form a de plural. Cele nenum rabile
nu accept a / an i n u au form de plural.

Substantivele care se term in n consoan +


transform la plural semivocala n -ies.
lady - ladies
city - cities

Substantivele n -f, -fe fac pluralul n -ves.


leaf - leaves
wife - wives

P lu r a lu l su b -s+ d w + iv e ltfir
A te n ie !

D e regul, pluralul se form eaz p rin adugarea


term inaiei -s la form a de singular a substantivului,
book - books
car - cars
cake - cakes
toy - toys

BJLux a I I_

s jll

b s t a n t i v e l o r s i m p ie

Substantivele term in ate n -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x adaug la


plural term in aia -es.
bus - buses
class - classes

U nele substantive term in ate n -f accept -s la plural,


roof - roofs
cliff - cliffs
belief - beliefs
proof - proofs
chief - chiefs

P entru substantivele care se term in la singular n -o, la


plural avem dou situ a ii:
~ 1 term inaia -es

tom ato - tom atoes


potato - potatoes
hero - heroes

term inaia -s

datum - data
crisis - crises

kilo - kilos
radio - radios
photo - photos
piano - pianos

In lim ba englez exist i substantive care au num ai


form de p lu ra l: glasses, binoculars, scissors, pliers,

Exist substantive cu plural neregulat (irregular plurals)

tw eezers, pyjamas, jeans, trousers, tights, pants, shorts.

care schim b vocala (sau vocalele) din ultim a silab,

Form a de singular a acestora se realizeaz cu ajutorul


sintagm ei one pair of.

man - men

I need a new pair of glasses.

foot - feet
woman - women
tooth - teeth

A te n ie !

goose - geese

O ne pair of se folosete i cu substantivele gloves, socks,

mouse - mice

shoes p e n tru a exprim a singularul.

U nele substantive au aceeai form la singular i la


plural.
sheep - sheep
deer - deer
aircraft - aircraft
means - means
series - series
species - species
This means of transport is cheap.
Both these means of transport are cheap.

O bservaie
Fish face parte din aceast grup. Pluralul fishes

desem neaz specii diferite de peti.


Substantivele m p ru m u ta te din lim bile latin i greac
pstreaz desinenele de plural din lim bile de
provenien.
phenomenon - phenomena
medium - media

R i u r a l u l s u b s t a n ii.w e .lo x c o m p u s e
D e regul, substantivele com puse form eaz pluralul prin
trecerea la aceast form a ultim ului elem ent,
a grown-up - grown-ups
a tin-opener - tin-openers
a toothbrush - toothbrushes
an alarm clock - alarm clocks
a forget-me-not - forget-m e-nots

Substantivele com puse d in tr-u n alt substantiv i


co n stru cie prepoziionl adaug -s la prim ul elem ent,
sister-in-law - sisters-in-law
a passer-by - passers-by

D ac prim ul elem ent al substantivelor com puse este man


sau woman, pluralul se form eaz p rin schim barea
am belor elem ente.
a woman driver - women drivers
a man singer - men singers

HProbleme
Pluralul n 's se folosete p e n tru a exprim a :
~ 1 pluralul literelo r alfabetului
She never spells "accommodation" with tw o
cs and tw o m's.

- 1 pluralul u n o r date : in the 1990's sau the 1990s (n anii


90)
_1 pluralul u n o r prescu rtri
Should w e have more or fewer MP's (or Mps).

de p r o n u n i e

>Pluralul n -es al substantivelor term in ate


n [s], [z], tf], [3], [d3], [tj] se p ro n u n [iz].
[bAsiz]
buses
quizzes
[kwiziz]
brushes
[brAjiz]
[wotjiz]
watches
[mesid3iz]
m essages
[brid3 iz]
bridges
Substantivele term in ate n vocale surde [t], [d],
[], [f], [], [h] form eaz pluralul cu -(e)s care se

O bservaii
>

p ro n u n [s].

Substantivele homework, advice, knowledge, information,


luggage, furniture, money, progress n u p o t avea form a de

[maeps]
[ru:fs]
[cbGs]
[spots]
[kuks]
Substantivele term in ate n vocale i consoane
sonore, cu excepia acelora n [d], [b], [g], [v],
[m], [n], [rj], [1], [6], [r], form eaz pluralul

plural n lim ba englez.


Students have lots of homework to do. =

Elevii au m ulte te m e de iacut.


We need some more information. = Avem

nevoie de m ai m u lte inform aii.


Where's your money ? = U n d e -i su n t banii ?
Cuantificarea acesto r substantive se face cu ajutorul u n o r
sintagm e ca : an article of, an item of, a piece of, a word of.
a piece / word of advice
a piece / an article of furniture
a piece / an item of information

U nele substantive au form de plural (news, measles,


mumps, economics, politics, mathematics, physics, statistics,
billiards, gymnastics, athletics), dar acordul se face cu

verbul la singular.
No news is good news.
Politics is an interesting subject.
Measles is a catching disease.

maps
roofs
cloths
spots
cooks

n -(e)s care se p ro n u n [z].


plays
[pleiz]
clothes
[kbu5z]
[pigz]
Pigs
[boiz]
boys
[baendz]
bands
[kleimz]
claims
[bi:z]
bees
[bilz]
bills
[sorjz]
songs
Cteva substantive au p ro n u n ie aparte la plural.
baths
[ba:6z]
houses
[hauziz]
mouths
[mau6z]

[:]
[tru:5z]

paths
truths

P r o b l e m e de s c r i e r e
i p r o n u n i e
1 Substantive la singular + 's

E x p v i p o s e s ie i
In lim ba englez posesia se p o ate exprim a n dou
m oduri.

my brother's T-shirt

~ 1 Substantive cu plural neregulat + 's


the children's room

~ 1 Substantive la plural + '


my grandparents' house

...S
Aceast m odalitate de a exprim a posesia se folosete mai
ales atunci cnd poseso ru l este o persoan, u n anim al, o
ar sau o organizaie.
my friend's name
Lesley's answer
a sparrow 's nest
Africa's oil reserves

In unele cazuri, atunci cnd este vorba despre biroul,


cabinetul, m agazinul cuiva, obiectul p o sed at p oate lipsi
cu totul, subnelegndu-se.
She w ent to the doctor's.
Rosie is at the hairdresser(s).

D e asem enea, obiectul posed at p oate lipsi i atunci cnd


nelesul propoziiei este foarte clar.
W hose is that bag ? It's Jack's.

A te n tie !
Posesivul n 's p o ate fi folosit i p e n tru a exprim a :
>ideea d e p ro d u s de : cow 's milk, sheep's wool
~ 1 m sura tim pului, a distanei sau a v a lo rii: tw o dollars'
worth of popcorn, a day's journey, yesterday's newspapers,
tw o hours' wait

the candidates' speeches


the boys' game

11 Substantive la singular (m ai ales num e strine)


Socrates' ideas
1 'S se p ro n u n ca i n cazul pluralului n -s

al substantivelor.
teacher's
girl's
Tom's
M adge's
Isaac's
Charles's
M a r/s

Po s e s i v u l

[tiitjbz]
[:1]
[tomz]
[masdgiz]
[aizsks]
[tjailziz]
[m esriz]

oi

Se folosete atunci cnd :


~~1 posesorul este u n substantiv n e u tru : the pages
of the book, the cover of the magazine

~ l denum irile geografice sunt u rm ate de u n num e


p ro p riu : the Sea of C rete ; the Strait of Dover
~ 1 num ele p ro p rii sunt form ate d in tr-u n substantiv
cu apoziie : the reign of queen Victoria

~ 1 subliniem a u to ru l unei o p ere : the plays of George


Bernard Shaw

~ 1 subliniem durata unei a c iu n i: the destruction


of the rain forests, the establishm ent of a new college

A tenie
In unele situaii p u tem form ula posesia p rin am bele
m o d a lit i:
the earth's gravity sau the gravity of the earth
the president's speech sau the speech of the
president
England's history sau the history of England

. cXercijH !

Complete the blanks with the plurals of the following

m atch
gaspolicem an

po tato
radio

valley
fox

A
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Write the correct form of these sentences.

H is knowledges o f English are very good.


You m u st do your hom ew orks first.
Physics are difficult to study.
She has lots o f luggages.
H ere are th e 8 o clock news.

Correct the mistakes.

a) F or m o re inform ations please w rite to M r Smith.


b) H e has caught tw o beautiful fishes.
c) H ow m uch m oney have been w ithdraw n from my
account ?
d) All luggages m ust be checked in one h o u r before

nouns.

table
foot
th ie f

g) Is it the original draw ing o r is it a copy ?


h) A w olf is a wild anim al th a t looks like a dog.

glass
victory
analysis
fis h knife

Write these sentences in the plural.

departure.
e) W h at tim e are the news on BBC ?
f) We all learn by experiences.
g) H e died a h ero e s death.
h) T he m ain political partys in th e U nited States are the
D em ocrats and the Republicans.

Rewrite these sentences and put the apostrophe 0

where necessary.

a) A bus is th e cheapest way o f getting into town.


b) T he child was w aiting for you.

a) Have you m et your friends parents ?


b) Tom w orks in my fathers office.

c) This tom ato has gone bad.


d) A m ale d e e r usually has h o rn s o n its head.

c) She p u t her hope in the doctors hands.


d) H e needs a couple o f days rest.
e) I know his bro th ers nam e b u t I forgot his sisters.
f) W here has she p u t the childrens new toys ?
g) H e can t h it th e target at a miles distance.

e) H e lost one fro n t to o th in th e fight.


f) T hey ve published a series o f readers for students o f
English.

h) She b o rro w ed Jam es bike.


i) H e was a friend o f m y fathers.
j ) H e w en t to the newsagents to buy a magazine.

1 n faa unui substantiv bine d eterm in at

The people I met there were very friendly.


The house at the end of the street belongs to my
uncle.

~ l n faa substantivelor care denum esc ceva unic


(o singur persoan sau un singur obiect)

A - r+ ie o lu l

the sun
the Q ueen

Articolul este u n d eterm in an t, u n m ijloc


de individualizare a o b iectelo r i fenom enelor
d intr-un context. In lim ba englez exist articolul

~ 1 n faa unui substantiv la singular, p e n tru a denum i o


ntreag specie

notrt i nehotrt, i articolul zero.

~ 1 n faa unui substantiv folosit n sens g e n e ra l:

the moon
the pyramids

the Bible
the Pope
the North Pole the tow n centre

The whale is an endangered species.


the weather, the sky, the environment, the human present,
the past, the future, the wind

A n r+ ie o lu l

K o + v it

fine

Are dou pro n u n ii, n funcie de sunetul cu care ncepe


substantivul d e te r m in a t:
~ 1 the se p ro n u n [] atunci cnd st n faa cuvintelor
care ncep cu o consoan (the car, the floor, the coat)
sau cu o semivocal e, o, u, w, (the European, the

A te n tie !
In cazul n care ne referim la o situaie particular,
se folosete articolul n eh otrt a / an :
I could hear the wind. There's a biting
north wind.

one, the university, the week, the year)


the se p ro n u n [] atunci cnd cuvintele ncep cu o

vocal (the activity, the effort, the office) sau cu h m u t


(the honour, the hour)

F 1,,1.^. r t i c o l u , i u i .. h o LxJL h e
Articolul the se folosete n u rm to arele s itu a ii:
~ 1 n faa unui substantiv m en io n at an terio r
A man and a woman were sitting in front of us.

The woman was smiling but the man seemed to


be very angry.

~ 1 n faa nu m elo r p ro p rii la p lu r a l : the Brysons

(familia Bryson)
~ 1 n construcii n care apar cuvintele union, united,
republic, empire sau dynasty
The United States
The United Arab Republic
The People's Republic of China
The Roman Empire
The Han Dynasty

O bservaie

~ l1n faa adjectivelor p e n tru a le substantiviza: the rich,

In engleza am erican, the se folosete n num ele u n o r


c l d iri: the Museum of Natural History, the Smitshonian,

the elderly, the unemployed, the Japanese, the Germans


~ 1 n construciile superlativului adjectivelor : the best,
the biggest

the Gallery of Modern Art, the White House, the World Trade
Centre. In engleza britanic, denu m irea principalelor

cldiri i organizaii din ora n u este p recedat de


articolul h o t r t: Oxford University, M anchester Airport,
Liverpool Football Club

~ 1 n faa in stru m en te lo r muzicale, atunci cnd se


sugereaz o activitate :
He plays the violin. She is learning the piano.

D a r : He has just bought a guitar.


- 1 n faa num eralului o rd in a l: the first, the second

~ 1 n denum irile p erio ad elo r istorice : the Renaissance,

the Industrial Revolution, the Stone Age, the Middle Ages


' n num ele u n o r ziare : The Times, The Daily News,

The W ashington Post


~ 1 n denum irile geografice :
-I num e de p u n cte cardinale : the North,

the South

A te n ie !
In anum ite expresii, the nu se folosete cu num eralul
o rd in a l:
It was love at first sight.
At first glance, it looked like the right one.
O n second thought, his idea seems quite useful.

n u m e de r u r i : the Mississippi, the Nile,

the Danube

A rr+ ic o lw l

*\1\>+ +

a /

av\

- n u m e de m ri i oceane : the Pacific


Ocean, the Dead Sea
-> n u m e de d esertu ri i g o lfu ri : the Sahara,

the Gulf of Mexico


-> n d en u m iri ale u n o r insule, lacuri,
lanuri m untoase, r i : the Philippines,

the Azores, the Great Lakes, the Rocky


M ountains, the Alps, the Carpathians,
the Netherlands
~ 1 num e de g r d in i: the Bronx Zoo, the Botanical Gardens
~ 1 n denum irea u n o r gru p ri, organizaii, dep artam ente
g u v ern am en tale ; the American Red Cross,

the fire departm ent, the police, the board of education,


the tow n council

Form a a a articolului neh o trt se folosete n faa


cuvintelor care ncep cu o consoan (a book, a teacher,

a voyage) sau o sem iconsoan (a European, a one-week


holiday, a U-turn, a window).
Form a an se folosete n faa cuvintelor care ncep cu
o vocal (an artist, an elephant, an orange) sau cu h m u t

(an hour, an honest man, an heir).


O bservaie
>
Abrevierilor p ro n u n a te ca un cuvnt sunt precedate
de form a a a articolului n e h o t r t: a NASA scientist,

a FIFA decision.

In cazul n care abrevierilor se p ro n u n p e litere,


se folosete form a an.
an MA
[ em ei]
an FBI agent [ e f bi:ai eic^snt]

~ 1 n expresii referitoare la tim p, distan, c a n tita te :


three times a week, once a month, tw o dollars a pound

~ 1 n unele expresii uzuale


all of a sudden
to have a good time

P I O S I X&a

in a hurry / rush
ti r t i C 0 .1 ti.1Li:

as a matter of fact
it's a shame
in a good mood

Articolul n eh o trt se foloseste n u rm to arele s itu a tii:


~ atunci cnd nu tim nim ic despre substantivul
respectiv sau cnd acesta este m en io n at p e n tru
prim a dat
There was a man in front of the door.
Do you have a car ?

p e n tru a ne referi la u n m e m b ru d in tr-o clas

A teacher m ust be very patient.


A spider has eight legs.
~ 1 n faa unui substantiv n u m e de profesie
She is a doctor.
He w ants to become an architect.

- 1 n faa n u m erelo r i a fraciilor : a hundred, a thousand,

a fifth of the am ount


- 1 n num ele u n o r boli

an allergy, a cold, a headache, a sore throat,

a tum or dar : toothache, earache, backache,


stomachache

~ 1 dup adverbele quite, such, what, rather, without, as, half,


many u rm a te de un substantiv la singular
Such a nice g irl!
W hat a lovely d a y !
He is quite a gentleman !

O b servaii
U n eo ri p u te m avea a / an sau one. A tunci cnd folosim
one p u n em accent p e num r.
They'll be away for one (or a) year.
He scored one (or a) hundred and sixty points.

A rticolul a plasat n faa lui few i little confer acestora


u n plus de cantitate.
Jack has few friends. He is often lonely.
(few = not many, almost none)
Tom has a few friends in England.
(a few = several)
My sister has little money. She cant afford a
vacation this year, (little = not much, a very small
quantity, not enough)
John has a little money. He is going to buy a
new bicycle, (a little = some, enough)

A rr+ ie o lw l

atunci cnd substantivele bed, church, harbour, hospital,

jail, market, school etc. sunt folosite n scopul p e n tru

N u se folosete nici u n fel de articol n urm toarele

care au fost fcute

c a z u ri:
~ 1 substantive n u m e de m aterii

It's la te ! Go to bed.

D a r : She put her toy on the bed.

Butter is fattening.
We need air to breathe.
Water is very important for life.

Si

~ 1 n num ele u n o r b o l i : appendicitis, rheumatism, AIDS,


cancer, tuberculosis, leukemia

_ substantive abstracte nedefinite

Beauty is only skin-deep.


The aim of this activity is to promote friendship.

War is horrible.
~ 1 zilele sptm nii, lunile anului i anotim purile
They have English on Monday.
It is very cold in February.
It often rains in spring.

W hat is the correct pronunciation of the in the


following examples ?

a) the balloon
b) the re d house
c) th e answ er
d) th e u n ion
e) the h o u r before daw n
f) the long road

~ 1 n expresii referitoare la loc, tim p i m icare


to / at / from school
to / a t/ from university / college
to / at / from church
by car / bus / bicycle / plane / train / boat
on foot
~ l n anum ite e x p re sii : with knike and fork; arm in a r m ;
from top to b o tto m ; day after day

~ 1 num e de m aterii de studiu, jo cu ri, sporturi


We learn English.
He likes basketball.

~1 num e de ri fo rm ate d in tr-u n singur cuvnt i orae :


Romania, England, London, Bucharest, Prague

g) the E uropean
h) the Indian
i) the um brella
j) the university
k) the year
1) the w indow

Complete the blanks with a or an.

a)
b)
c) .
d)
e) .
f>-

w ild dog
old m an
hair
. h o n est person
.. u n icorn
ear

g)
h)

book
. unique event

0j)
k)

. orange
. ice cream
. one-w ay road

1)-

. MA degree

Complete the blanks with the or a / an where needed.

a)
Alps are i n ...........Austria a n d ......... Switzerland.
b)
H ague is th e capital o f .........N etherlands.
c)
Sunday is the first day o f the week.
d) I ts .........sham e th at you cant com e to my party.
e) She h a d .......... toothache all night long.

f) His father i s .......... engineer.


g) iMoby D ick i s .......... interesting book.
Its ..........b est b o o k I ve ever read.
h ) They w e n t to v i s it.......... Smiths.
i I M ary used to p la y .......... guitar.
j I We d o n t go to school o n .......... Saturday.
.<) My b ro th e r s tu d ie d ............ m athem atics.
. D octors hope to find a cure f o r ........... cancer.
m) We e n jo y ..........literature.
n ) ..........tim e flies.
o)
Canada is n o rth o f ...........U n ited States.
d I ..........M issouri River flows i n t o ............M ississippi
River.
q I I go to ........... chu rch o n Sunday.
I She h a d .......... stom achache, b u t it was n o t ...........
ippendicitis.
> .......... Renaissance began in Italy d u r in g .............
rourteenth century.
t) ............ R om anians have a m arvellous folksong
tradition.

Complete the blanks with a / an or one.


a I She was looking f o r .........shop w here she could buy
som ething to drink.
b It was Saturday a fte rn o o n .............shop was o p en b u t
all the others w ere closed.
) I asked f o r .......... slice o f bread. I d id n t n eed th ree of
them .
d I .Ml the students passed th e exam , w ith j u s t .............
exception.
e 1 W ould you like m e to t a k e ........... p h o to o f this
beautiful old building ?

f) W hy d o n t you go to see h e r ? It only takes y o u ..........


hour.
If necessary, complete the blanks with an article.
B y .......... N ovem ber 1776, W ashingtons badly m auled
arm y m ade cam p i n ......... Pennsylvania, a c ro s s .........
Delaware River from N ew Jersey. ........... Hessians w ent
into w inter quarters at Trenton, o n .......... o th e r side o f
........... river. O n ............Christm as night, H am iltons
com pany to o k p a rt in one o f .........m o st famous exploits
o f ........... R evolutionary War. W h ile ........... Hessians
w ere e n jo y in g .......... huge banquet, W ashington ferried
his troops a c ro s s ........... ice-clogged D elaw are River,
about eight miles above Trenton. H e split his forces into
tw o colum ns, one u n d e r .............G eneral Jo h n Sullivan,
..........o th e r u n d e r .............. G eneral N athanael G reene.
They descended on Trenton and c a u g h t............ Hessians
com pletely b y ........... surprise. Colonel Rahle was killed
and nine h u n dred Hessians taken p ris o n e rs ...........victory,
after so m any m o n th s o f defeat, d i d .......... great deal to
re v iv e ........... spirits o f .............. w eary Americans. It also
encouraged e n lis tm e n ts ............ following spring.
Alexander Hamilton by W illiam W ise

W inter is colder than autumn.


This story is more interesting than the one
I read last week.

A -d je c+ iv u l
Adjectivul exprim o calitate a unui obiect, a unei stri
sau a unei situaii.

A rd je e + iv e s im p le
In funcie de n u m ru l de silabe co n in u t de adjectivele
sim ple, acestea respect anum ite reguli de form are
a com paraiei.

p 3. 3. l

d j..0 t i

&10 - s i m -16

G radul pozitiv reprezint form a de baz a ad jectiv elo r:


tall, difficult, old etc.
G radul com parativ se folosete atunci cnd se com par
nsuirile a dou substantive :
~ 1 com parativul de egalitatea se exprim p rin as ... as
(to t aa de ... ca ...)
Mary is as tall as her friend.
Lesson tw o is as difficult as lesson three.
11 com parativul de inferioritate se exprim p rin not as /
so ... as (nu aa de... ca...) sau p rin less ... than...

G radul superlativ are urm toarele dou fo rm e :


~ 1 superlativul re la tiv : the + adjectiv + sufixul -est sau
the m ost + adjectiv (cel m ai...)
John is the youngest of them.
This is the m ost difficult problem we have
to solve.

~ 1 superlativul a b so lu t: adverbele extremely, fantastically,


highly, impossibly, incredibly, infinitely, really, remarkably,
terribly, very etc. + gradul pozitiv al adjectivului
They were confrunted with extremely low
temperatures.
She is remarkably tall for her age.

D e regul, adjectivele m onosilabice form eaz


com parativul i superlativul cu ajutorul sufixului -er,
respectiv -(e)st, n tim p ce adjectivele din dou sau mai
m ulte silabe form eaz com parativul i superlativul cu
ajutorul lui more i the most,
high - higher - the highest
dangerous - more dangerous - the m ost dangerous
low - lower - the lowest
sensitive - more sensitive - the m ost sensitive

(mai p u in ... dect...)


Grandma is not as old as Grandpa.
My English is less accurate than hers.

~ 1 com parativul de superioritate se exprim p rin adjectiv


+ sufixul -er + than, n cazul adjectivelor
scurte , sau more + adjectiv + than, n cazul
adjectivelor lu n g i (m ai... dect...)

U nele adjective bisilabice (common, gentle, handsome,


mature, narrow, pleasant, polite, simple, stupid, subtle etc.)
p o t form a com parativul i superlativul cu ajutorul
am belor reguli.
Exist adjective neregulate care au form e diferite p e n tru
com parativ i su p erlativ :

good - better - the best


bad - worse - the w orst
little - less - the least
much / many - more - the most

This needs further discussion.


They asked for some further information.

- 1 adjectivul late are dou form e d o ar la superlativul


relativ
late - later - the last

Let's look for a better restaurant. I think this is


the best restaurant around here.
He's recovering from a bad accident. In fact, it
was worse than he thought. It is the worst
accident he has ever had.

the latest
I didn't read the last chapter of the book.

(ultim ul, dup care nu m ai urm eaz nim ic)


Have you bought Metallica's latest album ?

(ultim ul, cel mai recent)

n m p a.r.Al-i.a ._a.ri.j.e r j j / ^ JLoj :

a e x e ,g u ia te

3 ff j p t i v p I n r

_ iteva adjective au dou form e la com parativ


i superlativ :
~ 7 adjectivul old

P en tru a ntri ideea exprim at de un adjectiv se folosesc


sintagm ele much sau far naintea form ei de com parativ a
adjectivului sau by far dup aceasta.

old - older - the oldest


elder - the eldest
F irm ele elder i the eldest se folosesc far adverbul than,

iranci cnd se face referire la m em b rii aceleiai familii.


My elder sister is a student.
Who is the eldest in your family ?

adjectivul far
far - farther - the farthest
further - the furthest
: =rther i the farthest se folosesc atunci cnd se face

reierire la distan.
They live tw o miles farther away from here
than I do.
Further este folosit cu sensul de a d iio n a l ,

suplim entar .

This is a much more interesting alternative.


It is quicker by far to go by train.

C o nstrucia din ce n ce m a i + adjectiv se red


p rin dou com parative u n ite cu ajutorul lui and.
Its getting harder and harder to find time
for everything you w ant to do.
This lecture's getting more and more boring.

C onstrucia cu c t + com parativ + cu a t t


se red n lim ba englez p rin dou com parative
p recedate de the.
The higher the price, the better the product.

P r o b l e m e de s c r i e r e a
a d j e c t i v e l o r la c o m p a r a t i v

I
I 1 Adjectivele te rm in a te n tr-o consoan precedat
1 de o vocal scurt dubleaz consoana final.

hot - hotter
big - bigger
thin - thinner
sad - sadder

A te n ie !
Exist i adjective term in ate n -ing care nu provin
din verbe : appetizing, balding, cunning, enterprising,
neighbouring.

Adjectivele n -ing se folosesc p e n tru a exprim a ceea ce


sim im fa de un obiect, o persoan etc.
The noise was very annoying.
The film was disappointing.

j ~ 1 Adjectivele te rm in a te n - p reced at
I de o consoan tran sfo rm - n -i.
happy - happier
easy - easier
pretty - prettier

j ~~1 Adjectivele te rm in a te n -e m u t l p ierd naintea

Adjective term in ate n -ed au o form similar cu aceea


a participiului tre cu t al verbelor regulate (alarmed,

I sufixului -er.

am used, bored, delighted, disappointed, disillusioned,

safe - safer
large - larger

Exist un m are n u m r de adjective derivate din verbe


cu ajutorul sufixului -ing (participial adjectives).
Aceste adjective p o t avea att funcie sintactic de
atribut, ct i de n u m e predicativ.
She stopped in front of a charming house.
The instructions were confusing.

Adjectivele n -ing form eaz gradele de com paraie dup


regulile com paraiei adjectivelor cu mai m ulte silabe.
Its a very frightening thought.
They spent a really pleasing evening
at the theatre.
He couldn't be more confusing.
Her husband is the most boring person
I've ever met.

em barrassed, puzzled, surprised, tired) sau neregulate


(drawn, hidden, known, paid, torn, written).
She was a worried old woman.
They have just bought a furnished flat.
Mind the broken glass.

U nele adjective n -ed nu sunt suficiente p e n tru a


clarifica sensul substantivului, de aceea ele sunt
precedate de u n adverb (superbly cut suit, highly developed
technology, perfectly worded statem ent).

Adjectivele n -ed se folosesc p e n tru a descrie anum ite


stri.
I was annoyed by the news.
They were disappointed by the film.

A d j ' 1 1-V -Si' i d v i*1-6 i i i


Adverbele n -ly provin din adjective sim ple la care
se adaug sufixul respectiv.
happy - happily
strange - strangely

Probleme

de t o p i c

Ca regul general, adjectivele stau n faa


su b stan tiv elo r : a difficult problem, a new dress,
an interesting story.

A te n ie !
Exist ns i adjective sim ple care se te rm in n -ly :
cowardly, daily, fatherly, friendly, kindly, lively, lonely,
Tionthly, weekly

Aceste adjective n so ite de sintagm e prepoziionale de


renul fashion, manner sau way se transform n adverbe.
He greeted me in a friendly way.

Exist unele adjective precu m afraid, alike, alone,


ashamed, asleep, awake, content, glad, ill, likely, well

care se poziioneaz dup anum ite verbe (appear,


be, become, feel, get, look, sound, smell, taste).
Im glad to hear he's feeling better.
Now that he had apologized, she looked

content.
Unele adverbe adm it p e lng form a sim pl i p e cea
in sufixul -ly. Cele dou fo rm e au acelai neles.
She speaks very loud(ly).
I promise to be there as quick(ly) as possible.

Cteva adverbe au n elesuri diferite p e n tru cele dou


.
They arrived late for the the meeting.
I haven't met them lately (recently).
I can't sing that high.
His films are very highly regarded, (people praise
them)
The window was wide open so the burglar w ent
straight in.
You can easily find the book, it is widely
available, (in many places)
He has always worked hard.
His younger brother hardly does anything at all.
(his younger brother is very lazy)

Snow showers are likely in the next hours.

Adjectivele care exprim m rim ea, durata sau vrsta


(broad, deep, high, long, old, tall, wide) stau dup
substantive.
The road is six feet broad.
The building was more than tw o hundred
years old.

Atunci cnd m ai m ulte adjective determ in un


substantiv, ordinea lor este, de obicei, urm to area :
quality, size, age, shape, colour, origin / place, material.
it was a nice, large, green, plastic bag.
She was wearing a beautiful, navy, Scottish,
woollen jacket.

A rd jec+iv'e e o w p iA se
Adjectivele com puse su n t form ate din dou sau mai
m ulte cuvinte i se scriu de obicei cu cratim n tre ele.
a good-looking girl
a low-paid job

Adjectivele com puse su n t form ate din :


~ 1 un adjectiv sim plu sau u n num eral i u n adjectiv n
-ed : a long-haired person, a six-sided object

~ 1 u n adjectiv sau u n adverb i u n participiu t r e c u t :


a short-lived relationship, a well-known story

~ 1 u n adjectiv, adverb sau substantiv i u n participiu


p re z e n t: a long-lasting material, a mouth-watering aroma
U n nu m r lim itat de adjective com puse se form eaz
din m ai m u lt de dou cuvinte care se scriu cu cratim
n tre ele.
a dow n-to-earth person
the day-to-day administration

Adjectivele com puse care accept grade de com paraie


form eaz com parativul i superlativul dup regula
general a com paraiei adjectivelor form ate din mai
m ulte silabe.
She was even more open-minded than
I expected.
He is the m ost absent-minded person
I've ever met.

In cazul adjectivelor com puse d in tr-u n adverb i u n

Complete the blanks with the comparative and


superlative forms of the following adjectives.

a) cheap ....................................................................
b) w i d e .......................................................................
c) small .....................................................................
d) sad ............................................................... .........
e) bad ........................................................................
f) u s e f u l.....................................................................
g) self-su fficien t.......................................................
h) cool .......................................................................
i) n a r r o w ...................................................................
j) little ........................................................................

Use the following words to make sentences with

a comparative adjective and than.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Bucharest, big, Ploieti.


My brother, old, m e.
H e r w atch, expensive, m ine.
T he crop this year, good, last year.
Life in the country, healthy, life in a town.

f) H e, generous, I thought.
g) It is, bad, I expected.
h) Rom e, far from London, Paris.

adjectiv care i pstreaz sensul, adverbul suport


gradele de com paraie.
ill-tempered - w orse-tem pered the worst-tempered
well-known - better-known - the best-known

Choose the correct adjective to complete the blanks.

a) W eve had a very (tired / tiring) day at the office


today.
b) It was a terrib le film and I was (bored / boring)
from start to finish.

i I was com pletely (confused / confusing) w ith th e rules


:: the game.
I The m ap was very (confused / confusing) and they
^ot lost.

e Jane looked calm b u t Im sure she felt really


terrified / terrifying).

Translate the following sentences into English.

a) Program ele de televiziune sunt din ce n ce mai


interesante.
b) Este din ce n ce m ai frig i zilele sunt din ce n
ce m ai scurte.

: -sedative form of the adjective in brackets.

c) Povestea aceasta este din ce n ce m ai plictisitoare.


d) Cu ct m eciul era m ai palpitant, cu att m ai tare
strigau spectatorii.

i They chose this hotel because it was (good) in the


tow n and (cheap) th an they expected,

e) C u ct se antrena m ai m ult, cu att m ai puine


greeli facea.

fV .-t

Complete the sentences using the comparative or the

r M ona Lisa is (fam ous) painting in m y opinion,


I do n t know w ho is (old) in th e ir family b u t Im
snr th at Tom is (young) than his sister,
d H e is considered (popular) p o p singer. Definitely,
be is (popular) by far th an any o th e r p o p singer in his
country.
e Travelling by car is (com fortable) th an by b us b u t
: ou are in a hurry, go by plane. I ts th e (fast).

Where necessary, write the correct form of these

sentences:

: I havent read th e latest ch ap ter o f this book.


: Are th ere any fu rth e r questions ?
Tom is eld er th a n his brother.
1 This house is m uch m o re spacious than th e flat
we used to live in.
e Travelling by train is least tirin g than driving.
: >he seem s to b e getting th in e r and thiner.
^ It was by far th e b ad d est tim e o f m y life,
h ! W hat an excited idea !

Use the correct form.

a) H e cam e in and sm iled friendly / in a friendly


way at everybody.
b) H e kicked th e ball highly / high over th e goal.
c) She w orked hardly / hard and passed the exam.
d) They havent visited us late / lately.

If anyone w ants to attend this course,

they m ust write their name on this list.

P r o H i A w e l e

P ronum ele personal la persoana a I l l - singular it l


P ronum ele este p artea de vorbire flexibil care se
substituie u n u i substantiv, prelu n d u -i categoriile
gramaticale.

P ro w u w e le

P ersoana
I
a Il-a
a Ill-a

p e rso n a l

Singular

^ w b iee+

Plural

we

you

you

he
she

they

it

P ronum ele personal I se scrie n to td eau n a cu liter m are.


Spre deosebire de lim ba rom n, n lim ba englez
subiectul u nei propoziii treb u ie m en io n a t n totdeauna.
I am busy. (Eu) su n t ocupat.
Folosim persoana a Il-a singular he atunci cnd
ne referim la u n b rb at sau biat, iar she la o fem eie
sau o fat.
My brother is a student. He studies civil
engineering.
Jane came in. She was wearing a very short
dress.

D up p ro n u m ele n eh o trte somebody, someone, anybody,


anyone, atunci cnd n u p u tem specifica dac este vorba
despre u n b rb at sau o fem eie, folosim they p e n tru
persoana a IlI-a singular.

folosim atunci cnd :


~ > ne referim la u n obiect, anim al, loc, organizaie
sau la o n o iu n e abstract
I've just bought a new coat. It was very
expensive.
We visited Paris. It was very crowded.
Do you listen to the BBC when it broadcasts
the news ?
We started earlier. It was not a good idea.

~ 1 ne referim la or, dat sau vrem e (n acest ultim caz,


it are funcia de subiect p e n tru verbele im personale)

It is very hot here.


It is half past eleven.
It is January 10th.
It was very cold and rainy.
~ 1 n principal avem pronum ele n eh otrte nothing,
everything, something i anything
Everything happens when you don't w ant it to.

~ l identificm persoane
W ho's the girl in black 7 Its Rosie Lewis.

Pronum ele p e rs o n a l - c o m p le m e n f
( .d ir e c t

Persoana

S u

in d ir e c t

Singular

Plural

A rdjee+iv/ele .si p r o n u m e le
p o se s \ve
A djectivele p osesive

me

us

my

your

his

i Il-a

you

you

our

your

their

a III-a

him
her

her

its

hers

its

Pron u m ele p osesive


them

it
Can you help me with this problem ?
He likes you.
He sent her a long letter.
I'm looking for my cat. Have you seen it ?
They invited us to their w edding anniversary.
I haven't told them the news.

Areste form e ale pro n u m elu i personal se folosesc


in rspunsurile scurte (registrul familiar) sau dup

mine

yours

his

ours

yours

theirs

I've got a new bike. This is my bike. Its mine.


Youve got tw o letters. These are your letters.
These are yours.
They have their books. They have taken theirs.

A te n tie !
Pronum ele posesiv preced at de prepoziia of se folosete
n e x p re sii : a friend of mine, a book of yours, a student
of hers.

>i than.
W hos going to try ? Me.
She's got the same am ount as him.

Pr . r.umele personal n cazul dativ este p reced at


i e Drepoziia to atunci cnd urm eaz u n substantiv
sau u n p ro n u m e n cazul acuzativ.
Give him the bike!
Give the bike / it to him !

P r o n u m e le r e - f le x iv
s\
de n + a r i r e
>
Pronum ele reflexiv i cel de n trire au aceeai form .

Persoana
I
a II-a
a III-a

Singular

Plural

myself

ourselves

yourself

yourselves

himself
herself
itself

themselves

IFO ..-5>. l"'G 5.


P ronum ele reflexiv arat c aciunea exprim at de verb
se rsfrnge asupra subiectului (subiectul i
com plem entul d irect sun t identice).

Do you like the cake ? I myself made it.


The doctor said so himself.
She told me the new s herself.
The house itself is nice but it is too far
to the city centre.
Tom and M ary paid for it themselves

D e asem enea, el poate nlocui p ro n u m ele personal dup


sintagm ele as, like, but (for) i except (for).

P ronum ele reflexive din expresiile by oneself i on my own


au rolul de a sublinia c o aciune este fcut de subiect
singur, far aju to ru l altcuiva.
She says she can run the business by herself /
on her own.
Chris was sitting on his own / by himself in the
corner of the pub.

.-'.|

P ronum ele de n trire st fie im ediat dup cuvntul


p e care l ntrete, fie la sfritul propoziiei, n cazul
n care se refer la subiectul acesteia.

/ helped myself to another piece of cake.


He stretched himself out flat on the floor.
She fell and hurt herself.

People like yourself (or like you) still prefer


reading to watching TV
Everybody flattered her except myself.

p " 0 U Ttl Q 1 LX.!..*: d-6.:

P ro m A w ele

Singular
Plural

dew ow .s+va+ iv'

A p rop iere
this
these

D eprtare
that
those

This is a difficult problem.


That's Mike at the bus-stop.
Those look riper than these.

A te n ie !
M ulte verbe care n lim ba ro m n su n t reflexive n u sunt
u rm a te n lim ba englez de p ro n u m e reflexiv : complain,

In lim ba englez this i these se folosesc num ai p e n tru


a desem na ceva din im ediata apropiere a vorbitorului,

concentrate, feel, remember, dress, relax, shave, wash.


She complains all the time.
He feels better today.
You should try to relax.
They washed, dressed, had breakfast and w ent
to school.

att n tim p, ct i n spaiu.

A te ntie !
F orm ula de prezentare a unei persoane este :
This is Linda.
This is Mr and Mrs Baker.

Folosim pe this chiar dac prezentm m ai m ulte


persoane.

~1 p ronum ele care ncep cu some, every i no sunt


folosite n propoziii afirm ative

P r o n u m e le + +
s.. oody

ar>
anything

everybody
everyone
everything

nobody
no one
nothing

somebody
someone
something

r.ir2cteristicile p re n u m e lo r n eh o trte :
~ je acord cu verbul la singular
Everything is ready.
Does anyone know the answer ?

rro n u m e le cu sufixul -thing se refer la obiecte, idei,


situaii, activiti
Was there anything on the table ?
There's something interesting on the front page.
The doctor said there was nothing wrong
with me.

rro n u m ele cu sufixul -body i -one se refer la


oersoane i a c c e p t 's p e n tru exprim area posesiei
Someone from your office phoned.
W hen I arrive there was nobody at home.
She would appreciate anyone's opinion.
This m ust be somebody's business.

reluarea sau explicitarea unui p ro n u m e n eh o trt


se face folosind p ro n u m ele personal la plural

Everybody was enjoying themselves.


Ask anyone. TheyW tell you the same thing.
Nobody bothered to help her, did they ?
pronum ele n eh o trte asociate cu else fac referire
'a o alt persoan / o b iect
He couldnt think of anybody else.
If you dont need it, give it to somebody else.
Tom and Jane asked for soup. Nobody else
w anted it.

Someone rang while you were out.


Everthying is so expensive these days.
Nobody could help her.
There was nothing we could do to make
her change her mind.

~ 1! pronum ele care ncep cu any se folosesc n propoziii


interogative i negative
Was there anything under the table ?
I cant see anybody outside.

>n propoziiile afirm ative anyone i anybody se refer


la oam eni n general
Anyone can answ er this question.

P r o n u m e le r e c i p r o c e each
o + k e r s> i o n e dno+lfver
Each other este pro n u m ele reciproc care se folosete

atunci cnd ne referim la dou persoane.


Betty and M ary are jealous of each other.
O ne another se folosete atunci cnd ne referim la mai
m ulte persoane.
The students in my group always help one
another.

W V
^

f l o u ^ eXeirciyii!.

b) Betty w rote a m ore interesting essay th an M ike did.


c) T he B rysons garden is m o re beautiful th an o u r
garden.

^ Replace the underlined words by pronouns.

a) Jane gave th e m oney to Jeremy.


b) Tom bo u g h t som e flowers for R ebecca.
c) My b ro th e r and I to ld a sto ry to o u r little sister.
d) You and I m u st show M r Brow n th e way to the
station.
e) H en ry an d Jo h n gave a CD to m e and m y frien d .
f) Give this b o n e to th e dog.

Complete the sentences using on my own / by myself etc.

a) The luggage was too heavy for m e to c a r r y ...................


b) She d o esn t like straw berries w ith cream . She prefers
t h e m ...................
c) D o you like w orking w ith o th e r students o r do you
p refer w o rk in g ........................
d) We are happy you decided to com e w ith us.
We w o u ld n t like to g o ..........................

Choose the correct word.

a) Let m e in tro d u ce m y friends. This is / T hese are M r


and M rs King.
b) T here is anything / n o th in g to eat.
c) Anyone / Som eone b ro k e into th e house.
d) D o you know anything / noth in g ab o u t it ?
e) Ted was asking hisself / him self th e sam e question.
f) Ask anyone. H e / They will tell you.
Change these sentences. Use possessive adjectives and
pronouns whenever possible.

M o d e l:
M r Brow n plays a m o re im p o rta n t p a rt in local politics
th an Mrs Brown.
His p art in local politics is m o re im p o rtan t than h er
part.
His p a rt in local politics is m o re im p o rtan t than hers.
a) M ike bought a m o re sophisticated c o m p u ter than
w e did.

Rewrite each sentence so that it has a similar meaning


and contains the word / words given.

a) T here was nothing we could see.


We c o u ld n t ........................................
b) We are all coffee drinkers here.
E v ery b o d y .........................................
c) W hen I p h o n ed th ere was no answer.
N o o n e ..........................................................
d) N o one caught th e last bus yesterday.
Everyone .......................................................
e) Are we going to be intro d uced there ?
Is a n y o n e .......................................................
Translate these sentences.

a) Cei doi tineri se uitau unul la altul i preau c


nu neleg nimic.
b) Cine altcineva ar vrea s m part prjitura cu noi ?
c) Ea se plnge c n u aude bine.
d) nsui / C hiar docto ru l i- spus s nu mai fumeze.

e I Trebuie s te culci m u lt m ai devrem e.


: N im eni nu a ajutat-o. A tre b u it sa te rm in e
proiectul singur.
* Ct e ceasul ?
- E mai frig dect m ateptam .

1 +

im pev.s w al

It ndeplinete funcia sintactic de subiect p e n tru


verbele im personale.

1 O S 1

S ^

* t i r i t

ti O

Cazurile n care p u tem folosi aceast stru ctu r sunt

1+ / T k e r e

u rm toarele :
~ 1 p e n tru a descrie u n loc sau o situaie
It's nice here.

In .im ba englez o problem delicat o constituie

>
1 p e n tru a vorbi despre vrem e

>:4osrea stru c tu rilo r care ncep cu it sau there.

If

prow w w e fersov\A\

t este p ronum ele personal care se folosete atunci


c n d se face referire la u n obiect, u n loc, o organizaie,

o noiune abstract, u n anim al sau chiar la u n copil mic.


Have you listened to the concert ? Yes, it was
fabulous.

It has been raining.

O bservaie
Atunci cnd descriem vrem ea p u te m folosi it m p reu n
cu urm toarele verbe im personale :
to drizzle a ploua m ru n t, a cerne,
a b u rn ia
to hail a cdea, a bate grindina
to pour a ploua torenial

W hen Pongo the dog was brought home it kept

to rain a ploua

to its corner without moving for tw o days.

to sleet a cdea lapovia


to snow a ninge

t se folosete i n cazul identificrii unei persoane.

to thunder a trsni

W ho's that over there ? Its Helen Cook.


Hello. It's Christine Black, (form ula de

prezen tare la telefon)

~"1 p e n tru a spune ct este ora


It's seven o'clock.

~ 1 p e n tru a vorbi despre o anum it perioad de tim p


It's tw o weeks since you last wrote.

1 p e n tru a exprim a data


It's Saturday, the 23rd of December.

It took an hour to get to the village.


It takes a great man to build such a company.
It took the crow a month to build its nest.

- 1 p e n tru a vorbi despre distane


It's 200 miles to London.

P n ln c irp a

c t r n r t i u i i

* \f: I3 :

iLnJnjsi

Ini

it

( i m . 1)

Aceast stru c tu r se folosete atunci cnd :


~ 1 ne referim la o situaie care a fost descris m ai nainte
Hes never come to see his parents. It's m ost
strange, isn't it ?

com entm u n evenim ent, o situaie sau u n fapt

It poate avea funcia sintactic de co m plem ent

atunci cnd d o r im :
~ 1 s exprim m sentim ente (cu ajutorul verbelor hate,
like, adore, dislike, enjoy, loathe, love, prefer)
He knew they would have hated it if

It costs so much to get there.

he had said no.

~1 s scoatem n eviden o p a rte de propoziie

O bservaie
P entru acest caz se m ai folosete i stru c tu ra it + to be
+ a d je c tiv / substantiv + that...
In propoziia in trodus p rin that verbul este should +
infinitivul scurt dac adjectivul / substantivul exprim :

(cleft sentences)
My aunt took the child to Paris yesterday.
It was my aunt who took the child to Paris
yesterday (not my mother).
It was the child th at my aunt took to Paris
yesterday (not the cat).
It was to Paris that my aunt took the child
yesterday (not to London).
It was yesterday that my aunt took the child
to Paris (not last year).

~ 1 im portan a aciunii
It's im portant that she should listen to her own
conscience.
It is his wish that w e should all come on time.

~ 1 o reacie personal
It's astonishing that she should be so stubborn.
It was a surprise that they should come
to m eet us.

O bservaie
A tunci cnd u n p ro n u m e este scos n eviden, exist

-1 exprim m efectul unei aciuni asupra unei persoane


It surprised / shocked / pleased him to realise
he had won a lot of money.

~ 1 indicm de ce anum e este nevoie p e n tru realizarea


u nei aciuni (tim p, tip de persoan, bani)

dou posibiliti de exprim are :


It
It
It
It

is
is
is
is

I who am responsible, (formal English)


me thats responsible, (informal English)
you who are right, (formal English)
you that's right, (informal English)

~ s I exprim m opinia unei persoane sau a unui g rup


r.especificat de oam eni (cu aju to ru l verbelor accept,
acknowledge, agree, appear, argue, assum e, believe,
conclude, decide, expect, find, discover, estimate, explain,
'eel, happen, hold, know, look, mention, notice, predict,
ealize, recommend, remember, report, seem, state, think,
understand)
He found it hard to believe his eyes.
We thought it wrong to pay the ransom.
It is assum ed that all children will be happy at
Christmas.
It was said that he could speak Chinese.
It seem ed that he was the right person for
the job.
It appeared that w e had taken the wrong
decision.
It looked as if he knew everything.
It happened that Paula could not be found
at home that very day.

51 sugerm o idee venit n ultim ul m o m e n t


It occured to him that he hadn't talked to his
colleagues since the day before Christmas.
It crossed my mind to ask you about your plans.
It struck me to tell you how lucky we had been
to leave before the flood.

There are funcia de subiect al propoziiei care introduce

o noiune nou, subiectul logic fiind plasat dup verb.


There were thirty boys in the class.
There are three reasons why w e should listen
to her.
There is a car in the street.

Aceste construcii se folosesc i atunci cnd se face


referire la u n evenim ent care a avut sau va avea loc.
There was a knock at the door.
There will be a general election next year.

In engleza britanic, n stilul literar, there apare n so it


de verbele exist, remain, arise, follow i come p e n tru
a sugera existena.
There remained the m atter of Johnson.
There followed a great flood of indignation
in the newspapers.
There comes a time when you forget about
your troubles.

Fill in the following sentences with it is or there is.


You may need the plural, the negative, the past or the future
of these structures.

T kere
In funcie de pronu n ie, acest cuvnt are dou n e le s u ri:
there [] este adverb i nseam n n acel loc
W hat's the green thing over there ?
~ there is [6ariz] / there are [:] nseam n

exist , se afl

a) W h ats the tim e ? ................3.30.


b) H ow far is it to L ondon ? .....................60 miles.
c)
all sorts o f stories about this castle.
................said th a t an old lady hid her dow ry in here
and t h a t ...................... an u n d erground passage leading
to the church.

d) D oes M ary have any child ren ? Yes....................a


daughter, L u c y ................. Lucy w ho answ ered
the p h o n e yesterday.
e )
very cold last night. Yes, .......................snow
storm s all over th e country.
f)
a garage b eh in d th e building, b u t
I d o n t t h i n k .................any ro o m for y our car.
g) Can I have a p o u n d o f apples, please ? Im afraid
any left.
h) It was very w indy yesterday. .................im possible
to go for a walk.
i)
g ing to b e a bus strike tom orrow .
j) C om e on, children ! .....................tim e to get up !

Rephrase the following sentences so that the meaning


stays the same by using it is or there is.

a) Today is really muggy ! .....................................today !


b) To learn is never too late............................. to learn.
c) T he train hasnt arrived, w hich is strange.
hasnt arrived.
d) C rying over spilt m ilk is no use................. spilt milk.
e) N ear the hotel is a m all...................... n ear the hotel.
f) You w e n t to Spain n o t your sister.
...................... to Spain.
g) Craiova is a long way from h e re ................. to Craiova.
h) You w ro te to us tw o weeks ago...................... last
w rote.

Emphasize the underlined elements by using

it is / it was.

Finish the following sentences.

a) Jo h n m e t one o f his friends in th e stre e t yesterday.

a) It surprised h i m ............................................

b) M r W h ite d id n t get a seat on his train this m orning.


c) T he first tim e V ictor heard this sto ry had been
after C hristm as d in n e r.
d) I w ould o ften clim b trees w hen I was a boy.
e) Sydney had only tw o topics o f conversation.
f) Every dish is aim ed a t th e eye as well as at th e palate.
g) Som eone has left a parcel for us outside th e front

b) It was his w is h .............................................


c) H e takes it for g r a n te d ...............................
d) Paul found it h a r d .........................................
e) I t was th e c a t ................................................
f) It takes a m o n t h ..........................................
g) It h a p p e n e d ....................................................

door.
h) For H ogan, th e results have been devastating.
i) Shes very anxious for h e r daughter to succeed.
j) M uch o f the m oney has found its way into th e pockets
o f a few thousand.

h) It was am a z in g .............................................
i) It crossed my m i n d .......................................
j) H e considers it n e c e ssa ry ...........................
Translate into English.

a)
b)
c)
d)

C red c o s ning la noapte.


D ac m erg pe jos, o s fac o or pn acolo.
Ii era greu nvtoarei s cread povestea Emiliei.
N u iese fum far foc.

e 1 Sunt trei zile de cnd am p lecat de acas.


: E nevoie de m u lt curaj p e n tru a rm ne u n om cinstit
in zilele noastre.
; \ ine o vrem e cnd e bine s lupi p e n tru drepturile tale.
- La u este u n b rb at n alt i cu barb care are un
r.ichet m are n brae.
Peter este cel care a spart geamul,
a Pe mas se afl o vaz cu trandafiri.

X ii.e_S j-rn -p J.fiB_r p g p n t


Persoana A flrm ativ
1 sg
a Il-a sg.
a I l l - sg.

I pi.
a Il-a pi.
a IH -a pi.

Taji

se

In terogativ

N egativ

1 drink

do 1 drink ?

1 do not drink

you drink

do you drink ?

you do not drink

he/ she /

does he /

he/ she /

it drinks

she / it drink ?

it does not drink

we drink

do w e drink ?

we do not drink

you drink

do you drink ?

you do not drink

they drink

do they drink ?

they do not
drink

V e rb u l
Verbul este acea p arte de vorbire care exprim aciuni,
- - -rese, stri. El are u rm to arele categorii gram aticale :
, aspect, num r, persoan, m o d i diatez.

1 P r o b l e m e de s c r i e r e
a v e r b u l u i lal p e r s o a n a
1 a III- a s i n g u l a r
Cele m ai m ulte verbe adaug term inaia -s.

T u n p u r ile v e r b a le
Ir. :mba englez, tim p u rile m odului indicativ prezint
ou form e, n funcie de d u rata i desfurarea
m tim p a aciunii exprim ate de verb : aspectul sim plu,
care arat o aciune general sau repetat, i aspectul
: r.iinuu, care arat o aciune n e n tre ru p t , desfurat
intr-o perioad de tim p bine definit.

like - likes
start - starts
read - reads
feel - feels
play - plays

Verbele care se term in n consoan + schim b


semivocala n i i adaug term inaia -es.
try - tries
fly - flies

Verbele care se term in n -s, -z, -ch, -x adaug


term inaia -es la persoana a IlI-a singular,
cross - crosses
buzz - buzzes
catch - catches
wash - washes
mix - mixes

~11 rezum area aciunilor u n o r cri, filme sau prezentri


tablourilor istorice

~ 1 Exist cteva verbe care au form e speciale,


be - is
have - has
go - goes
do - does

In Chapter 1, Hellen m eets her foster parents


and agrees to return to school.
The Civil W ar begins-.

P r o b l e m e de p r o n u n i e
a terminaiei

-( e) s

P ronunarea term in aiei -(e)s depinde de sunetul care


o preced. Regulile de p ro n u n are a verbelor la
persoana a I l l - singular sunt sim ilare cu acelea ale
substantivelor la plural.

Folosirea.lui Sim ple Present Tense


Acest tim p se folosete p e n tru a exprim a :
~ 1 un adevr general
Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius.
A molecule of water has tw o atom s
of hydrogen and one of oxygen.

Acest tim p se form eaz din verbul to be + infinitivul


scurt al verbului de conjugat + sufixul -ing.

;
A firm a tiv

In terogativ

I am drinking

am I drinking ?

you are drinking

are you drinking ?

he / she / it is drinking

is he / she / it drinking ?

w e are drinking

are w e drinking ?

you are drinking

are you drinking ?

they are drinking

are they drinking ?


N e g a tiv
I am not drinking

~ 1 aciuni obinuite, rep etate


I usually go to work by bus.
He gets up at 6 o'clock every morning.
Do you smoke ?
She doesn't take sugar in her coffee.

you are not drinking


he / she / it is not drinking
we are not drinking
you are not drinking

~1 sentim ente i opinii


I think this is their house but I'm not sure.
She likes strawberry ice cream but prefers
chocolate.

~~1 com entariile sportive de la radio i televiziune

they are not drinking

*. " P r o b l e m e de s c r i e r e
a v e r b u l u i n -i ng

John passes to Smith, Smith to Tony,


Tony intercepts and ... it's a g o a l!

~~1 In cazul n care verbul se term in n tr-u n e m ut,


acesta dispare.

have - having
write - writing
drive - driving
E x c e p ii: be - being
see - seeing
agree - agreeing

Verbele m onosilabice care se te rm in n tr-o


consoan preced at de o vocal dubleaz
consoana final.
sit - sitting
stop - stopping
dig - digging
swim - swimming

Verbele te rm in a te n - pstreaz semivocala,


indiferent dac este p recedat de o vocal
sau de o consoan,
try - trying
fly - flying
play - playing
say - saying

Term inaia -ie a verbelor se tran sfo rm n -.


lie - lying
die - dying

rc.os ireal u iJke&eatXaritmuQ us Jfe n s e


Acest tim p se folosete p e n tru a exprim a :
: aciune care este n curs de desfurare n
m om entul vorbirii (de obicei este folosit i u n adverb
ie tim p now, right now, at this moment)
The child is watching a cartoon right now.
Listen ! Somebody is knocking on the door.

~ d schim bare de scurt d urat n tr-o activitate


obinuit

He goes to work by bus but today he is walking.


At the moment they are living in a very
small flat.

o aciune planificat s se desfoare n viitor


(i n aceast situaie se folosete un adverb de tim p)
Paul is going on a trip to Australia next month.
Are you doing anything on Saturday night ?
I'm going to a concert,

o aciune repetat n m o d frecvent (n aceast situaie


sunt folosite adverbele forever, all the time, always
cu sensul de very often)
He's always making silly mistakes.

O bservaii
Exist verbe care se folosesc destul de rar la prezentul
co n tinuu i care au un alt neles la acest tim p fa de
form a de infinitiv.
D in aceast categorie fac parte :
1 verbe care exprim o activitate m intal sau o em oie
believe
doubt
suppose
imagine
know
(dis)like

love
hate
prefer
realise
recognise
remember

see (= understand)
feel (= have an opinion)
think (= have an opinion)
understand
w ant
wish

verbe care exprim percepii senzoriale


appear
sound
look (= seem) hear
smell
taste

seem
see

~ 1 verbe care genereaz reacii


agree
please
disagree
surprise

deny
satisfy
mean

impress
astonish
promise

alte verbe
be
belong
concern
consist
contain
depend

deserve
fit
include
involve
lack
matter

measure (= have length)


need
ow e
own
possess
weigh (= have weight)

Aceste verbe p o t exprim a o aciune (action verbs) sau


0 stare (state verbs) i au neles diferit.
state verbs
We have an old car. (= own)
1think you are right (= believe)
He comes from Germany. (= lives in, was born in)
I see your point. (= I understand)
action verbs
We are having dinner. (= eating)
Im thinking about her behaviour. (= analyzing)
He's coming from Germany.(= travelling from)
I'm seeing a doctor.(= go to)

I'm feeling so sad about it.


She's looking very well.

I feel so sad about it.


She looks very well.

The

J u e jL s.e

In funcie de form a pe care o au verbele la trecutul


sim plu i la participiul trecut, ele se m p a rt n dou
c a te g o rii: verbe regulate i verbe neregulate.
Verbele regulate form eaz trecutul sim plu p rin aduga
term inaiei -(e)d la form a de infinitiv scurt.
wash - washed - washed = a spla a splat splat
A firm a tiv

In te ro g a tiv

I walked

did I walk ?

you walked

did you walk ?

he / she / it walked

did he / she / it walk ?

we walked

did w e walk ?

you walked

did you walk ?

they walked

did they walk ?


N e g a tiv

U nele verbe care exprim stri p o t fi folosite la


prezentul con tin u u atunci cnd se refer la o perioad
scurt de tim p.
Holidays cost a lot of money. - a permanent
state
This voyage is costing us a lot of money. a short period of time

I did not walk


you did not walk
he / she / it did not walk
w e did not walk
you did not walk
they did not walk

F orm a scurt la negativ este I didn't walk.


In cteva situaii p u tem folosi acelai verb att la
prezentul sim plu, ct i la p rezentul continuu,
far s existe vreo diferen de sens.

f-i-osirea lui Simple Past Tense


I r e s t tim p se folosete atunci cnd :

' rbim despre o aciune care s-a p e tre c u t n tr-u n


interval de tim p b ine definit din tre c u t i care
s -a ncheiat
My sister cooked lunch yesterday.
The Prime Minister visited Cluj last Monday.
My friend graduated two years ago.

m ~ nescriem o situaie sau o aciune care s-a desfaurat


;r - a lungul unei perioade de tim p n trecu t
My grandma lived in a small village during her

last years.
Lots of strikes were organized throughout 1999.

~ rse referim la o activitate care s-a p e tre c u t n m od


repetat
n tre c u t
i

Regularly every Christmas M ary w ent to visit her


grandparents.

Ob-servatii
Ifc ele would i used to se folosesc p e n tru a exprim a
jctruni care s-au p e tre c u t n m o d re p e ta t n trecut.
W hen he was younger he used to argue a lot
with his parents.
During the holidays w e would m eet at the beach
every morning.

Lseo to se folosete p e n tru a descrie obiceiuri din trecu t


care nu mai su n t valabile n prezent.
He used to drive to work but now he goes
by bus.

buld nu

se folosete cu verbe care exprim stri.


He would own a house in the mountains.

incorect
He used to own a house in the mountains.

corect

P r o b l e m e de s c r i e r e
a verbelor regulate
la S i m p l e P a s t Tense
~ 1 Cele m ai m ulte verbe regulate prim esc
term inaia -ed.
end - ended
look - looked
watch - watched
open - opened
help - helped
w ant - wanted

~ Verbele term in ate n -e m u t adaug num ai -d.


hope - hoped
believe - believed

~ 1 Verbele term in ate n tr-o vocal accentuat


i o consoan (cu excepia lui w i y) dubleaz
consoana i adaug -ed.
stop - stopped
plan - planned
refer - referred
admit - adm itted

~ 1 Verbele term in ate n tr-o vocal + pstreaz


semivocala naintea term in aiei -ed : play - played
~1 Verbele term in ate n consoan + schim b pe
n i i adaug -ed.
study - studied
cry - cried

~ l Verbele term in ate n - prim esc term inaia -ked :


panic - panicked

~ ' In engleza britanic, -I final se dubleaz dup


o vocal, chiar dac aceasta nu este accentuat :
travel - travelled

Probleme

de p r o n u n i e

n funcie de sunetele care p reced term in aia


-ed, aceasta se p ro n u n a s tfe l:
~ 1 [d] dup vocale i consoane sonore
(cu excepia lui d)
hurried [bvrid]
arrived [-raivd]

A firm a tiv

In terogativ

I was walking

was I walking ?

you were walking

were you walking ?

he / she / it was walking

was he / she / it walking ?

w e were walking

were w e walking ?

you were walking

were you walking ?

they were walking

were they walking ?


N e g a tiv

screamed [skriimd]

~ ' [t] dup consoane surde (cu excepia lui t)


laughed [la:ft]
watched [wotjt]

I was not walking


you were not walking
he / she / it was not walking

looked [lukt]

w e were not walking

stopped [stopt]

you were not walking

crossed [krost]

they were not walking

~ [id] dup d i t
needed [ni:did]
w anted [wontid]

P en tru form a de Simple Past Tense a verbelor


neregulate, consult lista acestora.

P s t

l e n * s * e - ( Zo n 1 1 n u o u s

Se form eaz din verbul to be la Simple Past Tense +


participiul prezen t (form a n -ing) al verbului de
conjugat.
I was sleeping.
You were working.

Folosirea lui Past Tense Continuous


Acest tim p se folosete atunci cnd :
~ 1 exprim m o aciune care s-a desfaurat n e n tre ru p t
n tr-o perioad de tim p bine definit din trec u t
I was doing my homework at five o'clock
yesterday.
My brother was sleeping when I came home

last night.
~ 1 accentum faptul c o aciune s-a desfaurat
p e o perioad m ai lung de tim p
The baby was crying all day yesterday.
They were having fun the whole time they

were together.
~ 1 exprim m o aciune de durat desfurat n trecut
i n tre ru p t de o alt aciune din trecu t

When the guests arrived I was still cooking.


She was sleeping when the phone rang.

She has broken her leg. = Her leg is broken.


Have you learnt the lesson ? = Do you know
the lesson ?

Se :: rmeaz din verbul to have la Simple Present Tense +

, :-i-:dpiul tre c u t al verbului de conjugat.

~ 1 o aciune este nedefinit n tim p

I have written.
She has gone.

She has done a lot for me.


Have you bought a new car ?

~ 1 redm tiri referitoare la evenim ente recente


A firm a tiv

In te ro g a tiv

Here is the 12 o'clock n e w s : The Prime Minister

I have walked

have I walked ?

has approved the new year's budget. The

you have walked

have you walked ?

-e / she / it has walked

has he / she / it walked ?

we have walked

have w e walked ?

you have walked

have you walked ?

I've lost my wallet. I remember I had it when I

they have walked

have they walked ?

paid the train ticket but then I couldn't find it.

number of unemployed has reached tw o million.

A tunci cnd se detaliaz o afirm aie se folosete Past


Tense, form a sim pl sau continu.

N e g a tiv
I have not walked
you have not walked
he / she / it has not walked
we have not walked

A te n jtie !
D ac se precizeaz m o m entul n care s-a p etrecu t
evenim entul, se folosete trecutul simplu.
There was a fire at W indsor Castle last night.

you have not walked


they have not walked

?c.asirea lui Simple Present Perfect Tense


t e s t tim p se folosete atunci cnd :
~ : aciune trecu t are legtur cu prezentul
I can't buy anything else because I have spent
all my money.
She is lying in bed because she has broken
her leg.

construcie cu verbul la Simple Present Perfect


>r poate transform a n tr-u n a cu verbul la prezent,
I- in d acelai sens.

In engleza am erican, p e n tru a transm ite inform aii


se folosete trecutul simplu.
Did you hear it? "Senate Bean Soup" is served
daily in the Senate dining room.

~ l aciunile n cepute n tre cu t au efect i n prezent


(folosim adverbele ever, never, before, already, ye)
I'm sure Ive seen her before.
Have you ever travelled by plane ?
She has already published three articles
in a very popular magazine.

1 o aciune s-a p e tre c u t de m ai m ulte ori pn


n p rezent

She has made several phone calls since coffee


break.
How often have you been abroad so far ?
I've listened to this story three times.

Folosirea, lui The Present Perfect,C ontinuous


Acest tim p se folosete p e n tru a exprim a :
1 o aciune nceput n tre c u t care se continu
n prezent

~ 1 apar sintagm ele this / it / that is the first / second / best /

I have been teaching English for a long time.

w orst etc.
This is the first time they have come to
Bucharest.
It is the second time they've asked him to resign.

(= I started teaching English a long tim e ago


and I'm still teaching this language.)

~1 o aciune care se term in n tre c u t i are efecte


n prezent

p r b r f

"You look thrilled."


"I know. I've been watching a very amusing
movie."

n n t i n i m n c

Se form eaz din verbul to be la Simple Present Perfect +


participiul p rezen t al verbului de conjugat (form a
n -ing).
I have been playing the piano since I was five.
It has been raining since tw o o'clock.
A firm a tiv

In te ro g a tiv

I have been walking

have I been walking ?

you have been walking

have you been walking ?

he has been walking

has he been walking ?

we have been walking

have we been walking ?

you have been walking

have you been walking ?

they have been walking

have they been walking ?

O bservaii

Att Present Perfect Continuous, ct i Simple Present


sau Present Continuous se folosesc atunci cnd o aciune
care a n cep u t n tre c u t continu i n prezent.
Folosind ns Present Perfect Continuous, se pu n e accent
p e ideea de pn acum .
I help him with his German lessons every
tw o weeks.
I've been helping him with his German lessons
every tw o weeks, but I think I'll make it every
Monday from now on.
For i since se folosesc cu Present Perfect Simple sau

N e g a tiv
I have not been walking

Continuous.
~ 1 For este u rm a t de o perioad de tim p.

you have not been walking

He's been very busy for three days.

he it nas not been walking

I've known them for ten years.


She has been cooking for tw o hours.

w e have not been walking


you have not been walking
they have not been walking

~ 1 Since este u rm a t de m om en tu l n care a n cep u t

aciunea.

He's been very busy since Monday.

~ 1' folosim adverbele hardly, scarcely i no sooner


I had hardly / scarcely fallen asleep when the
telephone rang.
He had no sooner arrived than he had to leave
again.

I've known them since 1990.


She has been cooking since 11 o'clock.

Ip

P g1

P p r f p r t

T p n x s

S r r rm ea/. din had + participiul tre c u t al verbului


: conjugat.
A f ir m a tiv

In te ro g a tiv

A te nJtie !
A tunci cnd apar adverbele hardly, scarcely i no sooner,
propoziiile secundare su n t in troduse de when
(corespunztor p rim elo r dou), respectiv de than.

N e g a tiv

- id walked

had I walked ?

I had not walked

pH -ad walked

had you walked ?

you had not walked

n stilul literar sau n cel form al se obinuiete s se fac


inversiunea.
Hardly had i fallen asleep when the telephone
rang.
No sooner had she agreed to quit the job than
she started to regret it.

etc.

b ^ s ir e a J u i The Simple Past P erfectJen se


tim p se folosete atunci cnd :
exprim m o aciune trecu t anterioar unei alte
iciuni to t din trecu t
I knew / I was sure I had m et her.
When w e arrived a t the station the train had
already left.
She had done her lessons by six o'clock
yesterday.
She had lived in this house since 1990 when I
moved in.
in vorbirea indirect verbul din propoziia principal

Se form eaz din had been + participiul p rezent al


verbului de conjugat (form a n -ing)
W hen I got home my friend had been waiting
for about half an hour.

A firm ativ

In terogativ

I had been walking

had I been walking ?

you had been walking

had you been walking ?

este la u n tim p tre c u t


"I've seen the film", Tom said. Tom said
he had seen the film.

N e g a tiv
I had not been walking
you had not been walking

etc.

Folosirea lui The Past Perfect Continuous


Acest tim p exprim o aciune de lung durat, care
a co n tinuat pn n tr-u n an u m it m o m e n t din trecut.
He had been waiting in the rain for half an hour
when she arrived.
At that time w e had been working on the project
for six months.

A te n ie !

n vorbirea cu rent se folosesc form ele scurte : I'll, you'll,


shan't, wont etc.

Se folosesc atunci cnd :


1 anticipm aciuni despre care nu tim cu certitu d in e
c vor avea loc
Liverpool will win tomorrow.
Perhaps it will rain tonight.

Form a continu se folosete atunci cnd accentul


se pu n e p e aspectul de co n tin u itate a unei aciuni,
n tim p ce form a sim pl se folosete atunci cnd se
evideniaz term in area unei aciuni.

uxl

~ 1 facem sugestii sau exprim m intenia / oferta /


prom isiunea / am eninarea
Shall I drive ?
I'll hit him if he does that again.
Ill make som e sandwiches to take with us.
I shall be in touch with you again.

I had been watching horror films and my mind


was full of terrifying images.
I had watched lots of horror films and was
beginning to get scared.

A te n ie !

M o d a lifa + i de e x p r im a r e
A V ii+tf>rttlui
In lim ba englez exist m ai m ulte m odaliti de
exprim are a viitorului.

SH 1..*>.si..
W-111
*
A firm ativ

In terogativ

I shall / will

shall / will I ?

you will

will you ?

etc.

Shall este folosit foarte rar n engleza am erican i este

to t mai des n locuit cu will i n engleza britanic.


La form a negativ se folosesc form ele contrase shan't i
won't. In vorbirea curent att shall, ct i will se folosesc
la form a scurt II.

n propoziia tem poral viitorul se red p rin prezent.

N egativ
I shall / will not
you will not

We'll m eet you at the airport when you arrive.


I'll get up when the alarm goes off tomorrow
morning.
As soon as this lesson ends, Tom will go
out to play.

S X JU X t

k s a s t stru ctu r se folosete p e n tru a sugera c aciunea


i fcst planificat.
The President is to visit Israel next January.
He was nervous because he was to go on
a dangerous mission for the first time.

ie

Are you going anywhere this weekend ?

(p e n tru a afla despre un aranjam ent viitor)


Are you going to go anywhere this weekend ?

(p e n tru a ti ce s-a hotrt)

f Li t 0 " : :CZ:0 tl-IT ILiO Li 5

Se form eaz din shall / will + be + verbul n -ing i se

f t g n i H g to + i 111,,,,1.. y-axim iuJ


M ary is going to buy a new car.
My friends are going to move house.
3e goi ig to este fo lo s it :

pentru a exprim a o aciune care a fost p rem ed itat


I'm going to lend him the money he needs.
W hen are you going to have your hair cut ?

~ r-entru a anticipa o aciune atunci cnd ne bazm


pe ceva sigur
Jane is going to have a baby.
Look o u t! He's going to shoot you !

U l Pr e 56 n t Co n t i n u u s
i t folosete p e n tru a exprim a p ro iecte personale.
We're going abroad next summer.
I'm meeting Lesley this evening.
I'm having a party. Would you like to come ?
iie n ie !
**rsent Continuous se folosete atunci cnd vrem s

: m em accent p e ideea de aran jam en t , iar going to


:i cnd exprim m intenia u nei aciuni viitoare.

fo lo se te :
~ 1 p e n tru a exprim a o aciune ce se va desfur n tr-u n
m o m e n t precis din viitor
This time next week I'll be lying on a hot sandy
beach.
Good luck with the t e s t ! Ill be thinking of you.

~ 1 p e n tru a ne referi la o aciune sigur din viitor,


planificat dinainte (n aceast situaie se folosete
i u n adverb de tim p)
Professor Charles Alderson will be giving a
lecture on testing at this time next Tuesday.
Shell be performing on Saturday and Sunday
at the Royal Festival Hall.

Jb.ii.Lfi1
,..B.ejrix,cl..,1,&,
Se form eaz din will have + participiul tre c u t al verbului
de conjugat i se folosete p e n tru a exprim a o aciune
din viitor care se va desfur naintea unei alte aciuni
din viitor.
The builders say they'll have finished their work
by next Saturday.
By this time next month I'll have lost a lot of
weight.

E i LLux.fi.,. . . i n ...t i y e ^ - E a s t
A tunci cnd ne referim la aciuni p osterioare
m om entului din tre c u t despre care vorbim , folosim
viitorul n trecut. Astfel, is going to va deveni was going
to, iar will se va transform a n would.
Last time I saw him, he was going to buy
a new house.
In 1990 she arrived in Bucharest where she
would spend the next five years of her life.
We knew they would be fam ous before long.

Write these verbs in the third person singular.

speak
read
h u rry
bru sh

w rite
try
be
buy

g
have
eat
w atch

play
do
miss
see

ill
In this story there are many errors in the use of the
Simple Present Tense. Whenever necessary, write the correct
forms.

Insp ecto r X always use th e sam e m eth o d . H e read th e


new spapers an d listen to th e news. H e never m iss stories
about crim es. H e like strange crim es. If th e explanations
in the p ap er m akes no sense, he becom es interested.
O fte n the police brings difficult cases to him . Som etim es
th e victim finds his way to In sp ecto r X s apartm ent.
N o m a tter how hard the crim inal trys to escape,
he has no chance.

Use the "cue" words to write questions and answers.

M odel :
You / look after your p e t / yes
D o you look after your p e t ?
Yes, I do.
a) your neighbours / have a dog / yes
b) the dog / bark at m idnight / yes
c) your cat / like the dog / no
d) th e cat / chase the dog / no
e) they / fight w hen they m ee t / yes
f) you / like your neig h b o u rs dog / no

Fill in the blanks with the Present Continuous

of the verbs.

a) My p la n e ............................... right now. (take off)


b) N ex t w eek w e ..................... to London, (fly)
c) T he b u s ........................... in ten m inutes.(leave)
d) This w eek I ........................to my office, (walk)
e)
h e ........................ in N ew York now ?
(sightsee)
f) Y o u .................... alw ays...................... about my cookin
(com plain)
g) My favourite t e a m ............... n o t ......................this
evening, (play)
h) I .......................... for a drink, (die)

Choose the m ost suitable tense.

a) G o straight on. T hen, you tu rn / you are tu rn in g


right.
b) I usually go / am going to school by bus.

: I think / I am thinking this is th e ir car.


: The children w atch / are w atching a cartoon
it now.
Every sum m er she visits / is visiting Britain to
rove her English.
H ow often does th e postm an com e / is th e p ostm an
ing?
The great R om anian gym nast w ins / is w inning. W hat
ic to r y !
* That isnt tru e . I d o n t believe / Im n o t believing i t !

Put each verb in brackets into the m ost suitable


;ent tense.

i I (hear) th a t you have b een elected chairm an.


Tongratulations !
She cant see you right now. She (teach) a lesson.
: W hat you (do) in th e evenings ?
) Physics is hard. I (n o t u n derstand) it.
: Nobody (get) up early for fun.
I (think) ab o u t m y friend.
I (think) they are away.
I (apologise) for th e delay in replying to y our letter.
Complete the sentences with the simple past forms

f) T he f o o d ..............good and the w a ite r ............................


all th e tim e, (be, smile)
g) We re a lly ................... lunch there a n d ................... to
ourselves to visit th e place again, (enjoy, prom ise)
Write the Simple Past Tense of the verbs in brackets.

In 1867, M ark Twain (have) enough m oney to go


abroad. H e (go) to France, Italy, Spain and Palestine.
N ew spaper accounts o f his trip (be) revised and
published as The Innocents Abroad, his first im p ortan t
book.
Shortly after he (retu rn ) from his trip, Twain (fall) in
love w ith Olivia Langdon. They (get m arried) on
February 2, 1870 and (move) to H artfort, C onnecticut.
Twains literary success (bring) him fame and m oney and
he (build) a m ansion for his family. M ark and Olivia
(make) freq uent trips to E urope and (enjoy) a happy life
together.
It was in H artford, betw een 1871 and 1891, th at Twain
(write) his two m asterpieces, The Adventures o f Tom Sawyer
and The Adventures o f Huckleberry Finn. Many critics (feel)
th a t these novels, to g ether w ith o th e r Twain w ritings o f
th e period (mark) the beginning o f m o d ern Am erican
literature.

the verbs.

Yesterday w e .................... to go to a restau ran t for


~h. (decide)
T he w a ite r ...................... to speak English, (try)
W e ......................... for soup and som e m eat and
tables, (ask)
W e ...................... w hite coffee, (want)
W e a ls o .........................som e very nice cake, (have)

Write "wh" questions to find out what exactly this


suspect did yesterday.

Example : I left hom e early yesterday m orning.


W hat tim e... W h at tim e did you leave hom e ?
a) I m et somebody. W ho...
b) We spent som e tim e together. H ow m uch tim e...
c) We saw a movie. W hich movie...

som ew here for lunch. W here...


e \Ve s it : ir. r.; in th e restau ran t for one o r tw o
5. H o w long...

f I w en t h o m e in th e aftern o o n . W h e n ..

g) At this tim e yesterday he (phone) and (thank)


us for th e invitation.
h) We (n o t go) o u t yesterday because it (rain ).

IB!
w

Complete the blanks with would or used to. In some

Use the "cues" to describe w hat you have done or

haven't done in your life so far.

cases both are possible.

a) Visit Australia

a) H e ...................... sm oke, b u t he gave up last year.


b) W e ..................... play th a t gam e for hours w hen we

b) See an Australian movie


c) Speak to an A borigine

w ere younger.
c) W hen I was a child lots o f t r a i n s ........................... stop
in this little village.
d) My g r a n d p a ........................... d rin k coffee, b u t n ow he
prefers tea.
e) Every m o rn in g was th e same. W e ...................... tu rn

d) See a real live kangaroo

o n th e radio and listen to th e new s w hile w e w ere


drinking o u r coffee.
f) O u r re la tiv e s..................... live in th e house at th e end
o f this road.

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Use Simple

Past Tense or Past Tense Continuous.

a) I (go) to see w hat th e baby (do) and found it (cry).


b) She (study) law w hen she (m eet) h e r husband.
c) W h at you (do) w hen you (hear) th e knock on the
door ?
d)
in
e)
in

It (happen) in Ju n e w hile w e (spend) som e tim e


th e m ountains.
W h en I (lift) th e arm ch air I (feel) a sudden pain
my back.

f) We (have) a p u n ctu re w hen w e (drive) o n the


m otorway.

e) H ear about th e Sydney O lym pics


f) Take p a rt in a com petition
g) Clim b a m ountain
h) Travel by plane

Use some of these v erb s: find, read, be, pass, write,

use, manage, buy, m eet to ask your friend if he / she has


already done this.

a) Have y o u ............................... to understand English


speaking tourists ?
b) Have y o u ..............................a good English b o ok ?
c) Have y o u ..................... to an English speaking country
d) Have y o u ..............................a good way o f learning a
foreign language ?
e) Have y o u ............................... exams in English ?
f) Have y o u .....................English in your studies o r worl
g) Have y o u .......................a good monolingual dicionarPut the verbs in the Simple Past Tense or the Present
Perfect.

a) H ere is the news. A small passenger plane (crash)


in Peru.

A ccording'to eyewitnesses, th e plane (hit) a tre e while

a s-ing in to land.

0 I (have) a terrib le day a t th e office today. I (w rite)


reports and (go) to th re e im p o rtan t m eetings.
I n He (not m ake up his m ind) yet, b u t he will tell you
i Ihs decision soon,
et This is th e first tim e I (leave) my luggage unatten d ed .
- ne price o f houses (rise) dram atically in re c e n t years.
I (know) h e r for five years.
They (grow) so m uch since w e last saw them .
She (arrive) at H eath ro w A irp o rt at 8 o clock this
ning.
Complete the blanks with since or for.

Ive know n t h e m ............... ages.


Shes been h e r e ................ ten o clock.
Shes had this j o b ................ 1990.
We havent seen t h e m ................ six m onths.
The old m an h asnt eaten a n y th in g ...................
rday m orning.
( H es been in h o s p ita l................ a m onth.

Finish each sentence so that the meaning stays the same.

a | 7 ne last tim e I saw A nne was in 1998.


1 h a v e n 't .............................................................

j Ive never eaten octopus before.


T s is i s ...................................................

Use suitable verbs in the Present Perfect Continuous

to describe activities which started in the past and are still


in progress.

Exam ple : Jo h n w e n t to the skating rin k at 4 o clock


(skate).
H e s b e en skating since 4 o clock.
a) G eorgiana m oved to Los Angeles in 1990 (live).
b) Miss Baines to o k over as p ro ject m anager tw o years
ago (manage).
c) H e began to invest in o u r co u n try six m onths ago
(invest).
d) They started building this road last su m m er (build).
e) My b ro th e r w en t to bed two hours ago (sleep).
f) My m o th e r w e n t into th e kitchen at 11 o clock (cook).

Use when or after to make a sentence for the following

situations.

Exam ple : I studied English for th ree years.


T h en I visited England.
A fter / W h en I had studied English for th ree
years, I visited England.
a) I told her the tru th . T hen I felt m uch b e tte r about
everything.
b) I read W ar and Peace in 1995. I w atched th e film
in 1990.

S ; tar I ....................................................

c) H e w ro te an article for a newspaper. T hen he listened


to m usic fo r an hour.
d) My father w e n t to th e car park. T h en he realised th at
he lost the keys.

I I havent been abroad for ages.

e) I saved m oney for five years. T hen I bought a new car.

She last spoke to M ike w hen she bo rrow ed his car.

S u r hasnt ..............................................

Im on the third page o f my essay.

.................. .

Use Past Perfect and Past Tense as appropriate.

d) By the year 2100 com puter; v - J


t
; r will
have taken over m any o f the jo b s tr o t e i : t jday.
e) W hen I ll see / see him . I'D te d - v

bake, eat / write, send / eat, thank / enter, stop / check, go

f) T he do cto r says she will ha\ e

Use these pairs of verbs to complete the sentences.

is ; :.r. t : nave a baby !

a) A ter t h e y .................... the sandwiches, t h e y ......................


us and w ent away.
b) As soon as s h e ...................the cake s h e ....................... a

All sentences refer to past time.

piece.
c) W h en M rs B r o w n ................. th a t all th e w indow s

"I (have) different ways o f occttr -tr ~


while I
(lie) awake. I (think) o f a tro u t - t r r i ~ I r_-.t along

w ere closed, s h e ....................to bed.


d) A fter J a n e ...................the card, s h e ...................... it to
her friend.
e) As soon as s h e ...................... th e ro o m , th e children
........................crying.

w hen I (be) a boy... I (s to p 1 ' ' ; i t r. r.

X P

Put the verb in brackets into a form of will, going to or

Present Continuous.
a)
to
b)
c)
d)

Im so rry I cant see you o n Saturday night. I (go)


a co ncert w ith m y friend.
Perhaps it (rain) tom orrow .
Look o u t ! The child (knock) that glass off the table !
Steaua definitely (win) n ext Wednesday.

e) The; (have) a party o n Saturday. Have they invited you ?


f) T he b o at is tu rn in g over ! W e th in k it (sink).
Choose the correct verb in each sentence.

a) This tim e n ex t w eek, I will sit / will be sitting


my finals.
b) W ait for him . H e ll be ready / h e ll have b een ready
in no tim e.
c) W h at will you do / will you be doing in tw o years
tim e ?

Put each verb in brackets M o a s a b H e tense.

eat my

lunch, som etim es on a log over th e streirr. ;: m etim es


on a high bank u n d er a tree, and I ah' i - e it) my lunch
very slowly and (watch) the streirr.
O ften I (run) o u t o f bait because I taxe) : r_v ten
w orm s w ith m e in a tobacco tin w hen I r_irt .
W h en I (use) them all I (have) to ::rd m ore w orm s,
and som etim es it (be) very difficult
in the bank
o f the stream w here the cedar tree; .<eer : ..t the sun
and th ere (be) no grass b u t onh the bare n : :> earth
and oten I (can) find no w orm s."
E rnest Hemingwav Sow I Lay Me
Put each verb in brackets into a suitable tense.

Injured girl is rescued from incom ing tide. A teenager


yesterday (thank) the rescuer w ho (stav) w ith her as she
(lie) trap p ed on a C ornish beach and unable to move
because o f suspected spinal injuries. Rhea W illiams, 16,
(be throw n) from h e r horse, falling on her head and
neck and (be) in a great deal o f pain. R obert Stott, one
o f her riding com panions, (hold) her head clear o f the
rising water. T he accident (happen) w hen Air S tott and
Miss W illiams, w ho (to ride) since she (be) four, (cross)

Gannel E stuary o n th e n o rth Cornw all coast.


Miss W illiam s said : I (be) in a lo t o f pain w hen I (fall)
b u t Rob (be) w onderful. I (n o t forget) w hat Rob (do)
for m e .

D i a t e z a

Este categoria gram atical verbal care exprim raportul


d intre subiect i aciunea verbului.

was / were + PP
Past Continuous
was / were being + PP
Present Perfect
have / has been + PP
Past Perfect
had been + PP
Future
will be + PP
Future Perfect
will have been + PP
going to

,7.3,.-axJLuta
Verbul este la diateza activ atunci cnd subiectul

We were asked about it.


He was sure he was being followed.
Jane has been shown w hat to do.
I was sure I had been watched.
He'll be identified soon.
The house will have been built
by next month,
am / are / is going to be + PP
They are going to be asked
to do it.

gramatical svrete aciunea.


John showed us the way to the village.

C om plem entul de agent se om ite atunci cnd :


1 este exprim at p rin tr-u n pro n u m e
The window was opened (by her).

Di a te za p a s i v

~ 1 este evident din context

Verbul este la diateza pasiv atunci cnd subiectul


gramatical sufer aciunea svrit de com plem entul
direct.
We were shown the way to the village by John.

S tructura propoziiei la diateza pasiv este urm to area :


subiect + be + participiul trecu t al
verbului de conjugat (PP) + com plem entul de agent
Simple Present
am / are / is + PP
Present Continuous
am / are / is being + PP
Simple Past

German is spoken here.


The room is being cleaned.

The doctor's instructions were ignored (by the


patient).

- 1 nu este im p o rtan t
The old man was killed in the accident.

Att com plem entul direct, ct i cel in direct p o t deveni


subiecte ale u n o r propoziii la diateza pasiv.
He gave Mary a present.
M ary was given a present.
A present was given to Mary.

In cazul n care avem o propoziie completiv,


transfom area la diateza pasiv este posibil cu ajutorul
pronum elui im personal it.
They think that w e are guilty.
It is thought that we are guilty.

In aceast situaie subiectul com pletivei p oate deveni


subiectul ntregii propoziii.
We are thought to be guilty.

A te n tie !
La diateza pasiv, atunci cnd verbul este u rm a t de o
prepoziie, aceasta este pus im ediat d up verb.
Active Voice: They are bringing the witness in.
Passive Voice: The witness is being brought in.

Match the parts.

It appears the ren t


T he old city centre
All the books
An en o u rm o u s am o u n t
o f m oney
H un d red s o f trees
D o n t w orry, th e children

is sp en t o n cigarettes,
have been sold,
has n o t b een paid.

Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Use the

passive voice.

Scandal has hit th e close-knit w orld o f sheep racing.


D e rw e n t Devil, one o f the c o u n try s b est p erfo rm ers,
(kidnap) and dyed red in an ap p aren t revenge attack.
David Skelton, the ow ner and trainer,(devastate)
by the disappearance o f w hat he believes is B ritains
fastest sheep over 100 m eters. H e feared th at D erw e n t
Devil (tu rn ) into chops.
H e searched in vain for a w eek b u t on M onday the
sheep m ysteriously (retu rn ) to its paddock in M orland,
C um bria dyed bright red. M r Skelton (relieve) now b u t
D e rw e n ts peers are refusing to m ix w ith it.
The Times, Thursday, May 27 1999
Complete the blanks with the verb in brackets. Use the

will be looked after,


w ere u prooted,
is cu rrently being
rebuilt.

Change these sentences into the passive.

a) N obody has noticed the old m an s absence.


b) C onnex m ade big profits last year.
c) M any tourists have visited th e D anube D elta.
d) By the end o f th e year o u r publishing house
will have sold a m illion books.
e) A good d o c to r can solve y our problem .
f) They will hold th e interview s n ex t Monday.
g) All his friends approved of his decision.
h) A car radio breaks u p th e m onotony o f a long drive.

appropriate tense and voice (active or passive).

R uth Rendell (win) ......................... the Sunday Tim es


Literary Award in 1990, and in 1991 she (award)
........................the C rim e W riters Association C artier
D iam ond Dagger for outstanding con trib u tion to the
genre. In 1996, she (award) .......................... the CBE,
and in 1997 (make) ...................... a Life Peer.
H e r books (translate) ............................... into twenty-five
languages and (publish) ...................... to great acclaim in
th e U nited States.
R uth Rendel (be m arried) ......................................., (have)
............................. a son and two grandsons, and (live)
............................... in L ondon.
R uth Rendell The Keys to the Street

StAbjonc+ivul
Subjonctivul prezint o aciune posibil, atunci cnd
aceasta este pro iectat s se desfaoare n viitor, sau
ireal, atunci cnd ea trebuia s aib loc n trecut.

F n i n.c i

h j n n r f i u n l n i

He has come to my house so that my husband


should notice his new blue Jacket.

Se folosete form a care coincide cu Past Simple Tense


p e n tru a exprim a o situaie imaginar, o dorin
im posibil sau o cerere politicoas.
I wish I were here.

Se folosete form a de (should) + infinitivul scurt n


urm toarele p ro p o z iii:

Se folosete form a care coincide cu Past Perfect Tense


p e n tru a exprim a o aciune anterioar celei exprim ate

1 subordonate in troduse de that, p e n tru cazurile n care


n propoziia principal este exprim at o

de verbul din propoziia principal sau o situaie ireal,


im posibil.

recom andare, decizie, ru gm inte, surprindere,


speran sau in ten ie p e n tru viitor
It is necessary that the secretary (should) inform
the com m ittee of the decision.
They suggested that the new theatre (should) be
built next to the Town Hall.
The police insisted the car (should) be removed
immediately.

O bservaie
Iat cteva din verbele, adjectivele i substantivele care se
folosesc n co n stru cii de felul celor m enionate m ai sus :
- 1 verbe : insist, suggest, request, order, recommend, propose,
think etc.

~ 1 adjective : advisable, essential, desirable, preferable etc.


~1 substantive : decision, insistance, demand, requirement,
condition etc.
~11 subordon ate de scop intro d u se de in order that /
so that / lest (in case) / for fear
I'll give him a call in case / lest / for fear he
should forget w hat to order.

John wished he had not been so impulsive.

In lim ba englez folosirea subjonctivului este im pus de


prezena u n o r anum ite stru ctu ri gram aticale :
- 1 it is time / it is high time
It's time w e left. (E tim pul s plecm.

E deja trziu.)
1 verbul to wish
i wish I had a new bike. (Tare a vrea s am
biciclet nou, dar nu am.)
I wish I had had a new bike. (Tare a vrea s
fi avut o biciclet nou.)
I wish I was / were going on holiday this
summer. (m i doresc s m erg n vacan vara

aceasta, dar nu m erg.)


I wish you would stop singing in the bathroom.

(Tare a vrea s nu m ai cni n baie.)


1 I'd rather / I'd sooner (n cazul n care exist i al doilea

subiect n propoziie)

I'd rather / I'd sooner you wore the dress

The government m ust take immediate action,

I bought you.

lest the problem of child poverty grow worse.

Id rather you came home earlier.

If + should sugereaz faptul c este p u in probabil s se

D ar : I'd rather stay home than go out.

ntm ple ceva.


If you should see my brother, tell him to call me.

1 as if / as though
He speaks as if / as though he knew everybody
in the room (but he doesn't).

Subjonctivul verbului to be este were la toate persoanele,


indiferent de numr.

1 verbul to suppose

If the minister were here, he would no doubt

Suppose / supposing they told you I was d e a d !

verbul to imagine
Imagine we won the pools I
~ 11 if only

refute the allegations.

Totui, lim ba vorbit accept i form a was p e n tru


persoana a IlI-a singular, excepie fcnd urm toarele
s tr u c tu r i: if I were you sau were + subiect + infinitiv.

If only I had time enough to read the whole te x t !


(express regret)
If only I hadn't drunk so much !

I w ouldn't argue with her if I were you.


Were the vote to go against me, Id resign.

~ l expresii cum ar f i :
far be it from me = d ep arte de m ine

gndul / intenia de
So be i t ! = Aa s fie (precum spui) !
be that as it may = oricum o fi
suffice it to say = e destul / suficient s
spunem
come w hat may = n tm pl-se ce s-o

ntm pla
heaven forbid = D oam ne ferete s
Long live the Q ueen / King! = Triasc

regina / regele !

A te n ie !
In engleza b ritanic de azi, n u se m ai folosete lest,
ci sinonim ele acestuia in case, for fear that sau in order
that... not.

Choose the right form.

a) I am tired. I w ish I get / got som e rest.


b) If only w e had / w ould have som e tim e to visit
th e monastery.
c) Supposing you will find/ found a b e tte r job,
w ould you take it ?
d) Id rath er you stop / stopped smoking.
e) It is necessary th a t the school m istress had / have
som e patience w ith th e children.
f) T he officer suggested they to o k / take th e bus.
g) I ts high tim e they will go / w e n t to bed, its alm ost
m idnight.
h) They left hom e earlier for fear they will be late /
should be late.

i) G randpa invited his friend so th a t they are going to


talk / should talk.
j) M other to o k an extra blanket in case th ere will be /
should be very cold.
Fill in the following sentences with the right word/s.

If only I .....................................................
e) Sally doesnt w ant to be a translator b u t a teacher.
Shed r a t h e r .............................................
f) H e started explaining the problem to everybody
although he d id n t u n derstand it.
H e started explaining the problem as if

a) I cant tell you how m u ch I wish the d o c t o r ..........


here to see d ie p a tie n t healthy again.
b) Im agine you ......... com pletely blind ; how wOuld it

g) I ts nine o clock.The children should have gone to


bed. Its high t i m e .................................................................... .

affect your life ?


c) I ts tim e y o u .............. able to take full responsability

h) If they had left on tim e they should have arrived


already. If only t h e y ....................................................................
i) I told him the secret and now he is upset.
H e wishes I ..................................................................................
j) I regret you d o n t take this into account.
I wish y o u ..................................................................................

for your ow n life.


d) It is advisable P e t e r ........... th e su m m er holidays
w ith you.
e) I d rath e r you .......... talking so loudly, if you
d o n t m ind.
f) If only l i f e ..........so sim ple for all o f us.
g) It is essential his f r i e n d ........... on tim e !
h) She insisted th a t I ........... to h er friend first.
i) You talk as if you r e a lly ..............it.
j) If I ..........you, I w o u ld n t do it.
Rephrase the following sentences so that the meaning
stays the same.

a) U nfortunately I have to leave to n ig h t!


I w is h .........................................................
b) Jack doesnt know all the people in the room ,
although he p retends to.
Jack a c t s ..............................................
c) Im so rry they d o n t visit m e anym ore.
I w i s h ..........................................................
d) W ith m ore help I could have solved the problem .

Correct the errors.

a) Just imagine you will n o t eaten for a week o r two


and w ere absolutely starving and the only food th a t is
available to you was a trapp ed ra t th at you d o n t have
no way o f cooking anyway, w ould you be tem p te d ?
b) W hile trying to sail ro u n d the w orld in a small boat,
H arry, Sandy and Joe w ere shipw recked one night.
I wish there is an island nearby , H a rry said. By
m orning, they w ere w ashed up on to a desert island.
For six m onths they lived on fish, nuts and fruit.
O ne day, they saw a bo ttle on the shore. If only it will
contain a n o te or so m e th in g ! Sandy said. They opened
it and a genie appeared. Its high tim e som eone to
open that bo ttle ! th e genie gasped. Im so grateful,
Ill give you one wish each. You first the genie said,
pointing to Harry. T h a ts easy, H a rry said. I wish I

was w ith m y family. A nd w hoosh, he disappeared.


M e to o Sandy said. If only I should can be in dear
old Glasgow. A nd w hoosh, o ff he w ent. And you, sir ?,
the genie asked Joe. I w ish I had my friends back !
Jo e said.
A dapted from L. G. A lexander
Longman English Grammar Practice
Translate into English.

a) Este u im ito r ca o persoan cu educaia ta s se lase


pclit att de uor.
b) I- fost fric s vorbeasc de team ca el s n u -i
recunoasc vocea.
c) Tare a vrea ca el s se trezeasc mai devreme dim ineaa.
d) Vorbea de parc era singurul care fusese plecat n
excursie.
e) O fieru l insist ca to i cei care doresc s plece n
perm isie s com pleteze fo rm ularul A.
f) Ar vrea ca rezultatele fiului su s fie pe m sura
ateptrilor.
g) E vrem ea s facem ce n i s-a ceru t, altfel rm nem
fr lem ne de foc.
h) A prefera s n u fi aflat tu povestea naintea m ea
i s nu o fi spus tu tu ro r p rieten ilo r notri.
i) Ce n -a r da M aria s gseasc inelul de aur !
j) D eparte de m ine gndul s-i stric plcerea, d ar cum
s-a n n o p tat, e tim pul s plecm .

V e rb e le moda le
Verbele m odale sunt o categorie special de verbe
auxiliare. Ele su n t folosite p e n tru a exprim a sugestii,
oferte, cerine, d orine, intenii, politee, tact.
In cele mai m ulte gram atici ale limbii engleze,
urm toarele verbe su n t considerate m odale :
can

may

shall

will

m ust

ought to

could

might

should

would

C aracteristicile verbelor m o d a le :
nu sunt precedate de to
1 sunt u rm ate de infinitivul scurt (far particula to)
al verbelor de conjugat
Cigarettes can damage your health.
You may choose another book.

~ atunci cnd su n t u rm ate de auxiliarul be i un verb


la participiul prezent, verbele m odale indic o aciune
prezent sau viitoare
She is busy. She must be cooking.
I don't know w hat's he doing. He may be
watching TV
He is not in, but he will be coming back soon.
We ought to be leaving now.

~ 1 atunci cnd sunt u rm a te de auxiliarul have i un verb


la participiul trecut, verbele m odale indic o aciune
trecut
She must have finished the essay.
The plane may have landed already.

1 nu prim esc term in aia -s la persoana a III-a singular


i nu au form de Past Tense sau participiu p rezent
I can speak English.

He can speak English.

He can play the piano.


I can't open this door.
Can you ride a bike ?
I could read when I was 4 years old.

I m ust hurry up.

He must hurry up.


~ 1 form a interogativ se realizeaz p rin aezarea verbului
m odal n faa subiectului, fr aju to ru l auxiliarului do

Can he speak English ?


Must I write it again ?
Could you type this letter for me ?
Ought she to do anything for them ?

~ 1 o posibilitate
Can pelicans fly ?
You can join us, if you w ant to.

~ 1 o probabilitate
The situation was such that anything
could happen.
It could snow later on this evening.

~1 la form a negativ, not st im ediat d up verbul m odal


I cannot swim.
We must not litter the place.
They may not leave earlier.
Such thinghs ought not to be allowed.

~ 1 se folosesc n ntrebrile disjunctive (question tags)

1 o perm isiune
You can borrow my CD if you w ant to.

~ 1 o cerere

He can drive, can't he ?


You would like to come, wouldrft you ?
Shell be home by this time, won't she ?

~ 1 atunci cnd se rep et o idee, verbele m odale


se p o t folosi fr auxiliar
If they cannot lend me the money I'll find
someone w ho can.
She must answer about it.
I suppose she must.

Can I have some more ice cream ?


Do you think you could help me translate
this article ?

~ l o sugestie
If you haven't anything else to do you could
do the ironing.

~~1 o im posibilitate, atunci cnd avem form ele de negativ


The knock's too loud. It can't be the little boy.
It was to o early. Surely that couldn't
have been Jack.

O bservaie
>
In vorbirea curen t will i would preced ate de un
p ro n u m e su n t folosite la fo rm a scurt.
I'm sure she'll send you a card.
If it stopped raining itd be much better.

t o J Q ^ J x e a !J j u i ^ , c a . J i ^ 4 J - x , o u X d
Aceste verbe m odale se folosesc p e n tru a exprim a :
~ 1 o aciune din viitorul foarte ap ropiat (can)
Let's have dinner together. We can go to a

av\ s

\ could

Sensurile verbelor can i could su n t urm toarele :


1 o abilitate

Chinese restaurant.

P entru tim pul viitor, n locul lui can se poate folosi i


expresia echivalent will be able to.

He'll be able to ski better in a couple of days.

She can't speak French now but she'll be able to


in a few months.

~ 1 o aciune trecu t (could)


My grandfather could speak Latin and old Greek.

P en tru a sugera c cineva a reuit s fac fa unei situaii


folosim was / were able to, managed to, succeeded to.
The driver managed to stop the car just before
he hit the fence.
After several days' trying, they succeeded to
restore law and order.

~ 1 m odul condiional (could)


If you answered this question you could get
a better mark.

~ 1 vorbirea in direct (could)


"Can you do this sum in your head ?"
"W hat did she say ?"
"She asked if I could do that sum in my head."
~ 1 o aciune care a fost posibil, d ar nu s-a p ro d u s (could

May s\ m ig k f
Sensurile verbelor may i might sunt urm toarele :
- 1 o cerere sau o perm isiune (can i could sunt
m u lt m ai folosite n vorbirea curent)
May I use your pen ?
I wonder if I might use your telephone.

(n registrul form al / oficial)


May I borrow your dictionary ? No, Im afraid
you may not.
~ 1 o posibilitate (might sugereaz o ans mai mic

de a se ntm pla ceva)


"W here's Rebecca? - "I dont know.
She may be out playing."
She has a piece of paper with a Paris telephone
number. He may know somebody there.
His latest novel might be as good as the others
but I dont like it so much.

have + participiul trecut)


Im so sorry ! I could have helped the old man I
She had a marvellous voice. She could have sung
at the Metropolitan.
Why did you kick the ball like that ? You could
have broken a window.
Can i could su n t deseori n so ite de verbele see, hear,
taste, feel, smell, understand, remember i guess.
I can see the village in the distance.
We could understand everything the baby was
saying.

ExlLolsJ,e a ..i.u i.. . i m i g h t


Aceste verbe m odale se folosesc :
- 1 n vorbirea indirect (might)
"I may spend the weekend with my friends." She said she might spend the weekend with her
friends.

~ 1 p e n tru exprim area unei posibiliti


(structura may / might + perfect infinitive)
Nobody noticed the prisoner's uniform outside.
But he might have worn the guard's uniform.

~ 1 n (con)texte oficiale p e n tru a exprim a o urare,


speran (may nu i might)

May you both be very h a p p y !


Long may she live to enjoy her fo rtu n e!

We had to wait half an hour for a bus.


Will have o, have (got) to i must se folosesc p e n tru

a exprim a o necesitate sau o obligaie n viitor.

A te n tie !

You'll have to / m ust get up early if you want


to catch the 6 o'clock train.
If you buy a TV set you'll have to buy a licence
for it.

A tunci cnd vrem s exprim m faptul c n tre c u t am


avut perm isiunea de a face ceva sau vrem s subliniem
libertatea p e care o aveam de a face ceva folosim can,
could sau be able to. May i might nu se folosesc n aceaste

~1 o certitudine

situaii.
I could / was allowed to use my parents'
car when I was twenty.
These days children are allowed to stay up late.
We weren't allowed to feed the animals
at the zoo.

You m ust be hungry after your long walk.


Peter has worked here for ages. He m ust know
the answer.

1 o p resupunere
As you are his friend, you m ust know a lot
about him.
Mrs Bains m ust know Paris very well. She has
lived there for tw enty years.

Mw.s+
M ust se folosete p e n tru a exprim a :

~ l o necesitate
W hen you enter the building you m ust show
the guard your pass.
I really m ust stop smoking.

A te n ie !
M ust have + participiul trec u t se folosete p e n tru

a exprim a o certitudine sau o presu p u n ere n legtur


cu o aciune trecut :
Mr. Smith couldn't find his car keys. He must
have lost them.
The door is locked. She m ust have gone earlier.

A te n ie !
Lipsa necesitii im pune folosirea verbelor do not
need to / needn't sau do not have to.
We don't need to get a visa to go to Hungary.
She doesn't have to/doesn't need to work at
weekends.
Had to se folosete p e n tru a exprim a o obligaie sau

o necesitate din trecut.


As a primary school student I had to wear
a uniform.

M ust poate fi folosit n vorbirea indirect dup un verb

la Past Tense.
The doctor said that I must keep a diet.

S ta ll

.s i

~1 posibilitatea ca ceva s se ntmple

s h o u ld

W e should be there before dark.


The roads should be less crowded today.

se folosete atunci cnd :


se exprim o hotrre

Shall

~ 1 un

eveniment sau o situaie posibil (dup


case i n propoziiile condiionale)

I shall write to you again.

in

me know.
In case you should arrive earlier, please call me.

What shall I do now ?

1 se face o ofert sau o sugestie

~~1 un dubiu (cu verbele

imagine, say, think


"Do we have enough time ?"

Shall I post this letter for you ?


Shall we play tennis tomorrow ?
Lets go for a swim, shall we ?

two hours.

Candidates shall remain in their seats until


all the papers have been collected.
The tenant shall maintain the property in good

>iritarea (n ntrebrile how) sau surprinderea

(n ntrebrile

who, what)
How should I know where you've put

the train ticket ?


I got on the train and who should be sitting
next to me but an old friend of mine.

condition.

se folosete pentru a exprima :


~1 ceea ce este bine sau ru, potrivit sau nepotrivit n
anumite mprejurri (atunci cnd vorbim despre
obligaii sau ndatoriri should este mai puin tare
ca must)

Should

- 1 o dezaprobare a unei aciuni din trecut


(should have + participiul trecut)
She's feeling sick. She shouldn't have eaten
so much ice cream.

You shouldn't drink and drive.


W e should have checked the gas before we left.

O bservaie

Applications should be submitted before


January 15.

that,

ought to

etc.)

"I should think so."


I should imagine it will take more than

1 se exprim o obligaie n contracte i documente


oficiale (la persoana a IlI-a)

sfat sau o recomandare (putem folosi


acelai sens)

sau

If you should change your mind, do let

1 se cere un sfat (n propoziii interogative)

~ 1 un

if

In engleza britanic should se folosete i n propoziiile


dup verbe care exprim o sugestie sau o opinie.

cu

Should I phone her and apologise ?


You should really go to St Ives, it's a fantastic
place.
It's really a good film. You should / ought to go
and see it.

I suggest that he should reconsider his decision.


He recommended that we should take some
time off.

The Browns will have lived here for

Will Si
Would
>
Ca verb modal, will se folosete pentru a exprima
~1 certitudinea unor situaii prezente sau viitoare

five years at the end of this month.


:

There's somebody knocking at the door.


That'll be Jane.
They'll be home by this time.

~11decizia sau dorina vorbitorului de a face ceva

Forma de trecut a verbului will este would.


Aceasta se folosete pentru :
~1 a formula oferte, invitatii
5 si
> cereri
(ntr-o exprimare politicoas)
'

Would you like a cup of tea ?


Would you do this for me, please ?
Would you like to sit here or would you prefer
to wait outside ?

"White of black coffee ?" "I'll have black coffee,


please."
I won't lend him any more money.

1 o cerere

~1 a face o cerere politicoas


You'll water the plants while I'm away, won't you ?

I'd like some information about summer courses,

If you'll just wait a minute, I'll show you around.

please.

~1 un ordin
You'll do it this minute!

~1 a vorbi despre aciuni i evenimente repetate din


trecut

~1 o ofert

When my parents were away our neighbours


I'll wait for you here if you don't mind.

would look after me.

~11o invitaie
Will you come to see use again ?

o ameninare
Stop making that noise or I'll scream !

A te n tie !

Putem folosi att would, ct i used to pentru a ne referi


la aciuni i evenimente repetate diri trecut.

~1 un obicei sau o trstur de caracter

~~1 refuzul

When we were children we used to / would play

He'll listen to music, alone in his room, for hours.

hide and seek.

Tom is very kind. He'll always help old people.

As a child she used to / would listen to our

de a face ceva (forma negativ

won't)
We've asked him but he won't help.
I tried hard but the door won't open.

O bservaie

participiul trecut exprim o aciune ce se va


termina naintea unui moment precis din viitor.
Will have +

stories for hours.

Dar numai

used to poate fi folosit pentru past states.


M y uncle used to be a fireman. N u : M y uncle
would be a fireman.
She used to have long hair but she has changed
her hair style now.

I . V e r b e l e mo d a l e - c o n s o l i d a r e

1 a reda vorbirea indirect


He said he would come earlier,

a exprima refuzul (forma negativ

wouldn't)

She wouldn't go to the dentist even though she


had terrible toothache.

O bservaie

se folosete dup verbul


s se ntmple ceva.

Would

wish

j Datorit faptului c folosirea verbelor modale


n limba englez reprezint o problem destul de
I dificil, am considerat necesar o recapitulare a
; sensurilor pe care le poate avea aceast categorie
J de verbe.

atunci cnd ateptm


Ability and capability
~ 1 Can

I wish it would stop raining.

The music next door is very loud. I wish they

could
Rosie is 12 but she can speak five languages.
I can't do this exercise
Tom could swim like a fish when he was 6
years old.

would turn it down.

Nee<W+ V&ve. s\

vseed

+0

A te n tie !

participiul trecut se folosete pentru a


arta c o aciune desfurat nu era necesar.
Needn't have +

se folosesc atunci cnd spunem


c cineva a reuit s fac fa unei situaii speciale.
Was / were able to

You needn't have bought so much bread.

The flames were all around, but he was able to

Nobody wanted it. (It wasn't necessary to buy

get to the front and the police pulled him out.

so much bread but you did).


Didn't need to + infinitiv exprim o aciune care nu era
necesar (nu se precizeaz dac s-a efectuat sau nu).
She didn't need to get up so early. (It was not

Permission
j

You can wait in here if you like.

necessary to come early; we don't know if she


did or not.)

~~1 Can

(se folosete pentru trecut sau pentru a


cere n mod foarte politicos permisiunea)

~1 Could

Could we leave our bags here, please ?

>
1May (folosit n contexte formale / oficiale)
May I use the telephone, please ?

Possibility / impossibility
~ 1 May

(n contexte mai formale) i

I must finish this work today.


You'll have to get up early if you want to see
the sunrise.

might

What he says may be true.


They might come and see you this week.

i could (se folosesc pentru a exprima


posibilitatea teoretic de a se ntmpla ceva
ofer un grad mai mare de incertitudine)

~ 1 Can

A te n ie !
Must not se folosete pentru a spune c este imperios
necesar s nu acionm.

That could be my handbag over there.


That might be my handbag: I left it there.
~ 1 May not / might not

(exprim o posibilitate

You mustn't cross now. The light is red.


~ 1 Don't have to

negativ)

You still have plenty of time. You don't have to

Jane may not be in the living room.


The weather is changing. We might not
go to the beach.

(imposibilitatea logic
de a se ntmpla ceva)

- 1 Cannot / could not

finish this paper today.


Necessity
~ 1 Need
He starts work late this week. He doesn't need
to get up early.
Do I need to pay now ? / Need I pay now ?

She cant have arrived. She has just called


from the station.
I

Logical probability
_1 Must, ought to

Certainity

should

Sally must / ought to / should be at work

Will i would (pentru a exprima certitudinea


n legtur cu evenimente viitoare)

by now. Shes normally there at this time.

She will be here in half an hour.


The journey wouldn't be easy on such
a weather.

Prohibition
' Cannot

may not (n situaii mai formale)


You can't smoke here.
You may not take photos here.

Obligation

(implic obligaia i dorina vorbitorului /


asculttorului) i have (got) to (care se refer la
fapte, la o obligaie extern)

~ 1 Must

(exprim lipsa necesitii)

Unwillingness
<Will not

would not (pentru trecut)


I tried hard but the door won't shut.
We tried to talk to them, but they wouldn't
listen.

I may have left my gloves here - have you

Typical behaviour
1 Will

would
He is a good little boy. He'll play quietly for
hours.
Before they got married, Tom would wait for
Jane every evening after work.

seen them ?

~~1 Must have + participiul trecut exprim


I probabilitatea logic.
This is a very nice dress. It must have been
very expensive.

I
Probability

i ought to (atunci cnd te atepi s se


ntmple ceva)

~11Should

She should / ought to have received the letter


by now. I posted it last week.
Advice
~ 1 Should

i ought to
He should see a doctor if he doesn't feel well.
He shouldn't have / oughtnt to have said that.

Valori
la t r e c u t

ale v e r b e l o r

modale

~ 1 M ay / might / could have + participiul trecut


exprim posibilitatea ca ceva s se fi petrecut (dar
nu suntem siguri).
Wheres Jane's umbrella ? She may / might /
could have taken it with her.

~ 1 Couldn't have + participiul trecut se folosete


atunci cnd este imposibil s se fi petrecut ceva.
She couldn't have gone by car. She cannot
drive.

~ 1 May have / could have + participiul trecut exprim


nesigurana.

Si flClAtn. eXSKcifii !
Choose the right modal verb and complete the blanks.

a) I .................. (mustnt / cant / may not) play chess


very well.
b) (Shall / Could / Would) .............. I speak
to Mrs Cross, please ?
c) What (shall / must / may) I ............. buy him for
his birthday ?
d) I dont work tomorrow I (mustnt / cant / neednt)
get up early.
e) Im not sure but I (should / may / must) ...................
take up skiing.
f) The doctor said I (wouldnt / couldnt / shouldnt)
eat so much meat.
g) We are not absolutely certain but they (must / will /
might) ............... arrive a little late.
h) Mum says that w e (shall / ought to / will) .................
show more respect.
Rewrite these sentences using must or cant.

Example : She looks so sad. Im sure shes unhappy.


She must be unhappy,
a) Im sure hes busy.

b) She is always wearing new clothes. Im certain


her husband makes a lot of money.
c) Im sure she isnt far away because I saw her five
minutes ago.
d) Im sure youre joking.
e) Theres absolutely no chance that he spends all the
money. Ill be with him all the time.
f) Theres the doorbell. Im sure its Chris.

Rewrite the sentences using the modal verbs in brackets.

a) Lets go to a concert tonight, (shall)


b) Please open the door, (will)
c) Please, help me translate this, (could)
d) These trousers dont have to be ironed, (need)
e) Its important that you hand in the report tomorrow,
(must)
f) Am I allowed to wait here ? (may)
g) I wish I had checked in this piece of luggage, (ought)
h) When I was a child we always got up early and went
fishing on Sundays, (would)

Use appropriate modal verbs to rewrite these sentences.

a) Im sure it wasnt Jim who did it.


b) It isnt necessary for you to write this report.
c) It would be a good idea to stop smoking.
d) Perhaps hell be waiting when we get there.
e) It was foolish of him to give up his job.
f) It is forbidden to walk on the grass.
g) Im sure he is planning to quit his job.
h) The boys are likely to behave like this.

Complete the blanks with modal verbs to express ability,


necessity or requests.

a) That c a t ................... to be fed.


b) S h e ..................... type very quickly.
c) H e ................... saved more money, but he didnt.
d)
I see the manager ?
e) You..................... to behave yourself.
f) My p arents..................... to build a house after saving
for years.
g) She feels awful. S h e .................see a doctor soon.
h)
you mind switching on the light ?
i) You..................... to apply yet. Its too early.
j) W e ...........................easily see there was something
wrong with the watch.

W Complete the blanks with modal verbs to express

obligation, possibility or prohibition.

a) I ..........................cut down on fats or else I would


have got overweight.
b) Theres no ashtray in this room. You.........................
smoke in here.
c) He is not here now. H e .........................come later.
d) W e ...................... stay within the speed limit.
e) You...................... enter this room, they have never
allowed people here.
f) T h ey ..................... crashed. Luckily, they didnt.
g) W e ..........................go to London for a meeting.
h) They no longer live here. T h ey .........................sold
their house.

^ S lF Identify the use of each verb in italics.

a) He wasnt allowed to take his fathers car. (permission)


b) You should have stopped smoking.
c) He will come tomorrow.
d) She worked hard. She must be very tired.
e) Shall I collect your mail ?
f) They dont have to employ more staff.
g) I had to wear glasses when I was five.
h) Would you like me to tell him ?
i) Children will be children.
j) You ought to give her a helping hand,
k) Its 8 oclock. He must have arrived by now.
1) We invited her but she wouldnt come,
m) When the weather was fine, I would go walking
in the woods.
n) We wont go there again before next summer.

T e m

p o r a l a

s i

>

Propoziiile temporale i condiionale pun probleme


speciale n ceea ce privete folosirea timpurilor.

de HK
n cazul n care predicatul din principal este
la timpul prezent, n propoziia temporal putem
folosi orice timp.
Atunci cnd predicatul propoziiei principale este
la timpul viitor, n propoziia temporal putem avea
diferite tim puri:
~1 pentru a exprima simultaneitatea cu aciunea verbului
din propoziia principal, n propoziia
circumstanial de timp introdus de conjunciile
when, until i as soon as se folosete timpul prezent
I'll give him your message when I see him.
I'll read the newspaper until you get back.
We'll buy a new car as soon as we have
enough money.

~1 pentru a exprima un raport de anterioritate fa de


aciunea din principal, n secundar se folosete
Simple Present sau Present Perfect Simple
I'll lend you the book when I have finished it.
I finish it.

A
te njtie !

In limba romn, verbul din propoziia temporal poate


fi la prezent sau la viitor : M voi duce s m plimb cnd
mi voi termina temele / cnd mi termin temele.
n situaia n care verbul din principal este la un timp
trecut, n temporal putem avea :
~ 1 Past Tense pentru a exprima simultaneitatea
She invited me to her new house when I met her.
The weather was fine when we went
on that trip.
I was sure he would help you when he finished
his work

1 Past Perfect pentru a exprima anterioritatea

propoziia condiional de tipul I (condiie real)


if + Present
will + infinitiv
If it rains,

we will cancel the picnic,

Daca va ploua,

vom amna picnicul.

If he asks me,

I'll help him.

Dac m va ruga,

l voi ajuta.

propoziia condiional de tipul II (condiie ireal


posibil)
if + Past
would + infinitiv
If it rained,

we would cancel the picnic.

Dac ar ploua,

am amna picnicul.

If he asked me,

I'd help him.

Dac m-ar ruga,

l-a ajuta.

They bought a new car as soon as they had


saved enough money.

I was sure he would help you when he had


finished his work

propoziia condiional de tipul III (condiie ireal


imposibil)
would have + participiu trecut
if + Past Perfect
If it had rained,

we would have cancelled the picnic,

O bservaie

Dac ar fi plouat,

am fi amnat picnicul.

Atunci cnd temporala este introdus de after sau before,


verbul acesteia este la Past Tense sau Past Perfect Tense.

If he had asked me.

I would have helped him.

Dac m-ar fi rugat,

l-a fi ajutat.

I arrrived after he started / had started.


It was / had been some time before I realized
the truth.

De obicei, propoziia principal este urmat de condiional.


I would / I'd come out with you if I didn't
feel so tired.

PirOpOZi + i A

G0 Ysd\f\0 V\A\A

Pentru a simplifica aceast problem de gramatic destul


de complex, vom spune c exist trei tipuri de
propoziii condiionale:

Dac ordinea propoziiilor este invers, atunci ele sunt


separate prin virgul.
If I didn't feel so tired, I'd come out with you.

F I s I r e o z i t i g i oo n d i t i o n i s
Pentru a exprima o condiie real, n propoziia
principal se folosete indicativul prezent sau
imperativul.
I stay in bed if I don't feel well. = Stau n pat
dac nu m simt bine.
She always smiles at me if I go near her desk. =

ntotdeauna mi zmbete dac m apropii


de banca ei.
If metal gets hot, it expends. = Dac se
nclzete, metalul se dilat.

If you will fill in this form. I'll give it to the

= Dac vrei s completai acest


formular, i-1 voi da directorului.
manager.

If you would lend me some money, I would be


very grateful. =

~ 1 unless

cu

Dac mi-ai mprumuta


nite bani v-a fi foarte recunosctor.
(cu sensul except if) are neles asemntor

if... not
I won't go on this trip unless you go too. = Nu
voi merge n excursia aceasta dac nu mergi
i tu.
You can't find accommodation unless you have

Try again if at first you don't succeed. =

ncearc din nou dac nu reueti


de prima dat.
Do not hesitate to ask for my help if you need it.

= Nu ezita s-mi ceri ajutorul dac ai


nevoie.
Construciile care cer o condiional sunt urmtoarele :
~ 1 if.... was / were se folosete pentru a exprima condiii
ireale, imaginare
If he was / were to come now, what would you
do ?

= Dac el ar veni acum, -ai face ?


~ 1 should + infinitivul poate fi folosit n propoziiile
condiionale de tipul I i II pentru a exprima o
situaie puin probabil
If you should find the book, give me a ring. =

Dac s-ar ntmpla s gseti cartea, d-mi


un telefon.
~ 1 if... will / would poate fi folosit pentru a exprima o
rugminte sau pentru a formula mai politicos o
cerere

a reservation.

O bservaii
J

nu se poate folosi :
-11atunci cnd vorbim despre emoii

Unless

Your teacher will be very angry if you dont do

= Profesorul tu va fi foarte
suprat dac nu-i vei face tema.
~1 n propoziii condiionale ireale imposibile
your homework.

If she hadn't gone to Paris, she would have gone


to London. =

Dac nu s-ar fi dus la Paris ar


fi mers la Londra.
~1 n propoziii interogative
What will he do if he doesn't pass the exam ?

= Ce va face dac nu va promova


examenul ?
Pot aprea i combinaii ntre cele trei tipuri de fraze
condiionale.
If you aren't very busy, I would invite you

= Dac nu eti foarte


ocupat, te-a invita la concert.

to the concert.

If she had worked hard she would be a


university student now. = Dac ar fi muncit
serios, acum ar fi student.

1
Complete the blanks with the right tense of the verb in

brackets.

a) I ............... (wash) the car when I ................. (have)


some free time.
b) W e ........................... (not start) the meeting until
everybody...................... (arrive).
c) H e .................... (have to) behave better when
h e ....................... (go) to school.
d) T hey .................... (not go) away until she
........................ (come).
e) The old w om an...................... (be) delighted when
s h e ..................... (hear) the news.
f) My friends................... (buy) a new car when they
.... (save) enough money.

Match the two parts.

When all babies are grown


in test tubes,
By the time we reach
home,
The airport will remain
closed,
She borrowed a new book,
Let me know

as soon as he gets here,

w Complete the sentences using the correct form of the

verb in brackets.

a) If I phone tonight, ..................you (be) at home ?


b) If it is fine tomorrow we.................... (go) on a trip.
c) If I were you, I ................... (giye up) now.
d) Ill call the police unless h e .................. (leave) at once.
e) I would have noticed if s h e ...................... (come).
f) If she had known you ivere coming, s h e .................... .
(wait) for you.
g) He might have succeeded if h e ................ (try) harder.
h) If I hadnt missed the train, I ................... (meet)
you at 6.
Answer these questions.

If you can choose a holiday place, where will you go ?


What will you do if the weather is fine tomorrow ?
What would you like to see if you went on a trip
to London ?
What would you do if you won a lottery prize ?
What would you have bought if you had had more
money ?

Complete each sentence so that it means the same

as the sentence above it.

as soon as she had finished


reading The Magus.
no one will naturally
belong to a family.
the snow will have stopped.
until further notice.

a) You wont get fired unless you do something foolish.


If you dont ...........................................................
b) Sue was ill, so she didnt go to the party.
Sue w ould............................................................
c) I cant help you unless you tell me what the problem is.
Id h e lp ...................................................................
d) If you stop eating so many cakes, youll get slimmer.

You wont get slim m er..................................................


e) I left the map at the hotel, so I got lost in the town.
If I ...............................................................................
f) I didnt make a shopping list and I forgot to buy sugar.
I wouldnt .................................................................
g) Going to Paris by bus is cheaper than going by train.
If y o u ...........................................................................
h) Mary had to ask for a day off or she wouldnt have
got one.
U nless..........................................................................

Tick the right sentence and correct the wrong one.

a) She will be happy if she will win the competition.


b) If I had been invited, I would go tonight.
c) If you should see him, tell him I would like to talk
to him.
d) I would tell you her name if I would know it.
e) Would you mind if I went first ?
f) He would have a nervous breakdown if he goes
on working like this.

\Jorb\re

t t d ir e e +

~' de o alt persoan n alt loc


1 de o alt persoan, n alt loc i n alt moment.
Mary told me last night that she would rather
stay home than go to the theatre.

Vorbirea indirect antreneaz dup sine schimbarea


persoanei.
M a ry : "I'd rather stay home than go to the
theatre."
Mary told me that she would rather stay
at home than go to the theatre.

Schimbarea locului i a momentului antreneaz


schimbarea adverbelor de timp i de loc, precum i
a prenumelor i a adjectivelor demonstrative.
Vorbirea direct

Vorbirea ind irect

this

that / the

these

those / the

here

there

now

then

today

that day

yesterday

the day before

the day before yesterday

two days before

tomorrow

the next / following day

the day after tomorrow

in two days' time

last week

the previous week /


the week before

Spusele unei persoane ntr-un anumit loc i ntr-un


anumit moment pot fi redate n vorbirea indirect :
~1 de o alt persoan
11 de o alt persoan n alt moment

a year ago

a year before / the previous year

A tenie !

Vorbire d irect

Vorbire ind irect

Adverbele de timp nu se schimb dect atunci cnd


exist o diferen ntre momentul vorbirii directe i cel
al vorbirii indirecte.

Present Simple

Past Simple

She loves football.

She said that she loved football.

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Grandma is coming to

Mother said that grandma

"Tomorrow I'll check my e-mail", John told me


last week.

stay with us.

was coming to stay with us.

John told me last week that he would check his

Dar

e-mail the following day.

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

"M r Jones is coming to see us tomorrow

I haven't heard from him

Mary said that she hadn't

morning."

since 1997

heard from him since 1997

"W hat did you say ?"

Present Perfect Continuous

Past Perfect

"I said that Mr Jones is coming to see us


tomorrow morning."

Continuous
He's been washing the car.

Father said he had been washing


the car.

SelMwfeavea +iwpiAvilov verbele


Schimbarea momentului atrage dup sine schimbarea
timpurilor folosite.
~1 Dac predicatul (the reporting verb) din propoziia
principal este la prezent, timpul din propoziia
redat n vorbirea indirect rmne neschimbat.
They are saying to the teacher: "You can't leave
us now at the end of the school year."
They are saying to the teacher that she can't
leave them now at the end of the school year.

~ Dac predicatul din propoziia principal este la


trecut, timpul din propoziia redat n vorbirea
indirect trece la trecut. O regul foarte simpl spune
c prezentul devine trecut, iar trecutul devine mai
mult ca perfect.

Future

Future in the Past

They will be in Paris

They told us that they would be

next week.

in Paris the next week.

Past Simple

Past Perfect

The house was broken

They reported to the police

in last night.

that the house had been broken in


the night before.

Past Continuous

Past Perfect Continuous

He was reading the

They told me that he had been

newspaper in the lounge.

reading the newspaper in the


lounge.

Past Perfect

Past Perfect

Father had left for work.

They told the manager that father


had left for work.

Schimbrile care au loc n vorbirea indirect se produc


n funcie de tipul de propoziie.
n general, n cazul propoziiilor enuniative predicatul
din principal (the reporting verb) este to say sau to tell
somebody. Alte verbe care se pot folosi sunt urmtoarele :
to accept, to acknowledge, to admit, to agree, to believe,

Propoziiile interogative se transform n vorbirea


indirect n propoziii enuniative, respectndu-se
regulile de folosire a timpurilor verbale din acest caz.
~1 Se folosete if sau whether dup predicatul din
propoziia principal exprimat printr-unul din verbele
ask, want to know, wonder, didnt say atunci cnd se
transform ntrebrile de tip yes / no
"Are you ready ?" said Helen.
Helen asked if / whether I was ready.
"Did they win the game? asked mother

to claim, to conclude, to comment, to deny, to find, to gather,


to inform, to mention, to promise, remember, to think, to wish,
to write.

Atunci cnd se face o sugestie (cu ajutorul verbelor

when we came back home.


Mother asked us if / whether they had won

advise, agree, demand, direct, insist, intend, plead, prefer,

the game.

n vorbirea
indirect avem o propoziie introdus de that,
iar verbul este (should) + infinitivul scurt.

propose, recommend, rule,suggest, urge),

John: "Let's start earlier!"


John suggested they should start earlier
Aunt M a ry : "Youd better change your job.
Aunt Mary advised her nephew that
he change his job.

A te ntie !

este preferat n urmtoarele cazuri :


~ 1 dup verbe de tipul to discuss

Whether

The committee discussed whether they should


fire half of the staff the next month.

~~1 ntr-o ntrebare cu alternativ


I wanted to know whether they had promised

O bservaie

to arrive on Monday or cancelled their flight.

Cteva verbe pot forma structuri ce se folosesc pentru


a reda vorbirea indirect : suggest / advise / propose /
recommend + V -ing.
Peter: "Let's go the theatre instead!"
Peter suggested their going to the theatre
instead.
The Prime Minister said: "W e shall raise more
buildings to provide accommodation for young
married couples."
The Prime Minister proposed raising more
buildings to provide accommodation for young
married couples.

~~1 dup prepoziii


They haven't settled the question of whether
they should move house .
~ 1 Pronumele

i adverbele interogative

(who, what,

se
pstreaz n vorbirea indirect. Topica n propoziie
este cea a uneia enuniative.
where, why, when, how, which, whom, whose)

When did they arrive ?


The teacher wanted to know when they
had arrived.

How could you leave your things behind ?


Mother wondered how I could leave my things
behind.
Who brought the cake ?
The school mistress wanted to know who
brought / had brought the cake.
How many turned up at the meeting ?
The president wanted to know how many
had turned up at the meeting.

~1 ntrebrile negative redate n vorbire indirect


pstreaz auxiliarul do i exprim, de obicei, un
element de surpriz sau de emoie.
Don't you remember our first date ?
I asked him if he didn't remember our first date.
W hy don't you like the presents you've got ?
He was surprised that she didn't like the
presents she had got.

A tentie

Nu se folosete structura complement + infinitiv dup


verbele suggest i say.
Let's call Peter and ask for help!
They suggested that we should call Peter / our
calling Peter to ask for help.
You cant keep lying about your past!
The juge said that I couldn't keep lying about
my past.

Timpurile verbale rmn aceleai n trecerea la vorbirea


indirect atunci cnd:
~1prezentul exprim o aciune repetat valabil i n
momentul vorbirii indirecte
"The Peters go to Brighton every summer ,
John said.
John said that the Peters go / went to Brighton

Promisiunile, ordinele, ofertele, rugminile, sfaturile


sunt redate n vorbirea indirect n structura
complement + infinitiv.
Be careful, I told Mary. - I told Mary
to be careful.
Don't park here ! said the policeman. - The
policeman told Peter not to park there.
Will you help me with this heavy suitcase,
please. - She asked him to help her with that
heavy suitcase.
Shall I call the police ? - She offered to call
the police.
I w on't listen to him, said Helen. - Helen
refused to listen to him
Remember to lock the door!, said mom. Mom reminded her son to lock the door.

every summer.

~11prezentul se refer la un fapt universal valabil, un


adevr absolut
"The sun rises in the East", the teacher told us.
The teacher told us that the sun rises in the East.

~1 trecutul simplu se refer la aciuni repetate n trecut


I went to football matches every week when I
lived in Piteti.
He told me that he went to football matches
every week when he lived in Piteti.

~1 nu exist raport de anterioritate ntre propoziia


principal i subordonat
He liked all the paintings in the exhibition.
He told me that he liked all the paintings
in the exhibition.

1 avem structurile

wish, it's high time, would rather


I wish you spent more time on your homework,

said the teacher.


The teacher told us that he wished we spent
more time on our homework.
I'd rather you bought another dress, Mary
admitted.
Mary admitted that she'd rather I bought
another dress.

In cazul propoziiilor condiionale au loc urmtoarele


schimbri:
~1 condiia real devine ireal posibil

Schimbrile suferite de verbele modale n vorbirea


indirect sunt urmtoarele :
V o r b ir e a d ir e c t

Vorbirea ind irect

can

could

could

could

may

might

might

might

shall

should

should

should

will

would

would

would
must have / can / could have

I'll buy you a red ball if you drink your glass

must have / can / could have

of milk, said mother.

must

Mother told me that she would buy me a red

must

ball if I drank my glass of milk.

mustn't

mustn't sau couldn't

need

need

- 1 condiia ireal posibil devine imposibil

(cu sensul de obligaie)


(deducie)

had to / would have to


must

If the car started they would go to


the skating-rink.

O b s e r v a ie

Peter told them that if the car started they

In vorbirea indirect predicatul din propoziia principal


poate exprima o aciune sau o parafraz a propoziiilor
din vorbirea direct.

would go to the skating-rink.


If the manager had known that their products
were in high demand on the market he would

"Look, if I were you I'd sell this old car."

have increased the production.

He advised me to sell the old car.

The reporter mentioned that if the manager had


known that their products were in high demand

"Hi", he said.

on the market he would have increased the

He greeted me.

production.
"Thank you, dear."
She thanked me.

"Well done, you've got the highest mark.


He congratulated me on my mark.

Match Direct Speech sentences with Indirect


Speech sentences.

"Here's my best friend, Peter Gabriel."


He introduced his best friend, Peter Gabriel.
"Merry Christmas!"
They wished us Merry Christmas.

You may not believe it, but I took it.


Look, if I were you, Id start raising some money for my
studies.
I know, its silly but I cant remember your name.
Well, if you dont mind Ill have the fish pie.
How about our going to the swimming pool together ?

"Look, actually, tell her I'll drop by one


of these days."
He said he'd drop by one of these days.

flcwry eXereifii!
Turn into Indirect / Reported Speech.

a) He said to her I have seen them today.


b) The boy said Mother dont be angry.
c) I asked my friend Why have you come so late ?
d) Tom said Hello, Mary.
e) The teacher asked the pupils Did you study
Shakespeare last year ?
f) Mary told her mother Ill write to you every week.
g) The officer said Start digging, soldiers.
h) Yes, you are right, Peter said.
i) How much water do you have in that bottle ?,
the teacher asked.
j) You must be ready by ten oclock, the assistant
told him.

She claimed she took it.


He decided to have the fish pie.
He admitted not remembering her name.
He suggested our going to the swimming pool together.
She advised him to raise some money for his studies.
Turn the following fragment into Indirect Speech

Mrs Hale : I couldve come. I stayed away because it


werent cheerful, and thats why I ought to have come.
I Ive never liked this place. Maybe because its down
in a hollow and you dont see the road. I dunno what
it is but its a lonesome place and always was. I wish
I had come over to see Minnie Foster sometimes.
I can see now ...
Susan Glaspell Trifles
Turn the following sentences into Direct Speech.

a) They said that the new fridge had arrived and asked
where they were to put it.
b) The librarian asked her if shed like to borrow
the book but she thanked her and said she had already
read it.

c) Mother told her son that if he didnt like to take


the lift he could climb the stairs.
d) They offered me a raise in salary and I accepted .
e) Paul suggested that all the boys should buy tickets
for the girls and invite them to the cinema.
f) The teacher congratulated his students on their
results in the exams.
g) The policeman explained to the driver that if his
car had gone a few inches nearer the edge, he would
have been dead by then.
h) The customs officer inquired whether I travelled
alone or with someone.
i) He asked what the weather had been like during
the week we spent in London.
j) He wished us a happy new year and then apologized
for the delay.

Translate into English.

Ii era fric s deschid gura sau s ncerce, chiar


n minte, s compun o fraz ct de ct corect. Dac
nu s-ar fi reinut, ar fi exclamat fr ndoial : Parc asis.t
la un teatru de prost gu st! De ce trebuie s utilizeze
cuvintele acestea att de patetic, de fals, cnd, far
ndoial, are dreptate, spune un adevr ? De n-ar fi
credina asta oarb ntr-o minune, n ceva care ar putea
terge tot i toate i ne-ar obliga s rencepem viaa de
la capt, mai curai, mai cinstii... Asta simea, dar,
n loc de gnduri, strnse pleoapele i se afund n
pern, dorind s treac de ea, n somn, n linite.
Augustin Buzura Absenii

LEXIC
S nu ne speriem de dificultile limbii engleze ! Mai corect ar fi s le numim particulariti.
Omonimia, sinonimia, schimbarea categoriei gramaticale i particulele care modific aspectul verbelor
merit studiate ndeaproape i... apreciate pentru subtilitatea i creativitatea cu care nzestreaz limba.

CiAv'mfe care dau


bata te de c
to hurt

a pricinui durere, a lovi, a rni


She banged her head against the wall and

hurt

The hurt caused by her bitter words couldn't

harm

Gossiping about people does more harm

be explained.
than criticising them in the open,
pain

Take this tablet if you are in pain,

ache

Hes got stomachache after eating so many


sweets.

hurt herself. Her head hurts.

a ofensa, a jigni

alive

viu, n via, plin de via, activ (se


folosete n formarea predicatului)

living

viu, n via

Her bitter words hurt her husband's feelings.


to harm

He was kept alive by the doctors,

a aduce o pagub cuiva, a vtma


Smoking harms people's health.

All living creatures need water and air.

a face ru
about the earthquake,

viu (se folosete numai naintea


substantivelor)

a mhni, a ndurera

Look o u t! There's a live lobster behind you.

There is no harm in asking more questions


to pain

to ache

live

[laiv]

It pains her to see her children suffering

~ broadcast / programme

from hunger,

direct

a durea

wire fir

M y legs ache after so much walking.

to annoy

transmisie n

electric sub tensiune

a necji, a plictisi, a agasa, a tulbura


The fact that he didn't do his homework
annoyed her.

a se necji, a se neliniti, a-i face griji

to bother
to disturb

bank

mal, rm

Young men never bother to iron their shirts,

The three of them tried to push the boat

a tulbura, a deranja, a incomoda, a


tulbura

away from the bank of the river.

banc
It's not safe to keep all your money in a

Sorry to disturb you, could I use your pen ?

bank, the beggar said,


apart from

except for

afar de, far a mai socoti

bench

In spring all the benches in the park are

and then, what else is he he doing for them ?

taken by old people.

cu excepia, n afar de cazul c


Except for one little girl, everybody got their

canal

canal construit de om
The Suez Canal is a major source of trouble.

presents on time,
except +

banc pentru ezut, banchet

Apart from buying his kids sweets evey now

complement
cu excepia (nu se poate folosi la
nceput de propoziie)

channel

canal natural
The Channel between Britain and France is
always very busy with ships and boats.

canal de televiziune

The shop is open every day, except Tuesday.

Have you watched Channel 4 ? I think it's


aroma

(strong appetizing smell),

great.

arom, miros

plcut, parfum
The aroma of hot bread filled the car.
scent

(a delicate smell)

chair

There are four of us, we'll need another chair.

miros, parfum,
place

mireasm
(manufactured, sweet-smelling liquid)

hanging the painting is just above the

parfum, mireasm, arom

fireplace.

She loves wearing perfume,


flavour

arom, parfum, gust


plcut, gust specific
(that has that taste)

Children prefer strawberry-flavoured ice-cream,


taste

loc
If you need my advice, the best place for

The scent of roses was strong in the room,


perfume

scaun (cu speteaz)

(experience of flavour)

gust, savoare

Nothing compares to the taste of fresh


oranges.

seat

loc, scaun ntr-un mijloc de transport


sau ntr-o sal de spectacol
All the seats are taken for tonight's
performance, I am sorry.

classic

clasic, sobru, simplu, de bun calitate,


tipic

patient

pacient

Sherlock Holmes is the classic example of the

guest

persoane cazate la hotel

Am I the next patient, doctor ?

perfect detective.
classical

tradiional, stil clasic, legat de limbile


i literatura Greciei i Romei antice

The hotel takes care of its guests.


conscience

The only kind of music my father can stand

It was his guilty conscience that made

is classical music.

him bring the money back.


consciousness

clerk
employee

funcionar (de birou)

After the blow, it took him five minutes


to regain consciousness.

angajat, funcionar
were thrilled to shake hands with the

conscientious

shop

vnztor

assistant

Who is going to hire you as a shop-assistant

their work was.


deadly

mortal, de moarte,
Children are not allowed to handle deadley

ngrijitor (n parcuri, muzee, la piscin etc.)

weapons.
fatal

fatal, inevitabil, de nenlturat


Had he not been taken to hospital in time,

children who were playing ball.

persoan oficial, funcionar n poziii


de rspundere

contient, care i d seama


Everybody was conscious of how important

with no qualifications ?
The attendant in the park kept staring at the

contiincios, scrupulos
A conscientious pupil is the joy of a teacher.

conscious

president of the company

official

contiin, cunotin

The job of a clerk is not well paid.


All the employees present at the meeting

attendant

contiin, cuget, fire, suflet

his injuries could have been fatal.

You are not allowed in there, it is only for

muritor, supus morii, mortal, ucigtor,


funest, fatal

officials.

As we are all mortal, we should enjoy the

mortal

moment, said the poet.


client

client (al unui avocat, al unei bnci)


He left the Court in a hurry as he had an

doubled

important meeting with a client.


customer

cumprtor
Small shops rely on their regular customers.

dublu, ndoit
The Government has doubled its tax on
roads.

dubbed

dublat, un film postsincronizat


Dubbed films were invented for blind people.

lined

cptuit (despre haine)


His jacket is lined with black silk.

istoric, care ine de istorie, care trateaz


fapte istorice

folded

ndoit

Vlad epe is one of the historical figures

Keep your hanky folded, whispered mom to

whose life and reign are still a mystery to

Tommy.

most children.

footstep

step

pas (zgomotul fcut de pai)

historical

to isolate

a despri, a separa, a ine separat

I could hear footsteps behind me,

Scientists have isolated the virus that causes

in the dark.

influenza.

pas, demers, msur

to insulate

a izola electric
Don't touch that wire.lt isn't insulated.

Every step I took led me to the edge.


Their coming here was an important step
towards reconciliation,
pace

last

Nobody could keep that pace for long,

latest

cel mai recent

at last

n cele din urm

Have you read John Fowles' latest book ?

it's breathtaking.
heritage

inheritance

motenire, monumente istorice,


obiceiuri i tradiii transmise de la o
generaie la alta

Here they are, at last.


at least

cel puin

The "cluarii" dance is part of our cultural

We cant get out of the house, but at least

heritage.

we can listen to good music.

motenire (bani sau proprieti primite


la moartea cuiva)

lately

de curnd, n ultimul timp


We haven't read anything interesting in the
papers, lately.

Diana was happy as her inheritance made her


one of the richest girls in Europe.
historic

ultimul
Have you read Balzac's last novel ?

pas, mers, umblet, tempo, ritm

late

defunct
M y late husband left me his car.

important, de marc, de importan


istoric

n ntrziere, ntrziat

The end of communism in Eastern Europe

In my youth, trains were never late.

will be remembered as one of the historic


events of the 20th century.

to miss

a rata, a eua, a pierde, a scpa

to wave to

If we dont hurry we are going to miss the

a face cu mna n semn de salut


When leaving, she waved to us good bye.

train.

a simi lipsa
to lose

W e really miss our good neighbours.

umbr (zon protejat de lumina


soarelui)

a pierde, a rtci,

Come and sit with us in the shade.

Ive lost my glasses, I can't find them in the


to fail

shade

shadow

umbr (lsat de obiecte)

house.

Seeing the huge shadow on the wall I

a nu reui, a eua

started screaming.

They tried really hard but they failed to find


any evidence.
physician
physicist

spectator

spectator la un eveniment sportiv


(de obicei n aer liber)

doctor

Football matches usually attract many

Physicians work in hospitals.

spectators.

The best known physicist of our century is

spectator la un spectacol, pies


de teatru, film, concert

Albert Einstein.

At the end of the play, the audience started

fizician

audience

applauding.
revenge oneself

a se rzbuna

viewer

telespectator
All viewers have turned into couch potatoes.

Hamlet had to revenge himself for his


father's death.
avenge

a rzbuna pe cineva

underground

metrou (Br. E.)


The underground in London is called

Hamlet avenged his father's death.

the tube.
to salute
to greet

a saluta militrete, a da onorul

metrou (Am. E.), pasaj subteran (Br. E.)

The soldiers saluted the officer.

To cross the railway you have to go by the

a saluta, a da binee

subway.

People in a small town greet one another


everyday in the street.
to welcome

subway

a ura bun venit


The air hostess welcomed us aboard.

Pr ie+eysi

13 i 5^

In limba englez exist cuvinte care au form


asemntoare cu cele din limba romn, dar sensul lor
nu este acelai. Lista prietenilor fali (false friends)
este mult mai lung, dar am selectat doar acei termeni
care sunt confundai mai des.
actual

to resume

Will you be back in the room after a ten


minute break as we would like to resume our
discussions.
to summarise

main ideas and get rid of the details,


sensible

care exist n acest moment, curent

do now is to go to sleep and forget about it


until tomorrow morning,
sensitive

sensitive child.

the future of the organization.

a gti, buctar

terrible

morning.

the Chinese themselves.

aragaz

terrific

data

process

date tiinifice

elements of the writing process.

not relevant to the project.

dat calendaristic

trial

All her neighbours were present at her trial

ntlnire prestabilit

to support her morally.


product

young lady.

economicos
Small cars are supposed to be economical,

economic

proces n justiie

What is the date today ? It's the 1st of May.


He never misses a date with a beautiful
economical

toate etapele componente ale unei


proceduri
Students find it hard to get used to all the

The data he offered to the board was / were


date

minunat, nemaipomenit
The carpet that you've bought is terrific.

Children are not allowed to get near


the cooker.

ngrozitor, nspimnttor
I've heard about a terrible accident this

The best cooks for Chinese cuisine are


cooker

sensibil, impresionabil, senzorial


Her remarks showed that she was a very

The present chairperson is too nice to plan


cook

raional, cu bun sim


I think that the most sensible thing we could

The way she interpreted the poem bore


present

a rezuma
The principle of summarizing is to keep the

real, adevrat
no relation to the actual words.

a relua dup o pauz

produs industrial, fabricat pentru


vnzare
Product advertising costs a lot of money.

produce

produs agricol, natural

economic, legat de economie

Farm produce is highly appreciated on the

You start studying economics by getting

market.

the basics of any economic system.

corect, decent, respectabil, potrivit

He didn't dare raise his eyes

That Mr Jones is not a proper doctor,

when the stranger came in.

own

propriu

The new members raised the

He spends all his mornings in his own room,

problem of pollution.

eventual

final, definitiv

They promised to raise our wages

Our eventual aim is to invest more money

two months ago.

proper

in education,
possible

in building new schools,

a purta, a duce, a cra,


a suporta ; a se nate,
a da natere

greu, din greu

He was born on the 1st of

posibil

bear, bore, born / borne

A possible way of investing money is


hard

hardly

He has been working hard all his life but

January.

now he's a millionnaire.

She has borne him three

cu greu, nu prea

daughters.

He has hardly been working all his life and

He was borne on a stretcher.


It was borne in upon him that

now he's as poor as a church mouse.

his responsability was huge.


They couldn't bear the heat

Vev*be

d i- fic ile

anymore.
air-borne / sea-borne compui

care arat mijlocul de


transport folosit

Iat cteva din verbele care ridic probleme din punct de


vedere al formrii (verb regulat, verb neregulat) i al
nelesului.
hang, hung, hung
arise, arose, arisen
rise, rose, risen

raise, raised, raised

a atrna, a aga

a se ivi, a rasari

He hung the curtains in the dining

The fog arose from the lake.

room to help his mother.

a se ridica, a se scula, a se
nla

hang, hanged, hanged

a spnzura

The sun rises in the East.

The criminal was hanged before

His spirits rose.

the sherriff could stop it.

a ridica, a nla, a cldi, a


crete, a spori

lie, lay, lain

a sta ntins, culcat; a zcea, a


se afla, a fi ; a se ntinde

fell, felled, felled

a dobor, a tia, a da jos (un


arbore)

When I came in she was lying on

They felled that huge tree as they

the sofa.

needed some wood.

Romania lies in the South-East of


He took the newspaper and lay

a gsi, a da peste, a da de ; a
considera, a descoperi

back in his chair.

They found their friends walking

a mini

in the park.

Europe.

lie, lied, lied

lay, laid, laid

find, found, found

He has always lied to everybody

I've found that this engine is too

to get their pity.

complicated for me.


Have you found my glasses ?

a pune, a aeza
They laid the table for the guests.

found, founded, founded

a fonda, a pune bazele

Lay the vase down before you

The magazine called The Quest

drop it !

was founded in the 19th century.

a oua
The hen laid an egg.
ring, rang, rung

ring, ringed, ringed

fall, fell, fallen

bind, bound, bound

a lega, a bandaja, a se lega, a


se obliga

a suna, a da telefon

They bound his arms with ropes.

He rang the bell several times but

This book is bound in leather.

nobody heard him.

I am bound to say that you are no

Could I ring Paul up ?

gentleman.

a ncercui, a nconjura

bound, bounded, bounded

a sri, a opi

They ringed number 1 on the

He loved watching children bound

form.

in the park.

a cdea, a pica, a scdea, a


cobor

see, saw, seen

a vedea, a zri, a observa, a


cunoate ; a avea o ntrevedere

The apple fell on the ground.

I saw them crossing the street.

The criminal fell down dead.

I'll see what I can do.

Prices will fall, they say.

I'm seeing Thomas tomorrow.

saw, sawed, sawed

a tia cu ferstrul
It took them a whole afternoon
to saw that log into fire wood.

grind, ground, ground

a mcina, a ascui, a freca,


a scrni
I love the aroma of freshly
ground coffee.
When he is angry he keeps
grinding his teeth,

ground, grounded, grounded

a menine la sol (despre


avioane), a se mpotmoli
(despre nave), a interzice
unui copil s ias la joac
(drept pedeaps)
The plane was grounded until

Verbe
cu +culS
be away a
be off a

porni

be out a

fi plecat, a nu fi acas

We're off now. Thanks for the meal!


He went out at 11 o'clock,
break away a

and ran to the door,


break down a

drma, a nu mai funciona (fig.),


a se ubrezi (despre sntate)
If you dont open the door I'll break it down.
The elevators in this building are always breaking

I saw a grounded ship on the

down.
If Tom carries on working like this, he'll break

The first time you are late, you'll

a (se) rsuci, a erpui,


a nfur, a ncolci

down sooner or later.,


break in a

domestici, a intra prin efracie,


a se bga n discuie
Don't worry about doing the accounts, we'll
break you in.

After he wound the string round

They broke in and took several computers.

his finger we followed the

Dad would occasionally break in with a

winding road.
Don't forget to wind your clock up.
wound

[wu :nd],

wounded, wounded

a rni, a jigni
The man was wounded while
crossing the mountains.

scpa, a fugi

They kissed and then she broke away from him

Sulina canal.

wind, wound, wound

fi plecat (din localitate)


The whole family were away for the weekend,

the fog cleared.

be grounded for one week.

adverb\a\a

suggestion.
break up a

(se) sfrma, a lua sfrit (coala)


Jim started to break the ice up.
When do you break up for Easter ?

call off a

climb down a

anula, a rezilia

They climbed down the hill to get the bus

Rescuers had to call off the search due to

station,

worsening weather,
call up a

climb up a

urea
He's too old to climb up the hill without

chema la telefon (Am. E.), a chema sub arme,

any help.

a evoca
Has John called you up lately ?

come across a

He has never come across a person quite like

out.

Sheila.
come down to a

wages or cutting staff,

duce la bun sfrit, a ndeplini


A survey is being carried out nationwide.

come off a

prinde (a fi la mod)

come out a

iei la iveal, a iei (despre pete)

It was a popular style in Britain but it never

The family resemblance comes out strongly in

really caught on in America,

the wedding photos.

catch up with a

Ink stains will usually come out if you use a little

ajunge din urm (i fig.)

methanol,

At the moment our technology is more


advanced, but other countries are catching

come against a

You have to check in one hour before the flight,


check off a

da de greuti

You've no idea what you are going to come

up with us.

up against!

se nregistra la hotel, a se nregistra la aeroport

do away with a

check out a

achita nota i a prsi hotelul, a se asigura


c un lucru este adevrat

scpa de, a distruge

The government has done away with free eye

bifa, a nsemna

tests for everyone,

Check off the names as people arrive,

check up a

avea succes
Irene did try, but her joke didn't quite come off.

We carried out her instructions to the letter,


catch on a

se rezuma la

It all came down to a choice between cutting

pastime.
carry out a

da peste, a ntlni din ntmplare

I was called up three months after the war broke


He used to call up the spirits of the dead as a

check in a

cobor

There is no rush now - the game's been called off.

do up a

renova ; a aranja prul, faa ; a nchide nasturii


They did up the house and sold it for

We checked out at noon.

a vast profit.

W hy dont we check out the bar and see

Sue spent ages doing herself up for the date.

if its OK ?

Do up your coat or youll be cold.

controla, a verifica
Are you trying to check up on me, or what ?

fall out with a

se certa cu cineva

go back on a

She's fallen out with her friend,


get along a

se nelege cu cineva
If you two are going to share a room, you'd

on her word,
go off a

se strica (despre mncare)


The milk's gone off.

better learn how to get along,


get away with a

scpa nepedepsit

grow on a

deveni din ce n ce mai plcut

I don't know how they get away with paying so

His music is difficult but after a while it grows

low wages,

on you.

get down to a

trece la fapte, a se apuca

keep away from a

serious job hunting,


get on with a

keep on a

continua

keep up a

continua

I've told him to stop but he keeps on scratching it

se nelege cu cineva

Gina gets on with her colleagues,

da pe gratis, a trda, a denuna


I need to give away some of these old baby
clothes.
I was afraid the kids were going to give the

Keep up the good work!


keep up with a

ceda, a capitula, a se supune


They argued back and forth until finally Buzz
gave in.
They weren't a particularly good team, but they

let down a

rspndi, a degaja un miros

let me down!
let in on a

We decided not to let Mary in on our secret,

go along with a

had a college education,


look forward to a

atepta cu nerbdare

My mother says she's looking forward to


meeting you.
look into a

corespunde, a se altura unei idei

considera o problem
Police are looking into the disappearance of two

They were happy to go along with our


suggestions.

dispreui

Mr Garcia looks down on anyone who hasn't

abandona, a renuna
Shaun is giving up his karate, he's bored with it.

mprti un secret

look down upon a

Chives give off a delicate oniony smell,


give up a

dezamgi
I'm counting on you to support me - don't

refused to give in and accept defeat,


give off a

merge n pas cu

Slow down ! Davey can't keep up with us.

whole thing away,


give in a

se ine la distan

Keep away from my daughter!

After Christmas I'm going to get down to some

give away a

nu se ine de cuvnt

You can rely on Sarah, she wont go back

children,
look on a

privi
Only one man tried to help us, the rest just
looked on in silence.

look over a

examina, a cerceta, a trece n revist


Do you have a few minutes to look these

run down a

lovi cu maina, a se opri (despre un


mecanism), a critica
Their daughter was run down by a car just

samples over ?
look up a

outside their house.

cuta un cuvnt n dicionar

We have to change the battery, it has run down.

Look up the word in the dictionary!


look up to a

Paula is jealous of you, that's why she keeps

admira pe cineva

running you down,

I've always looked up to Bill for his courage and


determination,
make out a

run into a

ntlni din ntmplare


Guess who I ran into in town today I

nelege cu greu, a pretinde


I can scarcely make out his writing.

run out of a

The truck has run out of gas again,

She always makes out she's the only one


who does any work,
make up a

run up against a
see off a

conduce (la gar, aeroport)


I think they've gone to the airport to see their

I plan on making this material up into a dress,


make up for a

daughter off.

compensa, a recupera, a nlocui

That one weekend made up for all the

see out a

conduce la
John, will you see Mary out, please,

disappointments I'd had.


We rehearsed all day to make up for lost time.

set in a

se instala (despre vreme)


Winter seems to be setting in early this year,

What Jay lacked in experience, he made up for


in enthusiasm,
miss out a

set off a

porni (o cltorie)
I wanted to set off early in order to avoid

omite

the traffic,

Make sure you don't miss any details out.


put off a

descuraja, a ntrzia, a amna

set up a

ridica, a nfiina
The Race Relations Board was originally

The job sounded interesting but the idea of

set up in 1965.

moving house again put me off.


The meeting has been put off till next week,
put up a

sit up a

sta n capul oaselor


By the time I got there she was sitting up

oferi gzduire

in bed and reading a book,

They agreed to put two foreign students


up over the summer,
put up with a

tolera, a se obinui cu o situaie

ntmpina (o problem)

We ran up against some unexpected opposition,

inventa, a confeciona, a se farda


I think they're making the whole thing up.

termina, a isprvi

stand by a

pstra o nelegere, a fi gata de aciune


I stand by what I said earlier.

I don't know how you put up with their constant

A rescue boat is always standing by in case

quarelling!

of trouble.

stand out a

stand for a

iei n eviden

turn out a

iei la iveal, a se dovedi

Among mystery writers, P D. James stands out

Don't worry. I'm sure everything will turn

as a superior storyteller,

out fine.

reprezenta
What does the E. in Dean E. Johnson stand for ?

stand in for a

His statement turned out to be false,


turn up a

se gsi, a sosi

lua locul, a nlocui

I couldn't find my watch for ages, but then one

You can stand in for Mary while she is on

day it turned up in a coat pocket.

vacation.

Steven turned up late as usual,

stand up to a

rezista, a suporta stresul

wear off a

He'll respect you more if you stand up to him.


take in a

The effects of the anaesthetic were starting to

pcli, a nela (la pasiv)


Don't be taken in by products claiming to help
you lose weight,

take off a

pierde din efect (mai ales medicamente)


wear off.

wear our a

(se) uza, a se roade


I've worn out the soles of my shoes.

decola, a scoate (haina etc)


As the plane was taking off, I remembered I
hadn't turned the iron off.
Take your coat off.

take over a

prelua
Will you take over the driving when we reach
Madison ?

take to a

plcea pe cineva

take up a

ncepe o activitate nou (un hobby)

I took to Paul the moment I saw him.


Glenn has taken up pottery,
talk out of / into a

convinge pe cineva s renune / s se

apuce de
Can't you talk them out of selling the house ?
Try to talk Luis into buying a ticket,
tell off a

certa
My dad told me off for swearing,

tie in with a

fi n acord cu
Marsden's conclusions tie in with our theory
perfectly.

Choose the right word to complete the sentence.

a) Tell me where it (harms / hurt / aches / hurts),


said the doctor to his patient.
b) A (living / alive / live [liv] / live [laiv]) concert could
end in disaster due to power failure.
c) He didnt even (disturb / annoy / disturbs / bother)
to hide his anger.
d) They agreed to keep silent hoping the hijackers
wouldnt (hurted / harm / pain / ache) their sister.
e) The (perfume / taste / aroma / flavour) of cinnamon
coming from the oven filled the whole kitchen.
f) After w'ork, grandpa used to sit in a low (seat / place /
chair / sofa) by the fire, reading.
g) The museum (clerk / officer / official / attendant)
watched them carefully not to spoil anything.

h) He has been a valued (customer / patient / guest /


client) of our bank for many years.
i) The (pace / footstep / walk / step) he set was too fast
for the others.
j) The teacher began to (fail / lose / miss / lost) patience
with the naughty boys.

h) bank is

i) historic

Choose the right definition for each word.

an expert in physics
a doctor
a Physical Education teacher
something somebody inherits
b) heritage
qualities, traditions or features of life
that have been continued for many
years and passed on from one
generation to another
the age of inheriters
c) to welcome
to greet somebody in a friendly way
to come home well
to salute in a military way
d) a spectator
a TV viewer
a person wearing spectacles
a person watching a sporting event
e) to resume
to make a resume
to begin again after a break
to make a sum again
f) to isolate
to keep something / somebody apart
to insult
to stay late
g) conscientious being aware
being awake
careful about ones work
a) physician

j) channel

a seat for pupils in a classroom


a long seat for two or more people in
a park
an institution where people or
businesses can keep their money
important in history or likely to be
considered important in the future
related to stories
legendary
a TV programme
a river
a passage along which water or some
other liquid flows

Choose the right verb.

a) Gregory began to (rise / raise) his voice in protest.


b) They (hung / hanged) the painting in the dining
room.
c) The conference (lay / laid) the basis for a series of
annual gatherings.
d) I believe Louis (rang / ringed) you earlier about the
tickets, didnt he ?
e) The china (felled / fell) from her hands and shattered
to the ground.
f) His teeth were clenched, and he (grounded / ground)
them the way people do during sleep.
g) She let her embroidery (lie / lay) where it fell.
h) Bundles of five-pound notes were (bound / bounded)
in lots of twenty.
i) Cortez (founded / found) Mexico City.
j) She had been grieviously (wound / wounded) by her
words.

'

Translate into Romanian.

a) Ill be calm and sensible.


b) Eric wasnt particularly sensitive to clothes.
c) He had raised his fork and was on the very point of
opening his mouth, when the hum of many voices
suddenly arose in the kitchen.
d) The raising of cattle was the great industry of the
country.
e) I hardly know what I am saying at times.
f) Its hard to think that not so very many years ago he
was just a little boy.
g) He naturally developed into a liar, but an economical
and self-contained one.
h) Languages do not exist in a vacuum but are
powerfully affected by social, political, economic and
technical change.
i) In the past few days, fresh fish rose to record prices
but consumers refused to buy it.
j) West Mallion was one of the historic houses of Sussex.
Translate into English.

a) Paul simea o durere acut n oase dar se obinuise


ntr-att cu ea nct i continu lectura fr s se
ntrerup.
b) Singurul lucru care l agasa la Peter era faptul c
schimba canalul la televizor far s-l ntrebe.
c) Locurile din maina asta sunt mai confortabile dect
cele din autobuz.
d) nainte ca preurile s se dubleze, dl James Brown i-a
cumprat o hain cu cptueal din mtase roie i
ultimul roman aprut al lui John Fowles.

e) Un doctor nu i pierde niciodat rbdarea cu


pacientul su, altfel nu reuete s afle adevrata cauz a
bolii.
f) Prefer s merg pe stadion ca spectator dect s stau n
faa televizorului ca telespectator.
g) Toat lumea se adunase la umbra nucului n ateptarea
miresei.
h) Un mod economicos de a cltori este autostopul.
i) Suntei binevenit n casa mea oricnd dorii.
j) Ultima lui dorin a fost ca fiul su s-l rzbune.

4,,;r Choose the most suitable word.

a) They seem to have come up against a serious


solution / problem.
b) They are carrying out urgent seminars / repairs.
c) You agreed to go along with the road / decision.
d) How could you go back on your bike / word ?
e) They were looking forward to visiting Paris / the
painting in the library.
f) When you run up against economic difficulties / a wall
you need good financial advice.
g) Do as I tell you and the shirt / the pain will soon
wear off.
h) His beliefs / shoes didnt seem to tie in at all with
the reality.
i) They couldnt talk him out of starting a new
talkshow/ the room.
j) Shes too weak to stand up to her competitor /
the heavy parcel.

Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the indicated


word, and so that the meaning stays the same.

a) Peter moved away from his friends and ran to catch


the bus. (break)
b) They hoped that the strike would be cancelled, (off)
c) While Mary was away on vacation, Paula took her
place, (stand)
d) After a month of living in the same house they started
to like Pamela very much, (to)
e) If babies put on very little weight at first, eventually
they wrill gain rapidly to replace what is missing, (make)
f) She was hit and injured just outside her office, (down)
g) They delayed signing the paper, (put)
h) What I didnt know I had to find out or invent, (up)
i) The natives have to tolerate gaping tourists, (with)
j) She was someone whose charm you started to like
more and more, (grow)
, K;
Translate into English by using the phrasal verbs that you

f) Nu mai suport reclamaiile tale permanente !


g) Mirosul de ceap mi-a luat toat pofta de mncare.
h) Nu te lsa pclit de discursurile lui prea lungi!
i) Am nevoie de cineva care s m nlocuiasc la
ceremonie.
j) Karen a promis c nu i va clca cuvntul.

V e r b e

n e re g m l + e

In f in it iv e

P a ste
Tense

Past
P a r t ic ip i e

abide

abided

abided

abode

abode

arise

arose

arisen

awake

awoke

awoken

be

was / were been

bear

bore

born

beat

beat

beaten

become

became

become

begin

began

begun

have studied.

a) Din prima zi i-a dat seama c nu va putea niciodat


s recupereze timpul pierdut orict de mult i-ar dori
acest lucru.
b) De fiecare dat cnd ntmpin o problem serioas
bunica sa l convinge s vad partea frumoas a
lucrurilor i s spere ntr-o rezolvare miraculoas.
c) Dac Tom va continua s munceasc n ritmul acesta,
se va mbolnvi ct de curnd.
d) Atunci cnd dau un ordin, atept s fie dus la
ndeplinire.
e) Realizarea acestui spectacol a fost o idee bun,
dar din pcate nu prea a arat succes.

behold

beheld

beheld

bend

bent

bent

beseech

besought

besought

=
=

beseeched

beseeched

bet

bet

bet

bind

bound

bound

bite

bit

bitten

bleed

bled

bled

a rmne, a sta,
a zbovi
a se ridica, a se ivi
a trezi
a fi
a purta, a duce,
a cra
a bate
a deveni
a ncepe
a vedea, a zri,
a privi
a ndoi
a ruga, a implora
a paria
a lega, a nfa
a muca
a sngera

blow

blew

blown

break

broke

broken

bring

brought

brought

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

build

built

built

burn

burned

burned

burnt

burnt

burst

burst

burst
buy

bought

bought

cast

cast

cast

catch

caught

caught

choose

chose

chosen

cling

clung

clung

come

came

come

cost

cost

cost

creep

crept

crept

cut

cut

cut

deal

dealt

dealt

dig

dug

dug

dive

dived

dived

do

did

done

draw

drew

drawn

dream

dreamed

dreamed

dreamt

dreamt

drank

drunk

drink
drive

drove

driven

dwell

dwelt

dwelt

=
=
=
=

a sufla, a bate
a rupe, a sparge
a aduce
a difuza, a transmite
(prin radio)
= a construi
= a arde, a pune pe foc
= a plesni, a crpa,
a izbucni
= a cumpra
= a arunca, a azvrli
= a prinde, a apuca,
a se molipsi
= a alege
= a se ine de,
a se apuca de
= a veni
= a costa
= a se tr
= a tia
= a mpri,
a distribui, a da
= a spa
= a plonja,
a se scufunda
= a face
= a trage, a desena
= a visa
= a bea
= a conduce, a ofa
= a locui, a rmne

eat

ate

eaten

fall

fell

fallen

feed

fed

fed

feel

felt

felt

fight

fought

fought

find

found

found

flee

fled

fled

fling

flung

flung

fly

flew

flown

forbid

forbade

forbidden

forecast

forecasted forecasted =
forecast

forecast

foresee

foresaw

foreseen

foretell

foretold

foretold

forget

forgot

forgotten

forgive

forgave

forgiven

freeze

froze

frozen

get

got

got

give

gave

given

go

went

gone

grind

ground

ground

grow

grew

grown

hang

hung

hung

have

had

had

hear

heard

heard

hide

hid

hidden

hit

hit

hit

hold

held

held

hurt

hurt

hurt

keep

kept

kept

a mnca
a cdea
a hrni
a simi
a lupta
a gsi
a fugi, a scpa
cu fuga, a disprea
a arunca, a azvrli
a zbura
a interzice
a prevedea, a estima
a prevedea,
a anticipa
a prezice
a uita
a ierta
a nghea
a primi, a obine
a da
a merge, a umple,
a pleca
a mcina, a rni
a crete, a mri
a aga, a atrna
a avea
a auzi
a ascunde
a lovi, a pocni, a izbi
a ine (n mn)
a rni, a vtma
a ine, a pstra

kneel

knelt

knelt

knit

knitted

knitted

knit

knit

know

knew

known

lay

laid

laid

lead

led

led

lean

leaned

leaned

leant

leant

leaped

leaped

leap

leapt

leapt

learn

learned

learned

learnt

learnt

leave

left

left

lend

lent

lent

let

let

let

lie

lay

lain

lighted

lighted

lit

lit

lose

lost

lost

make

made

made

mean

meant

meant

meet

met

met

light

mistake

mistook

mistaken

overcome

overcame

overcome

overhear

overheard

overheard

oversee

oversaw

overseen

overtake

overtook

overtaken

overthrow

overthrew overthrown

= a ngenunchea
= a mpleti, a tricota

pay

paid

paid

proofread

proofread

proofread

= a ti, a cunoate
= a pune, a aeza
= a conduce, a duce
a se nclina,
a se apleca
= a sri

put

put

put

quit

quit

read

read

rend

rent

rent

rewind

rewound

rewound

rid

rid

rid

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

say

said

said

see

saw

seen

seek

sought

sought

sell

sold

sold

send

sent

sent

set

set

set

shake

shook

shaken

shine

shone

shone

shoot

shot

shot

show

showed

shown

shrink

shrank

shrunk

shut

shut

shut

sing

sang

sung

sink

sank

sunk

sit

sat

sat

slay

slew

slewn

sleep

slept

slept

slide

slid

slid

sling

slung

slung

= a nva
= a prsi
= a da cu mprumut
= a lsa, a permite,
a ngdui
= a sta culcat, a zcea
= a lumina
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

a pierde
a face, a fabrica
a nsemna
a ntlni
a grei
a nvinge, a birui
a surprinde, a auzi
fr s vrea
= a supraveghea,
a controla
= a ajunge din urm,
a depi
= a rsturna, a trnti

quit

[red]

read

[red]

a plti
a face corectur,
a citi n palt
a pune
a prsi, a lsa
a citi
a sfia, a rupe
a ntoarce (ceasul),
a depna
a debarasa, a elibera
a clri
a suna
a zice, a spune
a vedea
a cuta, a cerceta
a vinde
a trimite, a expedia
a pune, a aeza
a scutura, a tremura
a strluci, a lumina
a mpuca
a arta
a se strmta
a nchide, a zvor
a cnta
a se scufunda,
a se afunda
a edea, a sta aezat
a ucide, a mcelri
a dormi
a aluneca, a glisa
a arunca, a azvrli

smell

smelt
smelled

smelt

sow

sowed

sown
sowed

speak

spoke

spoken

speed

sped

sped

spell

spelt

spell

spend

spent

spent

spill

spilled
spilt

spilled
spilt

spin
spread

spun

spun

spread

spread

spring

sprang

sprung

stand

stood

stood

steal

stole

stolen

stick

stuck

stuck

sting

stung

stung

stank

stunk

stink

= a mirosi
= a semna,
a nsmna
= a vorbi
= a grbi, a merge
repede
= a spune pe litere
= a cheltui
= a vrsa
= a toarce, a depna
a desface, a ntinde,
a rspndi
= a sri, a slta,
a izvor, a ni
= a se ine pe picioare,
a sta n picioare
= a fura
= a nfige, a vr, a lipi
a nepa, a mpunge
= a pui, a mirosi greu

swim

swam

swing

swung

take

took

teach

taught

tear

tore

tell

told

think

thought

throw

threw

thrust

thrust

tread

trod

undergo

underwent

understand understood
undertake

undertook

undo

undid

upset

upset

wake

woke

wear

wore

stunk
strew
stride

strewed
strode

strewed,

= a presra, a acoperi

strewn

weave

wove

stridden

weep

wept

win

won

wind

wound

withdraw

withdrew

wring

wrung

write

wrote

strike

struck

struck

string

strung

strung

swear

swore

sworn

sweep

swept

swept

swell

swelled

swollen

= a pi, a clca cu pai


mari
= a lovi, a izbi
a lega cu sfoar
a jura
= a mtura
= a umfla, a mri,
a intensifica

= a nota
= a se legna,
a se balansa
taken
a lua
taught
= a preda, a nva
(pe alii)
torn
= a rupe, a sfia
= a spune, a povesti
told
= a crede, a gndi
thought
= a arunca, a zvrli
thrown
thrust
= a vr (cu fora),
a bga, a nfige
trodden
a clca (n picioare),
= a trece peste
undergone = a trece prin, a suferi
understood = a nelege
undertaker1= a ntreprinde,
a iniia
= a desface, a dezlega
undone
upset
= a rsturna, a tulbura,
a neliniti
woken
a se trezi,
a se detepta
= a purta, a fi mbrcat
worn
= a ese
woven
=
wept
a plnge
won
= a ctiga
wound
a se rsuci,
a se nvrti
withdrawn = a retrage
wrung
a suci, a-i frnge
(minile)
1= a scrie
written
swum

swung

TEXTS FOR* - COMPREHENSION


^ ,

Five sentences have been removed from this text.


Choose from sentences a - g the one that fits each gap.
There are two sentences you do not need.

builders. In time the Roman empire covered western


Europe, North Africa, and much of the Near East.
The Romans were also borrowers. ...fi. .......... And they
took a religion, Christianity, from people of the Middle
East. The Romans combined these things into a new
civilization.
Even after Romes power was gone, Roman culture
remained strong.......Trr..r.....And many European
countries have a system of law based on Roman law.

One reason why many Americans feel acquainted with


Europe is that many ideas, beliefs and traditions
originate in Europe, .r.lh:.....Western culture began
The civilization spread to lands along the
in the countries around the Mediterranean Sea.
Mediterranean and Aegean seas.
The first written records of European civilization came
T)) These things are known as Western culture,
from ancient Greece. One of the earliest Greek cultures
c) The nations that grew up in Europe remained
was on the island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea.
small and divided.
.... ........ In time other great civilizations developed
'cl)
They borrowed ideas for building from the Etruscans,
along the coast of western Asia and on the peninsula
a
neighbouring
people in Italy,
of Greece.
e) The Roman empire fell about the year 5000.
............ ...... They also started new ideas and ways of

f) Many European languages are based on Latin,


thinking. They made beautiful temples and statues.
the
Roman language.
And they wrote great plays based on their beliefs and
g) The Greeks began an early form of democratic
way of life.
government in Athens.
The next great European civilization to appear was that
of Rome. The Romans were great soldiers, planners, and

Tick the sentences which are true.

a) No European idea or tradition has ever been


known in America.
b) Ancient Greece is the birthplace of European
civilization.
c) Cretan civilization came to be known by people
inhabiting the lands along the Mediterranean and
Aegean seas.
d) The Greeks were against any form of democracy.
e) Roman civilization is completely original.
f) Christianity was also a Roman creation.
g) Roman law serves as a serious foundation for
the law system of many European countries.

Identify the nouns in the text. Write both the singular

and the plural form. Check with the grammar compendium.

Example : reason reasons, American Americans,


idea ideas, belief beliefs, tradition traditions...

b) The longest river in the world has more than one part
and more than one name the Nile, the Blue Nile and
the White Nile.
c) Another part of the river, called the White Nile, starts
near lake Victoria. The White Nile picks up no sand of
clay, so the water is clear. And thats why its called the
White Nile.
d) The second longest river in the world is in South
America. It was named after a band of women warriors
known as Amazons in a Greek legend. When Spanish
explorers discovered this river, they were attacked by a
group of Indians wearing headdresses and grass skirts.
The Indians reminded the explorers of the women
warriors in the legend. So, they named the river the
Amazon.
e) One part of the river, called the Blue Nile, starts at
lake Tana in Ethiopia. The Blue Nile travels so fast that
the clay and sand it picks up do not settle to the bottom
of the river. So the river is a brownish-blue colour. And
thats why its called the Blue Nile.

Arrange the paragraphs in the right order. You will learn

how the longest rivers got their names.

a) The Blue Nile and the White Nile join at Khartoum,


Sudan, where their waters become dark blue and
continue their journey to the Mediterranean Sea. The
word Nile means dark blue.

The
The
The
The

Match the paragraph to the river.

Blue Nile
.............
White N ile.... ..........
N ile ........... 7.':~............
Amazon . .... ................

" ^
' ^

_
; ' c

Answer the questions.

a) Does the Nile start in one place only ?


b) Why is the Blue Nile brownish-blue ?
c) Is the White Nile as white as milk ?
d) W hat colour is the Nile ?
e) Which is the second longest river in the world ?
f) Why did the Spanish explorers think of a Greek
legend ?

Refer to the adjective in the grammar


compendium and complete the blanks with appropriate
adjective forms.
a)
.......................the longest
b)
/ ..............more ...................
c) short ..................... ...................
d)
deeper .....................
e) dangerou/s ...............................................................

jMsbUlL
Choose an appropriate title for the following text
(a, b or c).

a) Making Music
b) Folk Music around the World
c) Flistory in Songs
Traditional music has long been an important part of
community life in societies throughout the world. With

deep roots in the ground where it has been created,


folk music passed down from generation to generation
and musicians perform for listening and dancing being
always present at religious or social events.
Many folk musicians serve as keepers of their peoples
history through music and song. Griots (oral historians),
for example, in West African countries learn hundreds
of years of their peoples history in song and present it
while accompanying themselves on folk instruments.
Most folk musicians learn to play their instruments by
watching and learning from older members of the
community. In this way music and songs are learned by
the oral tradition and they are passed along in
communities where playing instruments, singing and
dancing are regular parts of daily life.
In some communities, folk musicians learn to sing or
play their music during work hours to help pass the time
or make manual labour seem less hard and boring.
For example, southern Italian agricultural workers sing
beautiful chores (group folk songs) while working
together in the fields. Italian and Romanian shepherds
play the flute while tending their sheep. Similarly,
Bulgarian goat keepers pass the time in the fields by
playing the guida, a type of bagpipe.
There are many folk musicians in the United States.
Native Americans continue to play the music, sing the
songs and dance the steps that have been handed down
over many generations, despite the fact that much of
their culture has been destroyed or lost.
Descending from Scots-Irish immigrants, fiddlers and
banjo players who live in both rural and urban areas of
the United States play string band music. Old-time

music developed over the years into bluegrass which is


played faster than old-time music and has become more
commercial.
African American traditional music includes both the
sacred and the nonreligious music. Blues is an example
of African American nonreligious music performed in a
variety of styles, such as Mississippi Delta blues or
Chicago blues.
The more recent Hispanic, Asian and African
immigrants have brought their customs, their traditions
and, of course, their music to the United States. Like
their predecessors, they play and sing for enjoyment and
during community events.
Though not as popular as rock and pop, folk music plays
an important role in peoples life connecting them to
their heritage.

m
Vi:-

Which of the following points are not mentioned


in the text:

a) The names of folk music composers are very well


known.
b) Native American songs and dances have not
completely disappeared from the United States.
c) Children in West African countries can learn a lot
about their peoples history by listening to songs.
d) Doinas are traditional Romanian folk songs.
e) Most folk musicians have non-music jobs during
the week.

Answer the following questions.

a) How do most folk musicians learn to play their


instruments ?
b) What part does traditional music play in community
life ?
c) Why do people sing during work hours ?
d) What is blues ?
e) Have more recent immigrants to the United States
added anything to the multicultural life of America ?
f) What musical instruments are mentioned in the text ?

Identfy at least four passive constructions in the text.

J s s ts L lM .

Read the text below. Is it part of an autobiography,


a tale or a biography ?

Thor liked to stand in front of a window watching the


ships come and go through Oslo Fjord. He wondered
where they went and what strange lands lay beyond the
horizon.
One winter day Thor went to watch blocks of ice being
cut from a nearby lake. The ice was to be used in the
brewery owned by Thors father, thor, happy tobe out of
doors, began to run excitedly about on the lake. He
jumped onto a block of ice that had been cut free from

the rest. Under the boys weight it tilted slightly. Arms


waving, Thor plunged into the icy water.
Fear and shock of the cold water paralyzed him. Fie did
not know how to swim. Fortunately, the air trapped
inside his clothing kept him floating for a few moments.
To the child, his mind black with terror, these moments
seemed to last forever.
A workman reached him, caught the collar of his coat,
and pulled him to safety.
The next summer Thors father tried to teach him to
swim. But even the thought of putting his face beneath
the surface terrified Thor. Hell learn as he gets older
his father said.
But Thors fear of the water did not fade. Later his
father hired a professional swimmer to teach the boy.
Thor wanted to swim. He watched the teacher carefully.
He learned exactly what he was supposed to do. But as
soon as he stepped into the water, he would feel terror
cold inside himself. And the instant his face went
beneath the surface, blind panic took over.
This happened time and again. From his teacher Thor
learned everything there was to know about swimming
in theory. But in actual practice he simply could not
swim. Finally his teacher told Mr Heyerdahl, This boy
is never going to learn and quit.

%-W Which event in Thor's childhood marked his future

development ?

Write the word for each definition. All the words are
in the text.

a) To make something move into a position where one


side is higher than the other = ....................
b) To fall or to be thrown suddenly forwards or
downwards = .........................
c) To hold and keep gas, water etc. so that it can be used
later = .............................
d) To gradually disappear = ..................... .....
e) To leave a job, school etc, especially because you are
annoyed or unhappy = .........................
f) To employ someone for a short time to do a job for
you = ..........................

Fill in the blanks with the words above.

a) The ta b le ...................... suddenly, spilling all the


drinks.
b) Over the years her beauty h a d ....................... a little.
c) Im ..........................a private detective to trace the
criminal.
d) The rope broke and both the climbers
500 feet to their death.
e) These are panels th a t....................... the suns heat.
f) Im tired of being treated like this, I .........................

Choose a suitable preposition to fill in the blanks


(beyond, beneath, under, before, near, through).

a) Brazil will face Italy this afternoon..............................


a crowd of 100 000 spectators.
b) Tom was sitting.............enough to hear what they said.
c) The border territory lie s..................... the mountains.
d) They were suddenly plunged into darkness as the
train w e n t.................... the tunnel.
e) She would not speak to people she considered
her.
f) She was carrying her handbag...............her arm.

+| V

4 ii ' Read this text and write down some distinctive


characteristics of education in Britain.

In Britain, full-time education is compulsory from the


age of 5 to 16 and it is free of charge but parents may
spend money on educating their children privately if
they want to. There are three recognized stages, with
children moving from the first stage, primary to the
second stage, secondary at around the age of eleven
or twelve. At the end of this stage, 16-year old students
sit for GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary
Education) exam. Young people who decide to stay on in
education at the age of 16 usually move into further
education, the third stage. Further Education is provided

by a diverse range of institutions, including sixth forms


in secondary schools and sixth form colleges (in England
and Wales only), general further education colleges, art
and design colleges, to mention only some of the
possibilities.
Schools and other educational institutions (such as
universities) existed in Britain long before the
government began to take an interest in education.
When it finally did, it did not sweep these institutions
away, nor did it always take them over. In typically
British fashion, it sometimes incorporated them into the
system and sometimes left them outside it. Most
importantly, the government left alone the small group
of schools which had been used in the nineteenth
century (and in some cases before then) to educate the
sons of the upper and upper-middle classes. At these
public schools (more recently called independent
schools), the emphasis was on character-building and
the development of team spirit rather than on
academic achievement. They were all boarding schools
(that is, the pupils lived in them), so they had a deep
and lasting influence on their pupils. Public schools
accepted only boys from the age of thirteen onwards
and their main aim was to prepare young men to take
up positions in the higher ranks of the army, in business,
the legal profession, the civil service and politics.
During the last hundred years a large number of girls
public schools have been set up and more recently
a few schools have started to admit both boys and girls.
At present, public schools admit day pupils as well as
boarders and more emphasis is laid on academic
achievement than on team sport.

In the second half of the twentieth century many


changes have taken place in British education in general.
The division into grammar schools and secondary
moderns was changed. These days, most eleven-year
olds go on to the same local school. These schools are
known as comprehensive schools.
There is little central control or uniformity in the British
educational system. Central authorities ensure the
availability of education, dictate and implement its
overall organization and set overall learning objectives
but they do not prescribe certain books or materials to
be used. Central government does not dictate the exact
hours of the school day, the exact dates of holidays or
the exact age at which a child must start in full-time
education.
Most schools develop, to some degree at least, a sense of
distinctiveness. Many, for example, have their own
uniforms for pupils. It is considered desirable (even
necessary) for every school to have its own school hall,
big enough to accommodate every pupil, for daily
assemblies and other occasional ceremonies.
Adapted from Britain by James O Driscoll, O U 1995

True or false ? Correct the sentences which are false.

a) Students in Britain dont sit for exams.


b) At the age of 16 students have a variety of options.
c) Private schools and universities had existed in Britain
before the state ones were set up.
d) The British government decided to incorporate all
the private schools and universities in the state system.

e) Private schools are called public or independent.


f) Public schools have always been co-educational.
g) 11-year old pupils continue their studies in
comprehensive schools.
h) The educational authorities decide upon the
timetables, holidays and textbooks in each school.
Correct the sentences which are false.

Would you like to study in Britain ? W hy / W hy not i

Read the text and identify the topic sentence.

The effects of both air and water pollution on the


environment have been observed for years. One of the
best examples of the debilitating effects of air pollution
is Sudbury, Ont. Canada. International Nickel and the
worlds tallest smokestack put enough sulphour dioxide
and nitric oxide into the atmosphere to have caused the
death of all vegetation, with the concomitant erosion
and loss of all soil down to bedrock, for about 20 miles
east of Sudbury. For anyone familiar with the New York
City area, the East River and Hudson River both give a
good example of water pollution carried to its extreme.
A major lack of foresightedness has occurred not only
in the business community, but in the consumer
community as well. Both sides refuse to accept pollution
in its various aspects as having any form of economic
consequences [...]

The average citizen, you and me, is part and parcel of


the problem. Most Americans are after the quick fix.
If we are hungry, we go to the nearest fast food place
and quickly fill the vacuum. Similarly, in the area of
fixing environmental problems which have been
developing for well over 100 years, we ask them
(whoever we may think them to be) to quickly make
the problem go away, much as a child asks mommy to
kiss the bruise and take away the hurt. The solutions are
not that easily found.
Robert W Haseltine, Economics vs. Ecology,
America in Close-Up, Longman, 1990

Underline the sentences which show the consequences


of air and water pollution.

*
W hy did R. W. Haseltine write about air and water
pollution ? Tick the possible answers.

a) To signal the appearance of an environmental problem


b) To emphasize the consequences
c) To blame the average American
d) To say that it is a difficult problem
e) To suggest solutions

Answer these questions.

a) Who is to be blamed for the existing situation ?


b) Is the author impressed with the way the Americans
deal with this problem ?

Identify the structure showing that something which


started long ago is still in progress.

- V ll

Read this text. What is the main idea?

Small-town life has its drawbacks, Runden said. There


is a certain lack of privacy, although people are aware of
that and make an effort to keep their distance, to not be
nosy. But lack of privacy doesnt bother me. It might if I
had a Swiss bank account, or if I was into some kind of
kinky sex. But I just dont have that much to hide. I
think the good side of small-town life far outweighs the
bad. If you have trouble with your dry cleaner in
Chicago, he couldnt care less what you think or do. Its
different here. You cant be ripped off. A persons
reputation matters. And so does the individual. He can
still influence the course of events. A small town is still
on a human scale. Theres a sense of the seasons.
Theres a closeness to the basics. Its something to be
able to hear a rooster crow these days. I think more and
more people are coming to realize that. I think we are in
the first wave of people who are moving away from the
city and to the suburbs. Moving to the small town.

List the advantages of small town life as shown in the


text. Add advantages you may think of.

Which of the following subjects are not mentioned


in the text.

a) People living in small towns try to mind their own


business.
b) In large towns people dont know each other and
they dont care too much about their reputation.
c) Living in a small town offers absolute freedom.

What is the meaning of the underlined words ?

same thing. Now all of a sudden they want me to say Im


an American. I learned how to speak English and how to
fight back.
I think the longest time I went to school was two
months in one place. I attended, I think, about forty-five
schools. When my parents or my brothers didnt find
any work, we wouldnt attend school because we werent
sure of staying there. So I missed a lot ot school [...]
Robert W Haseltine,
America in Close-Up, Longman, 1990
Choose the right answer.

a) The narrators nationality is :

&
Read the text and decide whether it is an excerpt
from a biography, an autobiography or a story of childhood
(detached autobiography).

I and my mother, we were living with my grandparents.


My father went back to Mexico... My happiest memories
was when my grandfather had Sunday off. He would
pick us up. wrap us in blankets, and put us around this
big wood-burning stove, while he went out to the store.
H es come up with oranges and apples and good things
to eat, something we did not very often have.
All the teachers were Anglos. They would have us say
our name and where we lived, who we were. I said :
Jessie lopes, American. She said : No, youre
Mexican. Throughout the years, teachers told me the

b) The narrators family was :

c) The narrator changed schools


very often because :

American
not mentioned
Mexican
very rich
poor
there is no evidence
she was very choosy
she had to
her family wanted it

Comment on the status of the immigrant as evident


from this excerpt.

What does would and wouldn't express in the


underlined sentences ?


Read this text and decide whether it is part of a short
story, an opinion essay or a letter.

Anyone with a passion for hanging labels on people


or things should have little difficulty in recognizing that
an apt tag for our time is Unkempt Generation. I am
not referring solely to college kids. The sloppiness virus
has spread to all sectors of society. People go to all sorts
of trouble and expense to look uncombed, unshaved,
unpressed.
The symbol of the times is blue jeans not just blue
jeans in good condition but jeans that are frayed, torn,
discolored. They dont get that way naturally, no one
wants blues jeans that are crisply clean or spanking new.
Manufacturers recognize a big market when they see it,
and they compete with one another to offer jeans that
are made to look as though theyve just been discarded
by clumsy house painters after ten years of wear. The
more faded and seemingly ancient the garment, the
higher the cost. Disheveled is in fashion, neatness is
obsolete [...]
Vocabulary, like blue jeans, is being drained of color and
distinction [...] People communicate in chopped-up
phrases, relying on grunts and chants of you know or
I mean to cover up a damnable incoherence. Neatness
should be no less important in language than it is in
dress... the effect is to foster attitudes of casualness
toward violence and brutality not just in entertainment
but in everyday life.

Tick the right answer.

a) A suitable title for this


piece of writing would be :

The Age of Blue Jeans


The Unkempt Generation
The Decline of Neatness
b) The adjective which
worried
best describes the authors frightened
mood is :
anxious
amused
panicked
furious
c) The authors intention is : to satirize
to moralize
to raise public awareness

Answer the questions.

a) How does the unkempt generation look like ?


b) What other aspect of human life is affected by the
decline of tideness ?

Translate the underlined sentence.

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to pay for bread. Principles he mused were pocket;


and he wished the deuce people wouldnt pretend they
werent ! Pocket, in the deep sense of that word, of
course, self-interest as member of a definite community.
And how the devil was this definite community, the
English nation, to exist, when all its land was going out
of cultivation, and all its ships and docks in danger of
destruction by aeroplanes ?
From Forsythe Saga by John Galsworthy

Read the text and comment on it.

Coming down the steps of Snooks Club, so


nicknamed by George Forsyte in the late eighties,
on that momentous mid-October afternoon of 1922,
Sir Lawrence Mont, ninth baronet, set his fine nose
towards the east wind, and moved his thin legs with
speed. Political by birth rather than by nature, he
reviewed the revolution which had restored his Party
to power with a detachment not devoid of humour.
Like most landowners, he distrusted doctrine. If he had
a political belief, it was tax on w heat; and so far as he
could see, he was now alone in it but then he was not
seeking election ; in other words, his principle was not
in danger of extinction from votes of those who had

Rephrase each sentence in such a way that it means


exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.

a) I have never been to Paris before.


This i s ...................................................................
b) Thanks to Peters support I was able to build
the house.
Had i t .................................................................
c) They have been living in Germany for five years now.
I t .............................................................................
d) They believe th e robbers got into the house through
the roof.
The robbers ............................................................
e) I think you should buy a new pair of shoes.
Its high time .........................................................

f) What a pity you didnt come to the meeting !


You should ............................................................

Argue for and against the following statement:

Principles are in fact self-interest.

Te-s+ul 2

Read the text and comment on it.

Alison Charwell in and of this world, so spryly


soulful, debonnaire. free and cosy lived within a stones
throw of Fleur, in a house pleasant, architecturally, as
any in London. Forty years old, she had three children
and considerable beauty, wearing a little fine from
mental and bodily activity. Something of an enthusiast,
she was fond of Michael, in spite of his strange
criticisms, so that his matrimonial venture had piqued
her from the start. Fleur was dainty, had quick natural
intelligence this new niece was worth cultivation. But,
though adaptable and assimilative, Fleur had remained
curiously unassimilated ; she continued to whet the
curiosity of Lady Alison, accustomed to the close
borough of choice spirits, and finding a certain
poignancy in contact with the New Age on Fleurs
copper floor. She met with an irreverence there, which,
not taken too seriously, flipped her mind. On that floor
she almost felt a back number. It was stimulating.
From The Modem Comedy by John Galsworthy

Rephrase each sentence in such a way that it


means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it.
a) He is always forgetting to take his keys with him.
I wish .......................................................................
b) It was wrong of me to tell him to shut up.
I regret ....................................................................
c) You certainly cant play your music after midnight.
I wont have you .......................................................
d) I am determined to refuse his offer.
I .................................................................................
e) You have little realization of how much I have worked
for you.
Little ..............................................................................
f) All the students rushed to the yard as soon as the
bell rang.
No so o n e r.........................................................................

Describe a person whose moral features have


impressed you.

Read the text and comment on it.

Fifth Avenue and 44tl1 Street swarmed with the noon


crowd. The wealthy, happy sun glittered in transient gold
through the thick windows of the smart shops, lighting

upon mesh bags and purses and strings of pearls in grey


velvet cases ; upon gaudy feather fans of many colours ;
upon the laces and silks of expensive dresses ; upon the
bad paintings and the fine period furniture in the
elaborate showrooms of interior decorators.
Working girls, in pairs and groups and swarms, loitered
by the windows, choosing their future boudoirs from
some resplendent display which included even a mans
silk pyjamas laid domestically across the bed. They stood
in front of the jewellery stores and picked out their
engagement rings, and their wedding rings and their
platinum wrist-watches, and then drifted on to inspect
the feather fans and opera cloaks ; meanwhile digesting
the sandwiches and sundaes they had eaten for lunch.
Through this medley Dean and Gordon wandered ; the
former interested, made alert by the display of humanity
at its frothiest and gaudiest; the latter reminded of how
often he had been one of the crowd, tired, casually fed,
over-worked, and dissipated. To Dean the struggle was
significant, young, cheerful; to Gordon it was dismal,
meaningless, endless.
From The Diamond as Big as The Ritz by F. Scott Fitzgerald

Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase.

a) Thats the house I .................................................


b) I am outraged ! Never b e fo re ..............................
c) The headm aster.....................................................
d) I feel t h a t ................................................................
e) He is not u s e d ........................................................
f) Its high time y o u ....................................................

Describe your native town or city as if you saw it for


the first time, one summer afternoon.

l&shAA
Read the text and comment on it.

The fundamental question which must be addressed


with respect to the death penalty is under what
circumstances does the state have the right to take
the life of one of its citizens ?
One hard lesson which the world should have learned
as a consequence of the Holocaust is that law and justice
are independent concepts. Law is the derivation of a
societys interpretation of justice which is relative both
to time and place. Furthermore, the creation of law is
more frequently the result of the interpretation of justice
by the powerful in the society which is then applied at
the expense of the powerless. A moral and humane
society constantly seeks to bring the law into closer
harmony with the widest interpretation of justice in that
society at any given time. The civil rights movement in
the U.S. is an excellent example of this process.
From The Dealth Penalty: Legal Cruelty ?
by Donald B.Walker

X > Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase.

a) If youve had an upset stomach, its better


b) His enthusiasm at starting his own company has
c) I am fully prepared.........................................................
d) It took the panel of judges.............................................
e) I suppose Ive always loved............................................
f) The latest crisis h a s .........................................................

Argue for and against the following statement:

The creation of law is more frequently the result of the


interpretation of justice by the powerful in the society
which is then applied at the expense of the powerless.

He saw no sign of a trail through the closely knit web of


weeds and trees ; it was easier to go along the shore, and
Rainsford floundered along by the water. Not far from
where he had landed, he stopped.
Some wounded thing, by the evidence a large animal,
had thrashed about in the underbush ; the jungle weeds
were crushed down and the moss was lacerated ; one
patch of weeds was stained crimson. A small, glittering
object not far away caught Rainsfords eye and he picked
it up. It was an empty cartridge.
From The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell

4 ; ' Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word or phrase.

a) On the news there was some dramatic


b) She wasnt keen o n .........................................................
c) We have made neither a .................................................
d) This car only c o s t...........................................................
e) I feel I am not b ein g .......................................................
f) She is not to b lam e.........................................................

Read the text and comment on it.

When he opened his eyes he knew from the position


of the sun that it was late in the afternoon. Sleep had
given him new vigor ; a sharp hunger was picking at him.
He looked about him, almost cheerfully. Where there
are pistol shots, there are men. Where there are men,
there is food, he thought. But what kind of men, he
wondered, in so forbidding a place ? An unbroken front
of snarled and ragged jungle fringed the shore.

Argue for and against the following statement:

Fear is one of the most terrifying feelings man could


have.

Read the text and comment on it.

I wanted the ideal animal to hunt, explained the


general. So I said : What are the attributes of an ideal
quarry ? And the answer was, of course : It must have
courage, cunning, and, above all, it must be able to
reason.
But no animal can reason, objected Rainsford.
My dear fellow, said the general, there is one
that can.
But you cant mean... gasped Rainsford.
And why not ?
I cant believe you are serious, General Zaroff.
This is a grisly joke.
Why should I not be serious ? I am speaking
of hunting.
Hunting ? Good God. General Zaroff, what you
speak of is murder.
The general laughed with entire good nature.
I refuse to believe that so modern and civilized
a young man as you seem to be harbors romantic ideas
about the value of human life. Surely your experiences
in the war...
Did not make me condone cold blooded m urder,
finished Rainsford stiffly.
Laughter shook the general. One does not expect
nowadays to find a young man of the educated class,
even in America, with such a naive, and, if I may say so,

mid-Victorian point of view. Its like finding a snuffbox


in a limousine. Ah, well, doubtless you had Puritan
ancestors. So many Americans appear to have had. Ill
wager youll forget your notions when you go hunting
with me.
From The Most Dangerous Game by Richard Connell

Fill each of the blanks with one suitable word or phrase.

a) If we w e re ..................................................................... .
b) Despite all the w arnings..............................................
c) I would like t o ...............................................................
d) Had i t .............................................................................
e) You must have................................................................
f) I feel th a t........................................................................

Argue for and against the following statement:

War makes you accept cold blooded murder.

T estu l1

Read the text and comment on it.

It must have been around midnight when I drove


home, and as I approached the gates of the bungalow
I switched off the headlamps of the car so the beam
wouldnt swing in through the window of the side
bedroom and wake Harry Pope. But I neednt have
bothered. Coming up the drive, I noticed his light was

still on, so he was awake anyway unless perhaps hed


dropped off while reading.
I parked the car and went up the five steps to the
balcony, counting each step carefully in the dark so I
wouldnt take an extra one which wasnt there, when I
got to the top. I crossed the balcony, pushed through the
screen doors into the house itself, and switched on the
light in the hall. I went across to the door of H arrys
room, opened it quietly, and looked in.
He was lying on the bed and I could see he was awake.
But he didnt move. He didnt even turn his head
toward me, but I heard him say Timber, Timber,
come here !
From Poison by Roal Dahl
I

Fill each of the blanks with one suitable word or phrase.

a) English drivers find i t ......................................................


b) Unfortunately I will not b e ............................................
c) The houses that were very close....................................
d) Why dont we go t o ........................................................
e) When his daughter re tu rn e d .........................................
f) The police believed.........................................................

Argue for and against the following statement:

Love could be the sweetest kind of poison.

Is a M .,

* W Read the text and comment on it.

Home is where the heart is. Theres no place like it. I


love my home with a ferocity totally out of proportion
to its appearance or location. I love dumb things about
i t : the hot-water heater, the plastic rack you drain your
dishes in, the roof over my head, w'hich occasionally
leaks. And yet it is precisely those dumb things that
make it what it is a place of certainty, stability,
predictability, privacy, for me and for my family. It is
where I live. What more can you say about a place than
that ? That is everything.
Yet it is something that we have been edging away from
gradually during my lifetime and the lifetimes of my
parents and grandparents. There was a time when where
you lived often was where you worked and where you
grew the food you ate and even where you were buried.
When that era passed, where you lived at least was
where your parents had lived and where you would live
with your children when you became enfeebled. Then,
suddenly, where you lived was where you lived for three
years, until you could move on to something else and
something else again.
From Homeless by Anna Quindlen

Fill each of the blanks with one suitable word or phrase.

a) I think you ought


b) He must have.....
c) M ay......................
d) If he w e re ...........
e) How c o u ld ..........
f) It was only...........

Argue for and against the following statement:

Home is where your heart is.

Read the text and comment on it.

In an age that haughtily made man the measure of all


things, Shakespeare betrayed the essential fragility of the
species, defining humanity with stories that continue to
be our parables, both existentialist and romantic. His
words and arrows are still the vessels of our dreams and
thoughts. The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune.
My salad days when I was green in judgement. Shall
I compare thee to a summers day ? Now is the winter
of our discontent. The most unkindest cut of all.
A tale told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, signifying
nothing. Star-crossd lovers. Only the language of the
King James version of the Bible, assembled miraculously

by committee, comes close. For the generations after


him, Shakespeare would be both goad and god not
only the autocrat of the English language but a seer into
what Coleridge called the interior nature of human
existence. We know little of Shakespeares interior life,
and some even question his identity. But there is no
need for pyramids or monuments. His monument is his
name. Shakespeare is now the global code for culture.
From Time, December 1999

Fill each of the blanks with one suitable word or phrase.

a) Why dont you ta k e ........................................................


b) My brother was always picking.....................................
c) I am surprised.................................................................
d) The government should.................................................
e) My daughter insisted......................................................
f) We should have b e e n ......................................................

Narrate one of the novels that influenced you most in

your moral development.

Tes-M 10

Read the text and comment on it.

After his death, Columbus was a laughingstock. Vasco


da Gama got to the real Indies ; Magellan crossed two
oceans ; Cortes conquered Mexico. But Columbus

couldnt even handle a start-up colony in the Caribbean.


It was the people who came to the new world he
discovered who made him a perpetual paradox, a symbol
of pride and contention, an emblem in their search for
identity. The citizens of the U.S. took to naming places
Columbia, and he became the ethnic icon of millions of
immigrants. Others dubbed him the Civilizer but that
rubbed many the wrong way. Wasnt he the harbinger of
disaster for native cultures and thus the deadest of dead
white males ?
The debate goes on. Columbus was bullheaded and
wrong-minded about finding China across the sea. But
he said he would never be forgotten, and 500 years later
hes right.
From Time, December 1999

'

Fill each of the blanks with one suitable word or phrase.

a) Fancy.................................................................................
b) U nless..............................................................................
c) No one is allowed...........................................................
d) I was v e ry .........................................................................
e) There is a ris k ..................................................................
f) I havent used the p h o n e ................................................

Argue for and against the following statement:

Civilisation means destruction of old patterns and


traditions.

ArcJV

A m a e d

Proba s a r 'is a

a) Sum up the text in about 50 words,


b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting
your opinions about the unromantic generation.

Many of the people I spoke to feel the pressure of peer


scrutiny. A status thing has evolved, to which many seem
to have regretfully succumbed. Several expressed a
weariness with meeting someone new and having to
present themselves by their credentials. Yet,
overwhelmingly, asked what theyre looking for in a
romantic partner, they responded first with phrases such
as an educated professional and someone with
direction. Theyve conceded, more or less consciously,
that unenlightened and exclusionary as it is, its very
uncool not to know what you want and not to be already
chasing it.
Seems like everyone in our generation has to be out
there achieving says Scott Birnbaum, twenty-five, who
is the chief accountant for TIC United Corp, a holding
company in Dallas. Acquire, acquire, career, career.
Were all afraid to slow down for fear of missing out on
something. That extends to your social life as well. You
go out on a date and youre thinking: Hell, is there
someone better for me ? I know how terrible that

sounds but it seems to be my problem. Most of my


peers are in the same position. Men and women, I tell
you, its tough out there right now.
Adapted after Alone Together,
The Unromantic Generation by Bruce Weber

Translate into English.

Btrnul nu rspunse ; rmase cu ochii n gol, ca i


cum i-ar fi cutat prin amintire ; sttu o clip aa,
adunnd ceva dinuntrul lui, pe urm i reveni.
-ai uitat, nene Chivule ?
Hai, c destul am fcut pe boierii, mormi btrnul.
Adapted after Flcrile by Radu Tudoran

Enlarge upon the following in about 250 words:

To do just the opposite is also a form of imitation.

TeatiAl%_

IV I

a) Sum up the text in about 50 words.


b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting
your opinion about the character.

In a bedroom of a small hotel just off Sixth Avenue


Gordon Sterrett awoke with a pain in the back of his
head and a sick throbbing in all his veins. He looked at
the dusky grey shadows in the corners of the room and
at a raw place on a large leather chair in the corner

where it had long been in use. He saw clothes,


dishevelled, rumpled clothes on the floor and he smelt
stale cigarette smoke and stale liquor. Outside the bright
sunlight had thrown a dust-filled beam across the sill
a beam broken by the head of the wide wooden bed in
which he had slept. He lay very quiet comatose,
drugged, his eyes wide, his mind clicking wildly like
an unoiled machine.
It must have been thirty seconds after he perceived the
sunbeam with the dust on it and the rip on the large
leather chair that he had the sense of life close beside
him, and it was another thirty seconds after that before
he realized he was irrevocably married to Jewel Hudson.
He went out half an hour later and bought a revolver at
a sporting goods store. Then he took a taxi to the room
where he had been living on East 27th Street, and,
leaning across the table that held his drawing materials,
fired a cartridge into his head just behind the temple.
From The Diamond as Big as The Ritz
by F. Scott Fitzgerald

Translate into English.

Copila se ntorcea de la Poiana Ursului cu braele pline


de flori slbatice. Pn acas avea mult de mers ; trebuia
s coboare tot dealul. Nu se grbea ns, se nvase s
umble fr s in socoteal de ore, i cum n-avea nici
o grij, cobora poteca jucndu-se.
Adapted after Flcrile by Radu Tudoran

Translate into English.

Enlarge upon the following (in about 250 words):

Forgiveness is the key to action and freedom.

i,
a) Sum-up the text in about 50 words,
b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting
your opinion about the way the character is presented.

Every night that winter he said aloud into the dark


of the pillow: Half-past four ! Half-past four ! till he felt
his brain had gripped the words and held them fast.
Then he fell asleep at once, as if a shutter had fallen ;
and lay with his face turned to the clock so that he could
see it first thing when he woke.
It was half-past four to the minute, every morning.
Triumphantly pressing down the alarm knob of the
clock, which the dark half of his mind had outwitted,
remaining vigilant all night and counting the hours as
he lay relaxed in sleep, he huddled down for a last warm
moment under the clothes, playing with the idea of lying
abed for this once only. But he played with it for the fun
of knowing that it was a weakness that he could defeat
without effort; just as he set the alarm each night for
the delight of the moment when he woke and stretched
his limbs, feeling the muscles tighten, and thought:
Even my brain even th a t! I can control every part of
myself.
From A Sunrise on the Weld by Doris Lessing

In loc de rspuns, prietenul meu mi arunc o privire


mirat i plin de comptimire.
Ce naiv ! vru s zic.
Dar cum nghiea grbit, nlocui exclamaia cu un
elocvent gest al minii narmat cu cuitul. Apoi, nfipse
furculia n pieptul puiului i spintec frageda carne alb,
dumnos, ca pieptul unui adversar dobort.
Adapted after Cele dinti povestiri by Cezar Petrescu

Enlarge upon the following (in about 250 words):

You could read Knat by yourself, if you wanted ; but


you must share a joke with someone else.

Jb s M

JL

a) Sum-up the text in about 50 words,


b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting
your opinion about the main character.

There was a woman who was beautiful, who started


with all the advantages, yet she had no luck. She married
for love, and the love turned to dust. She had bonny
children, yet she felt they had been thrust upon her, and
she could not love them. They looked at her coldly, as if
they were finding fault with her. And hurriedly she felt
she must cover up some fault herself. Yet what it was

that she must cover up she never knew. Nevertheless,


when her children were present, she always felt the
center of her heart go hard. This troubled her, and in
her manner she was all the more gentle and anxious for
her children, as if she loved them very much. Only she
herself knew that at the center of her heart was a hard
little place that could not feel love, no, not for anybody.
Everybody else said of her : She is such a good mother.
She adores her children. Only she herself, and her
children themselves, knew it was not so. They read
it in each others eyes.
From The Rocking-Horse Winner by D.H. Lawrence
0

Translate into English.

Evenimentele care urmar nu mai ngduir lui Felix


s se gndeasc la Lili i la momentele acestui scurt
episod. Dar n casa Aglaei ura se dezlnui din nou
furioas mpotriva familiei de dincolo, i inteniile
de mpcare fur din nou abandonate.
Adapted after Enigma Otiliei by George Clinescu

III Enlarge upon the following (in about 250 words):

Varietys the very spice of life.

a) Sum-up the text in about 50 words.


b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting your
opinion about the rules functioning in the children's universe.

It was on the eve of August Bank Holiday that the


latest recruit became the leader of the Wormsley
Common gang. No one was surprised except Mike,
but Mike at the age of nine was surprised by everything.
If you dont shut your mouth, somebody once said to
him youll get a frog down it. After that Mike had kept
his teeth tightly clamped except when the surprise was
too great.
The new recruit had been with the gang since the
beginning of the summer holidays, and there were
possibilities about his brooding silence that all
recognized. He never wasted a word even to tell his
name until that was required of him by the rules.
When he said Trevor it was a statement of fact,
not as it would have been with the others a statement
of shame or defiance. Nor did anyone laugh except
Mike, who finding himself without support and meeting
the dark gaze of the new-comer opened his mouth
and was quiet again.
There was every reason why ., as he was afterward
referred to, should have been an object of mockery
there was his name, the fact that his father, a former
architect and present clerk, had come down in the
world, and that his mother considered herself better
than the neighbours.
From The Destructors by Graham Greene

Translate into English.

Otilia rse i ntreb ce mai fac ceilali. Stnic i


comunic cum c toi o iubesc superlativ i regret c
au jignit-o, i mai ales i transmise dorina Aurichii de a
o vedea. Otilia n-avea nici un fel de fiere i uita repede
rutile altora. Consult din ochi pe Felix i zise c
niciodat n-a fost suprat.
Adapted after Enigma Otiliei by George Clinescu

Enlarge upon the following (in about 250 words):

Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

' a) Sum-up the text in about 50 words.


b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting
your opinion about the character.

But it may be fine I expect it will be fine said Mrs


Ramsay, making some little twist of the reddish-brown
stocking she was knitting, impatiently. If she finished it
tonight, if they did go to the Lighthouse after all, it was
to be given to the Lighthouse keeper for his little boy,
who was threatened with a tuberculous hip ; together
with a pile of old magazines, and some tobacco, indeed
whatever she could find lying about, not really wanted,
but only littering the room, to give those poor fellows

who must be bored to death sitting all day with nothing


to do but polish the lamp and trim the wick and rake
about on their scrap of garden, something to amuse
them. For how would you like to be shut up for a whole
month at a time, and possibly more in stormy weather,
upon a rock the size of a tennis lawn ? she would ask;
and to have no letters or newspapers, and to see nobody;
if you were married, not to see your wife, not to know
how your children were ?... she asked, addressing herself
particularly to her daughters.
From To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf
f t

'* w Translate into English.

Lui Felix, numele Otilia n gura altuia, precum i


convorbirea n jurul chestiunilor intime i displceau,
de aceea ls capul n jos. II distra aprinderea cu care
Weissmann debitase teoria lui antimatrimonial, dar,
spirit prudent, nu credea n ea. Vioiciunea colegului l
surprinse la nceput, ca i lectura lui, i n faa unei aa
de violente activiti teoretice se simise inferior.
Adapted after Enigma Otiliei by George Clinescu

Enlarge upon the following (in about 250 words):

Life is so constructed that the event does not, cannot,


will not, match the expectation.

Translate into English.

.
a) Sum-up the text in about 50 words,
b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting
your opinion about the character.

But what have I done with my life ? thought Mrs


Ramsay, taking her place at the head of the table, and
looking at all the plates making white circles on it.
William, sit by me she said. Lily she said wearily
over there. They had that Paul Rayley and Minta
Doyle she, only this an infinitely long table and
plates and knives. At the far end, was her husband,
sitting down, all in a heap, frowning. What at ? She did
not know. She did not mind. She could not understand
how she had ever felt any emotion or any affection for
him. She had a sense of being past everything, through
everything, out of everything, as she helped the soup, as
if there was an eddy there and one could be in it, or
one could be out of it, and she was out of it. Its all
come to an end, she thought, while they came in one
after another, Charles Tansley Sit down, please, she
said Augustus Carmichael and sat down. And
meanwhile she waited, passively, for someone to answer
her, for something to happen. But this is not a thing, she
thought, ladling out soup, that one says.
From To the Lighthouse by Virginia Woolf

Era luna iulie i Felix, dup terminarea examenelor,


visa de-a binelea s mearg undeva la ar, dei nu prea
tia cum. Otilia nu pomenea nimic de cltorie, abia
sosit cum era din strintate, mai ales c ea, neavnd
nici o putere i nici un ban, atepta totul de la
ntmplare, ca un copil.
Adapted after Enigma Otiliei by George Clinescu
m

Enlarge upon the following (in about 250 words):

I know but one freedom and that is the freedom


of the mind. (Antoine de Saint-Exupery)

Testu l S

a) Sum-up the text in about 50 words,


b) In about 200 words comment on the text by presenting
your opinion about the way the male character is presented.

She looked at her husband (taking up her stocking and


beginning to knit), and saw that he did not want to be
interrupted that was clear. He was reading something
that moved him very much. He was half smiling and
then she knew he was controlling his emotion. He was
tossing the pages over. He was acting it perhaps he was
thinking himself the person in the book. She wondered
what book it was. Oh, it was one of old Sir Walters, she
saw, adjusting the shade of her lamp so that the light fell

on her knitting. [...] He was always uneasy about


himself. That troubled her. He would always be
worrying about his own books will they be read, are
they good, why arent they better, what do people think
of me ? [ . . . ] It didnt matter, any of it, she thought. A
great man, a great book, fame who could tell ? She
knew nothing of it.
From To the L ighthouse by Virginia Woolf

Translate into English.

O problem ncepuse s devin pentru Stnic,


de la o vreme, Olimpia. Dac o iubea sau nu, este greu
de spus, ntruct lui Stnic i lipsea expresia mai
analitic a sentimentelor. Din purtrile lui nu se puteau
desprinde dect emoii i o concepie. De bun seam
c atunci cnd se cstorise cu Olimpia fusese emoionat,
ncercase i mndria de a face un gest necugetat,
romantic, n dauna intereselor lui.
Adapted after Enigma Otiliei by George Clinescu

Qh III E nlarge upon th e fo llo w in g (in a b o u t 2 5 0 w o r d s ):


Time heals all wounds.

a) S um -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w ords,
b) In a b o u t 2 0 0 w o rd s co m m en t on th e te x t b y p resen tin g
y o u r opinion a b o u t th e w a y Einstein influen ced life in th e
2 0 th century.

For Einstein to become a modern icon, especially in


America, required a total revision of the definition of a
hero. Anti-intellectualism has been as integral a part of
American culture as the drive for universal education,
and the fact that both have existed concurrently may
account for the low status of teachers. In America it is
not enough to be sm art; one must compensate for ones
intelligence by also showing the canniness and real-world
power of the cowboy and the pioneer. Einstein did this.
He was the first modern intellectual superstar, and he
won his stardom in the only way that Americans could
accept by dint of intuitive, not scholarly, intelligence
and by having his thought applied to practical things,
such as rockets and atom bombs.
The recognition of the practical power of his ideas
coincided with a time when such power was most
needed. Einstein came to America in 1933 as the most
celebrated of a distinguished group of European
intellectuals, refugees from H itler and Mussolini.
So strong was the image he created that he affected both
culture and politics in ways that were sometimes wholly
opposite to his beliefs and intentions.
From The Age of Einstein
by Roger Rosenblat, Time, 1999

Translate into English.

Bnuiala Aglaei era cea adevrat. ncepnd s iubeasc


viaa, btrnul voia s tie bine ce boal are, i fiindc
avea impresia c doctorii adui n cas l mineau, i
puse n gnd s consulte el un doctor necunoscut. In
acelai timp ntrebase pe Felix ce doctor e mai bun i
mai ieftin .
Adapted after Enigma Otiliei by George Clinescu

Western Allies could prevail against the Axis. His


optimism about victory and his conviction that there
were truths worth defending to the death were as
important as his identifying the threat and standing up
to it. Forty years later, when Ronald Reagan approached
the cold war as a battle to be not only fought but also
won, he was following a Churchillian strategy.
From The Necessary Evil ?
by Nancy Gibbs, Time, 1999
3

Enlarge upon th e fo llo w in g (in a b o u t 2 5 0 w o r d s ):

Civilization is a method of living, an attitude of equal


respect for all m en.

T e s t u l 10

Aa

a) S um -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w o rd s,
b) In a b o u t 2 0 0 w o rd s co m m en t on th e te x t by p resen tin g
yo u r opinion a b o u t optim ism .

It was Churchill first, and then Roosevelt, who


reawakened the West to its core values : freedom, civility,
common decency in the face of evil, destructive forces
of hate. The challenge that H itler presented became the
occasion for Churchill and Roosevelt and the lovers of
freedom to battle the great diseases of the century :
nihilism and defeatism. Churchills apostles argue for
him as the centurys titan on these grounds. It was by no
means obvious, in the dark days of 1940, that the

Translate into English.

Otilia fu foarte necjit cnd afl inteniile lui mo


Costache. Pe ea o plictiseau toate preocuprile de a i se
face avere, de a i se da o situaie legal. I se preau
burgheze, umilitoare. Nu trise niciodat n mizerie i nu
se temea de ea. Un instinct feminin i spunea c
interesul cu care era nconjurat de brbai o va urmri
totdeauna, iar ideea btrneii n-o nspimnta.
Adapted after Enigma Otiliei by George Clinescu

Enlarge upon th e fo llo w in g (in a b o u t 2 5 0 w o r d s ):

The best way to make your dreams come true is to


wake up. (Paul Valery)

Upper-m+erwedia+e
(pr<p*filul in te n s iv ',
limbi s t r e i n e s i -filo log ie }
Probe o re I a

JksMJ
Read th e te x t an d com m ent upon it.

C om plete th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s.

a) I wish y o u .............................................................................
b) But for his h e lp ..................................................................
c) If the rain stops, w e .........................................................
d) N ever......................................................................................
e) He neednt ...........................................................................
f) H ard ly.....................................................................................

III A rgu e for an d a g a in st th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t:

Friendships come and go, but families are forever.


Throughout the world America has long been thought
the country of the rich. In a sense it is ; compared to
other countries, large or small, the United States has
much more than the worlds average wealth. Actually,
the United States is the nation of the middle class rather
than the upper class.
Americans have nevertheless always found the rich
fascinating. The newspapers and the other media report
their deeds and misdeeds whenever they can. The
problem has been that the rich are usually shrewd
enough to want as much privacy as possible. There have
been few studies of the rich in general what has been
lacking, either in history or sociology, is anything that
catches the feel of great wealth.
A scintillating exception is the writing of F. Scott Fitzgerald.
His finest novel is The Great Gatsby, published in 1925.
In it he writes about the idle but permanently rich, the
temporarily rich, the would-be rich, and the patient,
envious p o o r; but the focus is always on the first group.
From American Perspectives edited by Carl Bode

Testu l 2.
Read th e te x t an d com m ent upon it.

From the W heat Bowl to the Salad Bowl. In America


the story is different among the food-loving peoples of
the rest of the world puritans and nonpuritans of the
recent past might use food for display, with relatively
standardized menus for company and for dining o u t;
what was put on display was a choice of cut of meat, an
elegant table and good solid cooking. All this was an
affair largely of the women, and in many circles food was
not a proper topic for dinner conversation. Having the
proper food was something one owed to ones status,
ones claim to respectability, and more recently to ones
knowledge of hygiene with its calories and vitamins.
The midtwentieth century American, on the contrary,

puts on display his taste and not directly his wealth,


respectability or caloric soundness. W hile well-educated
upper middle-class parents are becoming hesitant to tell
children to something because it is good for them, they
join the radio in discussion of what is good as a matter
of taste. Thus they are prepared for the search for
marginal differentiation not only in what they set before
their guests but in how it is talked about with them.
From The L onely C rowd: A Study o f the C hanging
American Character by David Riesman,
Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney

R eph rase th e fo llo w in g se n te n c e s so th a t th e m ean in g

s t a y s th e sam e.

a) You are not permitted to enter the room.


You ......................................................................................................
b) Im sorry you will not get the present you expected.
I wish ................................................................................................
c) It was known that they had already accomplished
their task.
T h e y ...................................................................................................
d) If Tom should come here, tell him to phone me.
S h o u ld ...............................................................................................
e) Mother prefers her daughters to stay at home than go
to the park.
Mother would rather ..................................................................
f) I havent spoken to him for months.
It .........................................................................................................

A rgu e for an d a g a in st th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t:

Life in a big city is impossible without at least a chair of


fast-food restaurants.

T estu l 5
Read the te x t an d com m ent on it.

Everyone I saw said Gosh, youre brave ! when I


revealed that I was planning to travel around Britain by
public transport, but it never occurred to me to go any
other way. You are so lucky in this country to have a
relatively good public transport system and I think we
should all try harder to enjoy it while its still there.
Besides, driving in Britain is such a dreary experience
these days.
Thus it was that I found myself late on a grey Saturday
afternoon, on an exceptionally long and empty
carriage... At Twickenham, I discovered why the train
was so long and so empty. The platform was jammed
solid with men and boys in warm clothes and scarves
carrying glossy programmes and little bags with tea
flasks peeping o u t: obviously a rugby crowd from the
Twickenham grounds. They boarded with patience and
without pushing, and said sorry when they bumped or
inadvertently impinged on someone elses space. I
admired this instinctive consideration for others, and
was struck by what a regular thing that is in Britain and
how little it is noticed.
From Notes From a Small Island by Bill Bryson

There a re errors in so m e of th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s.


Correct them .

a) We would have gone to the cinema with you, if you


would have bought the tickets.
b) I wish you were here to help me with my homework.
c) John wont know about the party, unless you dont
tell him.
d) He wishes he can study harder than usual for this
exam.
e) Its about time you finish that paper.
f) He promised he will phone as soon as possible.

A rgu e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

The duty of the newspaper editors is to keep the public


informed.

m sM

JL

R ead th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

If the world wants to see an era of harmony and well


being in die future, it must look out for the children of
the present.
It began doing so in a major way, after the Convention
on the Rights of the Child, adopted in November 1989.
Thanks to those efforts and specific UNICEF initiatives,
more children who would have been disease-prone now

have access to pure water, good sanitation, and


immunization. More children who would have been
exploited are now being educated. And more children
who would have been anonymous are now being
registered, entitling them to the rights of citizenship.
To safeguard the continuation of this progress, UNICEF
is again calling upon industrialized and developing
countries alike to reaffirm the truth that, if all children
are nurtured in a setting of healthfulness, education,
encouragement, and opportunity, they will create a
society v^dth the same enlightened values.
Document of the United Nations Childrens Fund

/ There a re errors in so m e of th e fo llo w in g sen ten ces.


Correct them .

a) Unless you dont tell her the truth, she wont let you
in the house.
b) If you will come on time, w ell get to the theatre as
planned.
c) If only he could find the right solution to his
problems.
d) Hardly he entered the room when he caught sight of
the parcel.
e) Why dont you try heating the water first ?
f) It is advisable he ran away.

' l ! P r D escribe o ne C hristm as th a t yo u rem em ber a s


"the seaso n of go o d w ill".

Jk& M J L
Read th e te x t an d co m m en t on it.

It is hard to compare the influence of statesmen with


that of scientists. Nevertheless, we can note that there
are certain eras that were most defined by their politics,
others by their culture, and others by their scientific
advances.
The 18111 century, for example, was clearly one marked
by statecraft: in 1776 alone there are Thomas Jefferson
and Benjamin Franklin writing the Declaration of
Independence. And the 16th will be remembered for the
flourishing of the arts and culture : Michelangelo and
Leonardo and Shakespeare creating masterpieces,
Elizabeth I creating the Elizabethan Age.
So how will the 20th century be remembered ?
Yes, for democracy. And yes, for civil rights.
But the 20tb century will be most remembered like
the 17 th for its earthshaking advances in science and
technology. In his massive history of the 20th century,
Paul Johnson declares : The scientific genius impinges
on humanity, for good or ill, far more than any
statesman or warlord. Albert Einstein was more pithy :
Politics is for the moment. An equation is for eternity.
From Time, December 1999
(pithy = strongly and clearly stated,
without wasting any word)

Correct th e errors in th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s.

a) But for Maria, we would have missed the train.


b) If they w ill come on time, we will be able to buy
cheaper tickets.
c) As soon as they will arrive in Iai they will phone
their parents.
d) It is high time we left home.
e) I wish I could help you with some advice.
f) She lives in the same building for ten years.

A rgu e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

The 20th century will be most remembered for its


earthshaking advances in science and technology.

Testul .6.
R ead th e te x t an d co m m en t on it.

We crowded round, and over Miss Cathys head, I had


a peep at a dirty, ragged, black-haired child ; big enough
both to walk and talk indeed, its face looked older
than Catherines yet, when it was set on its feet, it
only stared round, and repeated over and over again
some gibberish that nobody could understand. I was
frightened, as Mrs Earnshaw was ready to fling it out of
doors : she did fly up asking how he could fashion to
bring that gipsy brat into the house.

The master tried to explain the m atter... and all that I


could make out was a tale of seeing it starving, and
houseless, and as good as dumb, in the streets of
Liverpool where he picked it up and inquired for its
owner not a soul knew to whom it belonged, he said,
and his money and and time being both limited, he
thought it better to take it home with him at one, than
run into vain expenses there.
This was Heathcliffs first introduction to the family :
he seemed a sullen, patient child, hardened, perhaps, to
ill-treatm ent.
From W uthering H eights by Emily

R ephrase th e fo llo w in g so th a t th e m ean in g s ta y s


th e sam e.

a) I havent been to the dentists in over two years.


I t .........................................................................................................
b) It is essential that you read the book before the end
of the term.
The b o o k ..........................................................................................
c) She forgot to phone them that she was coming, so
they were not at home.
I f .........................................................................................................
d) The fire will go out if somebody doesnt put some
coal on it.
Unless ...............................................................................................
e) That tree in the garden needs trimming.
Its about time ...............................................................................
f) Dont forget to bring my book,owill you ?
He reminded ..................................................................................

D iscuss an d a rg u e for an d a g a in st Einstein's w o r d s :

Politics is for the moment. An equation is for eternity.

Read an d com m ent upon th e tex t.

Charles Darwin didnt want to murder God, as he


once put it. But he did. He didnt want to defy his
fellow Cantabrigians, his gentlemanly Victorian society,
his devout wife. But he did. He waited 20 years to
publish his theory of natural selection, but fittingly,
after another scientist threatened to be first he did.
Before Darwin, most people accepted some version of
biblical creation. Humans were seen as the apotheosis of
godly architecture. But on his voyage on HMS Beagle,
Darwin saw that species on different islands had
developed differently. Humans could thus be an accident
of natural selection, not a direct product of God. The
subject haunted me, Darwin would write later. In fact,
worries about how much his theory would shake society
exacerbated the strange illness he suffered.
Darwins theories still provoke opposition. One hundred
and forty years after The Origin of Species, backers of
creationism have made a comeback in states like Kansas,
pushing evolution out of the schoolroom. Yet Darwinism
remains one of the most successful scientific theories
ever promulgated. There is hardly an element of
humanity not capitalism, not gender relations,

certainly not biology that can be fully understood


without its help.
From Time, December 1999

Correct th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s.

a) Would like to buy another bread ?


b) He asked me where did I come from.
c) He speaks a very good English.
d) I like more bread with cheese than jam for my
sandwich.
e) If he will bring the luggage, we will leave immediately.
f) I saw anyone in the lobby.

Exem plify th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

included the Franklin stove and the bifocal lens. As a


statesman, he played a key role in Americans four
founding documents and was the only person to sign
them a ll: the Declaration of Independence (he edited
Jeffersons draft), the treaty of alliance with France
(which he negotiated), the peace treaty ending the
Revolution (which he negotiated) and the Constitution
(he came up with the idea of a House representing the
people and a Senate representing the states).
All this made him, for a while, the most famous person
in the world. More important, he was the first
embodiment of what became the American archetype : a
middle-class shopkeeper, proud to wear a leather apron
rather than put on airs, who strikes it rich as an
entrepreneur but never loses his love of civic associations
and community cooperation.
From Time, December 1999

Patience is bitter but its fruit is sweet.


T ftS -M

^ 0 ^ Read th e te x t an d co m m en t upon it.

In order to understand Benjamin Franklins historic


significance, we must first rescue him from the
schoolbook stereotype : a sage geezer flying kites in the
rain and lecturing us about a penny saved being a penny
earned. His experiments with electricity led him to
invent the lightning rod, devise the theory of positive
and negative charges, name the battery and become one
of his centurys foremost scientists. His inventions

R eph rase th e fo llo w in g se n te n c e s so th at th e m ean in g

s ta y s th e sam e.

a) He couldnt have missed the train.


It is unlikely ...................................................................................
b) How far is it to the harbour ? he asked the sailer.
He asked the sailer ......................................................................
c) He hates listening to music.
He cant ...........................................................................................
d) For fear he might miss the plane, he left two hours
earlier.
Not ....................................................................................................
e) Never have I seen such a beauty !
I

f) If the teacher should come to school on Sunday,


ask him about my book.
Should ......................................................................................

A rgu e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

Youth culture is invented by adults to characterize


teenagers.

II
R ead th e te x t an d co m m en t upon it.

Thursday, February 18th


This morning the whole school was ordered to go to
the assembly hall. Mr Scruton got up on the stage and
acted like the films of Hitler. He said in all his long years
of teaching he had never come across such an act of
serious vandalism. Everybody went dead quiet and
wondered what had happened. Scruton said that
somebody had entered his office and drawn a moustache
on Margaret Thatcher and written Three million
unemployed in her cleavage.
He said that defiling the greatest leader this country has
ever knowTi was a crime against humanity. It was
tantamount to treason and that when the culprit was
found they would be immediately expelled. Scrutons
eyes bulged out so far that a few of the first-years started
to cry. Miss Elf led them outside to safety.
The whole school has got to have handwriting tests.
From The Secret Diary o f Adrian M ole, a ged 13 3A
by Sue Townsend

Correct th e fo llo w in g se n te n c e s if n ec e ssa ry.

a) For I was late I took a taxi.


b) As usually, she is busy.
c) I lived here since I was a child.
d) The salt is very necessary in our food.
e) W hile I was reading, father fixed the car
f) Its terrible cold tonight.

A rgu e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

Tell me what you eat and Ill tell you how healthy
you are.

T estu l 10
Read th e te x t an d co m m en t upon it.

W hy do the motorcyclists wear black jackets ? W hy not


brown or blue ? W hy do executives in America prefer
attache cases, rather than the traditional briefcase ? It is
as though they were following some model, trying to
attain some ideal laid down from above.
We know little about the origin of life style models. We
do know, however, that popular heroes and celebrities,
including fictional characters (James Bond, for example),
have something to do with it.
Marlon Brando, swaggering in a black jacket as a
motorcyclist perhaps originated, and certainly publicized
a life style model. Such heroes, as the sociologist Orrin
Klapp puts it, help to crystallize a social type. One of

the prim e functions of popular favorites is to make


types visible, which in turn make new life styles and new
tastes visible.
W hile charismatic figures may become style-setters,
styles are fleshed out and marketed to the public by the
sub-societies we have term ed subcults. Taking in raw
symbolic matter from the mass media, they somehow
piece together odd bits of dress, opinion, and expression
and form them into a coherent package : a life style
model. Once they have assembled a particular model,
they proceed, like any good corporation, to merchandise
it. They find customers for it.
From Future Shock by Alvin Toeffler

Correct th e fo llo w in g se n te n c e s if n ec e ssary.

a) If you had told me the truth I could have helped you.


b) You mustnt buy so many flowers, the garden is full
of tulips.
c) Unless you call him, he wont be here on time.
d) The officer ordered his soldiers went to the barracks.
e) Hardly had he turned the light on when the
frightened cat jum ped at him.
f) He left the station before the train will get in.

Exem plify th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

Lost time is never found again.

Upper-" m+erwedia+e
P ro b e

s e r is e

Jfe sM _ L
a ) Sum -u p th e fo llo w in g te x t in ab o u t 5 0 w ord s,
b) C om m ent in a b o u t 1 0 0 w ord s upon th e te x t b y p resen tin g
yo u r p erso n al opin io ns a b o u t th e character.

Wednesday, December 2
9 a.m. Only two shopping days left for Christmas and I
am still penniless. I have made a Blue Peter over-glove
for Miss Elf, but in order to give it to her in time for
Christmas I will have to go into the ghetto and risk
getting mugged. I will have to go out carol singing, there
is nothing else I can do to raise finance.
10 p.m. Just got back from carol singing. The suburban
houses were a dead loss. People shouted, Come back at
Christmas, without even opening the door. My most
appreciative audience were the drunks staggering in and
out of the Black Bull. Some of them wept openly at the
beauty of my solo rendition of Silent Night, I must say
that I presented a touching picture as I stood in the
snow with my young face lifted to the heavens ignoring
the scenes of drunken revelry around me.
I made 3 pounds plus an Irish tenpence and Guinness
bottle-top.Im going out again tomorrow. I will wear my
school uniform, it should be worth a few extra quid.
From The Secret Diary ojA drian M ole, a ged 13 3A
by Sue Townsend

Translate into English.

a) In fiecare an la Crciun rmn far bani.


b) Dac cei din suburbii m i-ar fi deschis ua, ar fi fost
ncntai de colindul meu.
c) Nici n-am apucat s deschid gura c Maria m i-a spus
s nu mai cnt.
d) Tare a vrea s fi avut timp s citesc toate romanele
de Balzac.
e) Se spune c oamenii din aceast regiune sunt cinstii
i muncitori.
f) Ofierul le-a ordonat soldailor s poarte uniforma
i atunci cnd sunt n permisie.

have gone as fax mad as New York. To order lunch you


can zap off a completed le fax menu to your favourite
restaurant. If you are looking for a partner for the
evening you fax your needs to a fax-dating service.
This being New York, you can also, of course, use the
machine to communicate with your shrink for some
fax therapy.
The craze, however, has its excesses and various
spoilsports are already working on ways of reining
in the more dubious joys of fax. The police has decreed
that under no circumstances may you transmit from
your car fax while on the move, though, of course,
you may receive.
From The Times
Translate into English.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s d escrib e th e w a y yo u sp e n t one
C hristm as a s a child.

............ 2

a ) S u m -u p th e te x t in ab o u t 5 0 w o rd s,
b) C om m ent in ab o u t 1 0 0 w o rd s upon th e te x t by p resen tin g
yo u r p erso n al opinions ab o u t th e period an d th e phenom enon
d escribed.

Not so long ago, the typical New York sign-off used to


be Have a nice day. It is fast being replaced by a new
one : W hats your fax number ?. From Tokyo to
London to Los Angeles, the craze of the facsimile
machine is sweeping the world, but no city seems to

a) Paul a sugerat s plecm mai devreme de acas


de fric s nu pierdem trenul.
b) Matthew ne-a promis c ne va telefona cnd
va ajunge acas.
c) E timpul s plecm, e deja trziu.
d) De n-ar fi fost Maria s ne ajute nu am fi ajuns
niciodat la caban.
e) Acesta este omul care ne-a povestit cltoria sa
pe mare.
f) Este puin probabil s afle la timp adevrul.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g
sstatem
t a t e mi e n t :

You have no friends in a world of computers.

-hAl 3.

A B a) S um -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w ords,
b) C om m ent in ab o u t 100 w o rd s upon th e te x t by p resen tin g
y o u r p erso nal opinions ab o u t fo o tball.

H eres a question for anthropologists. Name me a tribe


which organizes itself into teams for sporting encounters
and greets every score against their opponents with
paroxysms of childish glee, whooping, dancing and
embracing in an ecstasy of crowing self-congratulation in
the very midst of their disconsolate fellow's ? Who are
these primitives who pile all their responses into the
immediate sensation, unaware or uncaring of the long
undulations of lifes fortunes ? Yes, youve got it.
Its the yob of the month competition, entries on a
postcard, please. But the question is is it because
theyre working class, or is it because financial greed has
corrupted them ? Or is it both ? [...]
I think Grayson has put his fmger on the flaw in my
argument, namely that the reason footballers are yobs
may be nothing to do with being working class, or with
financial greed, or with adulation, or even with being
footballers. It may be simply that football attracts a
certain kind of person, namely yobs.
(a yob, in Br. E. = a rude, noisy, sometimes violent,
young man)

Translate into English.

a) Plou de cnd am venit la Sinaia.


b) Nu pleca nainte de a afla la ce or sosete trenul
de Cluj.
c) Tata tocmai a udat florile i este foarte obosit.
d) Nu era necesar s cumperi attea flori, grdina
noastr este plin de trandafiri.
e) Pot s deschid geamul ? E foarte cald aici.
f) A reuit s ajung acas cu maina dei ceaa era
foarte groas.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w orks a rg u e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g


sta te m e n t:

The world of sport is dominated by yobs.

a ) S um -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w ord s,
b) C om m ent in a b o u t 1 0 0 w o rd s on th e te x t b y p resen tin g
yo u r opin io ns a b o u t th e p o ssib le so u rce s of inspiration for
C hin ese film m akers.

Chinese cinema is still the big unwritten chapter in


world film history. The gap is surprising, if only because
so many other facets of twentieth-century Chinese
history, culture and politics have been extensively
analysed. The past four years, however, have seen a
significant growth of interest in Chinese film both in

China and farther afield. The China Film Archive, forced


to close by Red Guards in 1966, resumed its activities in
197 8 ; it has now recatalogued its collection and begun
facing up to the massive task of copying its large
holdings of old nitrate prints on to safety-film stock.
The belated western discovery of Chinas film heritage
began at Londons National Film Theatre in 1980, with
a 25-film season called Electric Shadows. Several classics
had their first screenings outside China at this event,
which established two important points. First, that the
Shangai film industry of the 1930s and 1940s produced
work of international standing. Second, that the films of
the Peoples Republic, while hardly as remarkable as
their predecessors, did offer much more than
celebrations of tractor maintenance and bayonetw eld in g ballerinas.

Translate into English.

a) John spune c astea nu sunt mnuile lui, dei


seamn foarte bine cu cele pe care le-a cumprat
chiar el nu demult.
b) Am primit de curnd un pachet din partea unui
prieten de-al tatlui meu.
c) Mi s-a spus c m voi ntlni cu sora ta la mare.
d) Deoarece i-a fcut toate temele, Tom poate s
mearg mine la cinema.
e) Femeia care st de vorb n curte cu sora mea este
vecina noastr care locuiete vizavi.
f) M i-a spus c ieri l-a ntlnit pe John din ntmplare
pe strad.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s n arrate th e film th a t yo u
h av e liked m ost.

J b sM JL

a ) S um -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w ords,
b) In ab o u t 1 0 0 w o rd s com m ent on th e te x t b y p resen tin g
y o u r opinions a b o u t th e character.

Mr Dombey had risen, as his father had before him,


in the course of life and death, from Son and Dombey,
and for nearly twenty years had been the sole
representative of the firm. Of those years he had been
married, ten-m arried, as some said, to a lady with no
heart to give him ; whose happiness was in the past, and
who was content to bind her broken spirit to the dutiful
and meek endurance of the present. Such idle talk was
little likely to reach the ears of M r Dombey, whom it
nearly concerned, and probably no one in the world
would have received it with such utter incredulity, as he,
if it had reached him. Dombey and Son had often dealt
in hides, but never in hearts. They left that fancy ware to
boys and girls, and boarding schools and books. Mr
Dombey would have reasoned : That a matrimonial
alliance with himself must, in the nature of things, be
gratifying and honourable to any woman of common
sense. That the hope of giving birth to a new partner in
such a house, could not fail to awaken a glorious and
stirring ambition in the breast of the least ambitious of
her sex.That Mrs Dombey had had daily practical

knowledge of his position in society. That Mrs Dombey


must have been happy. That she couldnt help it.
From D om bey and Son by Charles Dickens

Translate into English.

a) De n-ar fi fost dorina lor de a ajunge ct mai repede


la caban, nu s-ar fi ntmplat nici un accident.
b) De-a putea s vorbesc cu profesorul meu nainte de
a pleca din ar, ar putea s m sftuiasc ce cri s
cumpr de la Londra.
c) Rareori se ntmpl ca psrile s se ntoarc n luna
februarie.
d) Cu ct citeti mai mult cu att te simi mai bine
pregtit.
e) Peter tia s cnte la pian la vrsta de 6 ani.
f) n mod sigur era acas atunci cnd am telefonat
pentru c toate luminile din cas erau aprinse.

In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g
sta te m e n t:

Love cures people both the ones who give it and the
ones who receive it.

a ) S um -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w ords,
b) In a b o u t 1 0 0 w o rd s co m m en t on th e te x t b y p resen tin g
yo u r opin io ns a b o u t th e character.

She sat thinking about the boy being time-expired.


Yes, she understood that. There was no one in the whole
country who would not understand it. To be going
home, to be at the end of exile : for Gods sake who
didnt know ? One day she would be tim e-expired too.
It was only at the rarest moments that she could think
of it. But one day it would happen. She would be timeexpired and there would be an end for her of the heat
and sweat and the dust of summer. There would be an
end of the grey vultures feeding on the dead. They said
time went quickly in the East, and that after a while you
could not separate the memory of one individual day
from another. But what happened really was that time
built itself up into a mass of hard white light behind you,
like an impersonal and glittering wall that cut you off
from the shadowy rememberances of all your life behind
it. That was what she hated ; she knew that that was
what the soldier hated, what they all hated. To be tim eexpired meant that you were going to break down that
wall, break through it, break out into the resurrected
memory of a sort of life that m attered.
From Time Expired by H.E. Bates
(tim e-expired the soldier about whom Bates writes
was wounded in action after his allotted time in the
Far East had theoretically expired)

Translate into English.

a) Nici nu a intrat n cas c i-a adus aminte c nu a


cumprat un cadou pentru ziua de natere a prietenei sale.
b) De-ar veni la timp am putea s term inm discuiile
pn la miezul nopii.
c) Abia atept s traversez Canalul Mnecii.
d) De-ar fi fost att de bolnav nu ar fi venit
la petrecere.
e) S-a considerat c domnul Jones este cel mai btrn
din serviciul nostru.
f) Cnd au ajuns la gar trenul de Constana
plecase deja.

nn

' . In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s a rg u e for and a g a in st


th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

It matters not how a man dies, but how he lives.


(Samuel Johnson 1709-1784)

J k iM

a) S um -u p th e te x t in ab o u t 5 0 w ords,
b) In ab o u t 1 0 0 w o rd s com m ent upon th e te x t b y p resen tin g
y o u r opin io ns a b o u t th e im p o rtan ce of g e n e tic research for th e
evolution of m ankind.

The genetic footprints of ancient tribal ancestors


have been uncovered among the bustling populations of
the worlds cities. Some of the most intriguing evidence

for this startling new finding has just come from


Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since atom bombs were
dropped in 1945, their citizens, and their genes, have
been studied in extensive detail. Against all expectations,
researches found no sign that any new mutated genes,
created by the blast, were passed on to offspring. But to
their great surprise, the researchers did find evidence of
other mutations, ones laid down by the ancient tribes
that had established the cities.
Nor is Japan alone in displaying its ancient genetic
heritage so openly. Italy provides another striking
example. The genes of ancient Greeks and Etruscans still
flow noticeably through the veins of modern
Italians.
Scientists now belive that all countries display such
characteristic. There are certainly noticeable differences
in blood groups and other genetic features between
modern Scots, English and Welsh for all the
intemringling that has gone on over the ages,
said Dr Jones.
From The Observer

A
Translate into English.

a) Dac nu m gseti la spital, ncearc s telefonezi


la numrul acesta.
b) Cnd avionul a decolat i-a adus aminte c nu-i
spusese soiei de plecarea sa.
c) El se poart ca i cnd ar fi singurul din familie care
are prul negru.
d) E timpul s plecm far s mai ateptm sosirea
grupului urmtor.

e) Mcar de-a putea cunoate trecutul l u i !


f) Li s-a promis c anul acesta va veni Mo Crciun cu
multe cadouri i dulciuri.

crashing face-first into the door and sending half a dozen


empty milk bottles clattering. Almost immediately the
upstairs window opened.
Were shut came from the silhouette with hair curlers.
From Notesfr o m a Small Island by Bill Bryson

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w ord s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g


sta te m e n t:

Things do not change, we do.

a) Sum -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w ord s,
b) In a b o u t 100 w o rd s co m m en t on th e te x t b y p resen tin g
yo u r opinions a b o u t th e atm o sp h ere of an English tow n .

My first sight of England was on a foggy March night


in 1973 when I arrived on the midnight ferry from
Calais. For twenty minutes, the term inal area was
aswarm with activity as cars and lorries poured forth,
customs people did their duties, and everyone made for
the London road. Then abruptly all was silence and I
wandered through sleeping, low-lit streets threaded with
fog, just like in a Bulldog Drummond movie. It was
rather wonderful having an English town all to myself.
I was standing wondering what to do when I noticed a
grey light of television filling an upstairs window of a
guesthouse across the road. Hooray, I thought, someone
awake, and hastened across, planning humble apologies
to the kindly owner for the lateness of my arrival.
The front path was pitch dark and in my eagerness and
unfamiliarity with British doorways, I tripped on a step,

Translate into English.

a) Nici nu a ajuns s cunoasc adevrul c a trebuit


s se mulumeasc cu varianta oficial.
b) Prietenul nostru l-a rugat s nu plece pn nu ajunge
toat lumea la gar.
c) Cu ct este mai frig iarna cu att va fi mai cald la var.
d) Dac mi-ai fi spus c ai numai dou bilete la teatru
nu a mai fi ieit din cas pe o vreme ca asta.
e) De fric s nu ntrzie, Maria a plecat cu dou ore
mai devreme de acas.
f) Locuiesc n aceast cas de douzeci de ani fr s
m fi gndit vreodat c a putea-o vinde.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s d escrib e a trip to a p lace th at


im p ressed v ery much.

le s iM

lJ ,

1 .
a) S um -u p th e te x t in ab o u t 5 0 w ords,
b) In ab o u t 1 00 w o rd s co m m en t on th e te x t by p resen tin g
y o u r opinions a b o u t th e read in g public.

W ish to look about the store ? Oh, by all means, sir,


he said. Then, as he rubbed his hands together in an
urbane fashion, he directed a piercing glance at me
through his spectacles.
Youll find some things that might interest you he said
in the back of the store on the left just show this
gentleman our classical reprints the ten-cent series.
In other words, he had divined me in a moment.
He knew, of course that, as a professor, I had come
to the store as all professors go the the book stores,
just like a wasp comes to an open jar of marmalade.
He knew that I would hand around for two hours, get
in everybodys way, and finally buy a cheap reprint of
the D ialogues o f Plato, or the Prose Works of John Milton,
or some trash of that sort.
He despised me, of course. But it is a maxim of the
book business that a professor standing up in a corner
busied in a book looks well in a store. The real
customers like it.
From The R eading Public by Stephen Butler Leacock

Translate into English.

a) E timpul s ne schimbm modul de a gndi, spuse


Paul prietenilor cu care venise la cursul profesorului
de istorie.
b) Dac ar fi fost nevinovat, nu ar fi nceput s plng
i s dea vina pe ceilali.
c) Orice i-ar spune medicul, ar fi preferabil s
nu mai fumezi.
d) Cu ct se pregtete mai serios pentru meseria
de reporter cu att nu mai are timp s stea de vorb
cu oamenii din jur.
e) Dac m ascultai, acum erai departe de oraul acesta.
f) Vlad ne-a sugerat s ateptm s soseasc tot grupul
i s plecm pe jos, deoarece ultimul autobuz trecuse
de jumtate de or.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g
state m e n t:

Everyone is ignorant, only on different subjects.

W
a) S um -u p th e te x t in a b o u t 5 0 w ords,
b) In a b o u t 1 0 0 w o rd s com m ent on th e te x t b y p resen tin g
y o u r opinions a b o u t th e character.

In the town of Jefferson lived a young man named


Percy Grimm. He was about twenty-five and a captain in

the State National Guard. He had been born in the town


and had lived there all his life save for the periods of the
summer encampments. He was too young to have been
in the European War, though it was not until 1921 or 22
that he realized that he would never forgive his parents
for that fact. His father, a hardware merchant, did not
understand this. He thought that the boy was just lazy
and in a fair way to become perfectly worthless, when in
reality the boy was suffering a terrible tragedy of having
been born not alone too late but not late enough to have
escaped first-hand knowledge of the lost time when he
should have been a man instead of a child. And now
with the hysteria passed away and the ones who had
been loudest in the hysteria and even the ones, the
heroes who had suffered and served, beginning to look
at one another a little askance, he had no one to tell it,
to open his heart to. In fact, his first serious fight was
with an ex-soldier who made some rem ark to the effect
if he had to do it again, he would fight this time on the
German side and against France. At once Grimm took
him up Against America, too ? he said.
From Percy Grimm by W illiam Faulkner
Translate into English.

a) E puin probabil ca ninsoarea s stea nainte de miezul


nopii.
b) De treizeci de ani se pregtete pentru acest moment
deosebit din viaa oricrui printe : nunta fetei sale.
c) Dac ai fi avut timp s mergi cu mine la librrie,
i-a fi artat ultimul volum de versuri al lui Mircea
Crtrescu.

d) Trebuie c a suferit foarte mult din moment ce nu


i-a revenit nici dup doi ani de zile.
e) A prefera ca tu s rmi cu prietenii ti, iar fratele
tu s vin s m ajute la bagaje.
f) Se pare c cel mai bun juctor de fotbal este cel care
dorete s ctige.

'JP In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s e n la rg e upon th e fo llo w in g :

...ask not what your country can do for you ; ask waht
you can do for your country. (John F. Kennedy)

X tt+ e r m e d i + e
( p e w t r u c e l e U I t e p ro -f i l u r i
1-2. o r e pe S p t m n iD
Proba o r a i

It was a stupid mistake to make said the American


woman I had m et at my hotel in the English lake
country but it was on the counter with the other
Penguin books the little sixpenny ones, you know, with
the paper covers and I supposed of course it was a
detective story. You can imagine how mad I was when I
found it was Shakespeare. Anyway, I got really comfy in
bed that night and all ready to read a good mystery story
and here I had The Tragedy o f M acbeth a book for highschool students [ . . . ] I dont think for a moment that
Macbeth killed the King she said. I dont think the
Macbeth woman was mixed up in it, either. You suspect
them the most, of course, but those are the ones that are
never guilty or shouldnt be, anyway. Dont you see ?
said the American lady. It would spoil everything if you
could figure out right away who did it. Shakespeare was
too smart for that. Ive read that people never have made
out H am let, so it isnt likely Shakespeare would have
made Macbeth as simple as it seems.
From The M acbeth M urder M ystery by James Thurber

' > R ephrase th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s so th a t th e m ean in g


s ta y s th e sam e.

a) It isnt likely Shakespeare would have made Macbeth


as simple as it seems.
Shakespeare .....................................................................................
b) It would spoil everything if you could figure out right
away who did it.
Could you .......................................................................................
c) I dont think for a moment that Macbeth killed the
K ing, said the lady.
The lady said that .........................................................................
d) You suspect them the most, of course.
Those are .........................................................................................
e) It was a stupid mistake to make.
I
f) I supposed it was a detective story.
Suppose it .......................................................................................

A rgu e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

A good detective story is worth a thousand poems.

T estu l

R ead th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

October 4,1979 is a day of fond memory for FBI


agents in Los Angeles. Its the last day that the city did
not have a bank robbery.

There are several reasons why Los Angeles heads the


bankrobbery league way ahead of San Francisco and
New York. The place has an awful lot of banks 3 300
and many stay open until 5 or 6 in the evening and at
weekends. They are also very informal. You need a
warm, inviting place to do business, says Stephen Ward
of the British-owned Crocker Bank. Bank robbers are
particularly appreciative.
The robberies are usually quite genteel, with none of the
machine-gun violence of the old movies. Usually, the
robber passes a stick-up note to a teller, pockets the cash
while the surveillance cameras click away, then makes a
get-away via the nearest freeway. Tellers have orders to
hand over the money immediately. The banks believe,
quite rightly, that you can replace money but you cant
replace lives, says one FBI man.
From The Sunday Times
(teller = a cashier in a bank)

R eplace th e un derlin ed w o rd s w ith w o rd s ta k e n from


th e tex t.

a)There are several reasons why Los Angeles is at the


front of the bankrobbery league.
b) The banks are also very friendly
c) The robber steals the cash.
d) They take the money while the surveillance cameras
make a short, sharp sound.

e) After the robbery, the thieves leave the place in a

f) Tellers have orders to give the money to the robbers


immediately.

A rgu e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

You can replace money but you cant replace lives.

Tes+wi 3>
R ead th e te x t an d co m m en t on it.

We played hidings and countries. In countries you


threw a tennis ball in the air and ran, calling out the
name of a country. Each player had the name of a
country. If your country was called, you tried to catch
the ball before it bounced, whereupon you could throw
it up again and call out somebody elses country. If you
only caught it on the bounce, you had to... Forget it.
The rules went on and on. All that mattered was to
throw the ball high. Greg Brennan could put it into
orbit. He lived next door but one. Nobody lived very far
away. We played on and on through the hot afternoon
into the brief dusk and the sudden nightfall. Towards
sunset the adults would appear on the front porches and
start watering the lawn. They would tune the nozzles to

a fine spray, which would drift in the air at the first


breath of the summer wind that came every night.
From U nreliable M emoirs by Clive James

Use th e verb s in b rackets in th e right te n se s.

Last night I (have) a very strange dream. W hen the


dream (begin), I (sit) all alone in a restaurant. Suddenly
I (notice) that the other people (look) at me. Some of
them (point) at me. Just then the waiter (come) over to
me. I (not finish) my meal, and he (ask) if I (enjoy) it.

* ' In e x e rc ise I y o u had a g lim p se of so m e of C live Jam es'


un reliab le m em oirs. N arrate an e p iso d e y o u rem em b er from
yo u r childhood y e ars.

T e sfv l 4R ead th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

A Cup Final is a drama and it has its script. Losers,


too, have lines to follow. They shake hands with the
winners, smile wanly over their medals, wave to their
crowd and walk away to leave the stage for those
rejoicing. And there at the entrance of the tunnel,
leaving sunshine that bears down like a spotlight, cold
reality returns. Clemence is first. He is a big, generally
gentle, m an... he would trample down children as he
covers the next 50 yards, staring sightlessly ahead.

Then Keegan. Trotting. A TV hand grabs him around the


shoulders and steers him towards a waiting interviewerand-camera ; he goes without protest, as though to an
execution with no hope of reprieve. Kennedy manages a
wide grin and a joke for photographers. The grin drops
from his face like a shutter two paces further on. Then
Case, head down and muttering. Then Jones, head up,
eyes misty.
Inside the Liverpool dressing-room there is a silence
that screams. Players move about like men under water.
Some begin stripping for the bath. Most just sit. It
doesnt seem possible that you can have 20 men gazing
around a medium-sized room and none of them meeting
another eye. Yet they manage it.
From J o u rn ey to Wembley by Brian James

R ephrase th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s so th a t th e m ean in g


s ta y s th e sam e.

a) Kennedy manages a wide grin although he would


rather scream.
In spite ..............................................................................................
b) Have I met you before ? I cant remember.
I cant remember .........................................................................
c) They suggested walking away to leave the stage to the
winners.
Lets ...................................................................................................
d) A dropped cigarette probably started the fire.
The fire ..............................................................................................
e) The train arrived much later than I expected.
I hadnt .............................................................................

f) Even though they disliked him, they agreed


to help him.
D esp ite.........................................................................

A rgu e for or a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g sta te m e n t :

By practising a sport you build your body and your


character.

T b-s + ia I &

w R ead th e te x t an d co m m en t on it.

The crowd eggs me on : A li! A li! Bomaye !


I hear Kid Gavilan, the old Cuban Champion of a
thousand fights, telling me Ali, the crowd 11 push you
on like they own a piece of you, like theres something
in their life that depends on whether you live or die.
And youll get into something too deep to back down.
Youve been calling out Im the prettiest, Im the
greatest! See how pretty I am. Not a scratch ! They
laugh, but one day the people will test you out. They will
send you into a den to take meat out of the lions mouth
and see who comes out the prettiest. If you die trying,
theyll be sorry for you, but if you back down theyll
remember you as a phony forever. When you fight for
the title, you lay it all on the line. [ . . . ] A reporter claws
his way through the crowd and yells at me How did
you do it, World Heavyweight Champion ! W hat you
think of George now ?

I shake my head. I want to go to my dressing room. I


dont want to tell him what George has taught me. That
too many victories weaken you. That the defeated can
rise up stronger than the victory.
From The Greatest M y Own Story
by Muhammad Ali with Richard Durham

M atch th e q u estio n s an d th e an sw e rs.

a) How do you do ?
b) How are you ?
c) How have you been ?
d) How about going to the cinema ?
e) How was the concert ?
f) Hows the garden ?
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

It was very enjoyable.


Very well, thank you. And you ?
How do you do ?
Not bad, but I had a cold last week.
Yes, lets.
Coming along nicely.

A
W

Think of an ex am p le to illu stra te th e fo llo w in g :

The defeated can rise up stronger than the victory.

Read th e te x t an d co m m en t on it.

If you really want to hear about it, the first thing youll
probably want to know is where I was born, and what
my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were
occupied and all before they had me, and all that David
Copperfield kind of crap, but I dont feel like going into
i t . .. Where I want to start telling is the day I left Pencey
Prep. Pencey Prep is this school thats in Agerstown,
Pennsylvania. You probably heard of it. Youve probably
seen the ads, anyway. They advertise in about a thousand
magazines, always showing some hot-shot guy on a horse
jumping over a fence. Like as if all you ever did at
Pencey was play polo all the time. I never even once saw
a horse anywhere near the place. And underneath the
guy on the horses picture it always says : Since 1888
we have been moulding boys into splendid, clearthinking young m en. Strictly for the birds. They dont
do any damn more moulding at Pencey then they do at
any other school. And I didnt know anybody there that
was splendid and clear-thinking and all.
Maybe two guys. If that many. And they probably
came to Pencey that way.
From The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger

C ho o se th e right verb an d / or su p p ly th e righ t form .

a) It is our companys policy to deal with problems as


they (arise / rise).

b) It looks as if the hijackers had been (lay / lie) in wait.


c) The young man has (fall / fell) three trees today.
d) The business was (find / found) in 1901.
e) How7many soldiers were (wind / wound) in battle ?
f) I cant remember the times she has (lie / lay) to me.

If yo u w ere in H olden's p lace (th e ch a ra cte r in The


Catcher in the Rye) h o w w o u ld y o u d escrib e yo u r school and
th e influence it had on yo u r d e v e lo p m e n t?

Tesful
R ead th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

I was way early when I got there, so I just sat down on


one of those leather couches next to the clock in the
lobby and watched the girls. A lot of schools were home
for vacation already, and there were about a million girls
sitting and standing around waiting for their dates to
show up. Girls with their legs crossed, girls with their
legs not crossed, girls with terrific legs, girls with lousy
legs, girls that looked like swell girls, girls that looked
like theyd be bitches if you knew them. It was really
nice sightseeing, if you know what I mean. In a way, it
was sort of depressing, too, because you kept wondering
what the hell would happen to all of them. When they
got out of school and college, I mean. You figured most
of them would probably m arry dopey guys. Guys that
always talk about how many miles they get to a gallon in
their goddam cars. Guys that get sore and childish as hell

if you beat them at golf, Guys that are very mean.


Guys that never read books. Guys that are boring.
Maybe you shouldnt feel too sorry if you see some swell
girl getting m arried to them. They dont hurt anybody
most of them.
From The Catcher in the Rye by J.D .Salinger

Correct th e errors (th ere a re six errors).

For the past eight years or so ago, Lecturer in Zoology


Tim Guilford and his colleagues have spent a lot of times
anxiously scrutinizing the horizon, stopwatch in hand,
waited for the return of a pigeon to the loft at the
University Field Station in Wytham. The researches is
devoted to understanding the clues that pigeons use to
enable their to navigate around their home territory. It
seem we do not know much about what most animals
fill their time with that is, finding their way around
their familiar area in relation to each other and to home.

<
H ave y o u e v er described a p erso n a s b elo n g in g to th e
ty p e " g u y s th at n ever read books" ? If yo u h ave, d escribe
th a t p e r s o n ; if not, try to im ag in e w h a t he could look like.

T e -stu l &

i:

R ead th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the


Gulf Stream and he had gone eighty-four days now
without taking a fish. In the first forty days a boy had
been with him. But after forty days without a fish the
boys parents had told him that the old man was now
definitely and finally a failure, which is the worst form of
unlucky, and the boy had gone at their orders in another
boat which caught three good fish the first week. It
made the boy sad to see the old man come in each day
with his skiff empty and he always went down to help
him carry either the coiled lines or the gaff and harpoon
and the sail that was furled around the mast. The sail
was patched with flour sacks and, furled, it looked like
the flag of permanent defeat.
The old man was thin and gaunt with deep wrinkles in
the back of the neck. The brown blotches of the
benevolent skin cancer the sun brings from its reflection
on the tropic sea were on his cheeks. The blotches ran
well down the sides of his face and his hands had the
deep-creased scars from handling heavy fish on the
cords. But none of these scars were fresh. They were as
old as erosions in a fishless desert.
From The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway

W rite full se n te n ce s from th e prom pt w o rd s, a d d in g a n y


n e c e s s a r y w o rd s and p u ttin g th e verb s into a su ita b le form .

a) No-one / have / a chance / yet / predict / outcome /


this dispute / certainty.
b) I / believe / contrary / public / opinion / project /
every/ chance/ success.
c) Their / decision / he / be promoted / good.
d) She / insisted / I / not talk / anyone / what / I / see.
e) Imagine / you / be / completely / blind.
f) I / be / never / so / insulted.

D escribe a p erso n w h o h a s influenced yo u r life


v ery much.

He did not like to look at the fish any more since he


had been mutilated. W hen the fish had been hit it was as
though he himself were hit.
But I killed the shark that hit my fish, he thought. And
he was the biggest dentuso that I have ever seen. And
God knows that I have seen big ones.
It was too good to last, he thought. I wish it had been a
dream now that I had never hooked the fish and was
alone in bed on the newspapers.
But man is not made for defeat, he said. A man can

be destroyed but not defeated. I am sorry that I killed


the fish though he thought. Now the bad time is
coming and I do not even have the harpoon. The
dentuso is cruel and able and strong and intelligent.
But I was more intelligent than he was. Perhaps not, he
thought. Perhaps I was only better armed.
From The Old Man and the Sea by Ernest Hemingway

C om plete each se n te n ce in a su ita b le w ay.

a) He doesnt like to look at the mutilated fish.


If o n ly ...........hit by the shark.
b) W hat a pity. I wish I .................... killed the fish,
though.
c) The better armed you are, t h e ....................... chances
you have to win.
d) He said that m a n ..........................made for defeat.
e) I killed the first shark. If only I ....................... my
harpoon to kill the others as well.
f) He looked as though h e .............................hit by the
shark.

A rgu e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

Man can be destroyed but not defeated.

T s -s -KaI

c) You can come and stay with me. (put)


d) Terry arrived early, but it was not necessary, (neednt)

Read th e te x t an d co m m en t on it.

e) Brian seems to have left, (it)


For most of the past two and a half million years
human beings left their garbage where it fell. Oh, they
sometimes tidied up their sleeping and activity areas,
but that was about all. This disposal scheme functioned
adequately, because hunters and gatherers frequently
abandoned their campgrounds to follow game or find
new stands of plants. Man faced his first garbage crisis
when he became a sedentary animal when, rather than
move himself, he chose to move his garbage.
There are no ways of dealing with it that havent been
known for many thousands of years. These ways are
essentially four : dumping it, burning it, converting it
into something that can be used again and minimizing
the volume of material goods future garbage that is
produced in the first place (source reduction, as it is
called). Every civilization of any complexity has used all
four methods to varying degrees.
From The Atlantic

R ephrase th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s by u sin g th e ind icated


w ord so th a t th e m ean in g s ta y s th e sam e.

a) Im afraid that we havent got any eggs left, (run)


b) This town is a bit like Sheffield, (reminds)

f) Diane left my house at ten oclock, (until)

A rgu e for or a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

Man has been propelled along the path toward


civilization by his need for a class at the bottom of the
social hierarchy that could be assigned the task of
dealing with mounting piles of garbage.

X t t + e r w e d i + e

Proba s c ris a

...TesMI
' Fill in th e blanks w ith o n e su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly one
w ord for each blank.

Minty knew the moment that he g o t ...........in the


morning that this was one of his days. He sang gently
t o ...................... as he shaved. A spider watched him
under his tooth glass ; i t ............ been there five days.
He w o n d ered ............ long it would live. He watched
................ and it watched him back with shaggy
patience. It had lost a l e g ................ he put the glass
over it. He picked a stump of cig arette ............ the soaptray and lit it. Then he stu d ie d .......................... hair in
the m irror o f ................ wardrobe d o o r; this was one of
his days ; he m u s t................ prepared for anything,
even society.

Translate into English.

a) De-ar fi tiut de la nceput despre ce era vorba n


roman, nu l-ar mai fi cumprat.
b) Mi s-a spus s nu vorbesc pn ce nu ajung la captul
culoarului.
c) De-ar fi avut rbdare, ar fi descoperit c nimeni nu-i
dorete rul.

d) De ndat ce ajungi acas, s dai telefon prinilor


mei.
e) De-abia a intrat n magazin c i-a adus aminte
c nu avea bani.
f) Cum a putea s nu apreciez eforturile sale de
adaptare cnd nu este nimeni care s-l ajute mcar
cu un sfat.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s n arrate ab o u t a norm al d a y in yo u r
life w h ile on holiday.

-b s M

-2 .

Fill in th e blanks w ith one su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly o n e


w ord for each blank.

Patients recover more quickly from surgery when tapes


with hypnotic suggestions are ......................to them on
the operating table. While under anaesthetic, they were
told : Y ou....................... not suffer. You will not have
......................pain. Those given such suggestions had
fewer com plications......................others after surgery
and left hospital sooner. The experiment was set up
......................St Thomass after doctors found patients
could sometimes recall things said during operations.
The ex p erim en t............................conducted on 19
women. The w o m e n ,...............had consented to the
experiment, .................................played a 12-minute
recording repeated six times. Most of the tape gave
details o f ....................... normal procedures following the
operation and how to cope .............................them.

Translate into English.

a) Nu l-a ascultat cnd le-a spus cum s ajung la gar


i acum i pare ru.
b) Maria l-a ntrebat pe profesor dac ar fi fost mai
bine s se nscrie la cursul de optic.
c) Nu i-ar fi dorit s rmn singur n cas deoarece
i era ngrozitor de fric de stafii.
d) Mai sunt trei kilometri pn la primul sat.
e) Li s-a prut greu s neleag cursul profesorului de
filosofie, deoarece nu citiser bibliografia.
f) Mcar de-ar fi avut noroc la bingo !

In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s describ e a trip in th e m o un tain s.

( 1 Fill in th e blanks w ith o ne su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly o ne


w ord for each blank.

School-aged daughters of employed mothers tend to


................ consistently high academic performance.
School-aged sons t e n d ..................have better social and
personality adjustments as well .................... higher
academic achievement if their mothers work outside the
home. Children of working mothers a ls o .................... less
likely to have stereotyped perceptions of life roles
..........................the basis of being male or female.
The newly evolved....................... of fathers and the

concept of shared parenting have led some corporations


t o ....................... paternity-leave policies, b u t ........................
than one percent of eligible men make use of them.
Federal leg islatio n ....................... been introduced to
guarantee paternity le a v e ......................provisions for
reinstatement.

Translate into English.

a) Nu a putut s conduc pn acas din cauza ceii.


b) De n-ar fi fost prinii notri s vin s ne salveze, am
fi m urit de foame i de sete n acea caban prsit.
c) Tare a vrea s l cunosc pe Richard Gere.
d) Este imposibil ca el s fi spart geamul, era cu mine la
cinema.
e) Dac te grbeti, o s prinzi trenul.
f) i-a adus aminte cnd a pus scrisoarea la pot, dar nu
mai tie dac a cumprat i timbru.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t :

The child is good, society makes him bad.

Testul 4
Fill in th e blanks w ith o ne su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly one
w ord for each blank.

The Japanese have a strong aesthetic sense : they


beautify, embellish, adorn and d ec o ra te...............................
they touch. A sandwich in Japan i s ....................... just a

sandwich, it is a ......................of art. It is c u t ..................


an artistic shape it can be circular, octagonal
............................star-shaped . Every dish is aimed
.......................... the eye as well as the palate.
Every taxi-driver has a small vase i n ......................of him,
with a beautiful, fresh, dark-red flower in it. One
evening I was w a lk in g ......................one of the suburbs
of Tokyo and saw a heap of rubbish in the backyard
......................a factory. All the boxes were piled
............................a graceful if somewhat whimsical
pyram id.

Translate into English.

a) Este cunoscut drept cel mai bun violonist din lume.


b) Prietenul meu m-a rugat s nu spun nimnui c a
rmas far bani.
c) Dac e vreme frumoas vom pleca la munte.
d) E timpul s nu ne mai certm ; doar avem interese
comune.
e) i-a amintit c trebuia s vorbeasc la telefon cu noua
profesoar de pian.
f) Nici nu s-a uitat bine la ea c i-a adus aminte de
unde o cunoate.

In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s e n la rg e upon th e fo llo w in g
state m e n t:

Eat to live, and not live to eat.

Fill in th e blanks w ith o n e su ita b le w ord. Use o n ly one


w ord for each blank.

For the last year I h a v e ......................g*ng out with a


very nice man called Peter. Im very fo n d ......................
Peter in lots of ways. We have a calm, peaceful
relationship and he has asked me to m a r r y .......................
I would say yes if i t ................ not for Roger.
Roger is my ex-boyfriend. We went out together
....................... three years. We b ro k e ......................... because
he fo u n d ........................... woman he said he loved more.
I didnt h e a r ....................... Roger for a long time but last
week he p h o n e d ......................again. W h a t........................
you do if you were me ?

Translate into English.

a) Orice ai crede, nu doresc s pleci de aici far s-i iei


rmas bun.
b) Dac ar fi avut rbdare, l-ar fi cunoscut pe viitorul lor
profesor de schi.
c) Maria m i-a povestit cum ajunsese acas nainte ca
mama ei s soseasc i s observe c nu pierduse cheile.
d) De-ar fi mult lume pe stadion, biletele ar fi mai
ieftine.
e) Este imposibil ca Monica s fi plecat far s-i ia
bagajul.
f) Locuiete mpreun cu o mtu btrn de mai bine
de doi ani.

In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s exe m p lify th e fo llo w in g s ta te m e n t:

e) Dac vorbeti mai rar, te vom nelege cu toii.


f) De zece ani nu mai locuiete nimeni n aceast cas.

Except for rare life-and-death matters, nothing is as


important as it first seems.

In a b o u t 2 5 0 w ord s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g

sta te m e n t:

The best friend we are left with is our favourite book.


Fill in th e blanks w ith o n e su ita b le w ord . U se o nly one
w ord for each blank.

W hat exactly is a lie ? Is i t .....................we say which we


know is untrue ? Or is it som ething..........................than
that ? For example, suppose a frie n d .....................to
borrow some m o n ey............................you. You say I wish
I
help you but Im s h o rt...................... money
myself. I n .................... , you are not short of money but
your friend is in t h e ......................of not paying his debts
and you dont ..................to hurt his feelings by
....................... him of this.

Translate into English.

a) S-au hotrt s nu-1 mai atepte pe Horia deoarece


se facea ntuneric.
b) L-a rugat s-i cumpere un bilet de cinema i s se
ntlneasc chiar n faa cinematografului.
c) Cnd au ajuns la hotel, camera pe care o rezervaser
se ocupase.
d) La aeroport trebuie s prezini paaportul i biletul de

Fill in th e blanks w ith one su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly one


w ord for each blank.

Alison closed the door of her small flat and put down
her briefcase. As...................... , she had brought
............................work home from the travel agency. She
wanted ..................have a quick bite to eat and then,
.......................... spending a few hours working, she was
looking forward t o .......................... television or listening
t o ....................... music. She w a s ........................about to
start preparing her dinner....................... there was a knock
...................... the door. She went to the door and opened
it w ide..........................to see who it w as.

Translate into English.

a) Dac ar fi cumprat carne proaspt aa cum le


spusese Corina, acum ar fi mncat friptur cu cartofi
prjii.
b) De fric s nu afle prinii ei adevrul, Mihaela a fugit
de acas.

c) Dac m i-ai fi spus c ai nevoie de bani, te-a fi


mprumutat.
d) Este absolut ciudat s pleci de acas far s i aduni
bagajul necesar pentru o astfel de cltorie.
e) Ne-a promis s scrie de ndat ce va ajunge pe
pmnt american.
f) De-ar avea dreptate, i-a acorda toat ncrederea mea.

In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s describ e y o u r fav o u rite sin ger

or b and.

Fill in th e blanks w ith o ne su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly one


w ord for each blank.

Translate into English.

a) De-ar fi s trieti zece ani pe o insul pustie, ce cri


i-ai lua cu tine ?
b) El nu poate nelege de ce eful departamentului nu
i- dat crezare atunci cnd a povestit despre excursia sa
n Africa.
c) Suntei convini c acesta este vagonul pe care l
cutai ?
d) Nimic nu este mai suprtor dect un prieten fals.
e) De m-a duce la munte sptmna aceasta, a putea
s cumpr nite brnz i nite ou proaspete.
f) Meseria de ziarist nseamn mult oboseal i puin
somn.
gg/ b
In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s a n sw e r th e fo llo w in g q u estio n :

The number killed in the Bradford City football ground


disaster has risen to 52 ; m o r e ...............70 police and
spectators have also been d e tain e d ......................hospital.
The match w a s ............................recorded by Yorkshire TV
when the fire began. Most of the spectators rushed
forwards to the pitch t o ......................the blaze. In the
panic, .......................... spectators were crushed, and
police a n d .....................fans ran back to the stands to
help ........................
Police think that the b la z e ...................... started by a
dropped cigarette. T h e y ......................found out that fireextinguishers ......................been removed from the stands
because they had been used in the past by fans as
missiles.

If you were going to spend the rest of your days in


some wild place and could take only two books with
you, which would you choose ?

T e stu l 9

i ' Fill in th e blanks w ith o n e su ita b le w ord. Use o nly one


w ord for each blank.

How soon will it be before robots b ec o m e ......................


intelligent that th e y ....................... be able
to do jobs which at the m o m e n t......................human
beings can do, such as teaching languages or looking
....................... patients in hospital ?

One London company h a s ............................developed


machines that c a n ..................used as home-helps for old
p e o p le ...................... to look after themselves and
....................... are living on their own or in special homes.
Robots could do a w id e ......................of household tasks,
s u c h ................ preparing meals, washing dishes, cleaning
the house and so on.

Translate into English.

a) Vnztorul refuz s dea banii napoi cumprtorului.


b) Muncitorii lucrau deja de dou ore cnd se produse
accidentul.
c) Dei scrisoarea a fost scris acum o lun, nu a sosit
nici pn acum la destinaie.
d) Sara joac tenis de doi ani, de cnd a renunat
la volei.
e) A plouat toat sptmna.
f) Au promis c vor construi acest pod n mai puin
de doi ani.

In ab o u t 2 5 0 w o rd s exe m p lify th e fo llo w in g s t a t e m e n t :

If there is a book you really want to read but it hasnt


been written yet, then you must write it.

Fill in th e blanks w ith one su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly o ne


w ord for each blank.

The jum per I had been g iv e n ....................... my birthday


was too small for me, and one day while showing some
friends around London, I thought i t .................... be
sensible to dash into the large.................................store
where it had been bought a n d ........................... it for a
larger one. I ...................... my friends to wait in the car
and ru s h e d ..................the store. The girl I
spoke....................... at the counter was extremely helpful
b u t .............................they had no others in my size, so
......................left with the original gift a f te r ........................it
and the receipt for it back in my bag.

Translate into English.

a) Cnd a prim it telegrama cheltuise deja jumtate


din suma de bani pe care i- dduse mtua lui.
b) De-ar merge mai iute, am ajunge la teatru tocmai
bine.
c) Este imposibil ca el s fi uitat de prietenii lui i de
promisiunile fcute cu doi ani n urm.
d) S-au plictisit s atepte s stea ploaia, aa c au
plecat acas.
e) De ce nu ncerci s pui ap cald n vas ?
f) Este considerat cel mai atractiv actor de teatru.

In ab o u t 2 5 0 w ord s describe yo u r fav o u rite city.

Pre-iw+eirwediA+e
(p e n tru

D escribe o n e trip to th e m o u n tain s th a t y o u enjo yed .

m m o r i + A + i

s\
limbd - ')
j
Proba orala

J^ hL L
R ead th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

T e stu l I

Both the British and the Americans value a sense of


humour and highly appreciate people who have it. The
two sayings : No humour, no so u l! and Better poor
than no hum our express this idea. A high value is also
placed on the ability to resort to humour when in
trouble or difficulties, to laugh in the face of adversity.
Puns, a play upon words are particularly appropriate to
English, which is rich in words and phrases that have
various meanings. Shakespeare was very fond of using
puns, in both comic and serious contexts. Many British
people find puns very entertaining.

Have you ever wondered what it was like to live in a


mediaval castle ? Nine hundred years ago, the Norman
conquerors built castles near the Scottish and Welsh
borders. The Great hall was used for eating, for
ceremonial occasions, for playing and sometimes for
sleeping. The chimney of the Great Chamber, where the
lord met high officials, has been repaired but the room
still needs to be furnished.
In spite of the fact that most of the old castle has been
restored and new parts have been added, there are still
things which need to be done to give back its medieval
splendour.
Castles like this one may be in need of restoration but
still they tell us about the changes in English domestic
and cultural life over the past 900 years.

Read th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

C om plete th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s.

a) I wish I ....................................
b) They couldnt have .............
c) If they come on time .........
d) Never have I .........................
e) She told m e ...........................
f) They will come back when

C om plete th e se n te n ce s w ith fo r or since.

a) I have known h e r ................I was in highschool.


b) They have been living h e r e ............. twenty years.
c)
I met her, I cant forget her.
d) He worked in our sh o p .............. two years.
e) She has been studying G erm an................ 1976.
f) We will go to the m ountains.............. two weeks.

TesH ! 4
S p eak ab o u t a sh o w th a t yo u liked m ost.
Read th e te x t and com m ent on it.

She is only twelve years old, but she has already been
Junior Golf World Champion five times. The youngest
golf player to have won five consecutive times, she has
made it into the Guinness Book of Records too.
Lorena Ochoa, from Guadalajara, Mexico, started
playing golf when she was three.
When Lorena qualified for her first Junior Golf World
Championship at the age of eight, I had doubts about
taking her to San Diego to play in it. I was afraid the
pressure would be too much for her or that she would
be too upset if she didnt w in her father recalls.

C om plete th e fo llo w in g se n te n ce s.

a) The teacher didnt know ....................................................


b) Angela has bought .................................................................
c) It was a good idea .................................................................
d) Its high time ..........................................................................
e) I wish you .................................................................................
f) She reminded him .................................................................

Peter Kerry, the 14 year-old who fulfilled his fantasy by


running away to the Far East, arrived back in Britain
yesterday morning. Confronted by sixty photographers
and journalists, Peter looked unhappy and said he had
no idea what the fuss was about. I have wanted to go
to Malaysia for quite a while. I was interested to see
what it would be like. Its a nice coutry, and an
interesting one at that.
Peter, who seems perhaps to be at odds with his parents,
ran away last Tuesday following an argument over a can
of spilt spaghetti and travelled by plane to Kuala
Lumpur.

C om plete the se n te n ce s by u sin g it or there.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

is nice today, isnt it ?


is a car in the streets.
is a week since I last saw him.
was nobody to tell us where to go.
is five oclock.
is Tom who spent his holidays abroad.

Sp eak ab o u t yo u r fav o u rite p astim e.

S p eak ab o u t yo u r fu tu re plans.

T f ts ih A L ^ .
Read th e te x t an d com m ent on it.

A keen golfer and lover of music, Sony chief executive


Akio Morita wanted a lightweight machine that would
play cassettes and could be taken everywhere. It had
to have stereo sound, and the hi-fi components had
to be made small and light enough for it to be carried
around easily.
It was widely believed within Sony that the personal
stereo wouldnt sell. Apart from its inability to record,
it was thought that users would find the headphones
annoying.
M oritas music on the move has become entertainment
on the move and not only for golfers !

C om plete th e fo llo w in g se n ten ces.

a) If he went on toot, .................................................................


b) He spoke as if he ...................................................................
c) Maria asked me w h e th er.......................................................
d) Bring the red book with you when ..................................
e) The person who ......................................................................
f) I wish I ........................................................................................

S p eak ab o u t yo u r hobby.

P r e - m + e r m e d i + e

Proba s&r'isS

JfesMJL
Fill in the blanks w ith a su ita b le w ord. Use o n ly one
w ord for each blank.

There were six of u s ............. dinner that night at M ikes


house in London. Pratt was a famous e x p e rt..................
tasting wine. When discussing wine, h e ....................... a
curious habit of referring to it a s ......................it were a
living being. On such occasions, Mike u s e d ..................
play a little betting game with Pratt, challenging him to
name not only the wine, ....................... also the vineyard,
..................type and the year. P ra tt...................... won.
During the meal, while we were having snacks, Mike
...............that the wine w e ......................... drink was
something unusual.

Translate into English.

a) Te atept la caban dac nu vrei s te grbeti.


b) Mama este n buctrie de azi diminea.
c) Nu sunt de acord cu plecarea voastr la munte pe o
vreme ca asta.
d) De vrei sau nu vrei, o s stai cu noi la toate edinele.
e) Tare a vrea s-l ntlnesc !
f) Este posibil ca el s plece la munte iar s mai atepte
grupul.

In ab o u t 2 0 0 w o rd s describ e th e w a y yo u sp e n t o ne d a y
of yo u r w in ter holiday.

Fill in th e blanks w ith o n e su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly


o n e w ord for each blank.

c) Avionul urm a s decoleze la ora 5, dar din cauza ceii


decolarea s-a amnat.
d) Teatrul Globe se afl la Londra.
e) Studenii care frecventeaz biblioteca facultii au
dreptul la o mas gratuit.
f) Mi s-a spus s aduc o pine i un cuit.

In ab o u t 2 0 0 w o rd s n arrate one h ap p y m om ent th a t

you rem em ber from yo u r childhood.

T h e average pocket money for 12-16 year olds


.......................... 5 pounds a week, according to a survey.
Kids spend more of their pocket money on drink
......................anything else. Crisps, sw e e ts........................ice
cream are the second biggest expense.
T h e y ......................whatever I want as much
.................... they manage to save. Comics and magazines
come n e x t .................... their list of preferences and they
seem to ................. more CDs and cassettes than books
and stationery. British teen ag ers......................rather have
a monthly allo w an ce...................... the traditional weekly
sum of pocket money. They say th e y ......................control
their affairs much better if they receive a certain amount
per month.

Translate into English.

a) Nu voi pleca pn nu tie toat lumea care este


adevrul.
b) Maria era att de suprat, nct nu a vzut maina
venind din stnga.

Fill in th e blanks w ith one su ita b le w ord. Use only


o ne w ord for each blank.

No one would deny t h a t ...............computer has


increased peoples working capacity, as w e ll......................
their intellectual abilities. W ith its help, people
.................... do more and better things in a shorter
period of time. However, ......................is an alarming
body of opinion that says that prolonged exposure to the
v id e o .......................... can cause physical and
.............................disorder. On the one hand, some people
consider t h e .......................... as a friend but on the othe
hand it is considered...............deadly enemy.
P eo p le..........................believe that the computer has a
positive im p a c t............................their lives mention first
of all the joy and pleasure they have in working with it.

Translate into English.

a) De luni diminea tot ncerc s trim it acest fax.


b) Cum a ajuns acas, s-a dus n sufragerie i a scos
din bibliotec toate crile pe care le cumprase n
ultimul an.
c) Nu nelegea de ce trebuie s fie el cel care s
pzeasc avionul prsit.
d) Dac a cunoate traseul, v-a duce pn la hotel.
e) Nici nu vroia s asculte de sfaturile prietenilor si
i nici de sfaturile specialitilor.
f) -ar fi s cumprm o barc i s mergem la
pescuit ?

In a b o u t 2 0 0 w o rd s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t th e fo llo w in g
sta te m e n t:

Instead of studying in a classroom youd better travel


around the world.

T e s tu l 4
Fill in th e blanks w ith o n e su ita b le w ord. U se only
one w ord for each blank.

A short while ago, Nick Moss was an ordinary


schoolboy. Now he is a well-paid m o d e l......................gets
constant offers of work.
His is t h e ....................... of success story which fuels the
im agination......................thousands of young people

round the world. It all sta rte d ..................chance when


he was sp o tted ..........................his sister Kates modeling
agency.
Success sto ries.................... Nicks are rare. If you think
a modeling career d ep en d s....................... looks alone,
youre i n .............................a disappointment.
I wasnt a handsome kid a n d ....................... dont think
Ive got much b e tte r ......................age says Nick
modestly.

Translate into English.

a) Cnd a ajuns lng poliist i-a adus aminte c


nu se oprise la rou.
b) Dac vrei s m ajui, cumpr ultima carte de
exerciii aprut.
c) St n aceast cas de cnd prinii ei au adus-o
de la ar.
d) Chiar dac ar dori s rezolve totul ntr-o secund,
nu ar putea din cauza timpului pierdut.
e) L-am anunat c trec pe la el, ca s nu plece de acas.
f) Ninge de cnd am cobort din tren.

In a b o u t 2 0 0 w o rd s n arrate th e book th a t influenced


yo u v ery much.

f) De fiecare dat cnd a dorit s-l cunoasc pe Peter


Fonda, s-a ntm plat s fie alt invitat mai important
dect el i s nu mai fie prezentat.
Fill in th e blanks w ith o n e su ita b le w ord. U se o n ly
o n e w ord for each blank.

0
Have you ever wondered why we sleep, and..................
happens to your body and your brain once you have shut
your eyes ? Thanks to research carried o u t .....................
sleep laboratories it is now possible to find out.
The sleep cycle..........................three different phases
......................are repeated through the night. If you
......................unlucky enough to have insomnia one night,
....................... other members of your family sleeping.
Perhaps......................can guess what phase they are
.................... and from the expressions on their
..........................you may even g u e ss............................ they
are dream ing!

Translate into English.

a) Copilul a nceput s scrie far s fie atent


la ortografie.
b) I-au trebuit trei ani ca s construiasc o cas att
de solid.
c) I s-a spus s se gndeasc bine dac vrea s vorbeasc
la tribunal sau nu.
d) Maria l-a ntrebat pe primar de ce nu primesc copiii
caiete i creioane gratuit.
e) Mama nu term in niciodat treaba n cas nainte
de miezul nopii.

In a b o u t 2 0 0 w ord s a rg u e for an d a g a in s t :

Chidlhood is that period in your life when you can do


whatever you want.

S o l u +> i i l e e Xwe v c +
i\ \ o r

de
1. tables, matches, glasses, feet, gases, victories, thieves,
policemen, analyses, potatoes, valleys, fish, radios, foxes,
knives
2. a) Buses are the cheapest way of getting into town.
b) The children were waiting for you.
c) These tomatoes have gone bad.
d) Male deer usually have horns on their heads.
e) He lost two / his front teeth in the fight. / They lost
their front teeth in the fight.
f) Theyve published two / several series of readers for
students of English.
g) Are they the original drawings or are they copies ?
h) Wolves are wild animals that look like dogs.
3. a) knowledge is, b) homework, c) Physics is, d)
luggage, e) Here is th e ... news.
4. a) information, b) fish, c) has, d) luggage, e) is,
f) experience, g) heros, h) parties
5. a) friends parents / friends parents, b) fathers
office, c) doctors hands, d) days rest, e) brothers
name, sisters f) childrens new toys, g) a m iles distance,
h) Jam ess bike, i) of my fathers, j) newsagents
6. ) [], b) [], ) [Si], d) [], e) [], f) [],
g) [], h) [<M, i) [6i], j) [], ) [], 1) []
7. a) a, b) , ) a, d) an, ) a, f) an, g) a, h) a i) ,
j) , ) , 1)

8. a) the, , ; b) the, ; ) ; d) ; ) ; f) ;
g) an, the ; h) the ; i) the ; j) - ; ) - ; 1) - ; m) - ; ) - ;
) , the ; p) the, the ; q) ; r) , ; s) the, the ; t) the
9. a) a, b) one, c) a, d) one, e) a, f) one
10. , , the, the, the, the, , the, the, the, a, the, ,
the, , the, , the, , the, the, the
11. a) cheap cheaper the cheapest, b) wide wider
the widest, c)small smaller the smallest,
d) sad sadder the saddest, e) bad worse
the worst, f) useful more useful the most useful,
g) self-sufficient more self-sufficient the most self
sufficient, h) cool cooler the coolest, i) narrow
narrower / more narrow the narrowest / the most
narrow, j) little less the least
12. a) Bucharest is bigger than Ploieti.
b) My brother is older than me.
c) Her watch is more expensive than mine.
d) The crop this year is better than last year.
e) Life in the country is healthier than life in a town.
f) He is more generous than I thought.
g) It is worse than I expected.
h) Rome is farther from London than Paris.
13. a) tiring, b) bored, c) confused, d) confusing,
e) terrified
14. a) the best, cheaper ; b) the most famous ;
c) the oldest / the eldest, younger; d) the most popular,
more popular; e) more comfortable, the fastest
15. a) the last chapter, c) older, e) less tiring,
f) thinner and thinner, g) the worst time,
h) W hat an exciting idea !

16. a) TV programmes are more and more interesting.


b) It is colder and colder and the days are shorter and
shorter.
c) This story is more and more boring.
d) The more exciting the match, the louder
the spectators shouted.
e) The more he trained, the fewer mistakes he was
making.
17. a) in a friendly way, b) high, c) hard, d) lately
18. a) She, him ; b) He, h e r ; c) We ; d) We ; e) u s ; f) it
19. a) This is, b) nothing, c) Someone, d) anything, e)
himself, f) They
20. a) His computer is more sophisticated than our
computer. His computer is more sophisticated than
ours.
b) Her essay was more interesting than his essay.
Her essay was more interesting than his.
c) Their garden is more beautiful than our garden.
Their garden is more beautiful than ours.
21. a) by myself, b) on their own, c) by yourself,
d) on our own
22. a) We couldnt see anything.
b) Everybody drinks coffee here.
c) No one answered when I phoned.
d) Everyone lost the last bus yesterday.
e) Is anyone going to introduce us there ?
23. a) The two young men were looking at each other
and they seemed to understand nothing / didnt seem
to understand anything.
b) Who else would like to share the cake with us ?
c) She complains diat she cant hear well.
d) The doctor himself told him to stop smoking.

e) You must go to bed much earlier.


f) Nobody helped her. She had to finish the project by
herself.
g) W hats the time ?
h) Its colder than I expected.
24. a) it is, b) it is, c) there are, it is, there is, d) it is,
it was, e) it was, there were, f) there is, there is, g) there
arent, h) it was, i) there is, j) it is
25. a) It was John who m et one of his friends in the
street yesterday.
b) It was a seat that Mr.White didnt get on his train this
morning.
c) It was after Christmas dinner that Victor heard this
story the first time.
d) It is trees that I would often climb when I was a boy.
e) It was only two topics of conversation that Sydney had.
f) It is every dish that is aimed at the eye as well as at
the palate.
g) It is for us that someone has left a parcel outside the
front door.
h) It is for Hogan that the results have been devastating.
i) It is she who is very anxious for her daughter to
succeed.
j) It is into the pockets of a few thousand that much of
the money has found its way.
26. a) It is really muggy today !
b) It is never too late to learn.
c) It is strange the train hasnt arrived.
d) It is no use crying over spilt milk.
e) There is a mall near the hotel.
f) It was you who went to Spain.

g) It is a long way to Craiova.


h) It is two weeks since you last wrote.
28. a) I think it is going to snow tonight.
b) If I walk, it will take me an hour to get there.
c) The schoolmistress found it hard to believe Emilys
story.
d) There is no smoke without fire.
e) It is three days since I left home.
f) It takes much courage to stay an honest man these days.
g) There comes a time when it is good to fight for your
rights.
h) There is a tall, bearded man with a large parcel in his
arms at the door.
i) It is Peter who broke the window pane,
j) There is a vase with roses on the table.
29. speaks, writes, goes, plays, reads, tries, has, does,
hurries, is, eats, misses, brushes, buys, watches, sees
30. uses, reads, listens, misses, likes, make, bring, tries
31. a) Do your neighbours have a dog ? Yes, they do.
b) Does the dog bark ? Yes, it does.
c) Does your cat like the dog ? No, it doesnt.
d) Does the cat chase the dog ? No, it doesnt.
e) Do they fight when they meet ? Yes, they do.
f) Do you like your neighbours dog ? No, I dont.
32. a) is taking off, b) are flying, c) is leaving, d) am
walking, e) is he sightseeing, f) are always complaining,
g) is not playing, h) am dying
33. a) turn right, b) go, c) think, d) are watching,
e) visits, f) does the postman come, g) is winning,
h) dont believe

34. a) hear, b) is teaching, c) do you do, d) dont


understand, e) gets, f) am thinking, g) think,
h) apologise
35. a) decided, b) tried, c) asked, d) wanted, e) had,
f) was, smiled, g) enjoyed, promised
36. had, went, were, returned, fell, got married, moved,
brought, built, made, enjoyed, wrote, felt, marked
37. a) Who did you meet ?
b) How much time did you spend together ?
c) W hich movie did you see ?
d) W here did you go ?
e) How long did you sit chatting ?
f) When did you go home ?
38. a) used to, b) used to / would, c) used to / would,
d) used to, e) would / used to, f) used to
39. a) went, was doing, it was c ryin g ; b) was studying,
m e t; c) were you doing, heard ; d) happened, were
spending, e) lifted, felt, f) had, were driving; g) phoned,
thanked ; h) didnt go, was raining
40. Possible answers :
a) I havent visited Australia.
b) Ive seen an Australian movie.
c) I havent spoken to an Aborigine.
d) I havent seen a real live kangaroo.
e) Ive heard about the Sydney Olympics.
f) Ive taken part in a competition.
g) Ive climbed a mountain.
h) Ive travelled by plane.
41. a) managed to, b) read, c) been, d) found, e) passed,
i) used, g) bought
42. a) has crashed, b) hit, c) have had, wrote, went,
d) hasnt made up his mind, e) Ive left, f) has risen,
g) Ive known, h) theyve grown, i) arrived

43. a) for, b) since, c) since, d) for, e) since, f) for


44. a) I havent seen Ann since 1998.
b) This is the first time Ive eaten octopus.
c) She hasnt spoken to Mike since she borrowed his car.
d) So far Ive w ritten three pages of my essay.
e) Its ages since I havent been abroad.
45. a) Georgiana has been living in LA since 1990
b) Miss Baines has been managing this project for
two years.
c) Hes been investing in our country for six months.
d) Theyve been building this road since last summer.
e) My brother has been sleeping for two hours.
f) My mother has been cooking since 11 oclock.
46. a) After / when I had told her the truth, I felt...
b) I watched War and Peace after I had read it.
c) After he had written an article, he listened to
m usic...
d) My father realised that he had lost the keys when
he went...
e) After / when I had saved for five years, I bought...
47. a) had eaten, thanked; b) had baked, ate ;
c) had checked, w e n t; d) had written, sen t; e) had
entered, stopped
48. a) Im going to, b) itll rain, c) is going to knock,
d) will win, e) are having, f) itsgoing to sink
49. a) Ill be sitting, b) hell be ready, c) will you be
doing, d) will have taken, e) see, f) is going to have
50. had, lay, would think, had fished, was, would stop,
ate, watched, ran, would take, started, had used, had,
was, kept, was, could
51. thanked, stayed, lay / was lying, had been thrown,
was, held, happened, has been riding, was, were
crossing, was, fell, was, wont forget, has done

52. It appears the rent has not been paid.


The old city centre is currently being rebuilt.
All the books have been sold.
An enourmous amount of money is spent on cigarettes.
Hundred of trees were uprooted.
Dont worry, the children w ill be looked after.
53. a) The old mans absence has been noticed by
nobody / hasnt been noticed.
b) Big profits were made by Connex last year.
c) The Danube Delta has been visited by many tourists.
d) A million books will have been sold by our publishing
house by the end of the year.
e) Your problem can be sold by a good doctor.
f) The interviews will be held next Monday.
g) His decision was approved of by all his friends.
h) The monotony of a long drive is broken up by
a car radio.
54. has been kidnapped, was devastated, had been
turned, was returned, is relieved
55. w'on, was awarded, was awarded, was made, have
been translated, are published, is married, has, lives
56. a) got, b) had, c) found, d) stopped, e) have,
f) take, g) went, h) should, i) should, j) should
57. a) were, b) were, c) were, d) spend, e) stopped,
f) were, g) come, h) talk, i) meant, j) were
58. a) I wish I didnt have to leave tonight.
b) jack acts as if he knew all the people in the room.
c) I wish they visited me.
d) If only I had had more help I could have solved
the problem.
e) Shed rather be a teacher than a translator.
f) He started explaining the problem as if he had
understood it.

g) Its high time the children went to bed.


h) If only they had left on tim e....
i) He wishes I hadnt told him the secret,
j) I wish you took this into account.
59. a) had not eaten, was available, had no way
b) was an island, contained a note, someone opened,
if only I could be
60. a) It is astonishing that a person of your education
should be taken in so easily.
b) She was afraid to speak / she didnt dare to speak lest
/ for fear he should recognise her voice.
c) I wish he got up earlier in the m orning!
d) He talked as if he was the only one who had been
on the trip.
e) The officer insisted that all those who wanted to go
on leave should fill in the form A.
f) He wishes his sons results met his expectations.
g) Its high time we did what we were told, otherwise
w ell be left without fire wood.
h) Id rather you hadnt found out the story before me
and you hadnt told it to all our friends.
i) Maria wishes she found the golden ring !
j) Far be it from me to spoil your pleasure but as it got
dark outside it is high time we left.
61. a) cant, b) could, c) shall, d) neednt, e) may,
f) shouldnt, g) might, h) ought to
62. a) He must b e ... b) Her husband must m ak e...
c) She cant be far away, d) You must be joking.
e) He cant spend... f) It must be Chris.
63. a) Shall we g o ... b) W ill you o p en ... c) Could you
help m e ... d) These trousers neednt be ironed, e) You
must hand in ... f) May I w a it... g) I ought to have

checked... h) W hen I was a child we would get up


early and go...
64. a) Jim cant have done it.
b) You neednt write this report.
c) You should stop smoking.
d) He may be waiting when we get there.
e) He shouldnt have given up his job.
f) You mustnt walk on the grass.
g) He must be planning to quit his job.
h) Boys will be boys.
65. a) needs, b) can, c) could have, d) could, e) ought,
f) were able to, g) must, h) would, i) dont have to,
j) could
66. a) had to, b) may not, c) may / might, d) ought to,
e) cant, f) could have, g) must, h) may / might
67. a) permission, b) advice, c) prediction, d) logical
probability; e) offer/ suggestion, f) necessity, g) necessity,
h) offer / suggestion, i) habit, j) advice, k) logical
probability, 1) willingness, m) typical behaviour,
n) certainty
68. a) Ill wash the car when I have some free time.
b) We wont start the meeting until everybody arrives.
c) Hell have to behave better when he goes to school.
d) They wont go away until she comes ;.
e) The old woman will be delighted when she hears
the news.
i) My friends will buy a new car when they have saved
enough money.
69. W hen all babies are grown in test tubes, no one will
naturally belong to a family.
By the time we reach home, the snow will have stopped.
The airport will remain closed, until further notice.

She borrowed a new book, as soon as she had finished


reading The M agus.
Let me know as soon as he gets here.
70. a) will you be, b) w ell go, c) Id give up,
d) he leaves, e) she had come, f) she would have waited,
g) he had tried, h) I would have met you
71. Possible answers :
If I could choose a holiday place, Id go to Hawaii.
If the weather is fine, Ill go for a walk.
If I went on a trip to London, I would like to see Albert
and Victoria Museum.
If I won a lottery prize, Id donate half of it to a charity.
If I had had more money, I would have bought
a better car.
7 2 . a) If you dont do something foolish, you wont
be fired.
b) Sue would have gone to the party if she hadnt
been ill.
c) Id help you if I knew what the problem is.
d) You wont get slimmer if you dont stop / unless
you stop eating to many cakes.
e) If I hadnt left the map at the hotel I wouldnt have
got lost.
f) I wouldnt have forgotten to buy sugar if I had made
a shopping list.
g) If you go to Paris by bus you pay less than if you go
by train.
h) Unless she had asked for a day off, M ary wouldnt
have got one.
73. a) She will be happy if she wins the competition
d) I would tell you her name if I knew it.
f) He will have a nervous breakdown if he goes on
working like this.

74. a) He said to her that he had seen them that day.


b) The boy told his mother not to be angry.
c) I asked my friend why he had come so late.
d) Tom greeted Mary.
e) The teacher asked the pupils if / whether they had
studied Shakespeare the year before / the previous year,
i) M ary promised her mother that she would write to
her evey week / M ary promised her mother to write to
her every week.
g) The officer ordered his soldiers to start digging.
h) Peter agreed.
i) The teacher asked how much water we had
in that bottle.
j) The assistant told him that he had to be ready
by ten oclock.
75. You may not believe it, but I took it. She claimed
she took it.
Look, if I were you, Id start raising some money for
my studies. She advised him to raise some money
for his studies.
I know, its silly but I cant remember your name.
He admitted not remembering her name.
Well, if you dont mind Ill have the fish pie.
He decided to have the fish pie.
How about our going to the swimming pool together ?
He suggested our going to the swimming pool together.
76. Mrs Hale said that she could have come. That she
had stayed away because it werent too cheerful and that
was why she ought to have come. She went on saying
that she had never liked the place. Maybe because
it was / is down in a hollow and you didnt / dont see
the road. She continued by saying that she didnt know/

doesnt know what it was / is but it was / is a lonesome


place and always had been / was.In the end Mrs Hale
said that she wished she had come over to see Minnie
Foster sometimes, as she could se e ...
77. a) The new fridge has arrived, where shall
we put it ?
b) Would you like to borrow this book ? the librarian
asked her.
Thank you, but I have already read it. she said.
c) If you dont like to take the lift, climb the stairs,
mother told her son.
d) W ill you have a raise in your salary ? they
asked me.
Yes, please. I answered.
e) Lets all the boys buy tickets for the girls and invite
them to the cinema, Paul said.
f) Well done, very good results, the teacher told
his students.
g) If your car had gone a few inches nearer the edge,
you would have been dead by now the policeman
explained to the driver.
h) Do you travel alone or with someone ?
the customs officer asked me.
i) W hat was the weather like during the week
you spent in London ? he asked me.
j) A Happy New Year, Im sorry for the delay.
7 8 . He didnt dare to open his mouth or try, in his
mind at least, to make a sentence as correct as possible.
If he hadnt refrained himself, he would have
undoubtedly exclaimed : It seems as if I am watching a
performance in bad taste ! Why should he use all these
words in such a pathetic, false way, when by all means he

is right, he is telling the truth ? Hadnt it been for that


blind faith in a miracle, in something that could wipe
out eveything and make us start living again from the
very beginning by being cleaner, more honest...
This is what he was feeling, but instead of turning
his feelings into thoughts he tightly closed his eyes and
plunged his head into the pillow, wishing to go beyond
it, into silence.
79 . a) hurts, b) live [laiv], c) bother, d) harm, e) aroma,
f) chair, g) attendant, h) client, i) pace, j) lose
80. a) a doctor, b) qualities, traditions or features of life
that... c) to greet somebody... d) a person watching a
sporting event, e) to begin again after a break, f) to keep
something / somebody apart, g) careful about ones
work, h) an institution... i) important in history...
j) a passage...
81. a) raise, b) hung, c) laid, d) rang, e) fell, f) ground,
g) lie, h) bound, i) founded, j) wounded
82. a) Voi fi calm i raional.
b) Eric nu prea i bate capul cu hainele.
c) i-a ridicat furculia i era pe punctul de a deschide
gura cnd, deodat, n buctrie s-a auzit zumzetul mai
multor voci.
d) Creterea vitelor constituia marea realizare a rii.
e) Cteodat aproape c nu tiu ce spun.
f) E greu s te gndeti c nu cu muli ani n urm el
nu era dect un bieel.
g) El s-a transformat de la sine ntr-un mincinos, dar
ntr-unul calculat i independent.
h) Limbile nu exist ntr-un vid ci sunt puternic afectate
de schimbrile sociale, politice, economice i tehnice.
i) In ultimele cteva zile, petele proaspt a ajuns la nite

preuri exorbitante, dar cumprtorii au refuzat s-l


cumpere.
j) West Mallion era una dintre casele de importan
istoric din Sussex.
83. a) Paul felt an acute pain in his bones but he had
got so much used to it that he went on reading without
interruption.
b) The only thing that bothered him about Paul was
the fact that he kept changing the channels without
asking him.
c) The seats in this car are more comfortable than those
in the bus.
d) Before the prices went double, M r Jones bought a
coat lined with red silk and the latest novel by John
Fowles.
e) A doctor never loses patience with his patients,
otherwise he cant find out the real cause of the illness.
f) Id rather go on the stadium as a spectator than stay
home in front of the TV as a viewer.
g) Everybody gathered in the nuttree shadow waiting for
the bride.
h) An economical way of travelling is hitch-hiking.
i) You are welcome in my house whenever you like,
j) His last wish was that his son would avenge him.
84. a) problem, b) repairs, c) decision, d) word,
e) visiting Paris, f) economic difficulties, g) the pain,
h) his beliefs, i) a new talkshow, j) competitor
85. a) Peter broke away from his friends and ran to
catch the bus.
b) They hoped that the strike would be put off.
c) W hile M ary was away on vacation, Paula stood
in for her.

d) After a month of living together in the same house


they took to Pamela very much.
e) If babies put on very little weight at first, eventually
they make up for it.
f) She was run down just outside her office.
g) They put off signing the paper.
h) W hat I didnt know I had to find out or make up.
i) The natives have to put up with gaping tourists.
j) She was someone whose charm grew on you more
and more.
86. a) From the first day he realised he could never
make up for the lost time as much as he might want it.
b) Every time he runs up against a serious problem, his
grandmother talks him into seeing the bright side of
things and hope in a miracle.
c) If Tom goes on working like this, he will break down
very soon.
d) W hen I give an order, I expect it to be carried out.
e) The production of this show was a good idea, but
unfortunately it didnt come off.
f) I cant put up with your complaining any more.
g) The smell of onion put me off eating.
h) Dont be taken in by his too long speeches !
i) I need someone to stand in for me at the ceremony,
j) Karen promised not to go back on her word.

S o l u + i l e

+ e s + e l t f r

T e X + s f o r re&\vsg
comprekevss'iovs ^
Test I
1. b, a, g, d, f
2. a) false, b) true, ) true, d) false, e) false, f) false,
g) true
Test II
1. b, e, c, a, d
2. e, c, b, d
3. a) No, it doesnt.
b) Because the clay and sand it picks up do not settle
to the bottom of the river.
c) The W hite Nile is clear.
d) The Nile is dark blue.
e) The Amazon is the second longest river in the world.
1) Because they were attacked by a group of Indians
wearing headdresses and grass skirts which reminded
them of the women warriors in the Greek legend.
4. a) long longer the longest
b) much / many more the most
c) short shorter the shortest
d) deep deeper the deepest
e) dangerous more dangerous the most dangerous
Test III
1. b
2. a, d
3. a) They learn to play by watching the older members
of the community.

b) Traditional music plays an important role in community


life. It is always present at religious and social events.
c) They play during work hours to help pass the time
or make manual labour seem less hard and boring.
d) Blues is African American nonreligious music.
e) The immigrants have added a lot to the multicultural
life of America. Theyve brought their customs,
traditions and music.
f) The flute, the guida (a type of bagpipe), the banjo
are musical instruments mentioned in the text.
4. Music and songs are learn ed ... / they are passed
along .
. .the steps that have been handed dow n... /
much of their culture has been destroyed.
Test IV
1. a biography
2. As a child, Thor fell into the icy water and he didnt
know how to swim.
3. a) to tilt, b) to plunge, c) to trap, d) to fade,
e) to quit, f) to hire
4. a) tilted, b) faded, c) hiring, d) plunged, e) trap, f) quit
5. a) before, b) near, c) beyond, d) through,
e) beneath, f) under
Test V
2. a) false, b) true, c) true, d) false, e) true, f) false,
g) true, h) false
Test VI
2. The effects of both air and water pollution on the
environment have been observed for years.
International Nickel and the worlds tallest
smokestack...
3. a, b, c, d

4. a) Both the business and the consumer community


are to be blamed because they dont see the economic
consequences of pollution,
b) Yes, but in a negative way.
5 ; .. .environmenta problems which have been
developing for well over 100 ye ars...

S o lu iile t e s t e l o r

ca \a emamevs
k d vA n a ed

ora\S

Test VII
1. Small-town life is better than life in large towns.
2. Everybody knows everybody and people are honest
with each other. People can enjoy the beauty of each
season. You can really enjoy nature. Other advantages :
fresh air, a more friendly environment, people know and
can help each other etc.
3.
4. might = possibility ; cant = impossibility ;
can = ab ility; to be able to = ability

Test 1
II a) This is the first time I have been to Paris.
b) Had it not been for Peters support I wouldnt have
been able to build the house.
c) It is five years since they started living in Germany.
d) The robbers are believed to have got into the house
through the roof.
e) Its high time you bought a new pair of shoes.
f) You should have come to the meeting.

Test VIII
1. a story of childhood
2. a) Mexican, b) poor, c) she had to
4. would, wouldnt = habit in the past

Test 2
II a) I wash he would not forget his keys anymore.
b) I regret telling him to shut up.
c) I wont have you play your music after midnight.
d) I wont accept his offer.
e) Little do you realize how much I have worked for you.
f) No sooner had the bell rung than all the students
rushed to the yard.

Test IX
1. an opinion essay
2. a) The decline of Neatness, b) worried, c) to raise
public awareness
3. a) The unkempt generation looks sloppy, uncombed,
unshaved, unpressed.
b) Speaking is also affected by this decline of tideness.
4. Cu ct haina este mai decolorat i aparent mai veche,
cu att preul este mai mare.

Comisia de bacalaureat hotrte asupra versiunii


finale a traducerii textului literar.
Pentru rezolvarea corect a exercitiilor

de completare (II) este necesar o cunoatere


aprofundat a problem elor de gramatic
prezentate n compendiu.

Upper -

& r m e d \&+e

Proba orala
Test 2
II a) You may not enter the room.
b) I wish you got the present you expected.
c) They were known to have already accomplished
their task.
d) Should Tom come here, tell him to phone me.
e) Mother would rather her daughters stayed at home
than went to the park.
1) It is months since I last spoke to him.
Test 3
II a) ...if you had bought...
b) Its OK.
c) ...unless you tell him.
d) He wishes he could study...
e) ...you finished...
f) ...he would phone...
Test 4
II a) Unless you tell her the truth...
b) If you come on time...
c) Its OK.
d) Hardly had he entered...
e) Its OK.
f) He run away / He should run away.

Test 5
II a) Its OK.
b) If they co m e...
c) As soon as they arrive...
d) Its OK.
e) Its OK.
f) She has been living...
Test 6
II a) It is two years since I last went to the dentists.
b) The book is essential to be read before the end
of the term.
c) If she had phoned them she was coming, they would
have been home.
d) Unless somebody puts some coal the fire will go out.
e) Its about time we trimmed that tree in the garden.
f) He reminded him to bring the book.
Test 7
II a) ...another loaf of bread ?
b) ...where I came from.
c) He speaks very good English.
d) I prefer...
e) If he brings the luggage...
f) I saw no-one in the lobby.
Test 8
II a) It is unlikely for him to have missed the train.
b) He asked the sailor how far it was to the harbour.
c) He cant stand listening to music.
d) Not to miss the plane, he left two hours earlier.
e) I have never seen such beauty !

f) Should the teacher come to school on Sunday,


ask him about my book.

Test 9
II a) As I was late...
b) As usual...
c) I have been living here since...
d) Salt is...
e) Its OK.
f) Its terribly...
Test 10
II a) Its OK.
b) You neednt have bought...
c) Its OK.
d) ...his soldiers to go to...
e) Its OK.
f) ...before the train had got in.

U p p e r - m + e r w e d i + e

s e v i s e

Test 1
I a) Un posibil rezumat al textului ar putea fi urm to rul:
Two days before Christmas, the main character tries
to raise some money so that he could offer his present
to Miss Elf. The only way he could think of to raise
money is by carol singing in the suburbs, but it doesnt
prove too productive. (45 words)
II a) Every year, at Christmas time, I am left penniless.
b) If the people in the suburbs had opened their door
to me, they would have been delighted by my carol.
c) Hardly had I started opening my mouth when Maria
told me to stop singing.
d) I wish I had had the tim e to read all the novels
written by Balzac.
e) The people in this region are said to be hard-working
and honest.
f) The officer ordered his soldiers to wear their uniform
even while on leave.
Test 2
I a) Un posibil rezum at:
The whole world but New-York mostly have been facing
the fax craze.This new technical development has
invaded all areas of activity, be it business or private.
As any craze is dangerous, there are people who have
started restricting the use of the fax machine. (45 words)
II a) Paul suggested that we should leave home earlier
for fear we might miss the train.

Paul suggested that we leave home...


Paul suggested our leaving home...
b) Matthew promised that he would phone us when he
got home.
Matthew promised to phone us when he got home.
c) Its high time we left, its already late.
d) But for M arias help we wouldnt have ever got to the
chalet.
e) This is the man who told us the story of his sea
voyage.
f) He is unlikely to find out the truth in time.

Test 3
I a) Un posibil rezum at:
The main characteristic of football fans is their noisy
attitude in expressing their adulation. The question is
raised whether their primitive behaviour could be a
matter of social class or financial interest. The
conclusion is that football is that kind of game that
attracts people who behave violently and primitively.
(50 words)
II a) It has been raining since we arrived in Sinaia.
b) Dont go away before finding out what time the train
from Cluj gets in.
c) Father has been watering the flowers and he is very
tired.
d) You neednt have bought so many flowers,
our gardern is full of roses.
e) May I open the window ? It is very warm in here.
f) He managed to / was able to / drive home although
the fog was very thick.

Test 4
I a) Chinese cinema, almost unknown to the world has
been rediscovered and has proved to be a surprise.
The first step was made when the China Film Archive
resumed its activity in 1978 and brought to light old
films. The second step was the 1980 London season
when many Chinese films were for the first time
presented abroad. (57 words).
II a) John says that these are not his gloves, although
they are very similar to the ones he has bought himself
not long ago.
b) I have recently received a parcel from a friend of
my fathers.
c) I was told that I was going to meet your sister at
the seaside.
d) As he has done all his homework, Tom can go to
the cinema tomorrow.
e) The woman who is talking to my sister in the yard
is our neighbour who lives across.
f) He told me that he had run into John in the streets
the day before.
Test 5
II a) But for their wish to get to the chalet as quick
as possible, no accident would have happened.
b) If I could talk to my teacher before leaving the
country, he could advise me what books to buy
from London.
c) Rarely does it happen that birds come back
in February.
d) The more you read the better prepared you feel.
e) Peter could play the piano when he was five.

f) He must have been home when I phoned as all the


lights in the house were on.

Test 6
II a) Hardly had he entered the house when he
remembered that he hadnt bought a present for his
girlfriends birthday.
b) If only he came on time we could end the discussions
by midnight.
c) Im looking forward to crossing the Channel.
d) If she had really been that sick she wouldnt have
come to the party.
e) Mr Jones is thought to be the oldest in our
department.
f) W hen they got to the station the train for Constana
had already left.
Test 7
II a) If you do not find me at the hospital, try phoning
this number.
b) W hen the plane took off he remembered that he
hadnt told his wife about his departure.
c) He behaves as if he is the only black-haired person
in the family.
d) Its high time we left without waiting for the next
group to come.
e) If only I knew about his p a s t!
f) They were promised that Santa Claus would come
with many presents and sweets this present year.

Test 8
II a) Hardly had she got to know the truth when
she had to be satisfied with the official version.
b) Our friend asked him not to leave before everybody
(had) got to the station.
c) The colder the winter is, the warm er the summer
will be.
d) If you had told me that you had only two theatre
tickets I wouldnt have gone out of the house on such
weather.
e) For fear she might be late, Maria left home two hours
earlier.
f) I have been living in this house for twenty years
without ever thinking of selling it.
Test 9
II a) Its high time we changed our way of thinking,
said Paul to the friends with whom he had come to the
lecture given by the history professor.
b) If he he had been innocent, he wouldnt have started
crying and blaming everybody.
c) Whatever the doctor may tell you, you had better stop
smoking. / Id rather you stopped smoking.
d) The more seriously he prepares himself for the job
of a reporter the less time he has to talk to people
around him.
e) If you had listened to me, you would have been far
away from this city by now.
f) Vlad suggested / that we should wait / that we wait /
our waiting / for the whole group to arrive and go
on foot as the last bus had left half an hour before.

Test 10

II a) It is unlikely that it stops snowing before midnight.


b) For thirty years he has been preparing himself for
this special moment in any parents life : his daughters
wedding.
c) If you had time to go with me to the book-shop
I would have showed you Mircea Crtrescus latest
volume of verse.
d) He must have suffered very much as he didnt get
over it after more than two years.
e) I would rather you stayed with your friends and your
brother came to help me with the luggage.
f) The best football player seems to be the one who
wants to win.

X t t + e r w e d i n + e

Proba ora\a
Test 1

I Exemplu de comentariu :
The text speaks about the wray literature could be
interpreted differently depending on the values system
the reader uses. The American lady who discards M acbeth
as being a book for high-school students and whose
example of artistic achievement is a good mystery story
applies the pattern that functions in a detective story
to a tragedy such as M acbeth , misinterpreting character
and plot.
The discussion could go on to analyse what good
literature is and if a detective story is worth reading
or not.
My personal opinion i s ............
II a) Shakespeare isnt likely to have made M acbeth as
simple as it seems.
b) Could you figure out right away who did it, it would
spoil everything.
c) The lady said that she didnt think for a moment
that Macbeth had killed the King.
d) Those are the ones you suspect the most, of course.
e) I made a stupid mistake.
f) Suppose it were a detective story.
III Exemplu de argumentare a afirmaiei A good
detective story is worth a thousand poems :
A detective story is a narrative in which the plot

develops so as to find the missing information ;


the main character is a detective who solves the mystery.
A poem is a piece of writing in verse in which the poet
expresses his feelings in a refined way.
A good detective story could be worth even more than
a thousand poems if we think of Agatha Christies books.
By reading a detective story you develop your power of
thinking and your intuition. Detective stories are easy
to read as they make you curious to go on reading to
find out the truth in the end.
On the other hand, a detective story cannot compare
to any poem if we consider Eminescu or Shakespeare
or any other great poet. A poem synthesizes human
experience and feeling at a higher level. And so on !

Test 2
II a) heads, b) informal, c) pockets, d) click away,
e) make a getaway, f) hand over
Test 3
II had, began, was sitting, noticed, were looking, were
pointing, came, didnt finish, asked, enjoyed
Test 4
II a) In spite of the fact that he would rather scream,
Kennedy manages a wide grin.
b) I cant remember having met you before.
c) Lets walk away to leave the stage to the winners.
d) The fire was probably started by a dropped cigarette.
e) I hadnt expected the train to arrive so late.
1) Despite their disliking him, they agreed to help him.

Test 5
II a) 3, b) 2, c) 4, d) 5, e) 1, f) 6
Test 6
II a) arise, b) lying, c) felled, d) founded, e) wounded,
f) lied
Test 7
II ago, time, waiting, research, them, seems
Test 8
II a) No-one has had a chance yet to predict the
outcome of this dispute with certainty.
b) I believe that contrary to public opinion the project
has every chance to be a success.
c) Their decision that he should be promoted is good.
d) She insisted that I didnt talk to anyone about what
I saw.
e) Imagine you were completely blind.
f) I have never been so insulted.
Test 9
II a) If only it hadnt been hit by the shark.
b) ...I wish I hadnt killed the fish, though.
c) ....the more chances...
d)...m an was not made...
e) If only I had my harpoon...
f) ...as though he had been hit...

Test 10
II a) Im afraid w eve run out of eggs.
b) This town reminds me of Sheffield.
c) I can put you up.
d) Terry neednt have arrived early.
e) It seems that Brian has left.
f) Diane didnt leave my house until ten oclock:

X v N + e rw n e d ia + e
P

s c r is a

Test 1
I up, himself, had, how, it, when, from, his, the, be
II a) If he had known from the start what the novel
was about, he wouldnt have bought it anymore.
b) I was told not to talk before I get to the end of the
corridor.
c) If he had been patient, he would have discovered
that nobody wanted to harm him.
d) As soon as you get home, phone your parents.
e) Hardly had he entered the shop when he
remembered he had no money.
f) How could I not appreciate his efforts to adapt when
there is nobody to help him with some advice, at least.
Test 2
I played, will, any, than, at, was, who, were, the, with
II a) He hasnt listened to him telling them how to
get to the station and now he is sorry.
b) Maria asked the professor if/whether it hadnt been
better for her to enter her name on the optics course.
c) She wouldnt have wished to be alone in the house
as she was terribly afraid of ghosts.
d) It is three kilometers left to the next village.
e) They found it hard to understand the philosophy
teachers course, as they hadnt read the bibliography.
f) If only he had been lucky at bingo !

Test 3
I have, to, as, are, on, roles, develop, less, has, and
II a) He couldnt / wasnt able to drive home because
of the fog.
b) But for our parents coming to help us, we would
have died of hunger and thirst in that deserted chalet.
c) I wish I met Richard Gere !
d) He cant have broken the window, he was with me
at the cinema.
e) If you hurry, you will catch the train.
f) He remembered posting the letter but he doesnt
know if he has bought a stamp as well.
Test 4
I everything, not, work, in, or, at, front, in, of, in
II a) He is known as the best violin player in the world.
b) Our friend asked me not to tell anybody that
he was left penniless.
c) If the weather is fine we will go to the mountains.
d) It is high time we stopped quarrelling as we have
common interests.
e) He remembered he had to talk on the phone with his
new piano teacher.
f) Hardly had he looked at her when he remembered
where he had met her.
Test 5
I been, of, him, were, for, up, another, from, me, would
II a) Whatever you may believe, I dont want you to
leave without saying good-bye.
b) If he had been patient, he would have met their
new ski instructor.

c) Maria told me how she had got home before her


mother did so that she wouldnt notice she had lost
her keys.
d) If there were many people on the stadium, the tickets
would be cheaper.
e) It is impossible that Monica has left without taking
her luggage.
f) She has been living with an old aunt for more than
two years.

Test 6
I what, else, wanted, from, could, of, fact, habit, want,
reminding
II a) They decided not to wait for Horia anymore
as it was getting dark.
b) He asked him to buy a cinema ticket for him and
meet outside the cinema.
c) W hen they got to the hotel, the room they had
booked was taken.
d) At the airport we have to show your passport and
plane ticket.
e) If you talk slowlier, we will understand you.
f) Nobody has been living in this house for the last
ten years.
Test 7
I usual, some, to, after, watching, some, just, when, at,
enough
II a) If they had bought fresh meat as Corina had told
them, now they would have eaten steak and fried
potatoes.
b) For fear her parents might find out the truth, Mihaela
ran away from home.

c) If you had told me you needed money, I would have


given you some.
d) It is absolutely strange for you to leave home without
packing the necessary luggage for such a trip.
e) He promised to write to us as soon as he gets
on American land.
f) If he were right, I would trust completely.

Test 8
I than, in, being, avoid, many, some, them, was, also,
had
II a) If you were to live for ten years on a deserted
island, what books would you take with you ?
b) He cant understand why the department boss
did not believe him when he told him about his trip
to Africa.
c) Are you sure that this is the carriage you are
looking for ?
d) Nothing is more annoying than a false friend.
e) If I went to the mountains this week, I could buy
some cheese and fresh eggs.
f) The profession of a journalist means much weariness
and little sleep.
Test 9
I so, will, only, after, recently, be, forced, who, range, as
II a) The shopkeeper refuses to give the money back
to the client.
b) The workers had been already working for two hours
when the accident happened.
c) Although the letter was written a month ago, it hadnt
arrived at the destination yet.

d) Sara has been playing tennis for two years,


since she gave up volley-ball.
e) It has been raining the whole week.
f) They promised to build this bridge in less than
two years.

Test 10
I on, would, department, exchange, told, into, to,
unfortunately, I, putting
II a) When he got the telegram he had already spent
half of the sum his aunt had given him.
b) If he walked faster, we would get to the theatre
just on time.
c) He cant have forgotten about his friends and the
promises he had made two years ago.
d) They got bored to wait for the rain to stop, so they
went home.
e) Why dont you try putting some hot water in the vase ?
f) He is considered the most attractive theatre actor.

P r e - t tt+ e rm e d ia + e
Proba ora le
Test 2
II a) since, b) for, ) since, d) for, e) since, f) for
Test 4
II a) it, b) there, c) it, d) there, e) it, f) it

P re ~ m + e rm e d ia + e
Proba sar\sa
Test 1
I at, on, got, if, to, but, the, always, said, would
II a) Ill be waiting for you at the chalet if you dont
want to hurry up.
b) Mother has been in the kitchen since morning.
c) I dont agree to your going to the mountains on such
weather.
d) If you want it or not, you will stay with us at all
meetings.
e) I wish I m et him !
f) He may go the mountains without waiting for
the group.
Test 2
I is, than, or, spend, as, on, buy, would, than, could
II a) I wont leave before everybody knows the truth.

b) Maria was so angry that she didnt see the car coming
from the left.
c) The plane was about to take off but due to the fog
the take off was delayed.
d) The Globe Theatre lies in London.
e) The students who attend the faculty library are
entitled to a free meal.
f) I was told to bring a loaf of bread and a knife.

Test 3
I the, as, can, there, screen, mental, computer, a,
who, on.
II a) I have trying to send this fax since Monday
morning.
b) The moment he got home, he went to the dining
room and took.all the books he had bought during
the last year out of the bookcase.
c) He didnt understand why he was the one to keep
an eye on the deserted plane.
d) If I knew the route, I would take you to the hotel.
e) He wouldnt listen to his friends or the specialists
advice either.
f) W hat about buying a boat and going fishing ?
Test 4
I who, type / kind, of, by, by, like, on, for, I, with
II a) When he got near the policeman he remembered
he hadnt stopped at the red light.
b) If you want to help me, buy the latest exercice book.
c) She has been living in this house since her parents
brought her from the countryside.

d) Even if he wanted to solve everything in a second,


he couldnt because of the lost time.
e) I let him know that I would pass by so that he
wouldnt leave home.
f) It had been snowing since I got off the train.
Test 5
I what, by, has, which, are, watch, you, in, face, what
II a) The child started writing without paying attention
to spelling.
b) It took him three years to build such a solid house.
c) He was told to think twice before deciding whether
to talk in court or not.
d) Maria asked the mayor why children didnt get
notebooks and pencils for free.
e) Mother never finishes the housework before
midnight.
f) Every time she wanted to meet Peter Fonda, another
guest happened to be more important and she wasnt
introduced anymore.

B i b l i o g r a f ie

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